ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • 1985 - 1989  (515,095)
Collection
Language
Years
Year
  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION The evaporite deposits of the Werra district, especially in the Hattorf mining field, are considered a worldwide unique location for the occurence of numerous basalt dikes and magmatic fluid phases fixed in salt rocks. In spite of the great number of studies dealing with the magmatites in the Werra region, previous investigations have rarely attempted more than a predominantly 'qualitative' description of the basaltic rocks and the effects of volcanism on the evaporites (see Chapter 2). The method of interpreting the mineralogical and chemical composition of the evaporites at the basalt contact is based on previous works (KNIPPING 1984; KNIPPING & HERRMANN 1985). This study should contribute to understanding (i) the mechanism of intrusion of the basaltic rnelts and (ii) the metamorphic processes occurring in the evaporites caused by mobile phases during volcanism. Hence, the following methods were applied: The mineralogical and chemical description of the basaltic rocks with recent nomenclature including the possible differences between individual dikes and between surface- and subsurface-exposed basalts. Seven surface and 48 subsurface exposures at the Hattorf mine of Kali & Salz AG were studied. Application of the most recent knowledge on basalt genesis for interpreting observational and experimental results. Studies on the sulfur and carbon isotope distributions of the native sulfur from several subsurface exposures and the enrichments of gases (predominantly CO2) in the evaporites. Calculation of the spatial and temporal temperature distribution in the evaporite rocks following intrusion of the basaltic melts. For purposes of clarity a few of the terms which will be used frequently here will first be defined: basalt - all of the intrusive rocks studied can be assigned mineralogically and chemically to the basalt family in a broader sense. Thus, the terms basaltic rock or, in short, basalt will be used for these rocks. rock salt - instead of the term salt for halitic rocks the term rock salt is used. Besides, the evaporites are generally designated as host rocks (for the basalt dikes) as well. gases - especially in the German literature the term carbon dioxide or carbonic acid (= Kohlensäure) is frequently used for the gases enclosed in the evaporites of the Werra-Fulda district. ACKERMANN et al (1964) found, in addition to carbon dioxide, considerable amounts of nitrogen and minor amounts of methane. In the following therefore the terms gas mixture or gas will be used. The various basalt dikes found in the Hattorf mining field are described here in terms of their mineralogy and geochemistry for the first time. In doing so it is necessary to number them from east to west. To avoid confusion with older numerations (e.g. SIEMENS 1971) the various dike systems are designated by capital letters (A to P).
    Pages: Online-Ressource (131 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540513087
    Language: English
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE It is increasingly necessary to develop industrial and hydraulic engineering constructions under unfavourable geological or geotechnical conditions. Furthermore, it becomes more and more important to build effectively and economically and to find optimal solutions for a long-term steady function of the constructions. This emphatically demands exhaustive information on the structural situations and engineering parameters of local site assessments by areal investigations of the sites and the petrophysical parameters in situ. This requires, however, the use of geophysical techniques. During the last two or three decades international applied geophysics has systematically developed new possibilities for site investigations for the determination of petrophysical parameters in situ as well as for observation of the system building and site. As in "New techniques in engineering", geophysical methods make it possible to develop areal models of subsurface conditions of building sites, to quantify relevant engineering parameters in situ, as well as to analyze the longterm behaviour of the buildings, which are influenced by internal or external factors. With regard to the broad spectrum of applied geophysics, there are few methods, that especially favour application in engineering and groundwater studies. These methods are distinguished by a relatively simple measuring technique and good measuring progress, e.g. the geoelectrical self-potential method, the geoelectrical resistivity method as well as a newly developed devices for geothermic measurements. There exist numerous publications, broadly scattered in the technical literature, concerning the theoretical bases and applications of these methods, but until now, there have been only a few meetings to exchange experience and results on an international level. This was the aim of the symposium "Detection of Subsurface Flow Phenomena by Self-Potential/Geoelectrical and Thermometric Methods", held in Karlsruhe from 14-18 March 1988. An outstanding part of the symposioum was represented by the results of a research project, coordinated by the University of Karlsruhe (Department of Geology and Institute of Soil and Rock Mechanics) and the Federal Waterway Engineering and Research Institute (BAW), Karlsruhe. Regarding the subject "Experiments to ascertain the relations between hydraulic potentials in the underground and