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  • American Meteorological Society  (11,266)
  • 1995-1999  (6,542)
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  • 1
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 78 (12). pp. 2771-2777.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-07
    Description: A review is given of the meaning of the term “El Niño” and how it has changed in time, so there is no universal single definition. This needs to be recognized for scientific uses, and precision can only be achieved if the particular definition is identified in each use to reduce the possibility of misunderstanding. For quantitative purposes, possible definitions are explored that match the El Niños identified historically after 1950, and it is suggested that an El Niño can be said to occur if 5-month running means of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Niño 3.4 region (5°N–5°S, 120°–170°W) exceed 0.4°C for 6 months or more. With this definition, El Niños occur 31% of the time and La Niñas (with an equivalent definition) occur 23% of the time. The histogram of Niño 3.4 SST anomalies reveals a bimodal character. An advantage of such a definition is that it allows the beginning, end, duration, and magnitude of each event to be quantified. Most El Niños begin in the northern spring or perhaps summer and peak from November to January in sea surface temperatures.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: On 24 and 25 October 1995, high-resolution oceanographic measurements were carried out in the Strait of Messina by using a towed conductivity-temperature-depth chain and a vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler. During the period of investigation the surface water of the Tyrrhenian Sea north of the strait sill was heavier than the surface water of the Ionian Sea south of the strait sill. As a consequence, during northward tidal flow surface water of the Ionian Sea spread as a surface jet into the Tyrrhenian Sea, whereas during southward tidal flow heavier surface water of the Tyrrhenian Sea spread, after having sunk to a depth of about 100 m, as a subsurface jet into the Ionian Sea. Both jets had the form of an internal bore, which finally developed into trains of internal solitary waves whose amplitudes were larger north than south of the strait sill. These measurements represent a detailed picture of the tidally induced internal dynamics in the Strait of Messina during the period of investigation, which contributes to elucidate several aspects of the general internal dynamics in the area: 1) Associated with the tidal flow are intense water jets whose equilibrium depth strongly depends on the horizontal density distribution along the Strait of Messina; 2) although climatological data show that a large horizontal density gradient in the near-surface layer along the Strait of Messina exists, its reversal can occur; 3) fluctuations in the larger-scale circulation patterns that determine the inflow of the modified Atlantic water into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea can be responsible for this reversal. As the tidally induced internal waves reflect the variability in the horizontal density distribution along the Strait of Messina, it is suggested that from the analysis of synthetic aperture radar imagery showing sea surface manifestations of internal waves in this area fluctuations of larger-scale circulation patterns in the Mediterranean Sea can be inferred.
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  • 3
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 15 . pp. 1051-1059.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: A new optical disdrometer has been developed that is optimized for use in high wind speeds, for example, on board ships. The minimal detectable size of droplets is 0.35 mm. Each drop is measured separately with regard to its size and residence time within the sensitive volume. From the available information, the drop size distribution can be calculated with a resolution of 0.05 mm in diameter either by evaluation of the residence time of drops or by drop counting knowing the local wind. Experience shows that using the residence time leads to better results. Rain rates can be determined from the droplet spectra by assuming terminal fall velocity of the drops according to their size. Numerical modeling of disdrometer measurements has been performed, allowing the study of the effect of multiple occupancy of the sensitive volume and grazing incidences on disdrometer measurements. Based on these studies an iterative procedure has been developed to eliminate the impact of these effects on the calculated drop size distributions. This technique may also be applied to any other kind of disdrometer. Long-term simultaneous measurements of the disdrometer and a conventional rain gauge have been used to validate this procedure.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: A new numerical two-layer model is presented, which describes the generation of internal tidal bores and their disintegration into internal solitary waves in the Strait of Messina. This model is used to explain observations made by the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) from the European Remote Sensing satellites ERS 1 and ERS 2. The analysis of available ERS 1/2 SAR data of the Strait of Messina and adjacent sea areas show that 1) northward as well as southward propagating internal waves are generated in the Strait of Messina, 2) southward propagating internal waves are observed more frequently than northward propagating internal waves, 3) sea surface manifestations of southward as well as northward propagating internal waves are stronger during periods where a strong seasonal thermocline is known to be present, 4) southward propagating internal bores are released from the sill between 1 and 5 hours after maximum northward tidal flow and northward propagating internal bores are released between 2 and 6 hours after maximum southward tidal flow, and 5) the spatial separation between the first two internal solitary waves of southward propagating wave trains is smaller in the period from July to September than in the period from October to June. The numerical two-layer model is a composite of two models consisting of 1) a hydrostatic “generation model,” which describes the dynamics of the water masses in the region close to the strait’s sill, where internal bores are generated, and 2) a weakly nonhydrostatic “propagation model,” which describes the dynamics of the water masses outside of the sill region where internal bores may disintegrate into internal solitary waves. Due to a technique for movable lateral boundaries, the generation model is capable of simulating the dynamics of a lower layer that may intersect the bottom topography. The proposed generation–propagation model depends on one space variable only, but it retains several features of a fully three-dimensional model by including a realistic channel depth and a realistic channel width. It is driven by semidiurnal tidal oscillations of the sea level at the two open boundaries of the model domain. Numerical simulations elucidate several observed characteristics of the internal wave field in the Strait of Messina, such as north–south asymmetry, times of release of the internal bores from the strait’s sill, propagation speeds, and spatial separations between the first two solitary waves of internal wave trains.
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  • 5
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28 . pp. 1107-1129.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: On the basis of the collection of individual marine observations available from the Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set, major parameters of the sea state were evaluated. Climatological fields of wind waves and swell height and period, as well as significant wave height and resultant period are obtained for the North Atlantic Ocean for the period from 1964 to 1993. Validation of the results against instrumental records from National Data Buoy Center buoys and ocean weather station measurements indicate relatively good agreement for wave height and systematic biases in the visually estimated periods that were corrected. Wave age, which is important for wind stress estimates, was evaluated form wave and wind observations. The climatology of wave age indicates younger waves in winter in the North Atlantic midlatitudes and Tropics. Wave age estimates were applied to the calculations of the wind stress using parameterizations from field experiments. Differences between wave-age-based and traditional estimates are not negligible in wintertime in midlatitudes and Tropics where wave-induced stress contributes from 5% to 15% to the total stress estimates. Importance of the obtained effects for ocean circulation and climate variability is discussed.
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  • 6
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29 . pp. 145-157.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: As a contribution to the WOCE Deep Basin Experiment, an array of current meters with individual record lengths exceeding ii years was set across the southern boundary of the Brazil Basin between early 1991 and early 1996. The array spanned the Santos Plateau, the Vema Channel, and the Hunter Channel, all areas believed to be important for transport of Antarctic Bottom Water between the Argentine and Brazil Basins. From the combination of geostrophic velocities computed from hydrographic stations and those directly measured, the total transport of bottom water (potential temperature below 2 degrees C) is estimated to be about 6.9 Sv (Sv = 10(6) m(3) s(-1)) northward, with about 4 Sv coming through the Vema Channel and the remainder through the Hunter Channel. Properties of the eddy field are also discussed. Eddy energy levels and their spatial distribution are similar to comparable regimes in the North Atlantic. Integral timescales vary from a few days to several weeks with distance from the Brazil Current and the western boundary. The eddy heat Bur is in the same direction as the heat advection by the mean flow but considerably smaller.
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  • 7
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25 (10). pp. 2444-2457.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Surface heat and freshwater fluxes from the Comprehensive 0cean-Atmosphere Data Set are revised and used diagnostically to compute air-sea transformation rates on density, temperature, and salinity classes over the domain of the data. Maximum rates occur over the warmest water and over mode waters, which are the dominant result of air-sea interaction. Transformation in different is accordingly distinguished by temperature and salinity, just as water masses in different oceans are so distinguished. Over the entire domain, to about 30°S, approximately 80×106 m3 s−1 of warm cool water are transformed by air-sea fluxes, on annual average. Calculations for several seas in the North Atlantic, where deep water is thought to originate, we also presented.
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  • 8
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27 . pp. 381-402.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Parametric representations of oceanic geostrophic eddy transfer of heat and salt are studied ranging fromhorizontal diffusion to the more physically based approaches of Green and Stone (GS) and Gent and McWilliams(GM). The authors argue for a representation that combines the best aspects of GS and GM: transfer coefficientsthat vary in space and time in a manner that depends on the large-scale density fields (GS) and adoption of atransformed Eulerian mean formalism (GM). Recommendations are based upon a two-dimensional (zonally orazimuthally averaged) model with parameterized horizontal and vertical fluxes that is compared to three-dimensional numerical calculations in which the eddy transfer is resolved. Three different scenarios are considered: 1) a convective “chimney” where the baroclinic zone is created by differential surface cooling; 2) spindownof a frontal zone due to baroclinic eddies; and 3) a wind-driven, baroclinically unstable channel. Guided bybaroclinic instability theory and calibrated against eddy-resolving calculations, the authors recommend a formfor the horizontal transfer coefficient given by where Ri = f2N2/M4 is the large-scale Richardson number and f is the Coriolis parameter; M2 and N2 are measuresof the horizontal and vertical stratification of the large-scale flow, l measures the width of the baroclinic zone,and α is a constant of proportionality. In the very different scenarios studied here the authors find α to be a“universal” constant equal to 0.015, not dissimilar to that found by Green for geostrophic eddies in the atmosphere. The magnitude of the implied k, however, varies from 300 m2 s−1 in the chimney to 2000 m2 s−1 inthe wind-driven channel.
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  • 9
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 16 . pp. 133-145.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: The reliability of the Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Dataset (COADS) Release 1a 2° monthly winds is tested by comparing it with instrumental measurements in the northwest Atlantic from 1981 to 1991. The instrumental dataset contains anemometer measurements of a very high homogeneity and quality, which were taken by six research sister ships with known anemometer heights in the northwest Atlantic. Special data processing was made with instrumental samples to provide compatibility with the COADS winds. Comparison shows overestimation of the COADS winds in the low ranges and underestimation of the strong and moderate winds. Application of the alternative equivalent Beaufort scales does not remove this bias and makes it even more pronounced. Thus, the conclusion is made that the disagreement obtained results primarily from the uncertainties of anemometer measurements in COADS, especially from the incorrect evaluation of the true wind. Instrumental data also do not indicate significant long-term interannual changes, which are pronounced in the COADS dataset for the 1980s. Some regional features of the comparison are discussed.
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  • 10
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 18 . pp. 320-338.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: We examine the diffusive behavior of the flow field in an eddy-resolving, primitive equation circulation model. Analysis of fluid particle trajectories illustrates the transport mechanisms, which are leading to uniform tracer and potential vorticity distributions in the interior of the subtropical thermocline. In contrast to the assumption of weak mixing in recent analytical theories, the numerical model indicates the alternative of tracer and potential vorticity homogenization on isopycnal surfaces taking place in a nonideal fluid with strong, along-isopycnal eddy mixing. The eastern, ventilated portion of the gyre appears to be sufficiently homogeneous to allow the concept of an eddy diffusivity to apply. A break in a random walk behavior of particle statistics occurs after about 100 days when along-flow dispersion sharply increases, indicative of mean shear effects. During the first months of particle spreading, eddy dispersal and mean advection are of similar magnitude. Eddy kinetic energy is of O(60–80 cm2 s−2) in the model thermocline, comparable to the pool of weak eddy intensity found in the eastern parts of the subtropical oceans. Eddy diffusivity in the model thermocline (Kxx = 8 × 107, Kyy = 3 × 107 cm2 s−1) seems to be higher by a factor of about 3 than oceanic values estimated for these area. Below the thermocline, model diffusivity decreases substantially and becomes much more anisotropic, with particle dispersal preferentially in the zonal direction. The strong nonisotropic behavior, prominent also in all other areas of water eddy intensity, appears as the major discrepancy when compared with the observed behavior of SOFAR floats and surface drifters in the ocean.
