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  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd  (49,051)
  • 1985-1989  (28,447)
  • 1980-1984  (20,446)
  • 1925-1929  (158)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 3 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract. The literature on internal labour migration is surveyed using a fourfold taxonomic scheme. The potential migrant, as presented in the existing literature, can be viewed as a supplier of labour, an investor in human capital and a consumer of regional amenities such as public goods. The paper develops a fourth approach which treats the household, rather than the individual, as the migrating unit and which views the potential migrant as a producer of home produced commodities. The continuities as well as the contrasts between the four approaches are discussed in the paper.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 3 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract. The study analyses intra-firm trade, that is the estimated one-third of world trade which is transacted between affiliated parties. As firms realize the increasing potential for integrating their operations throughout the world, they are contributing to significant shifts in the patterns of interntional trade and industrial development. As emphasized here, international trade is inextricably linked to the growing and substantial share of transactions between affiliated parties conveyed through multinational enterprises.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 3 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 3 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Books reviewed in this article:Olivier Jean Blanchard and Stanley Fischer (1989) Lectures on Macroeconomics.Keith Cuthbertson and Mark P. Taylor (1987) Macroeconomic Systems.Andrew Stevenson, Vinantonio Muscatelli and Mary Gregory (1988) Macroeconomic Theory and Stabilisation Policy.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 3 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract. This paper reviews the recent developments in the economics of industry with respect to strategic entry deterrence. Starting from Bain's (1956) classical analysis, a simple two-stage game between an incumbent firm and a potential entrant is used to present the general structure of the entry deterrence problem. Commitments, credible threat and sub-game perfection are illustrated in this context. The various strategic variables that an incumbent firm can use to bar entry are discussed. The issue of whether a group of incumbents can non-cooperatively deter entry is taken up and some empirical evidence is reviewed.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 3 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract. The three substantive sections of this survey deal with the economic consequences of voluntary export restraint agreements (VERs), e.g. the Multi-Fibre Arrangement and VERs on Japanese auto exports. Section 2 focuses on the disposition of quota rents under the assumptions of perfectly competitive markets and the absence of substitute suppliers. Section 3 considers imperfect competition and the role of VERs as cartelization instruments, facilitating collusion. Section 4 analyzes the discriminatory effects of VERs when there are third country suppliers. A broad conclusion is that the economic consequences of VERs are more complex than the standard trade policy analysis based on tariffs because of the issues discussed in Sections 3 and 4.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 3 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
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  • 8
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Books reviewed in this article:George R. Feiwel (ed.) Arrow and the Ascent of the Modern Economic Theory.George R. Feiwel (ed.) Arrow and the Foundations of the Theory of Economic Policy.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
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  • 11
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract. This paper surveys the growing literature on buffer stock models of the monetary transmission process. The first part indicates the basic issue of how (assumed) exogenous changes in the money supply work their way through the economic system via disequilibrium in the money market. After a brief historical development, buffer stock models are divided into four types depending upon whether the disequilibrium arises in stocks and/or flows, and to whether changes in the money stock are purely exogenous. The empirical implications, including how buffer stock models explain the recent behaviour of money demand functions are given. Theoretical and empirical criticisms of the models are presented in terms of the classification system. The survey concludes that whilst the buffer stock notion is an interesting idea, the current models do not lend themselves to empirical testing, and those models which do have performed poorly.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 3 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract. The article considers the possibility that asset prices might deviate from intrinsic values based on market fundamentals. Three broad categories of theory are surveyed: (a) growing bubbles (b) fads and (c) information bubbles. ‘Sunspot’theories are also discussed. The paper covers both theory and evidence, and directions for future research are discussed.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 3 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract. This paper demonstrates that Black-Scholes implied volatilities can be used to value options in many situations where the assumptions of the Black-Scholes model are violated, including (i) alternative stock processes, (ii) stochastic interest rates, and (iii) market frictions. Given its computational simplicity, this procedure provides an attractive alternative to the more complex models with a direct estimation procedure.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 3 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 3 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Books reviewed in this article:Jacques Drèze (1987) Essays on Economic Decisions under Uncertainty.W. Kip Viscusi and Wesley Magat et al (1987) Learning about Risk.J. L. Ford (1987) Economic Choice under Uncertainty: a Perspective Theory Approach.Isaac Levi (1986) Hard Choices: Decision Making under Unresolved Conflict.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract. The history of the Marxian Transformation Problem is surveyed from 1885 to the present. Particular emphasis is placed on the less well-known literature and the focus is on problems of interpretation rather than on technicalities. A substantial bibliography is provided.
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  • 17
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract. The term structure of interest rates is an old topic. Over the years, both the hypotheses debated and the research techniques used have changed considerably. Two fairly recent developments which distinguish current research are the widespread adoption of rational expectations and the integration of the term structure with the general theory of asset pricing. This survey reviews previous work from this perspective. The main objective is to catalogue available evidence about term premia and to interpret this evidence in light of alternative models of term premia determination.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract. The Tiebout hypothesis that consumer mobility and interjurisdictional competition leads to efficient provision of local services has provoked much controversy and debate in recent years. This article summarizes the opposing and conflicting viewpoints on this subject and presents a synthesis of the theoretical and empirical literature. The basic conclusion of this literature is that only under very restrictive assumptions will foot-voting and interjurisdictional competition ensure allocative efficiency in the local public sector. Nevertheless, the Tiebout mechanism offers important insights for public policy debates on the assignment of taxes and services and the design of equalization grants. Oates' suggestion that capitalization of fiscal differentials into residential property values provides an empirical test of the Tiebout hypothesis also generated an intense debate on the theoretical validity of this procedure and a heightened interest in its empirical applications. This debate is evaluated and an overview is given of the leading empirical approaches to test the efficiency and equity implications of the Tiebout mechanism. Controversial empirical issues such as the choice of the tax price term, the level of aggregation and econometric estimation problems are highlighted in this part of the survey.
