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  • Other Sources  (31)
  • American Meteorological Society  (31)
  • MDPI Publishing
  • 1990-1994  (31)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-08-17
    Description: Accurate measurement of fluctuations in temperature and humidity are needed for determination of the surface evaporation rate and the air-sea sensible heat flux using either the eddy correlation or inertial dissipation method for flux calculations. These measurements are difficult to make over the ocean, and are subject to large errors when sensors are exposed to marine air containing spray droplets. All currently available commercial measurement devices for atmospheric humidity require frequent maintenance. Included in the objectives of the Humidity Exchange over the Sea program were testing and comparison of sensors used for measuring both the fluctuating and mean humidity in the marine atmosphere at high wind speeds and development of techniques for the protection of these sensors against contamination by oceanic aerosols. These sensors and droplet removal techniques are described and comparisons between measurements from several different systems are discussed in this paper. To accomplish these goals, participating groups devised and tested three methods of removing sea spray from the sample airstream. The best performance was given by a rotating semen device, the “spray Ringer.” Several high-frequency temperature and humidity instruments, based on different physical principles, were used in the collaborative field experiment. Temperature and humidity fluctuations were measured with sufficient accuracy inside the spray removal devices using Lyman-α hygrometers and a fast thermocouple psychrometer. Comparison of several types of psychrometers (using electric thermometers) and a Rotronic MP-100 humidity sensor for measuring the mean humidity illustrated the hysteresis of the Rotronic MP-100 device after periods of high relative humidity. Confidence in the readings of the electronic psychrometer was established by in situ calibration with repeated and careful readings of ordinary hand-held Assman psychrometers (based on mercury thermometers). Electronic psychrometer employing platinum resistance thermometers perform very well.
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  • 2
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 11 (4). pp. 982-993.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-14
    Description: Cicosal sea surface height (SSH) data in the tropical and midlatitude North Atlantic are analyzed with and without water vapor (WV) correction to study the WV influence on along-track SSH anomaly profits, mesoscale SSH variability, wavenumber spectra, and objectively mapped fields of SSH anomaly. Three different WV datasets were used, one from the Fleet Numerical Oceanographic Center (FNOC) model and two from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) based on different WV retrieval algorithms. These WV dataset show significant differences, in particular in the tropics. However, the method for deriving SSH anomalies from altimeter height data Alters out much of the WV corrections. The residual WV effect on SSH anomaly is shown to be most significant in the seasonally migrating intertropical convergence zone of the tropical Atlantic: there the SSM/I corrections reduce the along-track mesoscale SSH variability by typically 1–1.5 cm. On seasonal timescales the maximum WV effect in this region is characterized by a 2–3-cm rms difference between SSH anomaly with and without SSM/I WV corrections, whereas FNOC corrections have almost no effect. Inferred seasonal velocity variations in the North Equatorial Countercurrent core (4° – 6°N) in the region of maximum WY influence (30° – 40°W) are reduced by about 20% and 30%, depending on whether SSM/I corrections by Emery or Wentz are used
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  • 3
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24 . pp. 91-107.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The annual cycle of meridional heat transport in the North and equatorial Atlantic Ocean is studied by means of the high-resolution numerical model that had been developed in recent years as a Community Modeling Effort for the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. Similar to previous model studies, there is a winter maximum in northward heat transport in the equatorial Atlantic and a summer maximum in midlatitudes. The seasonal variation in heat transport in the equatorial Atlantic, with a maximum near 8°N, is associated with the out-of-phase changes in heat content to the north and south of that latitude in connection with the seasonal reversal of the North Equatorial Countercurrent. The amplitude of the heat transport variation at 8°N depends on model resolution: forcing with the monthly mean wind stresses of Hellerman–Rosenstein (HR) gives an annual range of 2.1 PW in the case of a 1/3° meridional grid, and 1.7 PW in the case of a 1° grid, compared to 1.4 PW in a previous 2° model. Forcing with the wind stresses of Isemer–Hasse (IH) gives 2.5 PW in the 1/3° and 2.2 PW in the 1° model case. The annual range of heat transport in the subtropical North Atlantic is much less dependent on resolution but sensitive to the wind stress: it increases from 0.5 PW in the case of HR forcing to almost 0.8 PW with IH forcing. The annual cycle of heat transport can be understood in terms of wind-driven variations in the meridional overturning; variations in horizontal gyre transport have only little effect both in the equatorial and in the subtropical Atlantic. In all model solutions the seasonal variations in the near-surface meridional Ekman transport are associated with deep seasonal overturning cells. The weak shear of the deep response suggests that the large variations in heat transport on seasonal and shorter time scales should be of little consequence for observational estimates of mean oceanic heat transports relying on one-time hydrographic surveys.