the geoelectrical and thermic potentials set off by these", the research work took four years. The project was sponsered by the Volkswagen Foundation/Hannover. The goal was to develop and test objective techniques for detecting leakages in dams, locating, demarcating and designating quantitatively inhomogeneous spheres in dams with the aim of detecting damage and subsurface flow phenomena as soon as possible. The symposium consisted of a three-day lecture meeting with about 40 papers and a summarizing respectively closing roundtable discussion, a visit to the laboratories and to the in situ constructions within the area of BAW developed in the frame of the research project. This included a technical excursion to the Rhine-Staustufe Iffezheim with its very impressive waterway constructions and an excursion to the Geophysical Observatory near Schiltach (Black Forest). The Observatory belongs to the Universities of Karlsruhe and Stuttgart. Approximately 80 scientists from 15 countries participated the symposium. They were welcomed by the Rector of the University, Professor Dr. A. Kunle and the representative of the Federal Ministry of Traffic, Dr. G. Schröder. Professor Dr. H. Hötzl elucidated the scientific problems and the economical importance of the project as a speaker of the research group. The following papers dealt with the fundamental aspects of geoelectrical and thermometric measurements, with the theory of these methods, the state and developing ter~dencies concerning devices, data acquisition, processing and interpretation as well as noise effects. It became clear that the solution of the complex scientific-technical problems of waterway constructions and environmental protection requires broad, interdisciplinary cooperation and international collaboration. Thus it would be possible to minimize the personnel, temporal and economic efforts. The intended cooperation of geoscientists, engineering geologists, building engineers and representatives of other disciplines make it possible, not only to exchange experiences and results relating to international problems unsolved until now, but also to determine new guidelines with regard to the scientific organization of further investigations. Thus in order to inform all interested parties of the main topics of the symposium and to advance international cooperation in the future, the present review includes a part of the papers and reports of the excursions recommended by the participants of the meeting, which have been divided into the following topics: - Introduction to engineering-geophysical problems and attempts at their solution; - Geoelectrical self-potential measurements; - Geoelectrical resistivity measurements; - Geothermic measurements; - Case histories; - Some topics of the roundtable discussion; - Reports concerning the excursions. The editors wish to thank very much all those, who contributed to the success of the symposium and to the publication of the present report. Finally they venture the note, that the authors theirselves are responsible for the content of their papers.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (514 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540518754
    Language: English
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) was founded in 1983 with the aim to preserve and disseminate the knowledge accumulated at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) and elsewhere on particle accelerators and storage rings. This is being achieved by means of a biennial programme of basic and advanced courses on general accelerator physics supplemented by specialized and topical courses as well as Workshops. The chapters included in this present volume are taken from one of the specialized courses, Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators, held at CERN in April 1986. When construction of the first large accelerators started in the 1950's, it was necessary to use geodetic techniques to ensure precise positioning of the machines' components. Since that time the means employed have constantly evolved in line with technological progress in general, while a number of specific developments - many of them achieved at CERN - have enriched the range of available instruments. These techniques and precision instruments are used for most of the world's accelerators but can also be applied in other areas of industrial geodesy: surveying of civil engineering works and structures, aeronautics, nautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometers, metrology of large dimensions, studies of deformation, etc. The ever increasing dimensions of new accelerators dictates the use of the best geodetic methods in the search for the greatest precision, such as distance measurements to 10 -7, riqorous evaluation of the local geoid and millimetric exploitation of the Navstar satellites. At the same time, the powerful computer methods now available for solving difficult problems are also applicable at the instrument level where data collection can be automatically checked. Above all, measuring methods and calculations and their results can be integrated into data bases where the collection of technical parameters can be efficiently managed. In order to conserve the logical presentation of the different lectures presented at the CAS school, the chapters presented here have been grouped under four main topics. The first and the fourth deal with spatial and theoretical geodesy, while the second and third are concerned with the work of applied geodesy, especially that carried out at CERN. Readers involved in these subjects will find in the following chapters, if not the complete answer to their problems, at least the beginning of solutions to them.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (393 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540182191
