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  • Chemical Engineering  (3,542)
  • 1985-1989  (3,542)
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Years
Year
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 75-87 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The concepts of coherence and composition paths, originally developed for multicomponent chromatography, are used to establish a simple theory of transport in systems with precipitation and dissolution in the course of multicomponent, single-phase flow in permeable media. Composition route construction in phase diagrams in combination with distance-time diagrams yields concentration profiles without recourse to trial-and-error procedurs. Detailed results are given for systems with three ions A, B, and X and up to two precipitates AX and BX. The extension to systems with additional, nonprecipitating species is described. The new approach confirms most conclusions of Bryant's earlier theory, removes assumptions stipulated in the latter, and is simpler to handle.
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  • 2
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 97-103 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Given the intrinsic kinetics, the tortuosity factor of a Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst was determined under reaction conditions by minimizing the sum of squares of residuals of the experimental and the simulated conversions. The parallel cross-linked pore model with uncorrelated pore size distribution and orientation was used in the calculation of the effective diffusivities. A modified collocation method was used to obtain the partial pressure profiles of the reacting components in the catalyst pellet. The simulation of the experimental reactor during the optimization of the tortuosity factor also yielded the effectiveness factors of the reactions. The results of the simulation of an industrial steam reformer are also discussed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The homogeneous vapor phase cracking of newly formed wood pyrolysis tar was studied at low molar concentrations as a function of temperature (773-1,073 K), at residence times of 0.9-2.2 s. Tar conversions ranged from about 5 to 88%. The tars were generated by low heating rate (0.2 K/s) pyrolysis of ∼2 cm deep beds of sweet gum hardwood, and then rapidly conveyed to an adjacent reactor for controlled thermal treatment. Quantitative yields and kinetics were obtained for tar cracking and resulting products formation. The major tar conversion product was carbon monoxide, which accounted for over two-thirds of the tar lost at high severities. Corresponding ethylene and methane yields were each about 10% of the converted tar. Coke formation was negligible and weight-average tar molecular weight declined with increasing tar conversion. A first-order distributed activation energy model more closely correlated tar conversion kinetics over a wider range of reaction conditions than did a single-reaction model.
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  • 4
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 159-163 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 5
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 168-172 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 6
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 53-68 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The equilibrium and rate of uptake of the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine by Amberlite 252, a strongly acidic, cation-exchange resin, have been investigated. Uptake of the amino acids by the hydrogen form of the resin occurs primarily by the stoichiometric exchange of hydrogen ions and amino acid cations. The amount of amino acid taken up by the resin can be calculated as a function of solution pH and amino acid concentration from a model that takes into account both solution and ion-exchange equilibria. The rates of uptake of the two amino acids have been determined experimentally for a closed batch system. The results of experiments in which the resin particle size, the flow rate, and the concentration were varied show that intraparticle transport is dominated by the slow diffusion of amino acid cations through the macroreticular polymer structure of the resin, with some contribution from macropore transport of amino acid cations and zwitterions. An intraparticle diffusion model has been developed to describe these results and predict the performance of fixed-bed operations.
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  • 7
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 104-108 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Particle to gas heat transfer studies were carried out for the exothermic benzene hydrogenation and endothermic cyclohexane dehydrogenation reactions on the same catalyst bed. A recirculation type reactor and eggshell type commercial platinum on alumina catalyst were used. When the thermodynamic value for the heat of reaction is used for both reactions in the steady-state energy balance, local JH factors for the exothermic reaction were found to be, in general, higher than those for the endothermic reaction. This was attributed to product molecules leaving the catalyst surface with excess vibrational energy, which implies that the actual heat of reaction would be different than the thermodynamic value used in the JHfactor calculations. The study also indicated significant variations in the local JH factors; these were attributed to variations in the linear velocity in the radial direction.
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  • 8
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 109-119 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Bimetallic Mo-Fe and Mo-Co sulfide clusters were anchored on Al2O3 and used for CO hydrogenation. In addition to methane, significant amounts of dimethyl ether were produced. The reaction orders obtained from power rate laws for methanation indicated that the surfaces of the catalytic ensembles were not completely saturated by CO, in contrast to the observations for most conventional CO hydrogenation catalysts. A kinetic analysis and parameter estimation was performed to identify the rate-determining step for methanation. A catalytic cycle was postulated that could account not only for the formation of methane and higher hydrocarbons, but also for dimethyl ether as a primary product.