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  • 4
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 7 (10). pp. 1449-1462.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: We have investigated the seasonal cycle and the interannual variability of the tropical Indian Ocean circulation and the Indian summer monsoon simulated by a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model in a 26- year integration. Although the model exhibits significant climate drift, overall, the coupled GCM simulates realistically the seasonal changes in the tropical Indian Ocean and the onset and evolution of the Indian summer monsoon. The amplitudes of the seasonal changes, however, are underestimated. The coupled GCM also simulates considerable interannual variability in the tropical Indian Ocean circulation, which is partly related to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation phenomenon and the associated changes in the Walker circulation. Changes in the surface wind stress appear to be crucial in forcing interannual variations in the Indian Ocean SST. As in the Pacific Ocean, the net surface beat flux acts as a negative feedback on the SST anomalies. The interannual variability in monsoon rainfall, simulated by the coupled GCM, is only about half as strong as observed. The reason for this is that the simulated interannual variability in the Indian monsoon appears to be related to internal processes within the atmosphere only. In contrast, an investigation based on observations shows a clear lead-lag relationship between interannual variations in the monsoon rainfall and tropical Pacific SST anomalies. Furthermore, the atmospheric GCM also fails to reproduce this lead-lag relationship between monsoon rainfall and tropical Pacific SST when run in a stand-alone integration with observed SSTs prescribed during the period 1970–1988. These results indicate that important physical processes relating tropical Pacific SST to Indian monsoon rainfall are not adequately modeled in our atmospheric GCM. Monsoon rainfall predictions appear therefore premature.
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  • 5
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24 (5). pp. 928-948.
    Publication Date: 2018-08-13
    Description: Observations of upper-ocean western boundary current (WBC) transports reveal asymmetries between the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres of the Atlantic Ocean. To find out what mechanism might cause these asymmetries the linearized steady-state vorticity equation is applied to the interior of a layer of constant thickness representing the upper Atlantic Ocean. WBC transports are then required to balance the interior volume flux deficit. The ocean is forced by climatological wind stress at the surface; thermohaline forcing is introduced by vertical motion at the lower boundary. A series of model runs using selected combinations of different basin geometries, wind stress fields, and thermohaline forcing patterns yields the following results: asymmetries of WBC transports cannot be explained by the topography shape of coastlines. The wind stress causes 12 Sv (Sv ≡ 1 × 106 m3 s −1) cross-equatorial transport to the north but it cannot account for the other WBC asymmetries. These can be explained by superimposing a thermohaline flow component to the wind-driven circulation. The best agreement with observations could be obtained from a model run driven by a sinking rate of 20 Sv in the northern North Atlantic and 4 Sv in the Weddell Sea compensated by 15 Sv return flow from other oceans via the Agulhas Current or Drake Passage and uniform upwelling of 9 Sv in the Atlantic. In tropical and subtropical latitudes this run reproduces all observed asymmetries, but in subpolar latitudes the model fails. Further conclusions can be drawn from the model results. (i) Up to 20 Sv northward transport of Antarctic Intermediate Water is needed at about 10°S to explain the difference of modeled transports and observations. For the same reasons an Antilles Current of up to 16 Sv is required. (ii) The major part of the northward heat transport in the North Atlantic has to occur via the tropical countercurrents and the North Equatorial Current. Only less than 7 Sv take the shortest way to the Caribbean via the Guyana Current. (iii) Fifty-six percent of the Florida Straits transport is wind driven.
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  • 6
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24 . pp. 326-344.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Global mean and eddy fields from a four-year experiment with a 1/6° × 1/5° horizontal resolution implementation of the CME North Atlantic model are presented. The time-averaged wind-driven and thermohaline circulation in the model is compared to the results of a 1/3° × 2/5° model run in very similar configuration. In general, the higher resolution results are found to confirm that the resolution of previous CME experiments is sufficient to describe many features of the large-scale circulation and water mass distribution quite well. While the increased resolution does not lead to large changes in the mean flow patterns, the variability in the model is enhanced significantly. On the other hand, however, not all aspects of the circulation have improved with resolution. The Azores Current Frontal Zone with its variability in the eastern basin is still represented very poorly. Particular attention is also directed toward the unrealistic stationary anticyclones north of Cape Hatteras and in the Gulf of Mexico.
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  • 7
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24 . pp. 2306-2320.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: To avoid an explicit simulation of the overflows across the Greenland-Scotland ridge, many models of the large-scale ocean circulation seek to include the net effect of the inflowing dense water masses by restoring temperature and salinity near the ridge to observed conditions. In this paper the authors examine the effect of different datasets for the northern restoring condition in two versions, eddy resolving and non-eddy resolving, of the model of the North and equatorial Atlantic that has been developed in recent years as a Community Modeling Effort for WOCE. It is shown that the use of smoothed climatological fields of temperature and salinity south of the Denmark Strait leads to strong deficiencies in the simulation of the deep flow field in the basin. A switch to actual hydrographic data from the Denmark Strait ignites a rapid dynamic response throughout the North Atlantic, affecting the transport and vertical structure of the deep western boundary current and, by virtue of the JEBAR efffect, the transport of the horizontal gyres. Meridional overturning and northward heat transport too weak in the cases with climatological boundary conditions, increase to more realistic levels in the subtropical North Atlantic. The initial response to switches in the high-latitude thermohaline forcing is mediated by fast waves along the westurn boundary, leading to changes in the deep western boundary current in low latitudes after about two years in the non-eddy-resolving cast. The initial timescale depends on the horizontal grid spacing of the model; in the high-resolution case, the first signal reaches the equator in a few months. The adjustment to a new, dynamic quasi equilibrium involves Kelvin waves along the equator and Rossby wave in the interior and is attained in less than two decades throughout the North Atlantic. It is suggested that these fast dynamic adjustment processes could play an important role in possible fluctuations of the thermohaline circulation, or transitions between different equilibrium states of the coupled ocean–atmosphere system, and may have determined the timescale of the observed climatic transitions before and during the last deglaciation.