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  • 19
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract. This is a study of macroeconomics in action: how an applied macroeconomist works in a policy context to provide analysis and guidance on specific issues of public concern. We examine and classify Arthur Okun's policy essays, and thereby try to gain a better understanding of the role of economists in the policy-making process.
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  • 20
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract. There has recently been considerable interest in chaotic dynamics in a variety of disciplines. This paper introduces and then surveys some of the associated literature and techniques. Applications to economic theory are discussed but the primary focus is on empirical applicability. In addition to surveying the literature we also provide an example of the use of these techniques in economics. We conclude by highlighting the importance of the techniques for empirical work as well as considering their context in econometric methodology.
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  • 21
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Books reviewed in this article:Rosalind Levacic (1987) Economic Policy-Making: Its Theory and Practice.Paul Whiteley (1986) Political Control of the Macro-Economy.Douglas A. Hibbs Jr. (1987) The Political Economy of Industrial Democracies.Wyn Grant with Jane Sargent (1987) Business and Politics in Britain.Michael Moran (1986) The Politics of Banking
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  • 22
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
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  • 23
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract. The purpose of this survey is twofold. First, it introduces the reader to recent developments in the theory of price discrimination. Simultaneously, the exposition aims at being self-contained and accessible to the non-specialist reader. The paper is structured around Pigou's distinction between perfect, second-degree and third-degree price discrimination.
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  • 24
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Books reviewed in this article:John Eatwell, Murray Milgate and Peter Newman (editors) 1987 The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics
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  • 25
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract. This paper surveys part of the recent voluminous literature on the economics of discrimination, focusing on two key questions. First, how should discrimination be measured and can in fact unambiguous estimates be derived, as the basis for detecting where discrimination is present and setting in train measures to eliminate it? Second, to what extent has the implementation of equal opportunities legislation improved the relative standing of women and minority workers in the labour force? This section includes a discussion of the likely effects of recent changes in the law such as the equal value amendment in the UK or the introduction of comparable worth in the USA. The survey concludes that our ability to detect discrimination at all precisely is still rudimentary and consequently policy measures are likely to be inefficient for this reason.
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  • 26
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract. As thoughtful modelling and empirical research of non-profit enterprises continues to grow, two general views of non-profit organizations are emerging: one view is that non-profit firms are inefficient and wasteful; another view is that non-profit firms are a response to market failure, and, thus, may improve efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to explore the theoretical and empirical work that represents the current divided state of thinking in this area.
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  • 27
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract. This article presents a survey of theories of monopoly capitalism. The defining characteristic of monopoly capitalism is that developed capitalist economies are seen as essentially dominated by firms which operate in oligopolistic industries. It discusses in chronological order the contributions of Hilferding, Lenin, Kalecki, Steindl, Baran and Sweezy, and Cowling to the monopoly capitalism approach. By drawing out some common features of the authors discussed we arrive at an implicit view of the nature of theories of monopoly capitalism. The macroeconomic aspects of monopoly capitalism are discussed with emphasis on the implications for the level of economic activity. A further section discusses the international aspects of the monopoly capital approach. The final section of the paper reviews criticisms of the theories of monopoly capitalism with concentration on those advanced from a Marxist perspective.
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  • 28
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
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  • 29
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of economic surveys 2 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
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  • 30
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 42 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 31
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 42 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 32
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 42 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 33
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 42 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
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    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 34
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 42 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
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    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 35
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 41 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 36
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 41 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 37
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    Kyklos 41 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: The role of international trade in industrialisation and the impact of foreign trade regime on macroeconomic performance has been a source of lasting controversy over the post war period. This paper analyses the experience of 41 less developed countries, some of which have followed inward oriented strategies, others of which have followed outward oriented strategies. Various criterion are used to distinguish between alternative strategies and a variety of indicators of industrialisation and macroeconomic performance examined. The findings suggest that outward oriented economies have generally performed better than inward oriented economies.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉ZUSAMMENFASSUNGDie Rolle des Welthandels in der Industrialisierung und die Einwirkung des Aussenhandels auf makroökonomische Leistung sind während der Nachkriegszeit eine andauernde Streitfrage geblieben. Diese Arbeit untersucht die Erfahrungen von 41 weniger entwickelten Ländern, von denen einige einfuhr- und andere ausfuhrorien-tierte Strategien verfolgt haben. Dabei werden unterschiedliche Massstabe angelegt, um zwischen Alternativstrategien zu unterscheiden und verschiedene Indikatoren der Industrialisierung und der makroökonomischen Leistung untersucht. Die Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass die ausfuhrorientierten Wirtschaftsordnungen im allgemeinen höhere Leistungen erbracht haben als die einfuhrorientierten.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉RÉSUMÉLe ro̧le du commerce international dans l“industrialisation et l'impact du régime de commerce extérieur sur la performance macroéconomique a été source de controverses soutenues pendant la période d'après-guerre. Cet article analyse l'expérience de 41 pays moins développés, dont certains ont suivi des stratégies orientées vers l'intérieur et d'autres ont suivi des stratégies orientées vers l'extérieur. Divers criterès sont employés pour distinguer entre les stratégies alternatives et divers indicateurs de l'industrialisation et de la performance macroeconomique sont examines. Les conclusions suggerent que les resultats des economies orientees vers l'exterieur sont en general meilleurs que ceux des economies orientees vers l'interieur.