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  • 9
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 129-138 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A study of the flow of viscous liquids contained in an open cavity driven by a moving wall has been undertaken as a first step toward understanding interphase heat and mass transport in polymer processing equipment where rolling pools of liquid are generated. Solutions to the equations of motion for creeping flow in cavities of different aspect ratios were obtained using a finite-differences technique for circumstances when the wall moves in the same direction as the gravitational field.Experimental studies of the flow patterns in cavities of various aspect ratios were found to be in good agreement with the creeping flow predictions for cavity Reynolds numbers Re 〈 50 and aspect ratios a 〈 1. The structure of the flow in this geometry was found to be similar to that in closed cavities of the same shape. The position and strength of the principal vortex were observed to be nearly independent of the existence of a free surface, and the gas-liquid interface was found to significantly stabilize the rotational motion in shallow cavities.
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  • 10
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 35 (1989) 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 11
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 177-186 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A long-wave equation for film thickness as a function of position is derived for a general case incorporating viscous, surface tension, and interfacial shear effects. The derivation considers both the parabolic and the power-law velocity profiles. The analysis is aimed at revealing the wave velocity that induces infinitely long (homoclinic) periods as well as substrate thickness and wave peak amplitude. Phase plane analysis shows that at Re ≫ 1, due to time-scale separation, the homoclinic velocity is near that at the Hopf bifurcation. That enables analytical derivation of the wave characteristics.Comparison with experimental results in the range of Re-310-3, 100 with countercurrent gas flow, shows encouraging agreement. At very high Re the wave velocity suggests the onset of turbulence, in agreement with theory. Phase plane analysis predicts also that the wave shape consists of a simple peak with a steep front, with short waves riding on the main wave at low Re.
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  • 12
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 213-222 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A stable Kalman filter predictor (KFP) is developed which generates minimum variance estimates of the future outputs {y(t + i | t), i = 1, … d} of stochastic, single-input/single-output processes with time delay, d. The predicted outputs are used for time delay compensation and in the design of a predictive feedback controller. An innovation model analysis is used to convert the state space formulation to transfer function form and to show the relationship between the KFP, the Smith predictor, and the internal model controller. A modified KFP includes a disturbance model, and eliminates offset due to deterministic disturbances (e.g., steps) and modeling errors. Simulation results show that the modified KFP also predicts the disturbances and gives significantly better performance than the Smith predictor, particularly in the presence of process and measurement noise.
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  • 13
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 365-372 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The approximate equations of Hassler and Brunner and of van Domselaar are often used to deduce the capillary pressure curve of a porous medium from centrifuge data. The use of these equations restricts the centrifuge method to short samples. Also, these equations require differentiation of data. We report here methods to determine the capillary pressure curve by the midpoint and least-squares solution of the fundamental equation, relating the average saturation S1 of liquid in the porous medium to the capillary pressure Pc1 at the end of the sample nearest the axis of rotation. The methods do not require differentiation of data and are not restricted to short samples. We introduce and evaluate an approximation based on an exact result derived by Rajan. This new approximation requires the same inputs as do the Hassler-Brunner and the van Domselaar approximations, but it is accurate over a wider range of sample sizes. In addition, an approximate solution which can be used to estimate capillary pressure curves for long cores is developed.
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  • 14
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 406-414 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The pipeline mixing of two fluid streams by turbulent jet injection normal to the pipeline has been studied theoretically and experimentally. A simple scaling law for the second moment of the tracer concentration within the pipeline is proposed for the first fifteen pipe diameters down-stream from the injection point. The similarity solution is derived by assuming that the tracer diffuses in a weak compound jet moving parallel to the pipeline axis. The theoretical results are correlated with all of the available experimental measurements. The results indicate that the second moment of the tracer concentration decreases with increasing jet momentum and distance from the injection point such that M = 0.25. (lm/D)-2 (x/D)-4/3.