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  • 8
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24 (10). pp. 2129-2141.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: In this study a scenario is developed of two adjacent Mediterranean Water eddies (meddies) as they were observed merging and drifting through the Iberian Basin. Observations are based on four RAFOS floats (at 850–1050 dbar), two hydrographic surveys (centered roughly at 38°N, 24°W), and trajectories of surface drifters (drogued at 100 m). In April 1991, the meddy A was identified and labeled by surface drifters. During the revisit one month later two meddies were encountered, B1 and B2, in the vicinity of the former meddy A. The coalescence of B1 (subsequently identified as A, one month older) and B2 is inferred from a simple kinematic model describing the observed movement of the RAFOS floats for up to three months after the second CTD survey. The deduced vorticity front, radius ∼15 km, within B1 was of insufficient strength to keep the core waters of B1 isolated and prevent the absorption of B1 by B2. The resulting meddy (B1 + B2) showed a clear near-surface dynamical signal. Its deep root (1800 m) could explain the expulsion from the meddy of the remaining RAFOS float and surface drifter at the time of the meddy's collision with the Josephine Seamount. For the first time, a set of Lagrangian and hydrographic observations give direct evidence that neighboring meddies can merge as predicted by theoretical considerations.
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  • 9
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 23 (11). pp. 2373-2391.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: A sigma-coordinate, primitive equation ocean circulation model is used to explore the problem of the remnant generation of trapped waves about a tall, circular, isolated seamount by an incident oscillatory barotropic current. The numerical solutions are used to extend prior studies into the fully nonlinear regime, and in particular to quantify and interpret the occurrence of residual circulation. Specific attention is also devoted to the dependence of the resonance and rectification mechanisms on stratification, forcing frequency, and choice of subgrid-scale viscous closure. Resonantly generated trapped waves of significant amplitude are found to occur broadly in parameter space; a precise match between the frequency of the imposed incident current and the frequency of the trapped free wave is not necessary to produce substantial excitation of the trapped wave. The maximum amplification factors produced in these numerical solutions, O(100) times the strength of the incident current, are consistent with previous studies. In the presence of nonlinear advection, strong residual currents are produced. The time-mean circulation about the seamount is dominated by a strong bottom-intensified, anticyclonic circulation closely trapped to the seamount. Maximum local time-mean current amplitudes are found to be as large as 37% of the magnitude of the propagating waves. In addition to the strong anticyclonic residual flow, there is a weaker secondary circulation in the vertical-radial plane characterized by downwelling over the top of the seamount at all depths. Maximum vertical downwelling rates of several tens of meters per day occur at the summit of the seamount. The vertical mass flux implied by this systematic downwelling is balanced by a slow radial flux of mass directed outward along the flanks of the seamount. Time-mean budgets for the radial and azimuthal components of momentum show that horizontal eddy fluxes of momentum are responsible for transporting net radial and azimuthal momentum from the far field to the upper flanks of the seamount. There, Coriolis and pressure gradient forces provide the dominant balances in the radial direction. However, the Coriolis force and viscous effects provide the primary balance for the azimuthal component.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
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  • 11
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 23 . pp. 2182-2200.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Inertial separation of a western boundary current from an idealized continent is studied in a homogeneous ocean circulation model. A number of processes are identified that either encourage or prevent separation at a coastal promontory in this model. For a single-gyre wind forcing a free-slip boundary condition forces the stream to follow the coastline, whereas the no-slip condition allows separation at a sharp corner. A prescribed countergyre to the north of the stream is not necessary to achieve separation if the no-slip condition is used. "Premature" separation occurs for wind fields that do not extend beyond the latitude of the cape. For a more realistic wind field and coastline two distinct states of the stream are found. At small Reynolds numbers the current fails to separate and develops a stationary anticyclonic meander north of the cape. Stronger currents separate and drive a recirculation in the lee of the continent.
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: The space-time structure and predictability of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon was investigated. Two comprehensive datasets were analyzed by means of an advanced statistical method, one based on observational data and the other on data derived from an extended-range integration performed with a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. It is shown that a considerable portion of the ENSO-related low-frequency climate variability in both datasets is associated with a cycle involving slow propagation in the equatorial oceanic beat content and the surface wind field. The existence of this cycle implies the ability of climate predictions in the tropics up to lead times of about one year. This is shown by conducting an ensemble of predictions with our coupled general circulation model. For the first time a coupled model of this type was successfully applied to ENSO predictions.