    Language: English
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION Evaporites may form in a spectrum of environments from continental sabkha (playa) to deep basins (see Kendall 1978 a, b, Schreiber 1978, 1986, Friedman and Krumbein 1985, for review). In the last two decades, many ancient evaporite basins have been interpreted using the sabkha model and the deep desiccated basin model, the former not excluding the latter. However, growing evidence has been gathered indicating that most evaporites are formed in subaqueous environments, so that it cannot be reasonably expected that one depositional model alone will explain the entire basin fill. The chapters in this volume discuss characteristic examples of evaporite basins, mostly of moderate size. Aspects of a saline giant, the Zechstein basin of Central and NW Europe, have been considered in Volume 10 of "Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences"...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (188 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540186793
    Language: English
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION The awareness that mankind is able to influence and modify not only the local but also the global climate has led to a strongly growing interest in climate research. Strengthened research activities, which also made use of improved and novel experimental techniques, have yielded a wealth of information on climatic patterns in the past. At the same time, climate modelling has made much progress. While some questions have been answered, new problems have been recognized. One question related to anthropogenio climatic change is about the nature and causes of natural variations, against the background of which man-made changes must be viewed. The contributions to this volume all deal with the variabilitY of climate. Some papers are reviews of the knowledge to a current topic, others have more the character of an original contribution. The obseryational studies cover the range from year-to-year variations up to glacial-interglacial contrast, thereby going from instrumental data to results from proxy records...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (175 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540188438
    Language: English
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE This volume comprises the main lectures delivered at the Fourth International Summer School in the Mountains on "Mathematical and Numerical Techniques in Physical Geodesy", held from August 25 to September 5, 1986 in Admont, Austria. The School was organized by the Institute of Theoretical Geodesy of the Technical University Graz, Austria under the auspices of the International Association of Geodesy. All five continents were represented by 70 participants from over 20 countries. The purpose of the Summer School was to provide an introduction to advanced techniques which represent the mathematical vehicle for the treatment of modern geodetic problems, to familiarize participants with the present state of the art of global and local gravity field determination methods, ranging from orbit theory, the key satellite techniques, to inertial and standard terrestrial methods, and to discuss future scientific developments. The arrangement of this volume matches the sequence of lectures given at the School. The theoretical PART A represents the mathematical framework of modern physical geodesy, the application PART B deals with the key satellite and surface techniques, providing the detailed structure of the earth's gravity field. PART A: One of the main goals in physical geodesy, global and local gravity field determination, is pursued by extensively applying functional analytic methods. Recently special attention is being given to the base function and norm choice problem, and to the establishment of a sound link between density distributions inside the earth as the source and observed or estimated gravity field quantities as the effect. The lectures by C.C. Tscherning focus on this topic. Space and time dependent problems of discrete and continuous type are encountered in modern geodesy nowadays and dealt with in the lectures by F. Sans6. Estimation theory either in its stochastic or statistic formulation plays a key role in the processing of processes like the earth's gravity field. The consistent processing of large structured data sets calls for equally structured numerical algorithms. Spectral analysis with its powerful fast Fourier transform has become a common tool for the treatment of such problems. An introduction to spectral methods, supplemented by numerous examples, is provided by B. Hofmann-Wellenhof and H. Moritz. PART B: The theory of orbit dynamics, tailored to the near circular orbits of most geodetic satellites, is fundamental to modern geodetic satellite techniques and discussed in the lectures by O.L. Colombo. Particular emphasis is put on the interplay between orbit perturbations and the earth's disturbing gravity field and its mapping by satellite techniques like satellite altimetry, satellite-tosatellite tracking and satellite gradiometry. Satellite gradiometry, which is discussed in the lectures by R. Rummel in detail, with regard to the geometric structure of the gravitational