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  • 15
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 267-278 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper describes a reaction-reactor model, utilizing alternative reaction pathways, developed to explain experimental results from the total oxidation of ethylene on a Pt/SiO2 catalyst. Transient temperature-programmed reaction and concentration-programmed reaction experiments were utilized to study the reaction through FTIR spectroscopic and surface temperature measurements combined with bulk measurements of concentration and temperature. Different elementarystep pathways were incorporated into the concentration and energy balances in performing the simulations. One pathway utilized adsorbed CO, formed from adsorbed ethylene, as the route to CO2 formation. This pathway is shown to become important under ethylene-rich conditions. The second pathway utilized the direct reaction between adsorbed ethylene and adsorbed oxygen as the path to CO2 formation. The latter route is shown to become important under oxygen-rich conditions. Finally, an example is utilized to show the advantages of the nonequilibrium elementary-step modeling approach over conventional “equilibrium” models where only one step is taken to be rate-determining.
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  • 16
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 293-299 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The model proposed by Chen et al. for treating nonideality in concentrated electrolyte solutions has been extended to the correlation of the densities of solutions of single electrolytes (1:1, 2:1, 1:2, and 2:2) in terms of Chen's energy interaction parameters τca,m and τm,ca. At any single temperature, only three adjustable parameters, V20 (the partial molar volume of the solute at infinite dilution), and the pressure derivatives (δτca,m/δp)T and (δτm,ca/δp)T are required for correlating the density as effectively as the conventional treatment employing a power series in (molality)1/2. For some electrolytes, only the latter two parameters are required, as tabulated V20 values also lead to satisfactory correlations. The treatment can be extended to cover the temperature range 0-100°C, using either τca,m and τm,ca values derived from activity or osmotic coefficients, or constant τm,ca and τca,m values, but the irregular variation with temperature of the pressure derivatives precludes their representation by simple analytical functions, and individual values of the pressure derivatives at each temperature are necessary.
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  • 17
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 314-317 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 18
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 500-506 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] sorbent modified by the addition of calcium lignosulfonate has recently been developed for use in the Environmental Protection Agency's limestone injection multistage burner process. The increased reactivity with sulfur dioxide (SO2) displayed by this modified sorbent has been shown to be caused, in part, by its decreased particle (agglomerate) size compared to conventional Ca(OH)2. Subsequent work has shown that surfactant-modified Ca(OH)2 also undergoes significantly different structural changes during furnace injection. For a given reactor temperature and residence time, the modified sorbent calcines to a greater extent than unmodified sorbent. It also loses surface area more slowly, and retains more of its porosity, suggesting that it sinters more slowly than conventional sorbent. Therfore, in addition to reducing the particle size of Ca(OH)2 in some applications, calcium lignosulfonate also to inhibit one or more of the diffusion mechanisms responsible for the process of sintering.
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  • 19
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 519-522 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 20
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 529-532 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The analysis of Astarita and Ocone (1988) of the lumping of nonlinear kinetics in continuous mixtures offers a framework for examining the apparent overall behavior of a multicomponent mixture given the underlying intrinsic kinetics. Specific solutions of the governing equations are given for some special cases of underlying intrinsic kinetics. It is shown that the apparent overall order of reaction may be both larger and smaller than the underlying one, depending on the initial concentration distribution and on the distribution of kinetic parameters.
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  • 21
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 549-558 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Configuration of feedback loops between input and output variables of a given plant constitutes a subtask of control system synthesis. In the past, this subtask has been tackled through direct decomposition of either the process or the set of input-output variables. Linear interaction analysis has been used in both approaches to assess and minimize sub-system interactions. Since most chemical processes exhibit nonlinear behavior, it is evident that a measure is needed for assessment of interactions in the presence of system nonlinearities. In this paper we focus on input-output variable set decomposition and introduce the notion of nonlinear block relative gain (NBRG) as a nonlinear interaction measure. Both the statistic and dynamic versions of NBRG are discussed, and a computational procedure is presented for their evaluation. Direct simulations on a CSTR verify the interactions predicted by NBRG for different feedback configurations. Moreover, nonsymmetry of the effect of one loop on another, a fact not captured by the linear BRG, is accurately predicted by NBRG.