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: A hybrid coupled model (HCM) of the tropical ocean–atmosphere system is described. The ocean component is a fully nonlinear ocean general circulation model (OGCM). The atmospheric element is a statistical model that specifies wind stress from ocean-model sea surface temperatures (SST). The coupled model demonstrates a chaotic behavior during extended integration that is related to slow changes in the background mean state of the ocean. The HCM also reproduces many of the observed variations in the tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere system. The physical processes operative in the model together describe a natural mode of climate variability in the tropical Pacific ocean–atmosphere system. The mode is composed of (i) westward-propagating Rossby waves and (ii) an equatorially confined air–sea element that propagates eastward. Additional results showed that the seasonal dependence of the anomalous ocean–atmosphere coupling was vital to the model's ability to both replicate and forecast key features of the tropical Pacific climate system. A series of hindcast and forecast experiments was conducted with the model. It showed real skill in forecasting fall/winter tropical Pacific SST at a lead time of up to 18 months. This skill was largely confined to the central equatorial Pacific, just the region that is most prominent in teleconnections with the Northern Hemisphere during winter. This result suggests the model forecasts of winter SST at leads times of at least 6 months are good enough to be used with atmospheric models (statistical or OGCM) to attempt long-range winter forecasts for the North American continent. This suggestion is confirmed in Part II of this paper.
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  • 14
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 6 (1). pp. 5-21.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: A 26-year integration has been performed with a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (CGCM). The oceanic part resolves all three oceans in the latitude band 70°N–70°S but is dynamically active only between 30°N and 30°S. The atmosphere is represented by a global low-order spectral model. The coupled model was forced by seasonally varying insolation. Although the simulated time-averaged mean conditions in both atmosphere and ocean show significant deviations from the observed climatology, the CGCM realistically simulates the interannual variability in the tropical Pacific. In particular, the CGCM simulates an irregular ENSO with a preferred time scale of about 3 years. The mechanism for the simulated interannual variability in the tropical Pacific is related to both the “delayed action oscillator” and the “slow SST mode.” It therefore appears likely that either both modes can coexist or they degenerate to one mode within certain locations of the parameter space. This hypothesis is also supported by calculations performed with simplified coupled models, in which the atmospheric GCM was replaced by linear steady-state atmosphere models. Further, evidence is found for an eastward migration of zonal wind anomalies over the western Pacific prior to the extremes of the simulated ENSO, indicating a link to circulation systems over Asia. Because an earlier version of the CGCM did not simulate interannual variability in the tropical Pacific, additional experiments with a simplified coupled model have been conducted to study the sensitivity of coupled systems to varying mean oceanic background conditions. It is shown that even modest changes in the background conditions can push the coupled system from one flow regime into another.
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  • 15
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 23 (8). pp. 1638-1646.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: New light is shed on Worthington's concept of the North Atlantic circulation, postulating the existence of two anticyclonic gyres. This concept, which seems to have been laid to rest in the last decade, has now been reinforced by the results of a simple linear Sverdrup circulation model yielding a band of westward transport all across the North Atlantic at about the Azores latitude. This narrow band is called the Azores Countercurrent (AzCC) and matches the position of westward flow required by Worthington's “northern gyre.” An anomaly in the meridional change of the wind-stress curl in the eastern North Atlantic has been identified as the driving mechanism. A comparison with observations shows that the AzCC is verified in many analyses of historical datasets and synoptic surveys. A lack of the AzCC in other analyses is probably due to missing meridional sections, strong smoothing, and the superimposed Ekman flow close to the sea surface directed to the southeast. The AzCC has not been verified in low-resolution general circulation models applying simplified wind-stress fields and large friction coefficients, but there is evidence for its existence in recent high-resolution models driven by realistic wind stresses. Based on these findings, a new pattern for the wind-driven upper ocean circulation of the midlatitude North Atlantic is presented.
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  • 16
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 10 (5). pp. 764-773.
    Publication Date: 2018-06-01
    Description: Ocean deep velocity profiles were obtained by lowering a self-contained 153.6-kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) attached to a CTD-rosette sampler. The data were sampled during two Meteor cruises in the western tropical Atlantic. The ADCP depth was determined by integration of the vertical velocity measurements, and the maximum depth of the cast was in good agreement with the CTD depth. Vertical shears were calculated for individual ADCP velocity profiles of 140-300-m range to eliminate the unknown horizontal motion of the instrument package. Subsequent raw shear profiles were then averaged with respect to depth to obtain a mean shear profile and its statistics. Typically, the shear standard deviations were about 10(-3) s-1 when using up and down traces simultaneously. The shear profiles were then vertically integrated to get relative velocity profiles. Different methods were tested to transform the relative velocities into absolute velocity profiles, and the results were compared with Pegasus dropsonde measurements. The best results were obtained by integrating the raw velocities and relative velocities over the duration of the cast and correcting for the ship drift determined from the Global Positioning System. Below 1000-m depth a reduction of the measurement range was observed, which results either from a lack of scatterers or instrumental problems at higher pressures.