field, the observability of the gradients, and the mathematical model underlying the gravity field recovery problem, promises to provide particularly detailed information about the gravity field of our planet. The global structure of the earth's gravity field is described in terms of earth gravity field models which are derived from both satellite and surface data. The many delicate, mathematically as well as numerically challenging problems, related to the consistent processing of very large space distributed data sets, and proposed solutions are presented in the lecture by R.H. Rapp. For many years various attempts have been made to explain the shorter wavelength part of the earth's anomalous gravity field by isostatic phenomena. Recently several high resolution topographicisostatic earth models have been computed based on global digital terrain data using different techniques fo~ the estimation of the parameters of the chosen isostatic model. A declared goal is the maximum smoothing of the observed gravity field by removing the contribution of the topography and its isostatic compensation. This topic is discussed in the lectures by H. SUnkel. Inertial methods are steadily gaining importance, power and application. This is not only due to hardware improvements in terms of precision and reliability, but also due to recent advances in the mathematical and numerical modelling of the system's performance. An investigation of the error characteristics of inertial survey systems and their interaction with the anomalous gravity field, studied in the framework of dynamic system analysis, is the topic of the lectures by K.-P. Schwarz and the key issue for further improvements and possible integrations with other positioning systems. Geodetic data have both geometric and physical ingredients of various nature. Standard geodetic processing procedures aim at a separation of geometry from physics. Integrated geodesy, in contrast, has been designed as a very sophisticated melting pot which handles practically all available geodetic data in a consistent and optimal way.lt handles surface and satellite data with either geometrically or gravity field dominated content, and geophysical data in terms of density and seismic informatlon just as well and represents as such the great synthesis of mathematical modelling in connexion with geodetic data processing techniques; these advanced ideas are presented in the lectures by G. Hein. This volume presents highlights of modern geodetic activity and takes the reader to the frontiers of current research. It is not a textbook on a closed and limited subject, but rather a reference book for graduates and scientists working in the vast and beautiful, demanding but rewarding field of earth science in general and physical geodesy in particular. The editor expresses his appreciation to all authors of this volume for their advice and help in formulating and designing the scientific program of the Summer School, for providing typewritten lecture notes, and for their excellent cooperation.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (548 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540168096
    Language: English
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE During the last decades, remarkable progress in heat flow studies has been made and a rough picture of the global surface heat flow density distribution can now be drawn. Simultaneously, the question of over which time period the surface heat flow is constant arose. There is a big field of model calculations, based on the changes in radioactive heat generation of the Earth, on plate motions, on stretching hypotheses or on other ideas, which result in geotherms in the geological past. Although these speculative paleogeotherms seem to be realistic especially in oceanic areas they do not belong to the scope of this book. In continental areas however, it is not possible to find a simple time dependence of the surface heat flow density. However, petroleum research and tectogenetic studies are very interested in the geothermal history of sedimentary basins and other continental areas. To obtain satisfactory results, a more or less direct determination of paleo heat flow density or geothermal gradient would be necessary to give more certain boundary conditions for calculating oil generation, and for controlling tectogenetic hypotheses. There are many methods available in the geosciences to determine temperatures in the geological past. Most of these models are able to estimate temperatures at which a mineral or a mineral assemblage was formed. These methods, however, are mostly unsuitable to reach the main goal of paleogeothermics in general, which is to determine the (regional) heat flow density variations during the geological past for bigger geological units, such as sedimentary basins. The methods applied most in sedimentary basins have been deduced from the degree of coalification of organic matter. Although much effort has been made to explain analytically the organic metamorphism, the results found up to now have been insufficient . However, the widespread application of this thermometer to estimate ancient thermal conditions is also reflected in the contents of this very volume where the interpretation of the degree of coalification of organic matter plays an important role. As well as this geothermometers, other methods are reviewed from a geophysical viewpoint which favours methods suitable to determine a paleothermal state of the upper crust. Further contributions of this book deal with - the history of the earth's surface temperature whose change provides an essential correction factor in heat flow density determinations, - isotope geothermometers and their application to various environments to evaluate thermal conditions in the past geological history, - an application of the radiometric dating method to retrace the paleothermal condition of the Central Alps. Most of the contributions were presented at the symposium "Paleogeothermics" which was held at the 18. General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, August 15-27, 1983 in Hamburg/FRG. It has been the first time that such a symposium has been organized by the International Heat Flow Commission, and this book presents an attempt to define paleogeothermics under the auspices of the International Heat Flow Commission.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (234 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540166450
    Language: English
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION Theoretical modelling and the use of mathematical methods are presently gaining in importance since progress in both geology and mathematics offers new possibilities to combine both fields. Most geological problems are inherently geometrical and morphological, and, therefore, amenable to a classification of forms from a "Gestalt point of view". Geometrical objects have to possess an inherent stability in order to preserve their essential quality under slight deformations. Otherwise, we could hardly conceive of them or describe them, and today's observation would not reproduce yesterday's result (DANGELMAYR & GÜTTINGER, 1982). This principle has become known as "structural stability" (THOM, 1975), i.e. the persistence of a phenomenon under all allowed perturbations. Stability is also, of course, an assumption of classical Newtonian physics, which is essentially the theory of various kinds of smooth behavior (POSTON &STEWART, 1978). However, things sometimes "jump". A new species with a different morphology appears suddenly in the paleontological record (EI.DREDGE & GOULD, 1972), a fault develops, a landslide moves, a computer program becomes unstable with a certain data configuration, etc. It is, surprisingly, the topological approach which permits the study of a broad range of such phenomena in a coherent manner (POSTON & STEWART, 1978; LU, 1976; STEWART, 1982). The universal singularities and bifurcation processes derived from the concept of structural stabiIity determine the spontaneous formation of qualitatively similar spatio-temporal structures in systems of various geneses exhibiting critical behavior (DANGELMAYR & GÜTTINGER, 1982; THOM, 1975; POSTON & STEWART, 1978; GÜTTINGER & EIKEMEIER, t979; STEWART, 1981). In addition, this return to a "geometrization of phenomena"-- after decades of algorithmization-- comes much closer to the geologist's intuitive geometric reasoning. It is the aim of this study to elucidate, by examples, how the qualitative geometrical approach allows one to classify forms and to control the behavior of complex computer algorithms...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (229 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540139836
    Language: English
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Keywords: GPS ; Global Positioning System ; geodesy
    Description / Table of Contents: OPENING ADDRESS On behalf of the Local Organizing Committee, I welcome you all to the first International Workshop on GPS-techniques in surveying and geodesy held at this university. This workshop is designed to bring together experts from various countries and also scientists who carry out, analyze and interpret such measurements with those who work on instrumental and theoretical problems. The workshop focuses hereby on high-precision applications with emphasis on monitoring time-dependent phenomena such as those relevant to geodynamics as well as men-made constructions as those in civil engineering and similar fields. It is astonishing to see how, in spite of all earlier satellite work over the last two decades, GPS-methods became so fast a relevant new technology, in its proper sense, in modern geodesy and surveying besides VLBI and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). With the recent development of new dual-frequency receivers the role of GPS-procedures in monitoring large-scale phenomena over big distances will still expand; and the application of kinematical GPS-approaches is of utmost interest in solving high-precision problems. It is indeed fascinating to realize how GPS-methods have become in such a short time a surprisingly efficient and effective, this means : fast, precise and easy to apply, tool which is able to replace already now, after a few years of existence and with an incomplete set of a few out of the 18 satellites (of the final stage), at least partially some expensive, slow and cumbersome classical surveying methods. On the other hand, it cannot be overemphasized that GPS-procedures are still at their beginning and the full spectrum of their capabilities still has to be explored. In Europe, for example, where excellent classical surveying systems do exist the situation is quite different from the situation in other countries such as Canada or the USA. Even within Europe the application types of GPS-methods will vary; for example, in Norway the situation is quite different from central European countries. It is often forgotten, that together with GPS we will have to introduce new concepts and a new thinking in combination with other modern satellite procedures. GPS itself can resolve only a small part of the problems to be solved by modern geodesy but it will open the way to a great variety of new applications and capabilities. Modern global tectonics is just one of the new disciplines of high interest and great practical impact. I could continue in citing other similarly important new fields. GPS is, however, of special importance because it replaces old technologies and fills gaps where modern and efficient tools are most needed. Consequently, also the optimal combination of GPS-methods with new auxiliary and also classical high-precision techniques is of great importance, mainly under the european conditions outlined above. Moreover, the real-time or almost-real-time use of GPS in combination with photogrammetry, inertial geodesy, gravity gradiometry or even classical surveying is of substantial interest. It is indeed important to realize the new concepts in modern satellite and space methods and I, therefore, spoke above of a new "technology" which should be optimally developed as there is a worldwide need of such capabilities and tools. In view of the few active NAVSTAR-satellites in sky in 1988 this is perhaps not the best year for GPS-applications but the right time for a review of the experience gained until now and using it as a base for the planning of the future...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (532 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540502678
    Language: English
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION In the context of evolutionary studies, it is the privilege of paleontologists to trace the actual course of evolutionary change over time spans that are adequate for such a slow process. At the same time it is their crux that they can not always hope to do this with the resolution necessary to reveal the causal relationships involved. The Tübingen Sonderforschungsbereich 53, "Palökologie", was primarily geared to study the interrelationships between organisms and environments in the fossil record. As is pointed out in this volume, such an approach will necessarily emphasize the static aspect of this relationship, all the more since this is what we need for the practical purposes of facies recognition. This was clone during a time interval of thirteen years at the level of individual species and taxonomic groups ("Konstruktions-Morphologie"), of characteristic facies complexes ("Fossil-Lagerstätten") and of assemblages ("Fossil- VergeseIlschaftungen") with the aim to recognize general patterns that persist in spite of the historical and evolutionary changes in the biosphere. But as our project came closer to its end, the possible causal relationships between physical and evolutionary changes became more tangible. This trend is expressed by symposia devoted to the biological effects of long term tectonic changes (KULLMANN & SCHÖNENBERG, eds., 1983) and of short term physical events (EINSELE & SEILACHER, eds., 1982). But in retrospect it appears that the time scales of the environmental changes chosen were either too large or too small to reveal the mechanisms of evolutionary response. The present volume is the outcome of a symposium of the projects B 20 ("Bankungsrhythmen in sedimentologischer, ökologischer und diagenetischer Sicht", directed by U. BAYER), D 40 ("Analoge Gehäuse-Aberrationen bei Ammonoideen", directed by J. WIEDMANN) and D 60 ("Substratwechsel im marinen Benthos", directed by A. SEILACHER) in September, 1983. tt addresses environmental changes at time scales large enough to produce more than a local ecological response and short enough to observe evolutionary and/or migratory changes at the species and genus levels. It also focusses on basins which by various degrees of isolation provided suitable sites for "evolutionary experiments", such as lakes and marginal epicontinental basins. In a way, this book is a successor of the previous one on "Cyclic and event stratification" (EINSELE & SEILACHER, eds., 1982). Small scale cycles and events are the 'primitives' of a sedimentary sequence, the lowermost scale from which it can be deciphered. However, medium and long term physical cycles commonly impress sedimentological and lithological trends on the stratigraphic column which are accompanied by faunal replacements and cycles. But since sedimentation is controlled both by physical and biological processes, which are intercorrelated in complicated ways, we also need to decode the stratigraphic text. In this effort, paleontological and sedimentological interpretation must go hand in hand. On the 'megascale' of global sea-level changes faunal and species evolution is triggered by opening and closing of migration pathways, sometimes providing us with malor biostratigraphic boundaries. As it turns out, however, integrated research and the choice of suitable scales do not free us from problems of resolution. Thus our inability to distinguish local speciation from ecophenotypic modification and from immigration in the fossil record excludes definite evolutionary answers even in well studied cases. Nevertheless we hope that this approach opens a fruitful discussion, in which stratigraphy, systematic paleontology and paleoecology will be reconciled in a concerted effort to eventually understand the evolutionary mechanisms of our biosphere.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (465 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540139829
    Language: English
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...