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  • 38
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    Kyklos 41 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: MANCUR OLSON has suggested that the rate of economic growth declines as stable polities grow older, a proposition he tested using data from the United States in the 1960s. We reexamine OLSON'S hypothesis, using a large panel data set covering the twentieth century in the U.S. We find, first, that younger states typically had relatively large governments, rather than the smaller governments one might suspect if OLSON were correct. Second, we fail to find convincing evidence to support OLSON'S specific claim: that older states have, ceteris paribus, lower rates of economic growth. The only specification that supports the hypothesis is one in which population movements are attributed wholly to OLSONian forces. The obstacles to testing the OLSON hypothesis are formidable because of the difficulty of separating migration into OLSON and non-OLSON components.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉ZUSAMMENFASSUNGMANCUR OLSON hat die Hypothese aufgestellt, dass das Wirtschaftswachstum mit dem zunehmenden Alter stabiler politischer Systeme abnimmt, und diese Hypothese mittels Daten aus den Vereinigten Staaten der sechziger Jahre getestet. Die Autoren überprüfen OLSONS Hypothese, wobei sie umfangreiches Datenmaterial verwenden, welches das 20.Jahrhundert in den USA abdeckt. Hiernach lässt sich kein überzeu-gender Hinweis zur Stützung von OLSONS Behauptung finden. Die einzige Spezifika-tion, welche die Hypothese unterstützt, ist jene, in welcher Bevölkerungsbewegungen vollständig OLSONschen Kräften zugeordnet werden. Die Hindernisse beim Testen der Hypothese sind gewaltig wegen der Schwierigkeiten, Wanderungen in OLSON-und Nicht-OLSON-Komponenten zu unterteilen.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉RÉSUMÉMANCUR OLSON a suggéré que le taux de croissance économique décline lorsque les structures politiques vieillissent, hypothèse qu'il a testée sur des données américaines de la fin des années 60. Nous reexaminons l'hypothèse d'OLSON en utilisant un vaste ensemble de données couvrant le 20e siècle aux Etats-Unis. Nous avons d'abord trouvé que les jeunes états ont des gouvernments relativement étoffes, alors que si OLSON avait vu juste, ces gouvernements auraient du̧ȩtre plus réduits. En second lieu, nous n'avons pu trouver de preuve convaincante de l'affirmation principale d'OLSONà savoir que, toutes choses égales par ailleurs, les états les plus anciens connaissent des taux de croissance économique plus faibles. La seule caractéristique qui pourrait soutenir l'hypothèse est celle dans laquelle les mouvements de population sont attribués grossièrement aux forces olsoniennes. Mais il est extrèmement difficile de tester l'hypothèse d'OLSON car on a beaucoup de mal a séparer, dans les migrations, les composantes olsoniennes et non olsoniennes.
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    Kyklos 41 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
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    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: Building upon recent contributions on government size and growth an attempt is made to quantify the actual opportunity costs of governmental service supplies and patterns of finance. The findings are discussed with respect to their impact on government size. The analysis for the Federal Republic of Germany suggests that public consumption is too high while public investment is too low. Further, public debt finance is too large relative to current taxes. No definite conclusion can be drawn with respect to the overall public sector size since opposing tendencies prevail, but all imbalances add to the problem of unemployment.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉ZUSAMMENFASSUNGAufbauend auf jüngeren Entwicklungen zum Thema Umfang und Wachstum des Staates wird der Versuch unternommen, die Opportunitätskosten offentlicher Leistungen und Finanzierungsformen abzuschätzen. Die Ergebnisse werden im Hinblick auf ihre Auswirkungen auf den Umfang der Staatstätigkeit diskutiert. Die Analyse für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland zeigt, dass der öffentliche Verbrauch zu hoch und die öffentlichen Investitionen zu gering sind. Überdies ist die öffentliche Neuverschuldung im Vergleich zur laufenden Steuerlast zu hoch. Eine abschliessende Beurteilung im Hinblick auf den Gesamtumfang des öffentlichen Sektors kann nicht vorgenommen werden, da gegenläufige Tendenzen vorliegen. Allerdings tragen alle Verzerrungen zum Problem der Arbeitslosigkeit bei.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉RESUMEL'auteur essaie, en suivant les développements récents sur le sujet de la magnitude et de la croissance du secteur public, d'estimer les cou̧ts d'opportunité de la production publique et les différents formes de la financer. Les résultats sont discutés en ce qui concerne leurs effets sur la magnitude du secteur public. L'analyse pour la République Fédérale d'Allemagne montre que la consommation publique est trop élevée et que les investissements publics sont trop bas. En plus, l'endettement de l'état par rapport aux recettes fiscales est trop élevé. Quant à la magnitude totale du secteur public, il est impossible, à cause des tendances contradictoires, d'arriver à une conclusion finale. De toute façon, les distorsions contribuent au probléme du cho̧mage.
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    Notes: The traditional gravity model has often been applied to international trade flows, especially to analyze trade creation and trade diversion. However, there are two fundamental objections to the model: it cannot describe substitutions between flows, and it lacks a cogent theoretical foundation. A newly developed model, the Extended Gravity Model (EGM), overcomes these objections. An empirical test strongly rejects the gravity model in favour of the EGM. The empirical analysis also proves that the gravity model widely overestimates the influence of the determinants of international trade. The EGM encompasses several models originating in regional economics, and can be applied usefully to a variety of subjects.
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    Notes: Book reviewed in this ArticleAUBIN, JEAN-PIERRE; SAARI, DONALD and SIGMUND, KARL (eds.): Dynamics of MacrosystemsBECKER, WILLIAM E. and WALSTAD, WILLIAM B. (eds.): Econometric Modeling in Economic Education ResearchBLIEN, UWE: Unternehmensverhalten und ArbeitsmarktstrukturBÖBEL, INGO: Wettbewerb und IndustriesektorBREIT, WLLIAM and SPENCER, ROGER W. (eds.): Lives of the Laureates. Seven Nobel EconomistsCLARKE, ROGER: Industrial EconomicsCORDEN, W. MAX: Protection, Growth and TradeDONALD, DAVID HERBERT: Look Homeward: A Life of Thomas WolfeEASTMAN, BYRON D.: Interpreting Mathematical Economics and EconometricsHANNAN, E. J.: Time Series AnalysisFITZROY, FELIX R. und KRAFT, KORNELIUS (Hrsg.): Mitarbeiterbeteiligung und Mitbestimmung im UnternehmenHALPERIN, MORTON H.: Nuclear Fallacy: Dispelling the Myth of Nuclear StrategyHARCOURT, G. C. and HAMOUDA, C. F. (eds): Controversies in Political EconomyHÖDL, ERICH/MÜLLER, GERNOT (Hrsg.): Die Neoklussik und ihre KritikHOGARTH, ROBIN M, and REDER, MELVIN W. (eds.): Rational Choice: The Contrast between Economics and PsychologyJÄNICKE, MARTIN; SIMONIS, UDO ERNST und WEIGMANN, GERD (Hrsg.): Wissen für die UmweltKIERZKOWSKI, HENRYK (ed.): Monopolistic Competition and International TradeKÖLLNER, LUTZ: Rüstung und EntwicklungSCHMÄHL, WINFRIED et al.: Soziale Sicherung 1975-1985. Verteilungswirkungen sozialpolitischer Massnahmen in der Bundesrepublik DeutschlandSNOWDEN, P. N.: Emerging Risk in International Banking
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    Notes: People often seem to gain present satisfaction from contemplating a favourable future. This paper examines the implications of such behaviour for expectations formation. Formally, satisfaction is said to be derived from ‘contemplation’ whenever ex post utility depends on expectations independently of their bearing on ex ante actions. Contemplation is shown to be necessary and sufficient for informationally biased forecasting in a model of the intertemporal consumption decision. Thus the MUTH-rationality of expectations requires restrictions on the (derived) preference ordering over expectations and realizations which preclude contemplation. Bias tests of surveyed expectations are given a choice-theoretic interpretation.
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    Notes: Book reviewed in this ArticleASCHHOFF, GUNTHER und HENNINGSEN, ECKART: Das deutsche GenossenschaftswesenBHATIA, SHAM L.: Technology, Economies of Scale and Gains from Trade and Factor MobilityCANTO, VICTOR A.: The Determinants and Consequences of Trade Restrictions in the US EconomyETTER, CHRISTIAN: Löhne und Beschäftigung im KonjunkturverlaufFREEMAN, CHRISTOPHER (ed.): Long Waves in the World EconomyGORDON-ASHWORTH, FIONA: International Commodity ControlGREENHALGH, C. A.; LAYARD, P. R. G. and OSWALD, A. J. (eds.): The Causes of UnemploymentHECKMAN, JAMES J. and SINGER, BURTON(eds.): Longitudinal Analysis of Labor Market DataJUDGE, GEORGE E. et al: The Theory and Practice of EconometricsKENNEDY, GAVIN: Einladung zur StatistikKIRSCH, WERNER; SCHOLL, WOLFGANG und PAUL, GÜNTER: Mitbestimmung in der UnternehmenspraxisNIESCHLAG, ROBERT; DICHTL, ERWIN und HÖRSCHGEN, HANS: MarketingSCHENKLUHN, BRIGITTE: Konjunkturpolitik und WahlenSCHULTE ZUR SURLAGE, ROLF: Qualifikationsstruktur der ArbeitsnachfrageŠIK, OTA: Ein Wirtschafssystem der ZukunftTAKAYAMA, AKIRA: Mathematical EconomicsUHLIG, CHRISTIAN und LANGE, MICHAEL: Internutionale Produktionskooperation im Vorderen OrientWATERSON, MICHAEL: Economic Theory of the IndustryWELSCH, HEINZ: Wohlfahrtstheorie und Wirtschaftspolitik natürlicher RessourcenWHALLEY JOHN: Trade Liberalization among Major World Trading Areas
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    Notes: In dieser Studie werden Schätzungen der Strukturparameter und Multiplikatoren eines neuen klassischen makroökonometrischen Modells (mit rationalen Erwartungen) vorgestellt und mit denen der unrestringierten reduzierten Form sowie mit Schätzungen eines Modells ohne strukturelle Restriktionen aber mit den Restriktionen der rationalen Erwartungen verglichen. Als Ergebnis werden die strukturellen Restriktionen, die insbesondere aus der Lucas-Sargent-Angebotsfunktion resultieren, abgelehnt. Die unrestringierte Schätzung ergibt signifikante Einflüsse der erwarteten Komponenten der Staatsausgaben, der Exporte und der Terms of Trade auf den Output, aber keine dominanten Einflüsse der erwarteten und unerwarteten Geldmenge. Eine deutliche Verantwortung der Bundesbank für die Konjunkturzyklen seit der ersten ölkrise lässt sich daher nicht nachweisen. Das Testresultat für die aus den rationalen Erwartungen resultierenden Restriktionen hängt davon ab, wie die Erwartungen über die exogenen Variablen gebildet werden. Die Restriktionen aus rationalen Erwartungen werden angenommen, wenn autoregressive Prozesse für die Erwartungsbildung verwendet werden, sie werden abgelehnt, wenn gleitende Durchschnitte benutzt werden. Schliesslich wird die Hypothese der Konstanz der Parameter der Lucas-Sargent-Angebotsfunktion getestet und dabei abgelehnt.
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    Notes: This paper analyzes the effects of EEC and West German policy towards horizontal agreements and restrictive practices on the performance of the West German manufacturing sector. Three empirical studies are reported: (1) a time-series study of price indexes for 10 products from the mid-1950's to the present; (2) a cross-section study (for 1979 data) of 106 industries; and (3) an analysis of changes in company profit margins over time. The results suggest some short-run response to antitrust cases, but no long-lasting ‘deterrent’ effect. There is some evidence of a ‘regime effect’ occurring after 1957, i. e., a general price decline in West German industry due to changes in the competitive environment which started in that year.
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    Notes: An examination of the rates of income growth, inflation, and unemployment in twenty industrialized democratic countries reveals evidence of political business cycles. The money supply and government expenditures tend to show expansions near elections. Political business cycles are not readily detected in the countries with more extensive indexation or longer electoral terms.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉ZUSAMMENFASSUNGEine Untersuchung des Einkommenswachstums und der Inflations- und Arbeits-losenrate in zwanzig industrialisierten demokratischen Lándern deutet auf politische Konjunkturzyklen hin. Geldvolumen und Regierungsausgaben neigen dazu, vor den Wahlen anzusteigen. Politische Konjunkturzyklen sind in den Lándern mit Teue-rungsausgleich oder lángerer politischer Amtsdauer nicht so deutlich festzustellen.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉RÉSUMÉL'étude des taux de croissance du revenu, de l'inflation et du chômage dans vingt pays démocratiques industrialisés révèle l'existence de cycles dans l'économie politique de ces pays. La masse monétaire et les dépenses publiques ont tendance à s'accroître à l'approche des périodes électorates. Les cycles de l'économie politique ne sont pas aisément décelés dans les pays à indexation plus étendue ou à mandats électoraux plus longs.