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  • 17
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 23 (12). pp. 2667-2682.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The total transport of Antarctic Bottom Water across the Rio Grande Rise, including the western boundary, the Vema Channel, and the Hunter Channel is estimated from hydrographic measurements across these pathways. The contribution of the Vema Channel is greatest at 3.9 × 106 m3 s−1, which is very close to earlier estimates. The western boundary current contribution is 2.0 × 106 m3 s−1 and that of the Hunter Channel 0.7 × 106 m3 s−1. The lower values outside the Vema Channel are offset by the important source of mass they form to the lower density classes of bottom water. About 40% of the flow is concentrated in the highest density class representing the source of Weddell Sea Deep Water to the Brazil Basin. The flow structure is characterized by horizontal and vertical recirculation.
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  • 18
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22 (1). pp. 83-92.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Antarctic Bottom Water flows into the western North Atlantic across the equator, shifting from the western side to the eastern side of the trough between the American continents and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as it continues north. This is puzzling because such large-scale motion is thought to be controlled by dynamics that disallows an eastern boundary current. Previous explanations for the transposition involve a (necessarily small-scale) density current that changes sides because of the change in sign of rotation across the equator, or a topographic effect that changes the sign of the effective mean vorticity gradient and thus requires an eastern boundary current. Here an alternative explanation for the overall structure of bottom flow is given. A source of mass to a thin bottom layer is assumed to upwell uniformly across its interface into a less dense layer at rest. A simple formula for the magnitude of the upwelling and thickness of the layer is derived that depends on the source strength to the bottom layer. For a strong enough source, the bottom layer thickness is zero along a grounding curve that separates the bottom water from the western boundary and confines it to the east. A band of recirculating interior flow occurs, supplied by an isolated northern and western boundary current. Similar structures appear to exist in the Antarctic Bottom Water of the western North Atlantic.
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  • 19
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22 (1). pp. 93-104.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: North Atlantic air-sea heat and freshwater flux data from several sources are used to estimate the conversion rate of water from one density to another throughout the range of sea surface density. This cross-isopycnal mass flux varies greatly over the ocean, with a maximum of 32.2 × 106 m3 s−1 at σ = 26.1 kg m−3 (toward greater densities) and a minimum of −7.6 × 106 m3 s−1 (toward lesser densities) at σ = 23.0 kg m−3. The air-sea fluxes force water to accumulate in three density bands: one at the lowest sea surface densities generated by heating; one centered near the density of subtropical mode water; and one spanning subpolar mode water densities. The transfer of water to the highest and lowest densities is balanced by mixing, which returns water to the middle density range, and also by boundary sources or sinks. Integrating the cross-isopycnal flux over all densities gives an annual average sinking of about 9 × 1O6 m3 s−1, which presumably escapes across the equator and must be balanced by a similar inflow. Comparison with estimates from tracer studies suggests that the renewal of tracer characteristics at a given density may occur without the existence of an annual average mass source at that density, because along- and cross-isopycnal mixing can renew a tracer without supplying mass.
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  • 20
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22 . pp. 361-381.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: A primitive equation model of an idealized ocean basin, driven by simple, study wind and buoyancy forcing at the surface, is used to study the dynamics of mesoscale eddies. Model statistics of a six-year integration using a fine grid (1/6° × 0.2°), with reduced coefficients of horizontal friction, are compared to those using a coarser grid (1/3° × 0.4°), but otherwise identical configuration. Eddy generation in both model cases is primarily due to the release of mean potential energy by baroclinic instability. Horizontal Reynolds stresses become significant near the midlatitude jet of the fine-grid case, with a tendency for preferred energy transfers from the eddies to the mean flow. Using the finer resolution, eddy kinetic energy nearly doubles at the surface of the subtropical gyre, and increases by factors of 3–4 over the jet region and in higher latitudes. The spatial characteristics of the mesoscale fluctuations are examined by calculating zonal wavenumber spectra and velocity autocorrelation functions. With the higher resolution, the dominant eddy scale remains approximately the same in the subtropical gyre but decreases by a factor of 2 in the subpolar areas. The wavenumber spectra indicate a strong influence of the model friction in the coarse-grid case, especially in higher latitudes. Using the coarse grid, there is almost no separation between the energetic eddy scale and the scale where friction begins to dominate, leading to steep spectra beyond the cutoff wavenumber. Using the finer resolution an inertial subrange with a k−3 power law begins to emerge in all model regions outside the equatorial belt. Despite the large increase of eddy intensity in the fine-grid model, effects on the mean northward transport of heat are negligible. Strong eddy fluxes of heat across the midlatitude jet are almost exactly compensated by changes of the heat transport due to the mean flow.