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  • 22
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 614-624 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A Galerkin finite-element method is used to study the rotating, thermocapillary fluid flow in the cylindrical float zone configuration for crystal growth. Results are presented for a fluid of Prandtl number 1.0 in a zone of unit aspect ratio under microgravity conditions. In the absence of rotation, the thermocapillary flow is responsible for large radial non-uniformities in the heat transfer, especially at the cold boundary. A sufficiently strong uniform corotation of the end rods leads to a rigid rotation of the fluid in the interior of the zone; in this case, the thermocapillary flows are considerably attenuated and confined to a region near the free surface of the zone. This provides a more uniform thermal environment over the bulk of the crystal-melt boundary, which is a very desirable processing condition. When the end rods are counterrotated, inertially driven meridional flow cells appear in the zone. The interaction of the rotational forced convection with the thermocapillary flow causes the region of the local heat transfer minimum at the cold boundary to gradually shift away from the axis of the zone toward the meniscus.
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  • 23
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 635-644 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This work provides a new method for calculating phase equilibria for systems where conventional activity-coefficient models are not suitable. A procedure is presented for superimposing ionic effects on a conventional equation of state for nonelectrolytes. A modification of Born's equation is used to describe charging the ions; ion-ion interactions are described with the Mean Spherical Approximation, coupled with an adjustable salt/solvent parameter that is obtained from osmotic-coefficient data at room temperature. The equation of state is used to predict gas solubilities in aqueous salt solutions at high pressures. While this method produces qualitative agreement with the experimental solubility data, quantitative agreement requires a salt/ gas parameter obtained from Setchenow-constant data. When Setchenow constants are used, agreement with experiment is good except at high salt concentrations, where salting-out is usually underpredicted. Good results are obtained for phase equilibria in a natural-gas/brine system at high pressures.
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 658-661 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 666-669 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 670-672 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 679-682 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 690-693 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989) 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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  • 32
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 725-736 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Simulated annealing is a multivariable optimization technique based on the Monte Carlo method used in statistical mechanical studies of condensed systems and follows by drawing an analogy between energy minimization in physical systems and costs minimization in design applications. In this paper, simulated annealing is introduced and reviewed. The utility of the method for optimization of chemical processes is illustrated by applying it to the design of pressure relief header networks and heat exchanger networks.
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  • 33
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 775-792 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A quantitative model of softening coal pryolysis is developed and tested against observed behavior. The model treats intraparticle transport of gases and metaplast throughout the softening stage of pyrolysis via growth of bubbles uniformly dispersed in the molten coal. The model quantitatively describes the transient softening behavior including the initiation, duration, and magnitude of plasticity and swelling of the particle. The model kinetic parameters are derived from experiments, in which a highly softening Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal was pyrolyzed, and total weight loss, and yields and molecular weight distributions of tars and pyridine extractables of cooled chars were measured. Model predictions of effects of pressure, particle diameter and temperature on tar yields and weight losses, of effects of pressure on swelling ratio, and of effects of heating rate on plasticity are presented. The model provides good fits to the laboratory data and predicts trends in pyrolysis behavior in good qualitative accord with expectations based on published data.
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  • 34
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 814-820 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Modules containing from 120 to 27,000 parallel hollow fibers 100 μm in diameter can separate mixtures by reversed phase chromatography. The mixtures separated include aqueous solutions of ketones using alkanes as the stationary phase, and aqueous solutions of the proteins myglobin and cytochrome-c using an octane solution of reversed micelles as the stationary phase. The dispersion observed in these separations is comparable to that predicted from the Aris-Taylor theories. Modules of these fibers promise a lower pressure drop and a greater reproducibility than columns of spheres of equivalent surface area per volume. Such modules can facilitate scale-up of liquid chromatography.
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 861-864 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 875-875 
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 873-874 
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 869-872 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 821-830 
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    Notes: A detailed investigation of the dependence of the transient behavior of limestone particles reacting with SO2 in the presence of oxygen on the pore structure properties of the calcined solid is presented. Experimental reactivity and pore structure data were obtained for two highpurity limestones that yield calcines of qualitatively similar distribution of pore size but of different capacity for SO2 removal. Experiments were carried out over a wide range of particle size and temperature so as to investigate the effects of intraparticle mass transport limitations on the process. The results obtained showed strong dependence of the transient behavior of reacting particles of calcined limestone, and consequently of their sorptive capacity for SO2 removal, on their initial pore size distribution and on the resistance for intraparticle mass transport - which is also determined to a certain extent by the pore size distribution. The experimental results were found to be in agreement with the predictions of a mathematical model for gas-solid reactions with solid product involving porous solids of distributed pore size. The findings point to the conclusion that the evaluation of limestones proposed for use as sorbents for controlling SO2 emissions should be based on the size distribution and interconnectedness of the pores of their calcines and not only on their average structural properties (porosity and surface area).