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  • 11
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79 (10). pp. 2033-2058.
    Publication Date: 2016-09-07
    Description: In the autumn of 1996 the field component of an experiment designed to observe water mass transformation began in the Labrador Sea. Intense observations of ocean convection were taken in the following two winters. The purpose of the experiment was, by a combination of meteorological and oceanographic field observations, laboratory studies, theory, and modeling, to improve understanding of the convective process in the ocean and its representation in models. The dataset that has been gathered far exceeds previous efforts to observe the convective process anywhere in the ocean, both in its scope and range of techniques deployed. Combined with a comprehensive set of meteorological and air-sea flux measurements, it is giving unprecedented insights into the dynamics and thermodynamics of a closely coupled, semienclosed system known to have direct influence on the processes that control global climate.
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  • 12
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 10 . pp. 2743-2763.
    Publication Date: 2017-07-20
    Description: Differences between “classical” and “sampling” estimates of mean climatological heat fluxes and their seasonal and interannual variability are considered on the basis of individual marine observations from the Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set. Calculations of fluxes were done for intramonthly averaging and for 1°–5° spatial averaging. Sampling estimates give in general 10% to 60% higher values of fluxes than do classical estimates. Spatial averaging has a larger effect than temporal averaging in the Tropics and subtropics, and temporal averaging is more effective than spatial averaging in midlatitudes. The largest absolute differences between sampling and classical estimates of fluxes are observed in middle latitudes, where they are 15 to 20 W m−2 for sensible heat flux and 50 to 70 W m−2 for latent heat flux. Differences between sampling and classical estimates can change the annual cycle of sea–air fluxes. There is a secular tendency of increasing “sampling- to-classical” ratios of 1% to 5% decade−1 over the North Atlantic. Relationships between sampling-to-classical ratios and parameters of the sea–air interface, the number of observations, and the spatial arrangement of samples are considered. Climatologically significant differences between sampling and classical estimates are analyzed in terms of the contribution from different covariances between individual variables. The influence of different parameterizations of the transfer coefficients on sampling minus classical differences is considered. Parameterizations that indicate growing transfer coefficients with wind speed give the larger sampling minus classical differences in comparison with those based on either constant or decreasing with wind coefficients. Nevertheless, over the North Atlantic midlatitudes, all parameterizations indicate significant sampling minus classical differences of about several tens of watts per square meter. The importance of differences between sampling and classical estimates for the evaluation of meridional heat transport shows that differences between sampling and classical estimates can lead to 0.5–1-PW differences in meridional heat transport estimates.
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  • 13
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27 . pp. 1894-1902.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The relative importance of the formation of different North Atlantic Deep Water masses on the meridional overturning is examined with a non-eddy-resolving version of the CME model. In contrast to a frequently held belief, convective deep-water formation south of the North Atlantic sill does not significantly force the large-scale overturning if an adequate overflow across the sill can be represented by the model. The sensitivity of the meridional transport to the surface thermohaline forcing is increased under alternate climatic conditions such as increased surface cooling or reduced overflow compared to the present-day situation. The results indicate that climate models may be too sensitive to decadal timescale variability of the surface forcing in subpolar regions.
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  • 14
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 12 (8). pp. 2607-2624.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: The predictability of the coupled ocean–atmosphere climate system on interannual to decadal timescales has been studied by means of ensemble forecast experiments with a global coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model. Over most parts of the globe the model’s predictability can be sufficiently explained by damped persistence as expected from the stochastic climate model concept with damping times of considerably less than a year. Nevertheless, the tropical Pacific and the North Atlantic Ocean exhibit oscillatory coupled ocean–atmosphere modes, which lead to longer predictability timescales. While the tropical mode shares many similarities with the observed ENSO phenomenon, the coupled mode within the North Atlantic region exhibits a typical period of about 30 yr and relies on an interaction of the oceanic thermohaline circulation and the atmospheric North Atlantic oscillation. The model’s ENSO-like oscillation is predictable up to one-third to one-half (2–3 yr) of the oscillation period both in the ocean and the atmosphere. The North Atlantic yields considerably longer predictability timescales (of the order of a decade) only for quantities describing the model’s thermohaline circulation. For surface quantities and atmospheric variables only marginal predictability (of the order of a year) was obtained. The predictability of the coupled signal at the surface is destroyed by the large amount of internally generated (weather) noise. This is illustrated by means of a simple conceptual model for coupled ocean–atmosphere variability and predictability.
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: The role of anomalous Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) in forcing east African rainfall anomalies during December–January 1997/98 has been investigated by means of atmospheric model response experiments. It is shown that the strong precipitation anomalies that led to severe flooding over eastern equatorial Africa can be directly related to the contemporaneous changes in the Indian Ocean’s SST. The authors’ set of ensemble experiments prescribing SST anomalies in different ocean basins indicates further that the El Niño–related SST anomalies in the equatorial Pacific did not directly drive the changes in the climate over eastern Africa.
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  • 16
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 11 (4). pp. 602-624.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: The interdecadal variability as simulated by coupled ocean–atmosphere models is reviewed. Emphasis is given to that class of interdecadal variability that arises from ocean–atmosphere interactions. The interdecadal variability simulated can be classified roughly into four classes: tropical interdecadal variability, interdecadal variability that involves both the Tropics and the extratropics as active regions, midlatitudinal interdecadal variability involving the wind-driven ocean gyres, and midlatitudinal interdecadal variability involving the thermohaline circulation. Several coupled models predict the existence of different interdecadal climate cycles, with periods ranging from approximately 10–50 yr. This implies some inherent predictability at decadal timescales, provided that these interdecadal cycles exist in the real climate system.
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  • 17
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 11 (5). pp. 831-847.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: In this paper a decadal climate cycle in the North Atlantic that was derived from an extended-range integration with a coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model is described. The decadal mode shares many features with the observed decadal variability in the North Atlantic. The period of the simulated oscillation, however, is somewhat longer than that estimated from observations. While the observations indicate a period of about 12 yr, the coupled model simulation yields a period of about 17 yr. The cyclic nature of the decadal variability implies some inherent predictability at these timescales. The decadal mode is based on unstable air–sea interactions and must be therefore regarded as an inherently coupled mode. It involves the subtropical gyre and the North Atlantic oscillation. The memory of the coupled system, however, resides in the ocean and is related to horizontal advection and to the oceanic adjustment to low-frequency wind stress curl variations. In particular, it is found that variations in the intensity of the Gulf Stream and its extension are crucial to the oscillation. Although differing in details, the North Atlantic decadal mode and the North Pacific mode described by M. Latif and T. P. Barnett are based on the same fundamental mechanism: a feedback loop between the wind driven subtropical gyre and the extratropical atmospheric circulation.
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  • 18
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 10 (9). pp. 2221-2239.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: The dominant variability modes in the Tropics are investigated and contrasted with the anomalous situation observed during the last few years. The prime quantity analyzed is anomalous sea surface temperature (SST) in the region 30°S–60°N. Additionally, observed tropical surface wind stress fields were investigated. Further tropical atmospheric information was derived from a multidecadal run with an atmospheric general circulation model that was forced by the same SSTs. The tropical SST variability can be characterized by three modes: an interannual mode [the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)], a decadal mode, and a trend or unresolved ultra-low-frequency variability. The dominant mode of SST variability is the ENSO mode. It is strongest in the eastern equatorial Pacific, but influences also the SSTs in other regions through atmospheric teleconnections, such as the Indian and North Pacific Oceans. The ENSO mode was strong during the 1980s, but it existed with very weak amplitude and short period after 1991. The second most energetic mode is characterized by considerable decadal variability. This decadal mode is connected with SST anomalies of the same sign in all three tropical oceans. The tropical Pacific signature of the decadal mode resembles closely that observed during the last few years and can be characterized by a horseshoe pattern, with strongest SST anomalies in the western equatorial Pacific, extending to the northeast and southeast into the subtropics. It is distinct from the ENSO mode, since it is not connected with any significant SST anomalies in the eastern equatorial Pacific, which is the ENSO key region. However, the impact of the decadal mode on the tropical climate resembles in many respects that of ENSO. In particular, the decadal mode is strongly linked to decadal rainfall fluctuations over northeastern Australia in the observations. It is shown that the anomalous 1990s were dominated by the decadal mode. Considerable SST variability can be attributed also to a linear trend or unresolved ultra-low-frequency variability. This trend that might be related to greenhouse warming is rather strong and positive in the Indian Ocean and western equatorial Pacific where it accounts for up to 30% of the total SST variability. Consistent with the increase of SST in the warm pool region, the trends over the tropical Pacific derived from both the observations and the model indicate a strengthening of the trade winds. This is inconsistent with the conditions observed during the 1990s. If the wind trends reflect greenhouse warming, it must be concluded that the anomalous 1990s are not caused by greenhouse warming. Finally, hybrid coupled ocean–atmosphere model experiments were conducted in order to investigate the sensistivity of ENSO to the low-frequency changes induced by the decadal mode and the trend. The results indicate that ENSO is rather sensitive to these changes in the background conditions.
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  • 19
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 10 (7). pp. 1488-1504.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon is modeled as a stochastically driven dynamical system. This was accomplished by adding to a Hybrid Coupled Model (HCM) of the tropical Pacific ocean–atmosphere system a stochastic wind stress anomaly field that was derived from observations. The model exhibits irregular interannual fluctuations, whose space–time characteristics resemble those of the observed interannual climate variability in this region. To investigate the predictability of the model, the authors performed ensemble integrations with different realizations of the stochastic wind stress forcing. The ensembles were initialized at various phases of the model’s ENSO cycle simulated in a 120-yr integration with a particular noise realization. The numerical experiments indicate that the ENSO predictability is severely limited by the stochastic wind stress forcing. Linear stochastic processes were fitted to the restart ensembles in a reduced state space. A predictability measure based on a comparison of the stationary and the time-dependent probability distributions of the fitted linear models reveals an ENSO predictability limit of considerably less than an average cycle length.
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  • 20
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 9 (10). pp. 2407-2423.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: The dynamics and predictability of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America are investigated by analyzing various observational datasets and the output of a state of the art coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model that was integrated for 125 years. Both the observations and model results support the picture that the decadal variability in the region of interest is based on a cycle involving unstable ocean–atmosphere interactions over the North Pacific. The period of this cycle is of the order of a few decades. The cycle involves the two major circulation regimes in the North Pacific climate system, the subtropical ocean gyre, and the Aleutian low. When, for instance, the subtropical ocean gyre is anomalously strong, more warm tropical waters are transported poleward by the Kuroshio and its extension, leading to a positive SST anomaly in the North Pacific. The atmospheric response to this SST anomaly involves a weakened Aleutian low, and the associated fluxes at the air–sea interface reinforce the initial SST anomaly, so that ocean and atmosphere act as a positive feedback system. The anomalous heat flux, reduced ocean mixing in response to a weakened storm track, and anonmalous Ekman heat transport contribute to this positive feedback. The atmospheric response, however, consists also of a wind stress curl anomaly that spins down the subtropical ocean gyre, thereby reducing the poleward heat transport and the initial SST anomaly. The ocean adjusts with some time lag to the change in the wind stress curl, and it is this transient ocean response that allows continuous oscillations. The transient response can be expressed in terms of baroclinic planetary waves, and the decadal timescale of the oscillation is therefore determined to first order by wave timescales. Advection by the mean currents, however, is not negligible. The existence of such a cycle provides the basis of long-range climate forecasting over North America at decadal timescales. At a minimum, knowledge of the present phase of the decadal mode should allow a “now-cast” of expected climate “bias” over North America, which is equivalent to a climate forecast several years ahead.
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  • 21
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 9 (1). pp. 219-239.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: The physics of the Indo–Pacific warm pool are investigated using a coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation model. The model, developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fair Meteorologic, Hamburg, does not employ a flux correction and is used with atmospheres at T42 and T21 resolution. The simulations are compared with observations, and the model's mean and seasonal heat budgets and physics in the Indo–Pacific warm pool region are explored for the T42 resolution run. Despite the simulation of a split intertropical convergence zone, and of a cold tongue that extends too far to the west, simulated warm pool temperatures are consistent with observations at T42 resolution, while the T21 resolution yields a cold bias of 1K. At T42 resolution the seasonal migration of the warm pool is reproduced reasonably well, as are the surface heat fluxes, winds, and clouds. However, simulated precipitation is too small compared to observations, implying that the surface density flux is dominated by fluxes of heat. In the Pacific portion of the warm pool, the average net heat gain of the ocean amounts to 30–40 W m−2. In the northern branch, this heat gain is balanced by vertical advection, while in the southern branch, zonal, meridional, and vertical advection cool the ocean at approximately equal rates. At the equator, the surface heat flux is balanced by zonal and vertical advection and vertical mixing. The Indonesian and Indian Ocean portions of the warm pool receive from the atmosphere 30 and 50 W m−2, respectively, and this flux is balanced by vertical advection. The cooling due to vertical advection stems from numerical diffusion associated with the upstream scheme, the coarse vertical resolution of the ocean model, and near-inertial oscillations forced by high-frequency atmospheric variability. The seasonal migration of the warm pool is largely a result of the seasonal variability of the net surface heat flux, horizontal and vertical advections are of secondary importance and increase the seasonal range of surface temperature slightly everywhere in the warm pool, with the exception of its southern branch. There, advection reduces the effect of the surface flux. The seasonal variability of the surface heat flux in turn is mainly determined by the shortwave radiation, but evaporation modifies the signal significantly. The annual cycles of reduction of solar radiation due to clouds and SST evolve independently from each other in the Pacific portion of the warm pool; that is, clouds have little impact on SST. In the Indian Ocean, however, clouds limit the maximum SST attained during the annual cycle. In the western Pacific and Indonesian portion of the warm pool, penetrative shortwave radiation leads to convective mixing by heating deeper levels at a greater rate than the surface, which experiences heat losses due to turbulent and longwave heat fluxes. In the deeper levels, there is no mechanism to balance the heating due to penetrative radiation, except convection and its attendant mixing. In the Indian Ocean, however. the resulting vertical heating profile due to the surface fluxes decreases monotonically with depth and does not support convective mixing. Concurrently, the warm pool is shallower in the Indian Ocean compared with the western Pacific, indicating that convective mixing due to penetrative radiation is important in maintaining the vertical structure of the Pacific portion of the warm pool.
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  • 22
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 8 (4). pp. 952-964.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: The authors have investigated the interactions of the tropical oceans on interannual timescales by conducting a series of uncoupled atmospheric and oceanic general circulation experiments and hybrid-coupled model simulations. The results illustrate the key role of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation phenomenon in generating interannual variability in all three tropical ocean basins. Sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific force SST anomalies of the same sign in the Indian Ocean and SST anomalies of the opposite sign in the Atlantic via a changed atmospheric circulation. However, although air-sea interactions in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans are much weaker than those in the Pacific, they contribute significantly to the variability in these two regions. The role of these air-sea interactions is mainly that of an amplifier by which the ENSO-induced signals are enhanced in the ocean and atmosphere. This process is particularly important in the tropical Atlantic region. The authors investigated, also, whether ENSO is part of a zonally propagating “wave,” which travels around the globe with a timescale of several years. Consistent with observations, the upper-ocean heat content in the various numerical simulators seems to propagate slowly around the globe. SST anomalies in the Pacific Ocean introduce a global atmospheric response, which in turn forces variations in the other tropical oceans. Since the different oceans exhibit different response characteristics to low-frequency wind changes, the individual tropical ocean responses can add up coincidentally to look like a global wave, and that appears to be the situation. In particular, no evidence is found that the Indian Ocean can significantly affect the ENSO cycle in the Pacific. Finally, the potential for climate forecasts in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans appears to be enhanced if one includes, in a coupled way, remote influences from the Pacific.
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  • 23
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 45 (6). pp. 964-979.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-16
    Description: A coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model has been developed for TOGA related problems. The coupled model consists of an ocean model of the tropical Pacific and a global low-order spectral atmosphere model. The two models interact via wind stress and sea surface temperature. In order to avoid a climate drift within the coupled model, a flux correction method is applied.Experiments were performed by introducing a westerly wind stress burst over the western equatorial Pacific for one month. Thereafter, the wind burst is turned off and the response of the coupled model to the initial disturbance is investigated. The results are compared with the response of the ocean model run with the same disturbance in an uncoupled mode.It is shown that the coupling leads to a significant increase of the duration of anomalous conditions in the ocean. SST anomalies persist for about 12 months in the coupled run, while they have already disappeared after 4 months in the uncoupled case. The increase in persistence is due to the feedback of the atmosphere, which responds with an eastward shift of the ascending branch of the Walker Circulation.In a second experiment with the coupled model the initial disturbance was introduced within another season. The results show no basic differences to the results of the first experiment.An interesting result of the coupled model runs is the occurrence of spontaneous westerly wind bursts over the western Pacific, which developed by internal dynamics. Location and duration of these spontaneous wind bursts show some correspondence with the time-space structure of observed westerly wind stress episodes over the western Pacific.
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  • 24
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 46 (5). pp. 661-686.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-16
    Description: The sensitivity of the global climate system to interannual variability of he Eurasian snow cover has been investigated with numerical models. It was found that heavier than normal Eurasian snow cover in spring leads to a “poor” monsoon over Southeast Asia thereby verifying an idea over 100 years old. The poor monsoon was characterized by reduced rainfall over India and Burma, reduced wind stress over the Indian Ocean, lower than normal temperatures on the Asian land mass and in the overlying atmospheric column, reduced tropical jet, increased soil moisture, and other features associated with poor monsoons. Lighter than normal snow cover led to a “good” monsoon with atmospheric anomalies like those described above but of opposite sign. Remote responses from the snow field perturbation include readjustment of the Northern Hemispheric mass field in midlatitude, an equatorially symmetric response of the tropical geopotential height and temperature field and weak, but significant, perturbations in the surface wind stress and heat flux in the tropical Pacific. The physics responsible for the regional response involves all elements of both the surface heat budget and heat budget of the full atmospheric column. In essence, the snow, soil and atmospheric moisture all act to keep the land and overlying atmospheric column colder than normal during a heavy snow simulation thus reducing the land–ocean temperature contrast needed to initiate the monsoon. The remote responses are driven by heating anomalies associated with both large scale air-sea interactions and precipitation events. The model winds from the heavy snow experiment were used to drive an ocean model. The SST field in that model developed a weak El Niño in the equatorial Pacific. A coupled ocean-atmosphere model simulation perturbed only by anomalous Eurasian snow cover was also run and it developed a much stranger El Niño in the Pacific. The coupled system clearly amplified the wind stress anomaly associated with the poor monsoon. These results show the important role of an evolving (not specified) sea surface temperature in numerical experiments and the real climate system. Our general results also demonstrate the importance of land processes in global climate dynamics and their possible role as one of the factors that could trigger ENSO events.
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  • 25
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 15 (7). pp. 885-897.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-04
    Description: Long-term temperature and current-meter records from moorings in the northern Canary Basin display strong current events with time scales between one and three months and large vertical scales of several thousand meters. The data are compared to hydrographic surveys in the area that show a meandering subtropical front. The strong current events are found to be related to the passage of the front through the mooring positions. An analysis of composite time series, for selected depths, indicates cases of westward and of eastward propagation of frontal meanders. The frontal pattern is also found in geopotential anomalies inferred from historical XBT data sets, suggesting that the front is a persistent feature of the density field. In two cases strong current events appear to be related to a Mediterranean Water lens.
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  • 26
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25 (11). pp. 2532-2546.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: In late austral summer 1991 a cyclonic thermocline eddy was detected in the subtropical western South Atlantic off the Brazilian shelf near the city of Vitória. This Vitória eddy was tracked for 55 days by surface drifters drogued at 100-m depth. The drifters had been deployed in the western boundary current regime by FS Meteor as part of a basinwide surface current study. The analysis of a combined CTD/XBT section across the Vitória eddy, together with drifter data and satellite images of the thermal surface structure revealed the unexpected complexity of the region. The eddy interacted not only with the local topography and the Brazil Current, located farther offshore, but also with an extended upwelling regime north of Cabo Frio. The hydrographic and kinematic properties and anomalies of the Vitóia eddy are analyzed and compared with similar vortices described elsewhere in literature.
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  • 27
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26 . pp. 1142-1164.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The authors use different versions of the model of the wind- and thermohaline-driven circulation in the North and Equatorial Atlantic developed under the WOCE Community Modeling Effort to investigate the mean flow pattern and deep-water formation in the subpolar region, and the corresponding structure of the basin-scale meridional overturning circulation transport. A suite of model experiments has been carded out in recent years, differing in horizontal resolution (1° × 1.2°, 1/3° × 0.4°, 1/6° × 0.2°), thermohaline boundary conditions, and parameterization of small-scale mixing. The mass transport in the subpolar gyre and the production of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) appears to be essentially controlled by the outflow of dense water from the Greenland and Norwegian Seas. in the present model simulated by restoring conditions in a buffer zone adjacent to the boundary near the Greenland–Scotland Ridge. Deep winter convection homogenizes the water column in the center of the Labrador Sea to about 2000 m. The water mass properties (potential temperature about 3°C, salinity about 34.9 psu) and the volume (1.1×1053 km3) of the homogenized water are in fair agreement with observations. The convective mixing has only little effect on the net sinking of upper-layer water in the subpolar gyre. Sensitivity experiments show that the export of NADW from the subpolar North Atlantic is more strongly affected by changes in the overflow conditions than by changes in the surface buoyancy fluxes over the Labrador and Irminger Seas, even if these suppress the deep convection completely. The host of sensitivity experiments demonstrates that realistic meridional overturning and heat transport distributions for the North Atlantic (with a maximum of 1 PW) can be obtained with NADW production rates of 15–16 Sv, provided the spurious upwelling of deep water that characterizes many model solutions in the Gulf Stream regime is avoided by adequate horizontal resolution add mixing parameterization.
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  • 28
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28 . pp. 999-1002.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: New analytical, circular eddy solutions of the nonlinear, reduced-gravity, shallow-water equations in a rotating system are presented. While previous analytical solutions were limited to the description of pulsons, which are oscillating, frontal, warm-core eddies with paraboloidic shape and linear velocity components, the new solutions describe more general radial structures of eddy shape and azimuthal velocity. In particular, the new solutions, which contain as a subset the circular pulson solution, also allow for the description of circular, frontal, warm-core eddies with small azimuthal velocities at their periphery and/or with motionless cores, which are frequently observed characteristics of warm-core eddies in the World Ocean.
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  • 29
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 15 . pp. 380-386.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: A ship rain gauge has been developed that can be used under high wind speeds such as those experienced by ships at sea. The instrument has an improved aerodynamic design and an additional lateral collecting surface, which is effective especially with high wind speeds. The ship rain gauge has been calibrated at sea against a specially designed optical disdrometer. An accuracy of 2%–3% has been obtained for 6-hourly sums. The ship rain gauge has also successfully been tested at a test site of the German Weather Service and presently is used on research vessels and voluntary observing ship.
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  • 30
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29 (6). pp. 1251-1264.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: A dynamic–thermodynamic sea ice–mixed layer model for the Weddell Sea is complemented by a simple, diagnostic model to account for local sea ice–atmosphere interaction. To consider the atmospheric influence on the oceanic mixed layer, the pycnocline upwelling velocity is calculated using the theory of Ekman pumping. In several experiments, formation and conservation of a polynya in the Weddell Sea are investigated. Intrusion of heat into the lower atmosphere above the polynya area is assumed to cause a thermal perturbation and a cyclonic thermal wind field. Superposed with daily ECMWF surface winds, this modified atmospheric forcing field intensifies oceanic upwelling and induces divergent ice drift. Simulation results indicate that in case of a weak atmospheric cross-polynya flow the formation of a thermal wind field can significantly extend the lifetime of a large polynya. The repeated occurrence of the Weddell polynya in the years 1974–76 thus appears to be an effect of feedback mechanisms between sea ice, atmosphere, and oceanic mixed layer.
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  • 31
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Applied Meteorology, 36 . pp. 919-930.
    Publication Date: 2017-07-03
    Description: A neural network is used to calculate the longwave net radiation (Lnet) at the sea surface from measurements of the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). The neural network applied in this study is able to account largely for the nonlinearity between Lnet and the satellite-measured brightness temperatures (TB). The algorithm can be applied for instantaneous measurements over oceanic regions with the area extent of satellite passive microwave observations (30–60 km in diameter). Comparing with a linear regression method the neural network reduces the standard error for Lnet from 17 to 5 W m−2 when applied to model results. For clear-sky cases, a good agreement with an error of less than 5 W m−2 for Lnet between calculations from SSM/I observations and pyrgeometer measurements on the German research vessel Poseidon during the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE) 1989 is obtained. For cloudy cases, the comparison is problematic due to the inhomogenities of clouds and the low and different spatial resolutions of the SSM/I data. Global monthly mean values of Lnet for October 1989 are computed and compared to other sources. Differences are observed among the climatological values from previous studies by H.-J. Isemer and L. Hasse, the climatological values from R. Lindau and L. Hasse, the values of W. L. Darnell et al., and results from this study. Some structures of Lnet are similar for results from W. L. Darnell et al. and the present authors. The differences between both results are generally less than 15 W m−2. Over the North Atlantic Ocean the authors found a poleward increase for Lnet, which is contrary to the results of H.-J. Isemer and L. Hasse.
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  • 32
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 10 (11). pp. 2711-2724.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: Parameterization of turbulent wind stress and sensible and latent heat fluxes is reviewed in the context of climate studies and model calculations, and specific formulas based on local measurements are recommended. Wind speed is of key importance, and in applying experimental results, the differences between local and modeled winds must be considered in terms of their method of observation or calculation. Climatological wind data based on Beaufort wind force reports require correction for historical trends. Integrated long-term net turbulent and radiative heat fluxes at the sea surface, calculated from archived data, are consistent with meridional heat transport through oceanographic sections; this lends support to the methods used
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  • 33
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 19 . pp. 77-97.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: We report a study of a coastal frontal zone of the southeastern United States based on a field experiment and numerical modeling. The study was conducted in the spring of 1985 during weak to moderate wind stress and strong input of buoyancy from solar radiation and river discharge. The study confirms that the structure and slope of the frontal zone depends on a combination of wind stress and cross-shelf advection of buoyancy. A cross-shelf/depth two-dimensional (x, y), time-dependent numerical model illustrated the response of the frontal zone to the local wind stress regimes. A comparison of model results with field data showed that the model successfully predicted onsets of stratification and mixing. When alongshore wind stress was negative (southward), isopycnals in the frontal zone steepened due to a combination of horizontal advection and vertical convection. When stress was positive (northward), the offshore advection of low density water flattened the isopycnals and potential energy decreased, demonstrating that horizontal advection terms are important in the equation of conservation of buoyancy. The model predicts die offshore advection of lenses of less dense water during upwelling-favorable wind stress. These lenses are of the order of 20 km in cross-shelf scale and represent an efficient mechanism to export nearshore water. The lenses consist of a mixture of low-salinity coastal water and continental shelf water originating further offshore and advected onshore along the bottom. The mean flow inside the frontal zone opposed the mean alongshore wind stress. Part of the alongshore flow was in geostrophy with the cross-shore pressure gradient; the other part was due to an alongshore pressure gradient force (kinematic) of about 1 × 10−6 m s−2 (equivalent sea surface slope = 1 × 10−7), which was trapped along the coast with an offshore width scale of O(10 km). It is likely that the alongshore extent of this pressure gradient was governed by the scale at which freshwater is injected to the continental shelf, i.e., 20–30 km. The pressure gradient force immediately outside of the frontal zone was about −5 × 10−7 m s−2 in the direction of the mean alongshore wind stress. It is hypothesized that, as a result of wind setup and freshwater influx, the northward pressure gradient forced over outer shelf/slope by the Gulf Stream decreases in magnitude onshore, and can even change sign across a nearshore frontal zone of O(10 km). The implied flow field near the frontal zone is therefore highly three-dimensional with |∂v/∂y|≈|∂u/∂x|, where (u, v) are velocities in the cross-shore (x) and alongshore (y) directions, respectively.
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  • 34
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 55 (17). pp. 2874-2883.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-16
    Description: The roles of ice particle size distributions (SDs) and particle shapes in cirrus cloud solar radiative transfer are investigated by analyzing SDs obtained from optical array probe measurements (particle sizes larger than 20–40 μm) during intensive field observations of the International Cirrus Experiment, the European Cloud and Radiation Experiment, the First ISCCP Regional Experiment, and the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment. It is found that the cloud volume extinction coefficient is more strongly correlated with the total number density than with the effective particle size. Distribution-averaged mean single scattering properties are calculated for hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, and polycrystals at a nonabsorbing (0.5 μm), moderately absorbing (1.6 μm), and strongly absorbing (3.0 μm) wavelength. At 0.5 μm (1.6 μm) (3.0 μm), the spread in the resulting mean asymmetry parameters due to different SDs is smaller than (comparable to) (smaller than) the difference caused by applying different particle shapes to these distributions. From a broadband solar radiative transfer point of view it appears more important to use the correct particle shapes than to average over the correct size distributions.
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  • 35
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Applied Meteorology, 37 (8). pp. 832-844.
    Publication Date: 2017-07-03
    Description: A neural network (NN) has been developed in order to retrieve the cloud liquid water path (LWP) over the oceans from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. The retrieval with NNs depends crucially on the SSM/I channels used as input and the number of hidden neurons—that is, the NN architecture. Three different combinations of the seven SSM/I channels have been tested. For all three methods an NN with five hidden neurons yields the best results. The NN-based LWP algorithms for SSM/I observations are intercompared with a standard regression algorithm. The calibration and validation of the retrieval algorithms are based on 2060 radiosonde observations over the global ocean. For each radiosonde profile the LWP is parameterized and the brightness temperatures (Tb’s) are simulated using a radiative transfer model. The best LWP algorithm (all SSM/I channels except T85V) shows a theoretical error of 0.009 kg m−2 for LWPs up to 2.8 kg m−2 and theoretical “clear-sky noise” (0.002 kg m−2), which has been reduced relative to the regression algorithm (0.031 kg m−2). Additionally, this new algorithm avoids the estimate of negative LWPs. An indirect validation and intercomparison is presented that is based upon SSM/I measurements (F-10) under clear-sky conditions, classified with independent IR-Meteosat data. The NN-based algorithms outperform the regression algorithm. The best LWP algorithm shows a clear-sky standard deviation of 0.006 kg m−2, a bias of 0.001 kg m−2, nonnegative LWPs, and no correlation with total precipitable water. The estimated accuracy for SSM/I observations and two of the proposed new LWP algorithms is 0.023 kg m−2 for LWP ⩽ 0.5 kg m−2.
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  • 36
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29 . pp. 2303-2317.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: A primitive equation model to study the dynamics of the Agulhas system has been developed. The model domain covers the South Atlantic and the south Indian Ocean with a resolution of ⅓° in the Agulhas region while coarser outside. It is driven by a climatology of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. It is shown that the model simulates the Agulhas Current, its retroflection, and the ring shedding successfully. The model results show baroclinic anticyclonic eddies in the Mozambique Channel and east of Madagascar, which travel toward the northern Agulhas Current. After the eddies reach the current they are advected southward with the mean flow. Due to the limited numerical resolution only a few eddies reach the retroflection region without much modification. These eddies are responsible for drastic enhancement of the heat transfer from the Indian Ocean to the South Atlantic and lead to periodicities in the interoceanic heat transport of about 50 days superimposed on the seasonal variability. Combined satellite data from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1 show that the observed vortices in the Mozambique Channel are comparable to those seen in the model. In contrast to this the simulated eddies east of Madagascar seem not to be well reproduced. Analyses of the energy conversion terms between the mean flow and the eddies suggest that barotropic instability plays an important role in the generation of Mozambique Channel eddies. For the generation of Agulhas rings and other eddy structures in the model the barotropic instability mechanism seems to be minor, and baroclinic instability mechanisms are more likely.
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  • 37
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 11 (3). pp. 297-312.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: In this study, a hybrid coupled model (HCM) is used to investigate the physics of decadal variability in the North Pacific. This aids in an understanding of the inherent properties of the coupled ocean–atmosphere system in the absence of stochastic forcing by noncoupled variability. It is shown that the HCM simulates a self-sustained decadal oscillation with a period of about 20 yr, similar to that found in both the observations and coupled GCMs. Sensitivity experiments are carried out to determine the relative importance of wind stresses, net surface heat flux, and freshwater flux on the initiation and maintenance of the decadal oscillation in the North Pacific. It is found that decadal variability is a mode of the coupled system and involves interaction of sea surface temperature, upper-ocean heat content, and wind stress. This interaction is mainly controlled by the wind stress but can be strongly modified by the surface heat flux. The effect of the salinity is relatively small and is not necessary to generate the model decadal oscillation in the North Pacific. There are some limitations with this study. First, the effect of a stochastic forcing is not included. Second, a weak negative feedback is needed to run the control experiment for a longer time period. These two areas will be addressed in a future investigation.
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  • 38
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 17 (2). pp. 246-263.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-04
    Description: A primitive equation model of the equatorial Pacific Ocean was forced by realistic wind stress distributions over decades. Results were presented for a set of two experiments. In the first experiment the model was forced by an objectively analyzed wind field, while for the second experiment a subjectively analyzed wind field was used. The results indicate a strong sensitivity of the model to the choice of the wind fields. Especially, model results in the eastern Pacific show big differences between the two model runs. Taking the results of the second model run the performance of the model with respect to interannual variability is investigated. Sea level, temperature and zonal currents show pronounced interannual variations within the equatorial belt from 10°N to 10°S. Special attention is given to the simulation of the 1982/83 El Niño event. The model reproduces most of the basic features, which were observed during this El Niño event. In particular the deceleration of the equatorial undercurrent, the evolution of eastward surface currents and the zonal redistribution of heat associated with an eastward propagation of warm water are simulated by the model.
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  • 39
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 17 (10). pp. 1561-1570.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-04
    Description: Quasi-homogeneous layers in vertical profiles of temperature and salinity in the eastern North Atlantic near Madeira indicate the existence of a subtropical Mode Water in the Eastern Basin. Temperature sections show a maximum horizontal extent of at least 500 km. The frequency distribution analysis of homogeneous layers in a historical XBT dataset shows a Mode Water formation region near and to the north of Madeira. This Mode Water is found at increasing depths and displaced to the west and southwest during the course of the year after its formation by wintertime convection. It disappears almost completely, due to mixing, before the next winter. Volume estimates suggest that this Madeira Mode Water in the eastern Atlantic accounts for 15–20% of the total Central Water formation in the corresponding density range as obtained from tracer studies in the North Atlantic gyre.
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  • 40
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 76 (1). pp. 5-11.
    Publication Date: 2019-01-21
    Description: Widespread and sustained in situ ocean measurements are essential to an improved understanding of the state of the ocean and its role in global change. Merchant marine vessels can play a major role in ocean monitoring, yet apart from routine weather observations and upper-ocean temperature measurements, they constitute a vastly underutilized resource due to lack of suitable instrumentation. Examples of ways in which vessels can assist include profiling techniques of physical properties, chemical sampling via automated water samplers, optical techniques to measure various biological parameters, and ground truth measurements for remote sensing from orbiting and geostationary satellites. Further, ships can act as relays between subsurface instrumentation and satellite communication services. To take advantage of the opportunities that the maritime industry can provide, two steps must be taken. The first is to initiate an instrumentation development program with emphasis on techniques optimized for highly automated use onboard ships at 15-20-kt speeds. The second is to forge partnerships or links between academic and government laboratories and the maritime industry for the institution and maintenance of such monitoring programs. No doubt significant resources will be required, but in the long run the improved ability to monitor the state of ocean in situ will make the effort more than worthwhile.
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  • 41
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25 (8). pp. 1771-1787.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The Cape Verde Frontal Zone separates the North and the South Atlantic Central Waters in the eastern North Atlantic. It also represents the boundary between the ventilated subtropical gyre and the quasi-stagnant shadow zone in the southeast. The thermohaline front is nearly compensated with respect to density, and density parameters RP, suggest the existence of double-diffusive processes. Datasets from three cruises to the region, approximately one year apart each, are used to determine the effects of double-diffusive diapycnal versus isopycnal mixing. For this purpose results from the usual temperature-salinity analysis assuming isopycnal mixing are compared to results from a multiparameter analysis where nutrient and oxygen data are also used. Significant diapycnal fluxes are found in the frontal zone between 200 and 300 m, with water mass contents being changed by more than 20% through diapycnal mixing. The associated buoyancy fluxes have a similar magnitude as surface fluxes in the area and thus represent an important contribution to the vertical balances of heat and salt.
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  • 42
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26 . pp. 2251-2266.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: A simple point-vortex “heton” model is used to study localized ocean convection. In particular, the statistically steady state that is established when lateral buoyancy transfer, effected by baroclinic instability, offsets the localized surface buoyancy loss is investigated. Properties of the steady state, such as the statistically steady density anomaly of the convection region, are predicted using the hypothesis of a balance between baroclinic eddy transfer and the localized surface buoyancy loss. These predictions compare favorably with the values obtained through numerical integration of the heton model. The steady state of the heron model can be related to that in other convection scenarios considered in several recent studies by means of a generalized description of the localized convection. This leads to predictions of the equilibrium density anomalies in these scenarios, which concur with those obtained by other authors. Advantages of the heton model include its inviscid nature, emphasizing the independence of the fluxes affected by the baroclinic eddies from molecular processes, and its extreme economy, allowing a very large parameter space to be covered. This economy allows us to examine more complicated forcing scenarios: for example, forcing regions of varying shape. By increasing the ellipticity of the forcing region, the instability is modified by the shape and, as a result, no increase in lateral fluxes occurs despite the increased perimeter length. The parameterization of convective mixing by a redistribution of potential vorticity, implicit in the heton model, is corroborated; the heton model equilibrium state has analogous quantitative scaling behavior to that in models or laboratory experiments that resolve the vertical motions. The simplified dynamics of the heton model therefore allows the adiabatic advection resulting from baroclinic instability to be examined in isolation from vertical mixing and diffusive processes. These results demonstrate the importance of baroclinic instability in controlling the properties of a water mass generated by localized ocean convection. A complete parameterization of this process must therefore account for the fluxes induced by horizontal variations in surface buoyancy loss and affected by baroclinic instability.
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  • 43
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26(10) . pp. 2281-2285.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The compatibility of the Gent and McWilliams thickness mixing parameterization with perturbation thickness fluxes evaluated from eddy-resolving North Atlantic model results is investigated. After extensive spatial and temporal averaging, a linear correlation between the parameterized fluxes and those calculated directly from model fluctuations in the subtropics could be found. A direct estimate of a constant mixing parameter κ could be inferred in the order of 1.0 × 107 cm2 s−1.
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2017-07-20
    Description: Many models of the large-scale thermohaline circulation in the ocean exhibit strong zonally integrated upwelling in the midlatitude North Atlantic that significantly decreases the amount of deep water that is carried from the formation regions in the subpolar North Atlantic toward low latitudes and across the equator. In an analysis of results from the Community Modeling Effort using a suite of models with different horizontal resolution, wind and thermohaline forcing, and mixing parameters, it is shown that the upwelling is always concentrated in the western boundary layer between roughly 30° and 40°N. The vertical transport across 1000 m appears to be controlled by local dynamics and strongly depends on the horizontal resolution and mixing parameters of the model. It is suggested that in models with a realistic deep-water formation rate in the subpolar North Atlantic, the excessive upwelling can be considered as the prime reason for the typically too low meridional overturning rates and northward heat transports in the subtropical North Atlantic. A new isopycnal advection and mixing parameterization of tracer transports by mesoscale eddies yield substantial improvements in these integral measures of the circulation.
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  • 45
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29 (11). pp. 2785-2801.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The Rio Grande Rise acts as a natural barrier for the equatorward flow of Antarctic Bottom Water in the subtropical South Atlantic. In addition to the Vema Channel, the Hunter Channel cuts through this obstacle and offers a separate route for bottom-water import into the southern Brazil Basin. On the occasion of the Deep Basin Experiment, a component of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the expected deep flow through the Hunter Channel was directly observed for the first time by an array of moored current meters and thermistor chains from December 1992 to May 1994. Main results are (i) the Hunter Channel is, in fact, a conduit for bottom-water flow into the Brazil Basin. Our new mean transport from moored current meters [2.92 (±1.24) × 106 m3 s−1] is significantly higher than earlier estimates that were based on geostrophic calculations. (ii) During the WOCE observational period a tendency toward increased bottom-water temperatures was observed. This observation from the Hunter Channel is consistent with findings from the Vema Channel. (iii) The overflow through the Hunter Channel is highly variable and puts in perspective earlier synoptic geostrophic transport estimates
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: During December 1991 to April 1992 measurements with moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) stations and shipboard surveys were carried out in the convection regime of the Gulf of Lions, northwestern Mediterranean. First significant mixed layer deepening and generation of internal waves in the stratified intermediate layer occurred during a mistral cooling phase in late December. Mixed layer deepening to about 400 m, eroding the salinity maximum layer of saltier and warmer Levantine Intermediate Water and causing temporary surface-layer warming, followed during a second cooling period of late January. During a mistral cooling period from 18 to 23 February 1992, convection to 1500-m depth was observed, where the size of the convection regime was 50–100 km extent. Vertical velocities 40–640 m deep, recorded by four ADCPs of a triangular moored array of 2 km sidelength in the center of the convection regime, exceeded 5 cm s−1 and were not correlated over the separation of the moorings. Horizontal scales estimated from event duration and advection velocity were only around 500 m, in agreement with scaling arguments for convective plumes. Plume activity during nighttime cooling was larger than daytime daytime. Significant evidence for rotation of the plumes could not be found. Overall, plume energy, and the degree of mixing accomplished by them, was much lower than observed during a stronger mistral in February 1987. The mean vertical velocity over the mistral period, determined from the four ADCPs, was near zero, confirming the role of plumes as mixing agents rather than as part of a mean downdraft in a convection regime. The cyclonic rim current around the convection regime was confined to a strip of 〈20 km width with an average velocity of about 10 cm s−1, which is in agreement with near-zero vertical mean velocity in the interior based on potential vorticity conservation. A relation between variations of the larger-scale cyclonic North Mediterranean Current along the boundary and the deep convection could not be identified. An unexplained feature still is the cover of the convection regime by a shallow layer of light water that moves in rather quickly from the sides after the cooling ends.
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  • 47
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26 . pp. 1721-1734.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: An initially resting ocean of stratification N is considered, subject to buoyancy loss at its surface of magnitude B0 over a circular region of radius r, at a latitude where the Coriolis parameter is f. Initially the buoyancy loss gives rise to upright convection as an ensemble of plumes penetrates the stratified ocean creating a vertically mixed layer. However, as deepening proceeds, horizontal density gradients at the edge of the forcing region support a geostrophic rim current, which develops growing meanders through baroclinic instability. Eventually finite-amplitude baroclinic eddies sweep stratified water into the convective region at the surface and transport convected water outward and away below, setting up a steady state in which lateral buoyancy flux offsets buoyancy loss at the surface. In this final state quasi-horizontal baroclinic eddy transfer dominates upright “plume” convection. By using “parcel theory” to consider the energy transformations taking place, it is shown that the depth, hfinal at which deepening by convective plumes is arrested by lateral buoyancy flux due to baroclinic eddies, and the time tfinal it takes to reach this depth, is given by both independent of rotation. Here γ and β are dimensionless constants that depend on the efficiency of baroclinic eddy transfer. A number of laboratory and numerical experiments are then inspected and carried out to seek confirmation of these parameter dependencies and obtain quantitative estimates of the constants. It is found that γ = 3.9 ± 0.9 and β = 12 ± 3. Finally, the implications of our study to the understanding of integral properties of deep and intermediate convection in the ocean are discussed.
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  • 48
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28 . pp. 1410-1424.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: In the Gulf of Lions, observations of deep convection have been sporadically carried out over the past three decades, showing significant interannual variability of convection activity. As long time series of meteorological observations of the region are available from coastal stations, heat flux time series for the Gulf of Lions for the individual winters from 1969 to 1994 are derived by calibrating these observations against direct measurements obtained over the convection site. These heat fluxes are also compared against heat fluxes obtained by the French PERIDOT weather model for the winter of 1991/92. A Kraus–Turner one-dimensional mixed layer model is initialized by climatological mean temperature and salinity profiles and then driven by the heat flux time series of the individual years. Resulting convection depths are in satisfactory agreement with existing observational evidence, showing the dominance of interannual variability of local forcing on convection variability. The interannual variability of convection depth causes interannual variations in deep-water properties, and these are also compared with the hydrographic database.
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  • 49
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25 . pp. 289-305.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: This paper describes, and establishes the dynamical mechanisms responsible for, the large-scale, time-mean, midlatitude circulation in a high-resolution model of the North Atlantic basin. The model solution is compared with recently proposed transport schemes and interpretations of the dynamical balances operating in the sub-tropical gyre. In particular, the question of the degree to which Sverdrup balance holds for the subtropical gyre is addressed. At 25°N, thermohaline-driven bottom flows cause strong local departures from the Sverdrup solution for the vertically integrated meridional mass transport, but these nearly integrate to zero across the interior of the basin. In the northwestern region of the subtropical gyre, in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream, higher-order dynamics become important, and linear vorticity dynamics is unable to explain the model's vertically integrated transport. In the subpolar gyre, the model transport bears little resemblance to the Sverdrup prediction, and higher-order dynamics are important across the entire longitudinal extent of the basin. The sensitivity of the model transport amplitudes, patterns, and dynamical balances are estimated by examining the solutions under a range of parameter choices and for four different wind stress forcing specifications. Taking into account a deficit of 7–10 Sv (Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) in the contribution of the model thermohaline circulation to the meridional transports at 25°N, the wind stress climatology of Isemer and Hasse appears to yield too strong of a circulation, while that derived from the NCAR Community Climate Model yields too weak of a circulation. The Hellerman and Rosenstein and ECMWF climatologies result in wind-driven transports close to observational estimates at 25°N. The range between cases for the annual mean southward transport in the interior above 1000 m is 14 Sv, which is 40%–70% of the mean transport itself. There is little sensitivity to the model closure parameters at this latitude. At 55°N, in the subpolar gyre, there is little sensitivity of the model solution to the choice of either closure parameters or wind climatology, despite large differences in the Sverdrup transports implied by the different wind stress datasets. Large year to year variability of the meridional transport east of the Bahamas makes it difficult to provide robust estimates of the sensitivity of the Antilles and deep western boundary current systems to forcing and parameter changes.
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  • 50
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29 . pp. 2065-2098.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: A 12-month mooring record (May 1994–June 1995), together with accompanying PALACE float data, is used to describe an annual cycle of deep convection and restratification in the Labrador Sea. The mooring is located at 56.75°N, 52.5°W, near the former site of Ocean Weather Station Bravo, in water of 3500 m depth. This is a pilot experiment for climate monitoring, and also for studies of deep-convection dynamics. Mooring measurements include temperature (T), salinity (S), horizontal and vertical velocity, and acoustic measurement of surface winds. The floats made weekly temperature–salinity profiles between their drift level (near 1500 m) and the surface. With moderately strong cooling to the atmosphere (300 W m−2 averaged from November to March), wintertime convection penetrated from the surface to about 1750 m, overcoming the stabilizing effect of upper-ocean low-salinity water. The water column restratifies rapidly after brief vertical homogenization (in potential density, salinity, and potential temperature). Both the rapid restratification and the energetic high-frequency variations of T and S observed at the mooring are suggestive of a convection depth that varies greatly with location. Lateral variations in T and S exist down to very small scales, and these remnants of convection decay (with e-folding time 170 day) after convection ceases. Lateral variability at the scale of 100 km is verified by PALACE profiles. The Eulerian mooring effectively samples the convection in a mesoscale region of ocean as eddies sweep past it; the Lagrangian PALACE floats are complementary in sampling the geography of deep convection more widely. This laterally variable convection leaves the water column with significant vertical gradients most of the year. Convection followed by lateral mixing gives vertical salinity profiles the (misleading) appearance that a one-dimensional diffusive process is fluxing freshwater downward. During spring, summer, and fall the salinity, temperature, and buoyancy rise steadily with time throughout most of the water column. This is likely the result of mixing with the encircling boundary currents, compensating for the escape of Labrador Sea Water from the region. Low-salinity water mixes into the gyre only near the surface. The water-column heat balance is in satisfactory agreement with meteorological assimilation models. Directly observed subsurface calorimetry may be the more reliable indication of the annual-mean air–sea heat flux. Acoustic instrumentation on the mooring gave a surprisingly good time series of the vector surface wind. The three-dimensional velocity field consists of convective plumes of width 200 to 1000 m, vertical velocities of 2 to 8 cm s−1, and Rossby numbers of order unity, embedded in stronger (20 cm s−1) lateral currents associated with mesoscale eddies. Horizontal currents with timescales of several days to several months are strongly barotropic. They are suddenly energized as convection reaches great depth in early March, and develop toward a barotropic state, as also seen in models of convectively driven geostrophic turbulence in a weakly stratified, high-latitude ocean. Currents decay through the summer and autumn, apart from some persistent isolated eddies. These coherent, isolated, cold anticyclones carry cores of pure convected water long after the end of winter. Boundary currents nearby interact with the Labrador Sea gyre and provide an additional source of eddies in the interior Labrador Sea. An earlier study of the pulsation of the boundary currents is supported by observations of sudden ejection of floats from the central gyre into the boundary currents (and sudden ingestion of boundary current floats into the gyre interior), in what may be a mechanism for exchange between Labrador Sea Water and the World Ocean.
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  • 51
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 12 (1). pp. 141-149.
    Publication Date: 2018-06-01
    Description: Surface data obtained from 153-kHz acoustic Doppler current profilers deployed in the Greenland Sea at about 350-m depth during the winter of 1988/89 were investigated under several aspects. First a method is described to improve the instrument depth measurements using the binned backscattered energy profile near the surface. The accuracy of the depth estimates is found to be significantly better than 0.5 m. Further, improvements of wind speed estimates were found by using the ambient noise in the 150-kHz band in favor of the surface backscattered energy as suggested by Schott. Limitations of the ambient sound method at low wind speeds are presented when thermal noise overwhelms the wind-induced noise. Finally, a method to detect the presence of sea ice above the ADCP is presented by cross correlating the surface backscatter strength and the magnitudes of all Doppler velocity components. The resulting time series of ice concentration are in overall good agreement with Special Sensor Microwave/Imager estimates but allow for higher temporal resolution. Further, in the vicinity of the ice edge, enhanced high-frequency ambient noise in the 150-kHz band was observed.
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  • 52
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29 . pp. 1682-1700.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Different processes have been proposed to explain the large-scale spreading of Mediterranean Water (MW) in the North Atlantic, however, no systematic study comparing the efficiency of different processes is yet available. Here, the authors present a series of experiments in a unified framework that is designed to quantify the effects of several physical processes on the spreading of MW in an idealized model of the North Atlantic. The common technique of restoring temperature and salinity to an observed distribution near the Mediterranean inflow fails to produce an adequate amount of MW because the eastern boundary region near the MW inflow is rather quiescent in models. Diapycnal processes like double diffusion and cabbeling turn out too inefficient to alone account for the large-scale MW anomaly. However, with a preexisting anomaly, double diffusion leads to a considerable northward and zonal redistribution of MW. The density anomaly induced by cabbeling curtails the zonal spreading of MW while it increases the northward spreading. With isopycnal mixing and the weak mean flow that prevails in the outflow region, a spatial distribution of the MW anomaly is obtained that is inconsistent with observations. Unrealistically high diffusion coefficients would be necessary to reproduce the observed salt flux into the Atlantic. The most effective process in the experiments is the volume flux associated with the Atlantic–Mediterranean exchange. The current system that is established in response to the inflow of MW into the Atlantic carries the anomaly almost 30° of longitude into the basin and along the eastern margin up to the northeastern corner of the domain and farther along the northern boundary.
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  • 53
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 10 . pp. 1153-1172.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: Long-term interannual variations of the intramonthly standard deviations of surface meteorological parameters are studied on the basis of the North Atlantic Ocean Weather Stations (OWSs) dataset. To consider the different scales of short-term synoptic variability, intramonthly statistics were calculated for 3-h sampled data and for running-mean data as well. Year-to-year variability is considered in terms of linear trends and interannual oscillations with characteristic periods of several years. Intramonthly standard deviations for most of the parameters tended to decrease during the OWS observational period. Trends in the parameters for different synoptic-scale statistics are discussed. Intramonthly statistics, computed for different averaging scales, demonstrate remarkably different short-period year to year oscillations. Some relationships between the interannual variations of synoptic activity and the SST anomalies are presented. Intramonthly statistics are found to be an effective indicator of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Finally, the possibility of applying results to statistics computed from climatological datasets and analyses of meteorological centers is discussed.
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  • 54
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28 (10). pp. 1904-1928.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The mean warm water transfer toward the equator along the western boundary of the South Atlantic is investigated, based on a number of ship surveys carried out during 1990–96 with CTD water mass observations and current profiling by shipboard and lowered (with the CTD/rosette) acoustic Doppler current profiler and with Pegasus current profiler. The bulk of the northward warm water flow follows the coast in the North Brazil Undercurrent (NBUC) from latitudes south of 10°S, carrying 23 Sv (Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) above 1000 m. Out of this, 16 Sv are waters warmer than 7°C that form the source waters of the Florida Current. Zonal inflow from the east by the South Equatorial Current enters the western boundary system dominantly north of 5°S, adding transport northwest of Cape San Roque, and transforming the NBUC along its way toward the equator into a surface-intensified current, the North Brazil Current (NBC). From the combination of moored arrays and shipboard sections just north of the equator along 44°W, the mean NBC transport was determined at 35 Sv with a small seasonal cycle amplitude of only about 3 Sv. The reason for the much larger near-equatorial northward warm water boundary current than what would be required to carry the northward heat transport are recirculations by the zonal current system and the existence of the shallow South Atlantic tropical–subtropical cell (STC). The STC connects the subduction zones of the eastern subtropics of both hemispheres via equatorward boundary undercurrents with the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC), and the return flow is through upwelling and poleward Ekman transport. The persistent existence of a set of eastward thermocline and intermediate countercurrents on both sides of the equator was confirmed that recurred throughout the observations and carry ventilated waters from the boundary regime into the tropical interior. A strong westward current underneath the EUC, the Equatorial Intermediate Current, returns low-oxygen water westward. Consistent evidence for the existence of a seasonal variation in the warm water flow south of the equator could not be established, whereas significant seasonal variability of the boundary regime occurs north of the equator: northwestward alongshore throughflow of about 10 Sv of waters with properties from the Southern Hemisphere was found along the Guiana boundary in boreal spring when the North Equatorial Countercurrent is absent or even flowing westward, whereas during June–January the upper NBC is known to connect with the eastward North Equatorial Countercurrent through a retroflection zone that seasonally migrates up and down the coast and spawns eddies. The equatorial zone thus acts as a buffer and transformation zone for cross-equatorial exchanges, but knowledge of the detailed pathways in the interior including the involved diapycnal exchanges is still a problem.
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  • 55
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29 . pp. 1666-1681.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Wind-driven flow in a baroclinic quasigeostrophic channel with simple bottom topography is studied in a model with reduced physics and degrees of freedom as an analogy to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. For a sinusoidal topography an approximate analytical solution is found using a low-order spectral model. Resonance of baroclinic Rossby waves can lead to different flow regimes of which one is a blocked state, where most of the momentum, imparted to the fluid by the wind stress, is transferred to the earth by bottom form stress. For some parameter values there are both resonant and nonresonant solutions to the model equations. It is shown that these results of the low-order model apply also to a more complicated spectral model with sinusoidal but also with Gaussian ridge topography. The steady states of these models are found numerically using a continuation algorithm. In the case of the ridge topography, the resonant and nonresonant steady states coexist over a wide range of topography heights.
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  • 56
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 13 . pp. 1202-1208.
    Publication Date: 2018-06-01
    Description: A method is presented for determining salinity and density from temperature data in conjunction with historical or contemporaneous (but not collocated) CTD observations. The horizontal density ratio r(z) is determined from the temperature and salinity differences at each depth (δT, δS) between pairs or ensembles of profiles. These differences are expressed as a density ratio r=αδT/βδS, where α and β are the expansion coefficients for temperature and salinity, respectively. Salinity at a site where only temperature is measured, as with an expendable bathythermograph (XBT), is computed based on the temperature and salinity at a reference station (SR,TR); that is, S=SR+(T−TR)δS/δT. The method is restrictive in its application because it is most accurate when all water masses in the region of a survey are linear extrapolations from the water masses at each of the reference stations. In reality, it provides useful results when the T and S fields are not simply linear functions of horizontal distance. This approach is particularly useful in regions where, the T(z)−S(z) relation is nonunique, as in the Mediterranean Water in the North Atlantic. The corresponding expression for the lateral density difference for an observed temperature difference (δT) is δρ=−αρ0δT(1−r−1). Observations from regions offshore and along the coast of Portugal are used to evaluate the method. Errors of less than 0.05 psu are exhibited in the evaluation of salinity determined from T-5 XBT drops compared with nearly simultaneous CTD casts. A comparison of water properties and cyclostrophic velocities is made using XCP temperatures and XCP velocities in a meddy.
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  • 57
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 13 . pp. 246-254.
    Publication Date: 2018-06-01
    Description: The incidence angles of the SSM/I radiometers on the DMSP satellites vary from satellite to satellite and exhibit variations of up to 1.5° during one orbit. The effects of these variations on the measured brightness temperatures are investigated on the basis of simulated and measured data for oceanic arm. A deviation of 1° from the nominal incidence angle of 53.0° causes brightness temperature changes of up to 2 K depending on surface and atmospheric conditions. Errors of retrieved geophysical parameters on the order of 5%–10% result when the incidence angle variation is not taken into account. This is a common property of most published statistical algorithms. For total precipitable water and cloud liquid water content the error increases with increasing parameter value. For wind speed the error is largest for low wind speed and decreases with increasing wind speed. Due to the slowly varying latitudinal dependence of the incidence angle, these errors do not cancel out when monthly means are computed. A correction method is developed on the basis of simulated data and tested successfully with measured data. Observed brightness temperature differences between DMSP F10 and F11 are reduced when using corrected data. If diurnal variations of geophysical parameters are investigated, the incidence angle correction is mandatory to obtain useful results, especially for DMSP F10.
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  • 58
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 13 (5). pp. 1116-1122.
    Publication Date: 2018-06-01
    Description: A number of geophysical observing techniques, including ocean acoustic tomography, obtain sequences of records of which the observed relative maxima (“peaks”) are used to infer properties of the system via inversions. Traditionally, these peaks first are tracked (followed from one record to another) and identified separately, before they can be used in an inversion scheme. In this paper, a method is presented for identifying and tracking ensembles of such peaks in one step and simultaneously with the inversion. A priori information, in our case knowledge about the ocean, can thus be used to constrain the allowed peak identifications, enabling the usage of irregularly appearing or more closely spaced peaks. The best identification is defined to be the one that upon inversion minimizes a cost function that involves data residual and smoothness in time, subject to two constraints bounding the solution and residual size. For the presented cases, the minimum can be found by simply trying inversions with all possible peak identifications. Sample applications of the method from an acoustic tomography experiment are shown in order to illustrate the approach and results.
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  • 59
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 11 . pp. 1906-1931.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: A coupled air–sea mode in the Northern Hemisphere with a period of about 35 years is described. The mode was derived from a multicentury integration with a coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model and involves interactions of the thermohaline circulation with the atmosphere in the North Atlantic and interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere in the North Pacific. The authors focus on the physics of the North Atlantic interdecadal variability. If, for instance, the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation is anomalously strong, the ocean is covered by positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The atmospheric response to these SST anomalies involves a strengthened North Atlantic Oscillation, which leads to anomalously weak evaporation and Ekman transport off Newfoundland and in the Greenland Sea, and the generation of negative sea surface salinity (SSS) anomalies. These SSS anomalies weaken the deep convection in the oceanic sinking regions and subsequently the strength of the thermohaline circulation. This leads to a reduced poleward heat transport and the formation of negative SST anomalies, which completes the phase reversal. The Atlantic and Pacific Oceans seem to be coupled via an atmospheric teleconnection pattern and the interdecadal Northern Hemispheric climate mode is interpreted as an inherently coupled air–sea mode. Furthermore, the origin of the Northern Hemispheric warming observed recently is investigated. The observed temperatures are compared to a characteristic warming pattern derived from a greenhouse warming simulation with the authors’ coupled general circulation model and also with the Northern Hemispheric temperature pattern associated with the 35-yr climate mode. It is shown that the recent Northern Hemispheric warming projects well onto the temperature pattern of the interdecadal mode under consideration.
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  • 60
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 11 (12). pp. 3309-3319.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: To study the dynamics that may lead to decadal oscillations in the North Pacific a simple coupled model is developed. The ocean is based on the linear, potential vorticity equation for baroclinic planetary waves. The atmosphere is reduced to a nonlocal wind response to thermocline depth anomalies. The wind stress has a spatially fixed structure and its amplitude depends on the thermocline perturbation at one location or in a predefined index region. Such a simple coupled model produces decadal oscillations for suitable parameter choices. For realistic wind stress patterns, the patterns of oceanic variability are similar to those observed. It is determined by the speed of long Rossby waves at the coupling latitude. The period of the oscillation is rather insensitive to the coupling strength and amounts to approximately twice the time the Rossby wave needs to travel from the center of the wind stress curl anomaly to the coupling location. A stochastic component to the atmospheric forcing is incorporated by white noise added to the feedback. With such a forcing, typical oceanic spectra become red with a broad peak at decadal timescales superimposed.
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 16 (5). pp. 814-826.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-04
    Description: Simulated transient-tracer distributions (tritium, 3H3, freons) on the isopycnal horizons σ0=26.5 and 26.8 kg m−3 are presented for the East Atlantic, 10° −40°N. Tracer transport is modeled by employing a baroclinic flow field based on empirical data in a kinematic isopycnal advection-diffusion numerical model, in which winter convection is taken as the mechanism of communication with the ocean surface layer, and the isopycnal diffusivity is a free parameter. Diapucnic transport is ignored. The simulations employ time-dependent tracer boundary conditions, which are constructed on the basis of available observations. Simulations are compared to data obtained on a meridional section in 1981 (F/S Meteor, cruise 56/5). Best simulations were obtained by means of a subjective optimization procedure. On both levels, the observed distributions and the best simulated distributions agree well. The fact that the surface boundary conditions and interior distributions of the tracers are distinctly different leads us to the conclusion that our model provides a consistent description of upper main-thermocline ventilation and interior transport Surface-water densities in February are found to represent adequately the winter outcrop boundaries with an uncertainty of about ±300 km across. The required isopycnal diffusivity south of 29°N is 1700 m2 s−1, and 2900 m2 s−1 further north (+70/−40%). Interior transport is found to be predominantly advective. Advective ventilation across 30.5°N east of 33°W amounts to only 12% and 40% for the 26.5 and 26.8 horizons of the total ventilation rates reported by Sarmiento. The North Atlantic/South Atlantic Central Water boundary near 15°N is found to be predominantly determined by advection.
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  • 62
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 3 (2). pp. 255-264.
    Publication Date: 2018-06-01
    Description: The inclination of oceanographic mooring lines due to current drag causes errors in time series observations of currents and temperatures. The prediction of this effect requires knowledge of the drag coefficients for the mooring components. Drag coefficients, known for simple geometric shapes such as spheres or cylinders, are commonly used for mooring response computations. Selected mooring components (buoyancy elements and instruments) were tested in a tow tank to determine their actual drag coefficients. Over the Reynolds Number range, typical of oceanic conditions, deviations of the drag coefficient up to 50% are found when compared with the appropriate simple geometric shape coefficients. A set of model moorings and model current profiles is used to determine the resulting changes in component depth level and displacement. The changes in horizontal displacement of the upper part of the mooring are on the order of 10% in extreme cases and 1% under typical conditions. Their effects on current measurements will usually be negligible. However, the related vertical displacements are on the order 100 to 10 m. Such vertical displacements may carry instruments to depth levels where currents and particularly thermocline temperatures are sufficiently different from the intended level to cause errors in the time series observations.
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  • 63
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27 (1). pp. 153-174.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Data from almost five years of current meter moorings located across the Bahamas Escarpment at 26.5 degrees N are used to investigate meridional heat transport variability in the section and its impact on transatlantic heat Aux. Estimates of heat transport derived from the moored arrays are compared to results from the Community Modeling Effort (CME) Atlantic basin model and to historical hydrographic section data. A large fraction of the entire transatlantic heat flux is observed in this western boundary region, due to the opposing warm and cold water flows associated with the Antilles Current in the thermocline and the deep western boundary current at depth. Local heat transport time series derived from the moored arrays exhibit large variability over a range of +/- 2 PW relative to 0 degrees C, on timescales of roughly 100 days. An annual cycle of local heat transport with a range of 1.4 PW is observed with a summer maximum and fall minimum, qualitatively similar to CME model results. Breakdown of the total heat transport into conventional ''barotropic'' (depth averaged) and ''baroclinic'' (transport independent) components indicates an approximately equal contribution from both components. The annual mean value of the baroclinic hear transport in the western boundary layer is 0.53 +/- 0.08 PW northward, of opposite direction and more than half the magnitude of the total southward baroclinic heat transport between Africa and the Bahamas (about -0.8 PW) derived from transatlantic sections. Combination of the results from the moored arrays with Levitus climatology in the interior and historical Florida Current data yields an estimate of 1.44 +/- 0.33 PW for the annual mean transatlantic heat Aux at 26.5 degrees N, approximately 0.2 PW greater than the previously accepted value of 1.2-1.3 PW at this latitude.