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  • 21
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22 (10). pp. 1112-1128.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The seasonal cycles found in moored current measurements in the equatorial Somali Current region and along the equator between 50° and 60°E are compared with the multilayer Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory model for the tropical Indian Ocean. The remote forcing of Somali Current transport variations by incident long equatorial waves from the equatorial interior subthermocline region is investigated by analyzing the model velocities of annual and semiannual period. Amplitudes and phases of linear equatorial Rossby and Kelvin waves were least-squares fitted to the model velocities between 5°S and 5°N, 55° and 86°E from 100-m to 1000-m depth. Two cases of wave fits are distinguished: the “free” Kelvin wave case, where the Kelvin waves were fitted independently, and the “reflected” Kelvin wave case, where they were coupled to the Rossby waves by the western boundary condition for a straight slanted (45° to the north) coastline. The wave field velocities explained 70% of the spatial variance in the equatorial model subregion and also compared reasonably well with observed current variations along the equator. At the western boundary, the short-wave alongshore transport due to reflected incident long waves was determined and found to be antisymmetric about the equator. The maximum transport variation for the semiannual period due to the short waves was about 5 × 106 m3 s−1 between 150- and 800-m depth at 3° north and south of the equator. Observational evidence for the western boundary transport variations and the sensitivity to changes in the incident wave field are discussed.
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  • 22
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22 . pp. 732-752.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Characteristic of the mesoscale variability in the Atlantic Ocean are investigated by analyzing the Geosat altimeter signal between 60°S and 60°N. The rms sea-surface variability for various frequency bands is studied, including the high-frequency eddy-containing band with periods 〈150 days. Wavenumber spectra and spatial eddy characteristics are analyzed over 10° by 10° boxes covering both hemispheres of the Atlantic Ocean. A comparison, with solutions of a high-resolution numerical experiment, developed as the Community Modeling Effort of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, aids interpretation of the Geosat results in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic and provides a test of the model fluctuating eddy field. Results from Geosat altimetry show a wavenumber dependence close to k1−5 (k1 being the alongtrack wave-number) over almost the entire Atlantic Ocean except for areas in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic where the rms variability in the eddy-containing band is less than 5 cm, that is, not significantly different from the altimeter noise level. Characteristic eddy length scales inferred from Geosat data are linearly related with the deformation radius of the first baroclinic mode over the whole Atlantic Ocean, except for the equatorial regime (10°S to 10°N). The data-model comparison indicates that the high-resolution model with horizontal grid size of ⅓° and ° in latitude and longitude is quite capable of simulating observed eddy characteristics in the tropics and subtropics. In mid- and high latitudes, however, the model fails to simulate the pronounced poleward decrease in eddy scales. This leads to systematic discrepancies between the model and Geosat observation, with model scales being up to 50% larger than deduced from altimetry.
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  • 23
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22 (11). pp. 1257-1273.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Results of a three-dimensional primitive equation model are presented simulating turbulent mesoscale motions in the seasonal thermocline on an f plane. The model is based on a hybrid vertical coordinate scheme and conserves isopycnic potential vorticity. Mesoscale turbulence is modeled in terms of an unstable potential vorticity front. The model integration starts from a purely zonal, 60-km-wide geostrophically balanced jet, on which is superimposed a small initial perturbation. The most unstable mode exhibits a wavelength of 85 km and is driven by a mixed type of instability. Characteristic dynamical ingredients of the wave are enhanced cyclonic and anticyclonic relative vorticity in the troughs and the ridges, respectively, due to the curvature of the flow. Vertical motion of up to 10 m d−1 occurring downstream of the ridges (downwelling) and downstream of the troughs (upwelling) is driven by geostrophic advection of relative vorticity. The contrast of static stability across the front is changing during amplification of the instability: in troughs the stability is decreasing whereas in ridges it is increasing. The density field exhibits local anomalies of the isopycnals' depths (bumps) due to the ageostrophic cross-jet advection of potential vorticity streamers wound up in cyclones and anticyclones. Locally, the potential vorticity gradients are enhanced, creating a multiple front structure. The model results support observations and findings of earlier atmospheric and oceanic models. It is emphasized that mesoscale turbulent structures may have a profound influence on primary productivity, mixed-layer, and internal wave dynamics.
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  • 24
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22 (4). pp. 421-430.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: In this paper, the historical hydrographic database for the south Indian Ocean is used to investigate (i) the hydrographic boundary between the subtropical gyre and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the subtropical front (STF), and especially (ii) the southern current band of the gyre. A current band of increased zonal speeds in the upper 1000 m is found just north of the STF in the west near South Africa and at the surface STF in the open Indian Ocean until the waters off the coast of Australia are reached. As neither any other investigation of this current nor a name for it are known, the flow has been called the South Indian Ocean Current (SIOC). This name is anologous to the same current band in the South Atlantic Ocean, the South Atlantic Current. The STF is located in the entire south Indian Ocean near 40-degrees-S. The associated current band of increased zonal speeds is the SIOC, which is found at or north of the STF. East of 100-degrees-E the SIOC separates from the STF and continues to the northeast. The zonal flow south of the STF is normally weak and serves to separate the South Indian Ocean and Circumpolar currents. Near Africa the SIOC has a typical volume transport of 60 Sv (1 Sv = 10(6) m3 s-1) in the upper 1000 m relative to deep potential density surfaces of sigma(4) = 45.87 kg m-3 (2800-3500 m) or sigma(2) = 36.94 kg m-3 (1500-2500 m). Near western Australia the SIOC is reduced to about 10 Sv as it turns to the northeast.
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  • 25
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22 (8). pp. 951-962.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The time history of upper-ocean temperatures in the tropical Pacific has been used as a predictor in a statistical prediction scheme to forecast SST anomalies in this region. The temperature variations were taken from the output of an oceanic general circulation model that was forced by observed winds for the period 1961 to 1985. Since such model data are presently used as initial conditions in prediction experiments with coupled ocean–atmosphere models, it is of particular interest to investigate up to what lead time tropical Pacific SST is predictable without the coupling of an atmosphere model to the ocean model. We compared our results with those obtained by the persistence forecast and with those obtained by using the wind stresses themselves as predictors in a statistical forecast model. It is shown that using the upper ocean temperatures from the ocean model forced by observed winds gives significantly better skills at lead times of 6 to 12 months compared to persistence and to the pure wind-stress model. Off-equatorial heat content anomalies at 5°N are shown to contribute significantly to the predictability at these lead times, while those at 12°N do not.
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The monthly mean wind stress climatology of Hellerman and Rosenstein (HR) is compared with the climatology of Isemer and Hasse (IH), which represents a version of the Bunker atlas (BU) for the North Atlantic based on revised parameterizations. The drag coefficients adopted by IH are 21% smaller than the values of BU and HR, and the calculation of wind speed from marine estimates of Beaufort force (Bft) is based on a revised Beaufort equivalent scale similar to the scientific scale recommended by WMO. The latter choice significantly increases wind speed below Bft 8, and effectively counteracts the reduction of the drag coefficients. Comparing the IH stresses with HR reveals substantially enhanced magnitudes in the trade wind region throughout the year. At 15°N the mean easterly stress increases from about 0.9 (HR) to about 1.2 dyn cm−1 (IH). Annual mean differences are smaller in the region of the westerlies. In winter, the effect due to the reduced drag coefficient dominates and leads to smaller stress values in IH; during summer season the revision of the Beaufort equivalents is more effective and leads to increased stresses. Implications of the different wind stress climatologies for forcing the large-scale ocean circulation are discussed by means of the Sverdrup transport streamfunction (ψs): Throughout the subtropical gyre a significant intensification of ψs takes place with IH. At 27°N, differences of more than 10 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) are found near the western boundary. Differences in the seasonality of ψs are more pronounced in near-equatorial regions where IH increase the amplitude of the annual cycle by about 50%. An eddy-resolving model of the North Atlantic circulation is used to examine the effect of the different wind stresses on the seasonal cycle of the Florida Current. The transport predicted by the numerical model is in much better agreement with observations when the circulation is forced by IH than by HR, regarding both the annual mean (29.1 Sv vs 23.2 Sv) and the seasonal range (6.3 Sv vs 3.4 Sv).
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  • 27
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 4 (5). pp. 487-515.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: Two extended integrations of general circulation models (GCMs) are examined to determine the physical processes operating during an ENSO cycle. The first integration is from the Hamburg version of the ECMWF T21 atmospheric model forced with observed global sea surface temperatures (SST) over the period 1970–85. The second integration is from a Max Planck Institut model of the tropical Pacific forced by observed wind stress for the same period. Both integrations produce key observed features of the tropical ocean-atmosphere system during the 1970–85 period. The atmospheric model results show an eastward propagation of information from the western to eastern Pacific along the equator, although this signal is somewhat weaker than observed. The Laplacian of SST largely drives the surface wind field convergence and hence determines the position of large scale precipitation-condensation heating. This statement is valid only in the near-equatorial zone. Air-sea heat exchange is important in the planetary boundary layer in forcing the wind field convergence but not so important to the main troposphere, which is heated largely by condensation heating. The monopole response seen in the atmosphere above about 500 mb is due to a combination of factors, the most important being adiabatic heating associated with subsidence and tropic-wide variations in precipitation. The models show the role of air-sea heat exchange in the ocean heat balance in the wave guide is one of dissipation/damping. Total air-sea heat exchange is well represented by a simple Newtonian cooling parameterization in the near-equatorial region. In the wave guide, advection dominates the oceanic heat balance with meridional advection being numerically the most important in all regions except right on the equator. The meridional term is largely explained by local Ekman dynamics that generally overwhelm other processes in the regions of significant wind stress. The principal element in this advection term is the anomalous meridional current acting on the climatological mean meridional SST gradient. The eastward motion of the anomalies seen in both models is driven primarily by the ocean. The wind stress associated with the SST anomalies forces an equatorial convergence of heat and mass in the ocean. Outside the region of significant wind forcing, the mass source leads to a convergent geostrophic flow, which drives the meridional heat flux and causes warming to the east of the main wind anomaly. West of the main anomaly the wind and geostrophic divergence cause advective cooling. The result is that the main SST anomaly appears to move eastward. Since the direct SST forcing drives the anomalous wind, surface wind convergence, and associated precipitation, these fields are seen also to move eastward.