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    Notes: The monetarist model of the balance of payments concludes that payments deficits are caused by inappropriate central bank decisions under the unstated assumption that such institutions are independent and hence that the growth of the domestic assets of the central bank can be viewed as an exogenous or decision variable. It is argued in this paper that this assumption is incorrect for developing countries with relatively primitive or ‘thin’ capital markets. In such countries there is no alternative to financing central government budget deficits through the central bank. As a result such deficits are the true decision variable and ultimately determine the behavior of the balance of payments through their impact on the expansion of the central bank's domestic assets. In countries with more developed financial markets, however, alternative means of financing government budget deficits do exist, and the central bank can more reasonably be viewed as independent.This hypothesis is tested by substituting the government budget deficit for the growth of the central bank's domestic assets in a typical monetarist model of the balance of payments. It is predicted that this substitution will work well for those countries with very limited or underdeveloped capital markets. An index of financial development is then derived and 54 countries are divided into three groups on the basis of the extent of such capital market ‘deepening’. The empirical results support the previously stated hypothesis in that the substitution of the government deficit for the growth of the central bank's domestic assets in a monetarist payments model is successful for those countries with the least developed financial systems, moderately successful for the intermediate group, and decidedly unsuccessful for countries with highly developed capital markets. It is suggested that for most underdeveloped countries the monetarist model of the balance of payments might be better viewed as a fiscal policy model, but that the traditional monetarist model remains relevant for the industrialized countries.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉ZUSAMMENFASSUNGDas monetaristische Zahlungsbilanzmodell zeigt, dass Zahlungsbilanzdefizite durch unangebrachte Zentralbankentscheidungen verursacht werden, und zwar unter der impliziten Annahme, dass derartige Institutionen unabhängig seien und daher das Wachstum der inländischen Aktiva als exogen oder Entscheidungsvariable ange-sehen werden kann. Bezugnehmend auf Entwicklungsländer mit verhältnismässig primitiven oder schwachen Kapitalmärkten wird die vorerwähnte Annahme in diesem Papier als unrichtig angesehen. Es gibt in diesen Ländern keine Alternative für die Finanzierung der Haushaltsdefizite der Zentralregierung durch die Zentralbank. Diese Haushaltsdefizite stellen daher die wahre Entscheidungsvariable dar und bestimmen schliesslich das Zahlungsbilanzverhalten durch ihre Auswirkung auf das Wachstum der Inlandsaktiva der Zentralbank. In Lándern mit stárkeren Finanz-márkten gibt es jedoch alternative Möglichkeiten zur Finanzierung von Haushalts-defiziten, und in solch einem Fall kann die Zentralbank schon eher als unabhängig betrachtet werden.Diese Hypothese wird in einem typischen monetaristischen Zahlungsbilanzmodell auf die Probe gestellt, indem das Haushaltsdefizit durch das Wachstum der Inlandsaktiva der Zentralbank ersetzt wird. Es wird angenommen, dass dieser Aus-tausch bei Ländern mit sehr eingeschrankten oder schwach entwickelten Kapitalmarkten erfolgversprechend sein wird. Über die finanzpolitische Entwicklung wird dann ein Index aufgestellt und auf der Grundlage des Ausmasses einer solchen Kapitalmarktkräftigung (deepening) werden 54 Länder in drei Gruppen aufgeteilt. Die vorgenannte Hypothese, nämlich dass der Austausch des Haushaltsdefizits gegen steigende Inlandsaktiva der Zentralbank in einem monetaristischen Zahlungsbilanz-modell für Länder mit schwach entwickelten Finanzsystemen ziemlich erfolgreich ist, sich jedoch weniger erfolgversprechend anlässt für die Ländergruppe mit stärkeren Finanzsystemen, und entschieden erfolglos für Länder mit ausgesprochen starken Kapitalmärkten ist, wird durch die empirischen Ergebnisse untermauert. Es wird darauf hingewiesen, dass das monetaristische Zahlungsbilanzmodell für die Mehrzahl der Entwicklungsländer vorzugsweise als fiskalpolitisches Modell angesehen werden sollte, während für die Industrieländer auch weiterhin das traditionelle monetaristische Modell relevant bleibt.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉RÉSUMÉLa théorie monétariste de la balance des paiements suggère que les déficits extérieurs sont causés par des politiques monétaires inadéquates de la banque centrale, en supposant que ces politiques peuvent être considérées comme indépendantes et done exogénes. Cet article maintient qu'une telle supposition ne s'applique pas aux pays en voie de développement avec des marchés financiers peu développés. Dans de tels pays, il n'y a pas d'autre alternative mais de financer les déficits budgétaires par le recours à la banque centrale. Ces déficits sont done les vrais variables de décision et déterminent le comportement de la balance des paiements par leur influence sur l'expansion du crédit par la banque centrale. Dans des pays à marché financiers plus développés, il existe d'autres moyens de financer les déficits budgétaires, et la banque centrale peut done être considérée comme indépendante.L'hypothese considérée ci-dessus est testée en substituant la variable représentant le niveau du déficit budgétaire celle représentant l'expansion du crédit par la banque centrale dans un modéle monétariste de la balance des paiements. L'hypothese est que cette substitution produira des résultats empiriques meilleurs dans le cas des pays à marchés financiers peu développés. L'on dérive par la suite un indice du développement financier sur la base d'une mesure de la “profondeur” des marchés financiers. Les résultats empiriques supportent l'hypothèse avancée dans la mesure où le déficit de la balance des paiements est statistiquement bien expliquée par le variable déficit budgétaire dans le cas des pays à marchés financiers trés peu développés, et mal expliquée dans le cas des pays à marchés financiers trés développés. L'article conclut que pour la plupart des pays en voie de développement, le modèle monétariste s'interprete mieux comme modèle fiscaliste, mais que le modèle monétariste tradi-tionnel reste valable pour les pays industrialisés.
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    Notes: In the paper it is argued that imprudent lending by Western commercial banks until the early eighties must be considered as a major reason for ongoing debt problems of Third World economies. In particular the hypothesis is raised that banks followed a lemming-like behaviour in lending to developing countries, that they were subject to risk-illusions or even could discount the risks involved because of incentives to moral hazard. This finally may have resulted in a turnabout of private lenders to rather restrictive lending policies which macroeconomically may be no less harmful.Different factors like public guarantees, deposit insurance schemes, the activities of international organizations, credit syndications and the roll-over technique are analysed as important determinants of bank behaviour. Furthermore, possible solutions to the ongoing debt difficulties are discussed, with particular emphasis on the interplay between public authorities and private creditors. The major conclusion is that the mechanism of market control over bank policies should be strengthened rather than intensifying government regulation.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉ZUSAMMENFASSUNGIn dem Papier wird eine unvorsichtige Kreditvergabe der westlichen Geschäfts-banken bis zum Anfang der achtziger Jahre als wichtiger Faktor für die andauernden Verschuldungsprobleme in der Dritten Welt angesehen. Insbesondere wird die Hypo-these aufgeworfen, dass ein problematisches Parallelverhalten der Banken bei der Kreditvergabe an Entwicklungsländer vorherrschte, dass sie Risikoillusionen unter-lagen oder Risiken sogar vernachlässigen konnten, weil es Anreize zu einem “moral hazardw-Verhalten gab. Dies führte letztendlich dazu, dass die Kreditvergabepolitik plötzlich auf einen sehr restriktiven Kurs umschwenkte, was gesamtwirtschaftlich nicht minder schadlich sein dürfte.Es werden verschiedene Faktoren analysiert, die das Bankverhalten massgeblich beeinflusst haben dürften, wie z.B. öffentliche Kreditgarantien, die Versicherung von Bankdepositen, die Aktivitäten internationaler Organisationen, die Syndizierung von Krediten und die Praxis des “roll-over”. Weiterhin werden mögliche Ansätze zur Lösung der fortdauernden Schuldenprobleme diskutiert, wobei der Schwerpunkt auf dem Zusammenspiel von öffentlichen Stellen und privaten Gläubigern liegt. Die wichtigste Schlussfolgerung lautet, dass - statt staatliche Regulierungen zu ver-schärfen - die Mechanismen der Marktkontrolle über das Bankverhalten gestärkt werden sollten.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉RÉSUMÉDans cet article ľauteur argue qu'il faut considérer ľoctroi de crédit imprudent des banques commerciales de ľouest jusqu'aux années quatre-vingt comme raison majeure pour les problèmes courants ďendettement des économies du Tiers Monde. Particulièrement il fait ľhypothèse que des banques suivaient une conduite comme des lemmings en octroi des crédits aux pays développants, qu'elles étaient soumises aux illusions de risque ou qu'elles pouvaient meme escompter les risques à cause des indications a “moral hazard”. II serait possible que ces facteurs ont causé un change-ment de la politique ďoctroi des créditeurs vers des politiques ďoctroi assez restric-tives qui macroéconomiquement n'étaient pas moins pernicieuses.Des facteurs différents comme des garanties publiques, les schèmes des assurances de dépǒt, les activités des organisations internationales, les syndications de crédit, et les techniques “roll-over” sont analysés comme déterminants importants de la conduite bancaire. De plus, ľauteur discute des solutions possibles des difficultés courantes ďendettement et il souligne en particulier les interactions entre les autorités publiques et les créditeurs privés. La conclusion principale est qu'il faut fortifier le mécanisme du contrǒle de marché sur les politiques bancaires au lieu ďintensifier les régulations gouvernementales.
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    Notes: AKERLOF, GEORGE A.: An Economic Theorist's Book of Tales. Essays that entertain the consequences of new assumptions, Cambridge/London/ New York: Cambridge University Press 1984. 196 pp. £17.50, $29.95 (hard), £6.95, $8.95 (soft).BHANDARI, JAGDEEPS. and PUTNAM, BLUFORD H. (eds.): Economic Interdependence and Flexible Exchange Rates, Cambridge (Mass.)/London: MIT Press 1983. 547 pp. £13.00 (paper).CENCINI, ALVARO: Time and the Macroeconomic Analysis of Income, London: Frances Pinter 1984. XX +233 pp.COLANDER, DAVID C. (ed.): Neoclassical Political Economy. The Analysis of Rent-Seeking and DUP Activities, Cambridge (Mass.): Ballinger 1984. 284 pp. Dfl. 161.15.COWLING, KEITH: Monopoly Capitalism. Radical Economics, London/ Basingstoke: Macmillan 1982. 200 pp. £12.95 (hard), £3.95 (paper).DAFFLON, BERNARD et WEBER, LUC: Le financement du secteur public. Analyse microéconomique, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France 1984. 336 p. 250 FF.Dosi, GIOVANNI: Technical Change and Industrial Transformation. The Theory and an Application to the Semiconductor Industry, London: Macmillan 1984. 311 pp. £25.00.GLASTETTER, WERNER; PAULERT, RÜDIGER und SPOREL, ULRICH: Die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1950-1980. Befunde, Aspekte, Hintergrunde, Frankfurt/New York: Campus 1983. 614 S. DM 58.00.GOLD, J.: Legal and Institutional Aspects of the International Monetary System: Selected Essays (2Vols.), Washington: International Monetary Fund 1979/1984. XIX + 663/XVIII + 947 pp. $57.50.HOLLENDERS, CHRISTOPH : Die Bereichsausnahme für Versicherungen nach £102 GWB (Wirtschaftsrecht und Wirtschaftspolitik, Band 81), Baden-Baden: Nomos 1985. 348 S. DM89.00 (brosch.).KLEINEWEFERS, H. und JANS, A.: Einführung in die volkswirtschaftliche und wirtschaftspolitische Modellbildung (Vahlens Handbücher der Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften), München: Vahlen 1983. 261 S. DM 48.00. VAN LOON, PAUL: A Dynamic Theory of the Firm: Production, Finance and Investment (Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems, Vol. 218), Berlin/Heidelberg/New York: Springer 1983. 191 pp. DM 34.00, $13.20.LOTTA, RAYMOND and SHANNON, FRANK: America in Decline. An Analysis of the Developments Toward War and Revolution, in the US and Worldwide, in the 1980's (Vol.1), Chicago: Banner Press 1984. 278 pp. $21.95 (hard), $11.95 (paper).MACFARLANE, NEIL S.: Superpower Rivalry and Third World Radicalism: The Idea of National Liberation, London/Baltimore: Croom Helm/John Hopkins University Press 1985. 238 pp. $24.50.MAINWARING, LYNN : Value and Distribution in Capitalist Economies. An introduction to Sraffian economics, Cambridge/London/New York: Cambridge University Press 1984. 201 pp. £22.50, $37.50 (hard), £7.95, $12.95 (paper).NIEHANS, JÜRG: International Monetary Economics, Baltimore/Oxford: John Hopkins University Press/Philip Allan Publishers 1984. 340 pp. $37.50 (hard).PEJOVICH, SVETOZAR (ed.): Philosophical and Economic Foundations of Capitalism, Lexington (Mass.)/Toronto: Lexington Books, D.C. Heath & Co. 1983. XII +144 pp. $19.95.POHMER, KARLHEINZ: Mikroökonomische Theorie derpersonellen Einkommens- und Vermögensverteilung. Allokation und Distribution als Ergebnis intertemporaler Wahlhandlungen (Studies in Contemporary Economics, Vol.16), Berlin/Heidelberg/New York: Springer 1985. 214 S.STONEMAN, PAUL: The Economic Analysis of Technological Change, Oxford: Oxford University Press 1983. 272 pp. £19.50 (hard), £8.95 (paper).WENDLER, EUGEN (Hrsg.): Friedrich List: Die Welt bewegt sich, 1837, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1985.161 S. DM 29.00.
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    Notes: Implications of inefficiency in theories of market failure reveal a flawed methodology. Behavior which is apparently inefficient is actually the symptom of an inappropriate analytical model. The standard examples of market failure, monopoly power and external effects, are forthcoming only from models which omit transactions costs as explanatory variables. The unfortunate consequence of this conclusion is that complete and appropriate economic models, which incorporate all relevant variables, will always certify any behavior as efficient. This poses the ‘Panglossian dilemma’, that whatever is, is optimal. This dilemma is resolved by an analytical approach which compares behavior under alternative economic institutions. This analysis depends on two propositions: that transactions costs are affected by alternative institutional environments; and that institutions are themselves responses to the existence of transactions costs. These propositions are used to predict behavior under alternative institutions, and to explain the long run evolution of the institutions.
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    Notes: Empirical evidence does not agree with the investment-model of the demand for education: out of pocket costs have another impact than earnings foregone. This difference can be explained by consumption motives. The demand for education is then greater, the full price of education exceeds discounted future incremental earnings, net discounted wealth is not maximum and the rate of return to marginal investments in education is smaller than the interest rate.
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    Notes: BADE, KLAUS J. (Hrsg.): Auswanderer - Wanderarbeiter - Gastarbeiter.CARLSTEIN, TOMMY: Time Resources, Society and Economy.CAVES, RICHARD E.: Multinational Enterprise and Economic Analysis.CIMPA, FRANZ: Arbeitslehre für Entwicklungshilfeprojekte.ECKSTEIN, OTTO: The DRI Model of the U. S. EconomyELIASSON, GUNNAR; SHAREFKIN, MARK and YSANDER, BENGT-CHRISTER (eds.): Policy Making in a Disorderly World EconomyFRIEDMAN, JAMES: Oligopoly TheoryGARNAUT, ROSS and CLUNIES-ROSS, ANTHONY: Taxation of Mineral RentsHICKS, JOHN: Money, Interest and Wages.KALECKI, MICHA: Theorie des Wachstums und der Planung in der sozialistischen VolkswirtschaftKILLINGSWORTH, MARK R.: Labor SupplyKLEIN, LAWRENCE R.: Lectures in EconometricsLAVERGNE, RÉAL P.: The Political Economy of U. S. Tariffs: An Empirical AnalysisLEISINGER, KLAUS M.: Health Policy for Least Developed CountriesMCKENZIE, GEORGE W.: Measuring Economic Welfare: New MethodsMELMAN, SEYMOUR: Profits without ProductionMOHR, JENS-UWE: Soziologische Aspekte der Anpassung an die Industria-lisierung in einem Entwicklungsland, dargestellt am Beispiel von NigeriaPREMCHAND, A.: Government Budgeting and Expenditure Controls.QUADRIO-CURZIO, ALBERTO (ed.): The Gold Problem: Economic Perspectives.REICH, UTZ-PETER und STAHMER, CARSTEN (Hrsg.): Gesamtwirtschaftliche Wohlfahrtsmessung und Umweltqualität.REITER, KLAUS: Regionale wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit von Staaten der Dritten WeltRIEBEL, VOLKER: Die Schwarzarbeit als Problem der ZeitallokationRIKER, WILLIAM H.: Liberalism Against Populism.SCHARPF, FRITZ W. und BROCKMANN, MARLENE (Hrsg.): Institutionelle Bedingungen der Arbeitsmarkt - und Beschäftigungspolitik.SCHMIDBERGER, WOLF-DIETER: Fiskalpolitik in kleinen offenen Volkswirtschaften.SPRAOS, JOHN: Inequalising Trade?STIGUM, BERNT P. and WENSTØP, FRED (eds.): Foundations of Utility and Risk Theory with ApplicationsSTREETEN, PAUL: First Things First.STRØM, STEINAR (ed.): Measurement in Public ChoiceWELLS, LOUIS T. Jr.: Third World Multinationals.WILLIAMSON, JOHN (ed.): IMF ConditionalityWORSWICK, DAVID and TREVITHICK, JAMES(eds.): Keynes and the Modern World
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    Notes: At the turn of this century WESLEY C. MITCHELL argued that the velocity of money could be influenced by a noneconomic variable that he called ‘confidence’; but the idea has received little attention since then. This study uses events in the long Vietnam war for statistically demonstrating the MITCHELL hypothesis. U. S. troop presence in South Vietnam boosted the peoples' confidence in their country's future thereby stabilizing the demand for fiat money and income velocity. Only two variables - the previous year's rate of inflation and U. S. troop strength, which serves as a proxy for battlefield victories - are needed to explain movements in velocity.