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  • 64
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28 (11). pp. 2250-2274.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: In the present paper a hydrostatic “reduced gravity” model, generally used to simulate transient bottom-arrested gravity plumes, was coupled with a sediment transport model. The coupled model considers the respective contribution of suspended sediment particles on the buoyancy of a plume and allows one to simulate autosuspension and size-differential deposition of sediments based on the local turbulence and settling velocities. Simulations using the coupled model reveal that sediment-enriched plumes are able to inject both entrained and original shelf water masses into intermediate and bottom layers of an adjacent ocean basin in an ageostrophic dynamical balance. Hence the mechanism described here is more rapid than classic, “seawater” plumes, which are solely driven by surplus density of the water masses. Results suggest that “turbidity” plumes may constitute an important process in the formation and renewal of deep waters in the Arctic Ocean. In case a turbidity plume reaches its level of equilibrium density, deposition of suspended particles causes the density of the interstitial fluid to be lower than the density of the ambient fluid. This initiates upward convection within the water column. The substantial difference between TS- and turbidity plumes is described by model experiments that utilize idealized slope and sediment distributions. A realistic simulation of a turbidity plume cascading down the continental slope of the western Barents Sea is presented. The computed distribution of deposited sediments agrees well with observations in an area of high accumulation of shelf-derived sediments. The frequency of occurrence of sediment-enriched gravity plumes originating from the Barents Sea shelf is estimated from the various geological variables (thickness of sediments at the bottom, grain size composition) measured from bottom sediments samples.
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 16 (5). pp. 827-837.
    Publication Date: 2016-04-19
    Description: Data from a surface mooring located in the Sargasso Sea at 34°N, 70°W between May 1982 and May 1984 were compared with satellite data to investigate large diurnal sea surface temperature changes. Mooring and satellite measurements are in excellent agreement for those days on which no clouds covered the site at the time of the satellite pass. During the summer half-year at this site, there is a 20% charm of diurnal warming of more than 0.5°C, with values of up to 3.5°C observed in the two-year period. Diurnal warming observed at the mooring has been simulated well by a one-dimensional model driven by local beat and momentum fluxes. Under the conditions of very light wind and strong insolation that produce the Largest surface warming, the surface mixed-layer depth reduces to the convection depth, and wind-mixing becomes unimportant. The thermal response is then limited to depths between 1 and 2 m, making it likely that such events have been underreported in routine ship observations. In all cases observed, the spatial extent of warming events as determined by satellite data are well correlated with the corresponding atmospheric pressure patterns. Conditions giving rise to the largest diurnal warming events are often associated with a westward-extending ridge of the Bermuda high. In the region studied, 57°–75°W and 29°–43°N, diurnal warming of more than 1°C was found on occasion to cover areas in excess of 300 000 km2, with warming of more than 2°C coveting areas in excess of 130 000 km2.
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  • 66
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 19 (10). pp. 1440-1448.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Historical data from the region between the Greenwich meridian and the African continental shelf are used to compute the offshore geostrophic transport of the Benguela Current. At 32°S, the Benguela Current is located near the African coast, transporting about 21 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s−1) of surface water toward the north relative to a potential density surface lying between the upper branch of Circumpolar Deep Water and the North Atlantic Deep Watar. Two warm core eddies of probable Agulhas Current origin an observed west of the Benguela Current at 32°S. Near 30°S, the Benguela Current turns toward the northwest and begins to separate from the eastern boundary. It carries about 18 Sv of surface water across 28°S. The current then turns mainly toward the west to flow over a relatively deep segment of the Walvis Ridge south of the Valdivia Bank. A surface current with northward surface of about 10 cm s−1 flows along the western side of the Valdivia Bank, while another northward surface current flows at about 20 cm s−1 some 300 km west of the bank. About 3 Sv of surface now do not leave the Cape Basin south of the Vaidivia Bank, but instead drift northward as a wide. sluggish flow out of the northern end of the Cape Basin. Because of the more southerly seaward extensions of most of the Benguela Current, there are no deep-reaching interactions observed between this current and the cyclonic gyre in the Angola Basin east of the Greenwich meridian. Beneath the surface layer, about 4–5 Sv of Antarctic Intermediate Water are carried northward across 32° and 28°S by the Benguela Current, essentially all of which turns westward to cross the Greenwich meridian south of 24°S.
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  • 67
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 12 (4). pp. 923-934.
    Publication Date: 2018-06-01
    Description: A method to derive salinity data from RAFOS float temperature and pressure measurements is described. It is based on evaluating the float's in situ density from its mechanical properties and in situ pressure and temperature data. The salinity of the surrounding water may then be determined, assuming that the float has reached equilibrium with its environment. This method, in comparison with the possible use of floatborne salinity cells, has the advantage of being both cost and energy neutral and highly stable in the long term. The effect on the estimated salinity of various parameters used in the determination of the float's in situ density is discussed. Results of seven RAFOS Boats deployed in the Brazil Basin are compared with corresponding CTD data to estimate the magnitude of these errors. At present, an accuracy of 0.3 psu is achieved. The accuracy may be improved to 0.02 psu by referring the float's calculated density to a reference density established by a CTD cast at the time of launch. Results from five floats deployed in the heterogeneous water masses of the Iberian Basin are compared with the corresponding CM casts to demonstrate the variability and interpretation of p-T-S float datasets from different areas.
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 17 (1). pp. 158-163.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-04
    Description: The existence of energetic anticyclonic mid-depth vortices of Mediterranean Water (meddies) questions the validity of a conventional advective–diffusive balance in the eastern Atlantic subtropical gyre. A mesoscale experiment in the Azores–Madeira region reveals a link of these meddies to large-scale subsurface meanders. For the first time it is shown that meddies may have strong surface vorticity, indicative of a generation process involving the Azores Current—a deep reaching near-surface jet.
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  • 69
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25 (1). pp. 77-91.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The Southern Hemisphere Subtropical Front (STF) is a narrow zone of transition between upper-level subtropical waters to the north and subantarctic waters to the south. It is found near 40 degrees S across the South Atlantic and South Indian Oceans and is associated with an eastward geostrophic current band, The current band in each basin is found at or just north of the surface front except near the eastern boundaries where most of the subtropical waters turn north into the eastern limbs of the subtropical gyres. The bands associated with the STF are thus distinct features separated from the strong zonal flows of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current farther south. The authors have referred to the current bands in the two respective oceans as the South Atlantic Current and the South Indian Ocean Current. In this paper the authors use the historical database from the South Pacific Ocean to investigate the geostrophic flow associated with the STF there. The STF extends across the southern Tasman Sea from south of Tasmania to southern New Zealand, and a weak eastward flow appears to be associated with it. The transport amounts to only about 3 Sv (1Sv = 10(6) m(3) s(-1)), little of which passes south of New Zealand. Mixing within the eddy-rich Tasman Sea may account for this weakness, while also setting up another more significant front in the northern Tasman Sea, the Tasman Front. It branches off from the East Australian Current toward the north of New Zealand, along which moves a flow of about 14 Sv. After passing north of New Zealand, a portion of this current flows east to contribute to a current band near 30 degrees S, while another portion turns south as the East Auckland Current and meets with subantarctic waters near Chatham Rise (44 degrees S), thus reestablishing the STF. An enhanced eastward current band is associated with the front there, one that extends across the remainder of the South Pacific and is referred to as the South Pacific Current. In comparison with its counterparts in the other basins, which typically begin by carrying 30 Sv (Atlantic) to 60 Sv (Indian) in the upper 1000 m in their western portions before weakening to 10-15 Sv in the east, the South Pacific Current is weak. Near Chatham Rise, it starts with a transport of approximately 5 Sv, and it remains near this strength as it shifts gradually north across the basin toward South America. The current appears to split into two smaller bands in the region of 115 degrees-85 degrees W, while near 28 degrees 5, 83 degrees W it begins to turn more strongly north and becomes shallower and weaker. Potential vorticity distributions indicate that this current acts as an impediment toward the northward spreading of Antarctic Intermediate Water, But why the South Pacific Current east of New Zealand should be so much weaker than its counterparts in the other basins is not particularly clear. It may be due to the presence of New Zealand and other topographic barriers to deep now east of Australia, to the axis of the subtropical gyre in the South Pacific shifting more rapidly southward with depth than those elsewhere, thus causing greater reductions in the underlying zonal velocities, and to strong poleward eddy heat and salt fluxes in the other two basins leading to smaller cross-STF gradients in the Pacific.
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 3 (1). pp. 75-83.
    Publication Date: 2016-05-10
    Description: An XBT interface is described for use with Commodore and other 6502 based microprocessors. This interface takes the form of a single circuit board mounted inside the microcomputer and is completely software controlled. The application of this digital XBT system to the real-time computation of density and dynamic height, using historical or recent temperature-salinity relationships, is also described. Comparison between XBT and CTD measured temperatures from the Northeast Atlantic yield a mean temperature difference of −0.08°C and an rms temperature difference of 0.33°C for the upper 800 m. Examples of dynamic topography maps and a temperature section computed using this technique are also presented and comparison between objectively analyzed XBT and CTD dynamic topographies demonstrates the reliability of the method for mapping the baroclinic flow.
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  • 71
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26 (4). pp. 559-580.
    Publication Date: 2019-08-08
    Description: A primitive equation World Ocean model has been integrated with restoring boundary conditions to reach a steady state. The global distribution of potential temperature, salinity, and meridional streamfunction are consistent with observations. In steady state, the effective freshwater fluxes were diagnosed, and the model has been integrated further prescribing these freshwater fluxes. The ocean circulation undergoes self-sustained oscillations over a wide range of timescales, ranging from decadal to millennium. Most pronounced are self-sustained oscillations with a timescale of 20, 300, and 1000 years. The latter two oscillations are coupled. They consist of density (salinity) anomalies that circulate through the global conveyor belt, periodically enhancing convection in the Southern Ocean and limiting convection in the northern North Atlantic. The timescale is set by the vertical diffusion, which destabilizes the stratification in the Southern Ocean when convection is weak. The 20-yr oscillation is a coupled salinity and sea ice thickness anomaly propagating around Antarctica.
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  • 72
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 14 (4). pp. 938-949.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Ocean currents’ effect on long-range sound propagation, though considerable in many cases, is difficult to separate from much stronger effects due to sound speed inhomogeneities, as flow velocity is usually much smaller than typical variations in the sound speed. Dramatic improvement can be achieved in reciprocal transmission experiments when sound signals propagate in opposite directions between two transceivers (source–receiver pairs). The presence of a current results in the breaking of the principle of acoustic reciprocity, thus making it possible to use nonreciprocity of acoustic field as an indicator of water movement. In this paper, reciprocal acoustic transmissions through a submesoscale interthermocline lens of Mediterranean Water (meddy) in the Atlantic are considered theoretically as a possible tool for meddies detection. A simple model of acoustic ray-travel-time nonreciprocity due to a meddy is proposed. The analytic estimates obtained from the model show that the influence of rotary flow is more important than that of drift and seems to be measurable. The problem is studied in more detail via computer simulations. The environmental model used in the simulations corresponds to case studies performed in the Iberian Basin in 1989 and 1991. Numerical simulations show that travel times between two transceivers can be gathered into several groups; for the most part, rays in each set have similar geometry for both propagation directions. However, the lens strongly affects the number of rays in each group, their launch angles, and number of surface interactions, making it impossible to identify these arrivals as required for conventional ocean acoustic tomography. In spite of complexity of ray structure, travel-time nonreciprocity predicted by the model proposed is in good agreement with numerical results. This fact suggests that the model could be used to estimate some parameters of a meddy.
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  • 73
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  [Paper] In: UNSPECIFIED . 10th Symposium on Global Change Studies ; pp. 143-146 .
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 1986-06-01
    Print ISSN: 0882-8156
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0434
    Topics: Geography , Physics
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 1986-06-01
    Print ISSN: 0882-8156
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0434
    Topics: Geography , Physics
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