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  • 28
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 21 . pp. 1271-1289.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: A high-resolution model of the wind-driven and thermohaline circulation in the North and equatorial Atlantic Ocean is used to study the structure and variability of the boundary current system at 26°N, including the Florida Current, the Antilles Current, and the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC). The model was developed by Bryan and Holland as a Community Modeling Effort of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. Subsequent experiments have been performed at IfM Kiel, with different friction coefficients, and different climatologies of monthly mean wind stress: Hellerman–Rosenstein (HR) and Isemer–Hasse (IH). The southward volume transports in the upper 1000 m of the interior Atlantic, at 26°N, are 25.0 Sv (Sv ≡ 106m3s−1) for HR, and 34.9 Sv for IH forcing, in good agreement with the transport from the integrated Sverdrup balance at this latitude (23.9 Sv for HR, 35.6 Sv for IH). The return flow of this wind-driven transport, plus the southward transport of the DWBC (6–8 Sv), is partitioned between the Florida Current and Antilles Current. With HR forcing, the transport through the Straits of Florida is 23.2 Sv; this increases to 29.1 Sv when the wind stresses of IH are used. The annual variation of the simulated Florida Current is very similar to previous, coarse-resolution models when using the same wind-stress climatology (HR); the annual range (3.4 Sv) obtained with HR forcing is strongly enhanced (6.3 Sv) with IH forcing. The meridional heat transport at 26°N, zonally integrated across the basin, is in phase with the Florida Current; its annual range increases from 0.44 PW (HR) to 0.80 PW (IH). The annual signal east of the Bahamas is masked by strong transport fluctuations on a time scale of O(100 days), caused by an instability of the Antilles Current. By averaging over several model years, an annual cycle is extracted, which is in phase with the wind stress curl over the western part of the basin.
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  • 29
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 8 (5). pp. 669-676.
    Publication Date: 2018-06-01
    Description: A low-cost underwater sound recorder has been developed and tested. It is designed to receive signals from sound sources that serve as navigation aids for RAFOS floats. This moored version of the RAFOS float (MAFOS) can monitor sound sources over many months and several hundred kilometers. It thus improves RAFOS navigation accuracy by enabling corrections for potential long-term clock drifts of the sound sources. MAFOS can also provide information on the local variation in the speed of sound due to natural hydrographic variability. In a first test, this usefulness has been proven and a warm, salty inhomogenity that traveled through a sound-source mooring array in the Iberian Basin has been observed.
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: The ECMWF-T21 atmospheric GCM is forced by observed near-global SST from January 1970 to December 1985. Its response in low level winds and surface wind stress over the Pacific Ocean is compared with various observations. The time dependent SST clearly induces a Southern Oscillation (SO) in the model run which is apparent in the time series of all variables considered. The phase of the GCM SO is as observed, but its low frequency variance is too weak and is mainly confined to the western Pacific. Because of the GCM's use as the atmospheric component in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, the response of an equatorial oceanic primitive equation model to both the modeled and observed wind stress is examined. The ocean model responds to the full observed wind stress forcing in a manner almost identical to that when it is forced by the first two low frequency EOFs of the observations only. These first two EOFs describe a regular eastward propagation of the SO signal from the western Pacific to the central Pacific within about a year. The ocean model's response to the modeled wind stress is too weak and similar to the response when the observed forcing is truncated to the first EOF only. In other words, the observed SO appears as a sequence of propagating patterns but the simulated SO as a standing oscillation. The nature of the deviation of the simulated wind stress from observations is analyzed by means of Model Output Statistics (MOS). It is shown that a MOS-corrected simulated wind stress, if used to force an ocean GCM, leads to a significant enhancement of low frequency SST variance, which is most pronounced in the western Pacific.
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  • 31
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 20 (6). pp. 846-859.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: In this paper we use the historical hydrographic data base for the South Atlantic Ocean to investigate (i) the hydrographic boundary between the subtropical gyre and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the Sub-tropical Front (STF), and (ii) the southern current band of the gyre, which is called the South Atlantic Current (SAC). The STF begins in the west in the Brazil-Falkland (Malvinas) confluence zone, but at locations at and west of 45°W this front is often coincident with the Brazil Current front. East of 45°W the STF appears to be a distinct feature to at least the region south of Africa, whereupon it continues into the Indian Ocean. The associated current band of increased zonal speed is the SAC, which, except for one instance, is found at or north of the surface STF until Indian Ocean water from the Agulhas retroflection is reached. A reversal of baroclinicity in the STF is observed south of a highly saline Agulhas ring, causing the SAC to separate from the STF and turn north into the Benguela Current. Zonal flow south of the STF is generally weak and serves to separate the South Atlantic and circumpolar currents. In the Argentine Basin, the SAC has a typical volume transport of 30 Sv (1 Sv = 106m3s−1) in the upper 1000 m relative to a deep potential density surface (σ4 = 45.87 kg m−3), and can be as high as 37 Sv. It is thus comparable to, or stronger than, the Brazil Current. In the Cape Basin, the transport of the SAC is reduced to about 15 SY before it turns north to feed the Benguela Current. In late 1983 this flow was joined by about 8 Sv of water from the Agulhas Current.
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