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 865-868 
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 853-855 
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 875-875 
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 875-876 
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 876-876 
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 876-876 
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1029-1031 
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1039-1043 
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1052-1052 
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1057-1072 
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    Notes: We have developed an analytical solution which describes mineral zonation caused by diffusion in permeable media. For a semiinfinite domain, the species conservation equations transform into ordinary differential equations that yield a closed-form solution. The solution exhibits shock dissolution/precipitation fronts and gradual (nonshock) precipitation fronts. The solution can exhibit regions (gaps) containing no reactive solids which separate moving dissolution and precipitation fronts. The analysis is, in principle, extendable to include intraaqueous reactions, although the mathematics quickly becomes intractable.Numerical simulation exhibits all of the features of the more restricted analytical solution and is in good agreement with the data on hydroxyapatite dissolution taken by Kim and Cussler (1987).
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1107-1114 
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    Notes: The extent of diffusion limitations in the catalytic conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction has been established for a number of iron- and cobalt-based catalysts. The studies were performed in a fixed-bed microreactor system at temperatures in the range 473-523 K. Variation of catalyst particle size in the range 0.2-2.6 mm shows that the conversion of synthesis gas decreases considerably when the average particle size is increased. The effects of variation of particle size and pore diameter have been quantified with the Thiele model for diffusion limitations. Evidence has accumulated that the limited mobility of reactant molecules in the liquid-filled pores of Fischer-Tropsch catalysts is the main cause of retardation of the reaction rates. The experimentally determined reaction rates with various catalysts operated under different conditions show an excellent fit with the theoretical model.
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1125-1136 
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    Notes: Simultaneous measurements of mass transfer rates to quasisteady-state pendant aqueous droplets and rates of surface renewal due to Marangoni effects have been carried out using the water/toluene system with acetone as solute. The surface renewal measurements were made with the photochromic dye tracer technique reported earlier (Thornton and Anderson, 1981; Thornton et al., 1985).Both the mass transfer coefficients and the rates of surface renewal have been shown to be dependent upon the age of the droplet interface and the solute concentration in the continuous phase. Thus, coefficients of a young droplet are high initially, but decrease with time and approach a constant value, dependent upon solute concentration, as the interface ages.This parallel decrease in both interfacial (Marangoni) activity and transfer rates with time has also been observed (Rogers et al., 1987) with inorganic solutes such as uranyl nitrate and has implications for contactor design.
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1170-1176 
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    Notes: Experiments were performed with an array of horizontal tubes, arranged in a regular equilateral triangular pattern, immersed in a fluidized bed operating at 812 K. Data are reported for heat transfer between the bed and a centrally-located tube in the array. Both total and radiative heat transfer rates were measured for superficial velocities spanning the range from packed bed conditions to over twice the minimum fluidization velocity. Results are presented for five differentsize particles. Local heat transfer values, measured around the tube periphery, and integrated averages are reported for all test conditions.Comparisons are also made between the heat transfer behavior of a tube in an array and that for a single tube in a hot fluidized bed under the same overall operating conditions. The results of this comparison suggest that the two mechanisms, gas convection and radiation, are competing effects.
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1195-1198 
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1199-1202 
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1224-1226 
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1219-1223 
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1233-1244 
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    Notes: The purpose of this work is to introduce the notion of synthesizing mass-exchange networks (MEN's). A systematic, two-stage, procedure is proposed for the synthesis of cost-effective MEN's. In the first stage, a thermodynamically-oriented procedure is used to identify the thermodynamic bottlenecks (pinch points) that limit the extent of mass exchange between the rich and the lean process streams. Preliminary networks, that feature maximum mass exchange, are generated at this stage. The objective of the second stage is to improve the design of these preliminary networks so as to develop a final configuration of the MEN that satisfies the assigned exchange duty at minimum venture cost. This approach is applied to the synthesis of MEN's with single-component targets as well as multicomponent, compatible targets. An illustrative example on the sweetening of coke-oven gas is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed synthesis procedure.