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    Notes: According to Malthusian growth theory the wage rate may be maintained constant on the path to the stationary state, at a level above ‘subsistence’ by appropriate reductions in the population growth rate. In this paper we document J. S. MILL'S version of the Malthusian model and various applications thereof.
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    Notes: The paper analyses the growth and profitability of the world's largest firms by reference to their size, degree of multinationality, main industry of operation, nationality of ownership and research intensity. The influence of size of firm on growth is stable but weak, its influence on profitability is negligible. Industry of operation has generally strongly influenced growth but the effect on profitability is not consistent amongst different time periods and samples. Division by research intensities of firms is significant in analysing growth, less in the analysis of profitability. Degree of multinationality does not contribute consistently to the explanatory power of the full equation for either dependent variable but nationality of ownership is a consistently powerful explanatory factor.
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    Notes: Does externality theory provide a basis for the government's monopoly in the production of base money? Money, as has been shown, is not a public good because it does not satisfy the non-rivalness criterion (nor the non-excludability criterion). Like any public decision, political agreement on a common money or unit of account (i. e., exchange rate fixity) passes the non-rivalness test. However, whether the imposition of a common money or monetary unit is a public good or a public bad depends on whether money is a natural-monopoly good or not. Hence, there is no independent public-good justification for the government's money monopoly. The public good argument is redundant. Whether money is a natural monopoly good cannot be determined a priori, but only on the basis of experience. If governments are natural money monopolists, they should have gained their monopoly position by prevailing in the market. Historically, this is not the case. The only valid test of the natural monopoly argument is to abolish all barriers to entry and to admit free currency competition from private issuers on equal terms. An international cross-section estimate of money demand functions reveals only weak evidence of social economies of scale in the use of money. By contrast, choice among currencies is shown to be strongly affected by restrictions of convertibility.
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    Notes: Voluntary export restraint agreements (VERs) have emerged as a popular alternative to traditional protectionist devices, whose use is severely limited by trade agreements. Aimed at ‘disruptive’ suppliers, VERs tend to shift the source of imports away from the most efficient producers. Yet such negotiated agreements are attractive to exporters because they are preferable to the alternative of unilateral import barriers, especially since they allow exporters to control the trade restriction and thereby raise the export price. In fact all effective participants gain from the VER agreement, while consumers and others hurt by it are excluded from the negotiating process. Among the inherent problems of VERs, however, is their tendency to divert exports towards third markets, spreading protectionism worldwide and destabilizing trade relations. Continuing protectionist pressure in such an environment encourages the development of more sophisticated and comprehensive methods of induced export restraint.
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    Notes: Abele, Hanns; Nowotny, Ewald; Schleicher, Stefan und Winckler, Georg (Hrsg.): Handbuch der österreichischen WirtschaftspolitikBalassa, Bela and Associates: Development strategies in semi-industrial economiesBaumol, William J.; Panzar, John C. and Willig, Robert D.: Contestable Markets and The Theory of Industry Structure.Begg, David K. H.: The Rational Expectations Revolution in Macroeconomics.Ben-Porath, Yoram (ed.): Income Distribution and the Family.Bennett, James T. and Di Lorenzo, Thomas J.: Underground Government: The Off-Budget Public SectorBrandt, A.; Horisberger, B. and Von Wartburg, W. P.(eds.): Cost-Sharing in Health Care. van Duijn, J. J.: The Long Wave in Economic LifeFrisch, Helmut (ed.): Schumpeterian EconomicsFujimori, Y.: Modern Analysis of Value TheoryIngram, James C.: International EconomicssJones, Leroy P. (ed.): Public enterprise in less-developed countriesKindleberger, Charles and Di Tella, G. (eds.): Economics in the Long View.Kirzner, Israel M. (ed.): Method, Process and Austrian Economics: Essays in Honor of Ludwig von MisesKornai, János: Growth, Shortage and Efficiency.Kozma, Ferenc: Economic Integration and Economic StrategyKrueger, Anne O.: Exchange-Rate DeterminationKülp, Bernhard: FreizeitökonomieMüller-Godeffroy, H. et al.: Der neue Protektionismus.Nezeys, Bertrand: Les relations économiques extérieures de la France.Ordeshook, Peter C. and Shepsle, Kenneth A. (eds.): Political EquilibriumPatinkin, Don: Anticipations of the General Theory?Rugman, Alan M. (ed.): New Theories of the Multinational EnterpriseRydén, Bengt and Bergström, Villy (eds.): Sweden: Choices for Economic and Social Policy in the 1980sSeurot, François: Inflation et emploi duns les pays socialistesSheffrin, Steven M.: Rational ExpectationsStegmuller, W.; Balzer, W. and Spohn, W. (eds.): Philosophy of Economics.Stewart, Frances and Sengupta, Arjun: International Financial Cooperation.Sundrum, R. M.: Development Economics.Tullock, Gordon: Economics of Income RedistributionU. S. Gold Commission: Report to the Congress of the Commission on the Role of Gold in the Domestic and International Monetary System
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