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1263-1270 
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    Notes: When the ratio of the drop radius to the distance separating any two drops and the relative importance of gravitational to surface forces are both small, the small amplitude oscillations of a drop of one viscous fluid immersed in another fluid are governed by the nonlinear dispersion relation derived by Miller and Scriven (1968). The dispersion relation has been solved numerically to determine the character of oscillations for arbitrary values of drop size, physical properties of the two fluids, and interfacial tension. The new theoretical results determine the range of validity of the low-viscosity approximation of Miller and Scriven, and are also shown to be essential for proper interpretation of many previously reported experimental results. New experimental measurements of natural frequencies of oscillation of water drops falling in 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, a system having properties characteristic of many others in solvent extraction, agree well with the theoretical predictions when drop radius is smaller than a critical size. The frequencies of oscillations of larger drops are better described by the dispersion relation due to Subramanyam (1969), which accounts for the relative motion of the two phases.
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1293-1303 
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    Notes: Minerals commonly contain impurities, and their dissolution involves complicated ionic equilibria and multicomponent mass transfer. This paper describes the experiments that were carried out and proposes a mechanism for dissolution behavior of fluorspar containing calcite as a major impurity in both batchwise and continuous packed-bed systems.The mechanism is based on analysis of coupled equilibria among the soluble species. Of more than eight potentially relevant species, only three (viz., F-, HCO3-, and Ca2+) are significant. The coupled flux equations for F- and HCO3- are written in terms of “main” and “cross” mass transfer coefficients, with the concentration of ca2+ being accounted for by electroneutrality. Only one main mass transfer coefficient needs to be determined experimentally; and other coefficients can be evaluated from it by means of simple diffusion coefficient ratios, which are determined independently. The Stanton number based on the main mass transfer coefficient is correlated with Reynolds number and the Schmidt number for packed bed dissolution.
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1304-1314 
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    Notes: A laser-Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was used in a cold-flow study of a simulated entrained-flow coal gasifier. The study was designed to provide fundamental information about the flows in such a gasifier and to provide data for the validation of a turbulence submodel used in modeling combustion processes. Measurements in 20 swirling and nonswirling flow cases were made with several levels of replication. This study emphasized the effects of inlet conditions on flow properties within the simulated reactor.Unsteady flow phenomena with time scales on the order of seconds to minutes were sometimes observed. The unsteadiness was apparently associated with relaminarization-type flow transitions.Comparisons were made with model predictions from PCGC-2, a model for combustion processes based on the k,  -  ∊ turbulence model. Several areas of weakness in the model results were observed, but the unusual flow regimes measured in this study may be beyond the abilities of practical computer models.
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1365-1369 
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1398-1398 
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1409-1427 
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    Notes: Supercritical fluids (SCF's) are powerful solvents with many unique properties. They have great potential for many extraction processes, but reliable and versatile mathematical models of the phase equilibrium thermodynamics are needed for their use in process design and economic feasibility studies. This paper reviews existing experimental data and analytical methods and attempts to delineate their strengths and limitations. Also discussed are new data needs and possible new directions for a better fundamental understanding of the molecular processes in SCF solutions.
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1445-1456 
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    Notes: The kinetics of a semibatch melt transesterification of dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) with ethylene glycol (EG) is studied with zinc acetate as a catalyst. This paper quantifies the effect of various reactor operating conditions on the transesterification rate and the product composition distribution. Our experiments support the assumption that the methylesters in DMT and growing oligomer chains have the same reactivities for transesterification with EG and that the reactivity of hydroxyl groups in pure EG for esterification with DMT is twice that of the hydroxyl group in oligomers. With a molecular species model in which various oligomers are identified by the type of functional end groups, the progress of the transesterification and the oligomer concentration distribution were estimated and the agreement between the model predictions and the experimental data were excellent. It has also been shown that 30 wt. % of oligomers are produced for [EG]/[DMT] molar ratio of three, and up to 70 wt. % oligomers are produced at the [EG]/[DMT] molar ratio of one.
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    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1473-1486 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering