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  • 1
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 23 (11). pp. 2373-2391.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: A sigma-coordinate, primitive equation ocean circulation model is used to explore the problem of the remnant generation of trapped waves about a tall, circular, isolated seamount by an incident oscillatory barotropic current. The numerical solutions are used to extend prior studies into the fully nonlinear regime, and in particular to quantify and interpret the occurrence of residual circulation. Specific attention is also devoted to the dependence of the resonance and rectification mechanisms on stratification, forcing frequency, and choice of subgrid-scale viscous closure. Resonantly generated trapped waves of significant amplitude are found to occur broadly in parameter space; a precise match between the frequency of the imposed incident current and the frequency of the trapped free wave is not necessary to produce substantial excitation of the trapped wave. The maximum amplification factors produced in these numerical solutions, O(100) times the strength of the incident current, are consistent with previous studies. In the presence of nonlinear advection, strong residual currents are produced. The time-mean circulation about the seamount is dominated by a strong bottom-intensified, anticyclonic circulation closely trapped to the seamount. Maximum local time-mean current amplitudes are found to be as large as 37% of the magnitude of the propagating waves. In addition to the strong anticyclonic residual flow, there is a weaker secondary circulation in the vertical-radial plane characterized by downwelling over the top of the seamount at all depths. Maximum vertical downwelling rates of several tens of meters per day occur at the summit of the seamount. The vertical mass flux implied by this systematic downwelling is balanced by a slow radial flux of mass directed outward along the flanks of the seamount. Time-mean budgets for the radial and azimuthal components of momentum show that horizontal eddy fluxes of momentum are responsible for transporting net radial and azimuthal momentum from the far field to the upper flanks of the seamount. There, Coriolis and pressure gradient forces provide the dominant balances in the radial direction. However, the Coriolis force and viscous effects provide the primary balance for the azimuthal component.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-17
    Description: Accurate measurement of fluctuations in temperature and humidity are needed for determination of the surface evaporation rate and the air-sea sensible heat flux using either the eddy correlation or inertial dissipation method for flux calculations. These measurements are difficult to make over the ocean, and are subject to large errors when sensors are exposed to marine air containing spray droplets. All currently available commercial measurement devices for atmospheric humidity require frequent maintenance. Included in the objectives of the Humidity Exchange over the Sea program were testing and comparison of sensors used for measuring both the fluctuating and mean humidity in the marine atmosphere at high wind speeds and development of techniques for the protection of these sensors against contamination by oceanic aerosols. These sensors and droplet removal techniques are described and comparisons between measurements from several different systems are discussed in this paper. To accomplish these goals, participating groups devised and tested three methods of removing sea spray from the sample airstream. The best performance was given by a rotating semen device, the “spray Ringer.” Several high-frequency temperature and humidity instruments, based on different physical principles, were used in the collaborative field experiment. Temperature and humidity fluctuations were measured with sufficient accuracy inside the spray removal devices using Lyman-α hygrometers and a fast thermocouple psychrometer. Comparison of several types of psychrometers (using electric thermometers) and a Rotronic MP-100 humidity sensor for measuring the mean humidity illustrated the hysteresis of the Rotronic MP-100 device after periods of high relative humidity. Confidence in the readings of the electronic psychrometer was established by in situ calibration with repeated and careful readings of ordinary hand-held Assman psychrometers (based on mercury thermometers). Electronic psychrometer employing platinum resistance thermometers perform very well.
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  • 3
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 78 (12). pp. 2771-2777.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-07
    Description: A review is given of the meaning of the term “El Niño” and how it has changed in time, so there is no universal single definition. This needs to be recognized for scientific uses, and precision can only be achieved if the particular definition is identified in each use to reduce the possibility of misunderstanding. For quantitative purposes, possible definitions are explored that match the El Niños identified historically after 1950, and it is suggested that an El Niño can be said to occur if 5-month running means of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Niño 3.4 region (5°N–5°S, 120°–170°W) exceed 0.4°C for 6 months or more. With this definition, El Niños occur 31% of the time and La Niñas (with an equivalent definition) occur 23% of the time. The histogram of Niño 3.4 SST anomalies reveals a bimodal character. An advantage of such a definition is that it allows the beginning, end, duration, and magnitude of each event to be quantified. Most El Niños begin in the northern spring or perhaps summer and peak from November to January in sea surface temperatures.
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  • 4
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22 (1). pp. 83-92.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Antarctic Bottom Water flows into the western North Atlantic across the equator, shifting from the western side to the eastern side of the trough between the American continents and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as it continues north. This is puzzling because such large-scale motion is thought to be controlled by dynamics that disallows an eastern boundary current. Previous explanations for the transposition involve a (necessarily small-scale) density current that changes sides because of the change in sign of rotation across the equator, or a topographic effect that changes the sign of the effective mean vorticity gradient and thus requires an eastern boundary current. Here an alternative explanation for the overall structure of bottom flow is given. A source of mass to a thin bottom layer is assumed to upwell uniformly across its interface into a less dense layer at rest. A simple formula for the magnitude of the upwelling and thickness of the layer is derived that depends on the source strength to the bottom layer. For a strong enough source, the bottom layer thickness is zero along a grounding curve that separates the bottom water from the western boundary and confines it to the east. A band of recirculating interior flow occurs, supplied by an isolated northern and western boundary current. Similar structures appear to exist in the Antarctic Bottom Water of the western North Atlantic.
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  • 5
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22 (1). pp. 93-104.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: North Atlantic air-sea heat and freshwater flux data from several sources are used to estimate the conversion rate of water from one density to another throughout the range of sea surface density. This cross-isopycnal mass flux varies greatly over the ocean, with a maximum of 32.2 × 106 m3 s−1 at σ = 26.1 kg m−3 (toward greater densities) and a minimum of −7.6 × 106 m3 s−1 (toward lesser densities) at σ = 23.0 kg m−3. The air-sea fluxes force water to accumulate in three density bands: one at the lowest sea surface densities generated by heating; one centered near the density of subtropical mode water; and one spanning subpolar mode water densities. The transfer of water to the highest and lowest densities is balanced by mixing, which returns water to the middle density range, and also by boundary sources or sinks. Integrating the cross-isopycnal flux over all densities gives an annual average sinking of about 9 × 1O6 m3 s−1, which presumably escapes across the equator and must be balanced by a similar inflow. Comparison with estimates from tracer studies suggests that the renewal of tracer characteristics at a given density may occur without the existence of an annual average mass source at that density, because along- and cross-isopycnal mixing can renew a tracer without supplying mass.
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  • 6
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 11 (4). pp. 982-993.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-14
    Description: Cicosal sea surface height (SSH) data in the tropical and midlatitude North Atlantic are analyzed with and without water vapor (WV) correction to study the WV influence on along-track SSH anomaly profits, mesoscale SSH variability, wavenumber spectra, and objectively mapped fields of SSH anomaly. Three different WV datasets were used, one from the Fleet Numerical Oceanographic Center (FNOC) model and two from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) based on different WV retrieval algorithms. These WV dataset show significant differences, in particular in the tropics. However, the method for deriving SSH anomalies from altimeter height data Alters out much of the WV corrections. The residual WV effect on SSH anomaly is shown to be most significant in the seasonally migrating intertropical convergence zone of the tropical Atlantic: there the SSM/I corrections reduce the along-track mesoscale SSH variability by typically 1–1.5 cm. On seasonal timescales the maximum WV effect in this region is characterized by a 2–3-cm rms difference between SSH anomaly with and without SSM/I WV corrections, whereas FNOC corrections have almost no effect. Inferred seasonal velocity variations in the North Equatorial Countercurrent core (4° – 6°N) in the region of maximum WY influence (30° – 40°W) are reduced by about 20% and 30%, depending on whether SSM/I corrections by Emery or Wentz are used
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: On 24 and 25 October 1995, high-resolution oceanographic measurements were carried out in the Strait of Messina by using a towed conductivity-temperature-depth chain and a vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler. During the period of investigation the surface water of the Tyrrhenian Sea north of the strait sill was heavier than the surface water of the Ionian Sea south of the strait sill. As a consequence, during northward tidal flow surface water of the Ionian Sea spread as a surface jet into the Tyrrhenian Sea, whereas during southward tidal flow heavier surface water of the Tyrrhenian Sea spread, after having sunk to a depth of about 100 m, as a subsurface jet into the Ionian Sea. Both jets had the form of an internal bore, which finally developed into trains of internal solitary waves whose amplitudes were larger north than south of the strait sill. These measurements represent a detailed picture of the tidally induced internal dynamics in the Strait of Messina during the period of investigation, which contributes to elucidate several aspects of the general internal dynamics in the area: 1) Associated with the tidal flow are intense water jets whose equilibrium depth strongly depends on the horizontal density distribution along the Strait of Messina; 2) although climatological data show that a large horizontal density gradient in the near-surface layer along the Strait of Messina exists, its reversal can occur; 3) fluctuations in the larger-scale circulation patterns that determine the inflow of the modified Atlantic water into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea can be responsible for this reversal. As the tidally induced internal waves reflect the variability in the horizontal density distribution along the Strait of Messina, it is suggested that from the analysis of synthetic aperture radar imagery showing sea surface manifestations of internal waves in this area fluctuations of larger-scale circulation patterns in the Mediterranean Sea can be inferred.
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  • 8
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 15 . pp. 1051-1059.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: A new optical disdrometer has been developed that is optimized for use in high wind speeds, for example, on board ships. The minimal detectable size of droplets is 0.35 mm. Each drop is measured separately with regard to its size and residence time within the sensitive volume. From the available information, the drop size distribution can be calculated with a resolution of 0.05 mm in diameter either by evaluation of the residence time of drops or by drop counting knowing the local wind. Experience shows that using the residence time leads to better results. Rain rates can be determined from the droplet spectra by assuming terminal fall velocity of the drops according to their size. Numerical modeling of disdrometer measurements has been performed, allowing the study of the effect of multiple occupancy of the sensitive volume and grazing incidences on disdrometer measurements. Based on these studies an iterative procedure has been developed to eliminate the impact of these effects on the calculated drop size distributions. This technique may also be applied to any other kind of disdrometer. Long-term simultaneous measurements of the disdrometer and a conventional rain gauge have been used to validate this procedure.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
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  • 10
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22 . pp. 361-381.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: A primitive equation model of an idealized ocean basin, driven by simple, study wind and buoyancy forcing at the surface, is used to study the dynamics of mesoscale eddies. Model statistics of a six-year integration using a fine grid (1/6° × 0.2°), with reduced coefficients of horizontal friction, are compared to those using a coarser grid (1/3° × 0.4°), but otherwise identical configuration. Eddy generation in both model cases is primarily due to the release of mean potential energy by baroclinic instability. Horizontal Reynolds stresses become significant near the midlatitude jet of the fine-grid case, with a tendency for preferred energy transfers from the eddies to the mean flow. Using the finer resolution, eddy kinetic energy nearly doubles at the surface of the subtropical gyre, and increases by factors of 3–4 over the jet region and in higher latitudes. The spatial characteristics of the mesoscale fluctuations are examined by calculating zonal wavenumber spectra and velocity autocorrelation functions. With the higher resolution, the dominant eddy scale remains approximately the same in the subtropical gyre but decreases by a factor of 2 in the subpolar areas. The wavenumber spectra indicate a strong influence of the model friction in the coarse-grid case, especially in higher latitudes. Using the coarse grid, there is almost no separation between the energetic eddy scale and the scale where friction begins to dominate, leading to steep spectra beyond the cutoff wavenumber. Using the finer resolution an inertial subrange with a k−3 power law begins to emerge in all model regions outside the equatorial belt. Despite the large increase of eddy intensity in the fine-grid model, effects on the mean northward transport of heat are negligible. Strong eddy fluxes of heat across the midlatitude jet are almost exactly compensated by changes of the heat transport due to the mean flow.
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: A new numerical two-layer model is presented, which describes the generation of internal tidal bores and their disintegration into internal solitary waves in the Strait of Messina. This model is used to explain observations made by the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) from the European Remote Sensing satellites ERS 1 and ERS 2. The analysis of available ERS 1/2 SAR data of the Strait of Messina and adjacent sea areas show that 1) northward as well as southward propagating internal waves are generated in the Strait of Messina, 2) southward propagating internal waves are observed more frequently than northward propagating internal waves, 3) sea surface manifestations of southward as well as northward propagating internal waves are stronger during periods where a strong seasonal thermocline is known to be present, 4) southward propagating internal bores are released from the sill between 1 and 5 hours after maximum northward tidal flow and northward propagating internal bores are released between 2 and 6 hours after maximum southward tidal flow, and 5) the spatial separation between the first two internal solitary waves of southward propagating wave trains is smaller in the period from July to September than in the period from October to June. The numerical two-layer model is a composite of two models consisting of 1) a hydrostatic “generation model,” which describes the dynamics of the water masses in the region close to the strait’s sill, where internal bores are generated, and 2) a weakly nonhydrostatic “propagation model,” which describes the dynamics of the water masses outside of the sill region where internal bores may disintegrate into internal solitary waves. Due to a technique for movable lateral boundaries, the generation model is capable of simulating the dynamics of a lower layer that may intersect the bottom topography. The proposed generation–propagation model depends on one space variable only, but it retains several features of a fully three-dimensional model by including a realistic channel depth and a realistic channel width. It is driven by semidiurnal tidal oscillations of the sea level at the two open boundaries of the model domain. Numerical simulations elucidate several observed characteristics of the internal wave field in the Strait of Messina, such as north–south asymmetry, times of release of the internal bores from the strait’s sill, propagation speeds, and spatial separations between the first two solitary waves of internal wave trains.
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  • 12
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28 . pp. 1107-1129.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: On the basis of the collection of individual marine observations available from the Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set, major parameters of the sea state were evaluated. Climatological fields of wind waves and swell height and period, as well as significant wave height and resultant period are obtained for the North Atlantic Ocean for the period from 1964 to 1993. Validation of the results against instrumental records from National Data Buoy Center buoys and ocean weather station measurements indicate relatively good agreement for wave height and systematic biases in the visually estimated periods that were corrected. Wave age, which is important for wind stress estimates, was evaluated form wave and wind observations. The climatology of wave age indicates younger waves in winter in the North Atlantic midlatitudes and Tropics. Wave age estimates were applied to the calculations of the wind stress using parameterizations from field experiments. Differences between wave-age-based and traditional estimates are not negligible in wintertime in midlatitudes and Tropics where wave-induced stress contributes from 5% to 15% to the total stress estimates. Importance of the obtained effects for ocean circulation and climate variability is discussed.
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  • 13
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29 . pp. 145-157.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: As a contribution to the WOCE Deep Basin Experiment, an array of current meters with individual record lengths exceeding ii years was set across the southern boundary of the Brazil Basin between early 1991 and early 1996. The array spanned the Santos Plateau, the Vema Channel, and the Hunter Channel, all areas believed to be important for transport of Antarctic Bottom Water between the Argentine and Brazil Basins. From the combination of geostrophic velocities computed from hydrographic stations and those directly measured, the total transport of bottom water (potential temperature below 2 degrees C) is estimated to be about 6.9 Sv (Sv = 10(6) m(3) s(-1)) northward, with about 4 Sv coming through the Vema Channel and the remainder through the Hunter Channel. Properties of the eddy field are also discussed. Eddy energy levels and their spatial distribution are similar to comparable regimes in the North Atlantic. Integral timescales vary from a few days to several weeks with distance from the Brazil Current and the western boundary. The eddy heat Bur is in the same direction as the heat advection by the mean flow but considerably smaller.
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The monthly mean wind stress climatology of Hellerman and Rosenstein (HR) is compared with the climatology of Isemer and Hasse (IH), which represents a version of the Bunker atlas (BU) for the North Atlantic based on revised parameterizations. The drag coefficients adopted by IH are 21% smaller than the values of BU and HR, and the calculation of wind speed from marine estimates of Beaufort force (Bft) is based on a revised Beaufort equivalent scale similar to the scientific scale recommended by WMO. The latter choice significantly increases wind speed below Bft 8, and effectively counteracts the reduction of the drag coefficients. Comparing the IH stresses with HR reveals substantially enhanced magnitudes in the trade wind region throughout the year. At 15°N the mean easterly stress increases from about 0.9 (HR) to about 1.2 dyn cm−1 (IH). Annual mean differences are smaller in the region of the westerlies. In winter, the effect due to the reduced drag coefficient dominates and leads to smaller stress values in IH; during summer season the revision of the Beaufort equivalents is more effective and leads to increased stresses. Implications of the different wind stress climatologies for forcing the large-scale ocean circulation are discussed by means of the Sverdrup transport streamfunction (ψs): Throughout the subtropical gyre a significant intensification of ψs takes place with IH. At 27°N, differences of more than 10 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) are found near the western boundary. Differences in the seasonality of ψs are more pronounced in near-equatorial regions where IH increase the amplitude of the annual cycle by about 50%. An eddy-resolving model of the North Atlantic circulation is used to examine the effect of the different wind stresses on the seasonal cycle of the Florida Current. The transport predicted by the numerical model is in much better agreement with observations when the circulation is forced by IH than by HR, regarding both the annual mean (29.1 Sv vs 23.2 Sv) and the seasonal range (6.3 Sv vs 3.4 Sv).
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  • 15
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 23 . pp. 2182-2200.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Inertial separation of a western boundary current from an idealized continent is studied in a homogeneous ocean circulation model. A number of processes are identified that either encourage or prevent separation at a coastal promontory in this model. For a single-gyre wind forcing a free-slip boundary condition forces the stream to follow the coastline, whereas the no-slip condition allows separation at a sharp corner. A prescribed countergyre to the north of the stream is not necessary to achieve separation if the no-slip condition is used. "Premature" separation occurs for wind fields that do not extend beyond the latitude of the cape. For a more realistic wind field and coastline two distinct states of the stream are found. At small Reynolds numbers the current fails to separate and develops a stationary anticyclonic meander north of the cape. Stronger currents separate and drive a recirculation in the lee of the continent.
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  • 16
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22 (10). pp. 1112-1128.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The seasonal cycles found in moored current measurements in the equatorial Somali Current region and along the equator between 50° and 60°E are compared with the multilayer Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory model for the tropical Indian Ocean. The remote forcing of Somali Current transport variations by incident long equatorial waves from the equatorial interior subthermocline region is investigated by analyzing the model velocities of annual and semiannual period. Amplitudes and phases of linear equatorial Rossby and Kelvin waves were least-squares fitted to the model velocities between 5°S and 5°N, 55° and 86°E from 100-m to 1000-m depth. Two cases of wave fits are distinguished: the “free” Kelvin wave case, where the Kelvin waves were fitted independently, and the “reflected” Kelvin wave case, where they were coupled to the Rossby waves by the western boundary condition for a straight slanted (45° to the north) coastline. The wave field velocities explained 70% of the spatial variance in the equatorial model subregion and also compared reasonably well with observed current variations along the equator. At the western boundary, the short-wave alongshore transport due to reflected incident long waves was determined and found to be antisymmetric about the equator. The maximum transport variation for the semiannual period due to the short waves was about 5 × 106 m3 s−1 between 150- and 800-m depth at 3° north and south of the equator. Observational evidence for the western boundary transport variations and the sensitivity to changes in the incident wave field are discussed.
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  • 17
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24 . pp. 91-107.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The annual cycle of meridional heat transport in the North and equatorial Atlantic Ocean is studied by means of the high-resolution numerical model that had been developed in recent years as a Community Modeling Effort for the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. Similar to previous model studies, there is a winter maximum in northward heat transport in the equatorial Atlantic and a summer maximum in midlatitudes. The seasonal variation in heat transport in the equatorial Atlantic, with a maximum near 8°N, is associated with the out-of-phase changes in heat content to the north and south of that latitude in connection with the seasonal reversal of the North Equatorial Countercurrent. The amplitude of the heat transport variation at 8°N depends on model resolution: forcing with the monthly mean wind stresses of Hellerman–Rosenstein (HR) gives an annual range of 2.1 PW in the case of a 1/3° meridional grid, and 1.7 PW in the case of a 1° grid, compared to 1.4 PW in a previous 2° model. Forcing with the wind stresses of Isemer–Hasse (IH) gives 2.5 PW in the 1/3° and 2.2 PW in the 1° model case. The annual range of heat transport in the subtropical North Atlantic is much less dependent on resolution but sensitive to the wind stress: it increases from 0.5 PW in the case of HR forcing to almost 0.8 PW with IH forcing. The annual cycle of heat transport can be understood in terms of wind-driven variations in the meridional overturning; variations in horizontal gyre transport have only little effect both in the equatorial and in the subtropical Atlantic. In all model solutions the seasonal variations in the near-surface meridional Ekman transport are associated with deep seasonal overturning cells. The weak shear of the deep response suggests that the large variations in heat transport on seasonal and shorter time scales should be of little consequence for observational estimates of mean oceanic heat transports relying on one-time hydrographic surveys.
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  • 18
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25 (10). pp. 2444-2457.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Surface heat and freshwater fluxes from the Comprehensive 0cean-Atmosphere Data Set are revised and used diagnostically to compute air-sea transformation rates on density, temperature, and salinity classes over the domain of the data. Maximum rates occur over the warmest water and over mode waters, which are the dominant result of air-sea interaction. Transformation in different is accordingly distinguished by temperature and salinity, just as water masses in different oceans are so distinguished. Over the entire domain, to about 30°S, approximately 80×106 m3 s−1 of warm cool water are transformed by air-sea fluxes, on annual average. Calculations for several seas in the North Atlantic, where deep water is thought to originate, we also presented.
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  • 19
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27 . pp. 381-402.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Parametric representations of oceanic geostrophic eddy transfer of heat and salt are studied ranging fromhorizontal diffusion to the more physically based approaches of Green and Stone (GS) and Gent and McWilliams(GM). The authors argue for a representation that combines the best aspects of GS and GM: transfer coefficientsthat vary in space and time in a manner that depends on the large-scale density fields (GS) and adoption of atransformed Eulerian mean formalism (GM). Recommendations are based upon a two-dimensional (zonally orazimuthally averaged) model with parameterized horizontal and vertical fluxes that is compared to three-dimensional numerical calculations in which the eddy transfer is resolved. Three different scenarios are considered: 1) a convective “chimney” where the baroclinic zone is created by differential surface cooling; 2) spindownof a frontal zone due to baroclinic eddies; and 3) a wind-driven, baroclinically unstable channel. Guided bybaroclinic instability theory and calibrated against eddy-resolving calculations, the authors recommend a formfor the horizontal transfer coefficient given by where Ri = f2N2/M4 is the large-scale Richardson number and f is the Coriolis parameter; M2 and N2 are measuresof the horizontal and vertical stratification of the large-scale flow, l measures the width of the baroclinic zone,and α is a constant of proportionality. In the very different scenarios studied here the authors find α to be a“universal” constant equal to 0.015, not dissimilar to that found by Green for geostrophic eddies in the atmosphere. The magnitude of the implied k, however, varies from 300 m2 s−1 in the chimney to 2000 m2 s−1 inthe wind-driven channel.
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  • 20
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 16 . pp. 133-145.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: The reliability of the Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Dataset (COADS) Release 1a 2° monthly winds is tested by comparing it with instrumental measurements in the northwest Atlantic from 1981 to 1991. The instrumental dataset contains anemometer measurements of a very high homogeneity and quality, which were taken by six research sister ships with known anemometer heights in the northwest Atlantic. Special data processing was made with instrumental samples to provide compatibility with the COADS winds. Comparison shows overestimation of the COADS winds in the low ranges and underestimation of the strong and moderate winds. Application of the alternative equivalent Beaufort scales does not remove this bias and makes it even more pronounced. Thus, the conclusion is made that the disagreement obtained results primarily from the uncertainties of anemometer measurements in COADS, especially from the incorrect evaluation of the true wind. Instrumental data also do not indicate significant long-term interannual changes, which are pronounced in the COADS dataset for the 1980s. Some regional features of the comparison are discussed.
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  • 21
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79 (10). pp. 2033-2058.
    Publication Date: 2016-09-07
    Description: In the autumn of 1996 the field component of an experiment designed to observe water mass transformation began in the Labrador Sea. Intense observations of ocean convection were taken in the following two winters. The purpose of the experiment was, by a combination of meteorological and oceanographic field observations, laboratory studies, theory, and modeling, to improve understanding of the convective process in the ocean and its representation in models. The dataset that has been gathered far exceeds previous efforts to observe the convective process anywhere in the ocean, both in its scope and range of techniques deployed. Combined with a comprehensive set of meteorological and air-sea flux measurements, it is giving unprecedented insights into the dynamics and thermodynamics of a closely coupled, semienclosed system known to have direct influence on the processes that control global climate.
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  • 22
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 10 . pp. 2743-2763.
    Publication Date: 2017-07-20
    Description: Differences between “classical” and “sampling” estimates of mean climatological heat fluxes and their seasonal and interannual variability are considered on the basis of individual marine observations from the Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set. Calculations of fluxes were done for intramonthly averaging and for 1°–5° spatial averaging. Sampling estimates give in general 10% to 60% higher values of fluxes than do classical estimates. Spatial averaging has a larger effect than temporal averaging in the Tropics and subtropics, and temporal averaging is more effective than spatial averaging in midlatitudes. The largest absolute differences between sampling and classical estimates of fluxes are observed in middle latitudes, where they are 15 to 20 W m−2 for sensible heat flux and 50 to 70 W m−2 for latent heat flux. Differences between sampling and classical estimates can change the annual cycle of sea–air fluxes. There is a secular tendency of increasing “sampling- to-classical” ratios of 1% to 5% decade−1 over the North Atlantic. Relationships between sampling-to-classical ratios and parameters of the sea–air interface, the number of observations, and the spatial arrangement of samples are considered. Climatologically significant differences between sampling and classical estimates are analyzed in terms of the contribution from different covariances between individual variables. The influence of different parameterizations of the transfer coefficients on sampling minus classical differences is considered. Parameterizations that indicate growing transfer coefficients with wind speed give the larger sampling minus classical differences in comparison with those based on either constant or decreasing with wind coefficients. Nevertheless, over the North Atlantic midlatitudes, all parameterizations indicate significant sampling minus classical differences of about several tens of watts per square meter. The importance of differences between sampling and classical estimates for the evaluation of meridional heat transport shows that differences between sampling and classical estimates can lead to 0.5–1-PW differences in meridional heat transport estimates.
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  • 23
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22 . pp. 732-752.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Characteristic of the mesoscale variability in the Atlantic Ocean are investigated by analyzing the Geosat altimeter signal between 60°S and 60°N. The rms sea-surface variability for various frequency bands is studied, including the high-frequency eddy-containing band with periods 〈150 days. Wavenumber spectra and spatial eddy characteristics are analyzed over 10° by 10° boxes covering both hemispheres of the Atlantic Ocean. A comparison, with solutions of a high-resolution numerical experiment, developed as the Community Modeling Effort of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, aids interpretation of the Geosat results in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic and provides a test of the model fluctuating eddy field. Results from Geosat altimetry show a wavenumber dependence close to k1−5 (k1 being the alongtrack wave-number) over almost the entire Atlantic Ocean except for areas in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic where the rms variability in the eddy-containing band is less than 5 cm, that is, not significantly different from the altimeter noise level. Characteristic eddy length scales inferred from Geosat data are linearly related with the deformation radius of the first baroclinic mode over the whole Atlantic Ocean, except for the equatorial regime (10°S to 10°N). The data-model comparison indicates that the high-resolution model with horizontal grid size of ⅓° and ° in latitude and longitude is quite capable of simulating observed eddy characteristics in the tropics and subtropics. In mid- and high latitudes, however, the model fails to simulate the pronounced poleward decrease in eddy scales. This leads to systematic discrepancies between the model and Geosat observation, with model scales being up to 50% larger than deduced from altimetry.
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  • 24
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27 . pp. 1894-1902.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The relative importance of the formation of different North Atlantic Deep Water masses on the meridional overturning is examined with a non-eddy-resolving version of the CME model. In contrast to a frequently held belief, convective deep-water formation south of the North Atlantic sill does not significantly force the large-scale overturning if an adequate overflow across the sill can be represented by the model. The sensitivity of the meridional transport to the surface thermohaline forcing is increased under alternate climatic conditions such as increased surface cooling or reduced overflow compared to the present-day situation. The results indicate that climate models may be too sensitive to decadal timescale variability of the surface forcing in subpolar regions.
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  • 25
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 12 (8). pp. 2607-2624.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: The predictability of the coupled ocean–atmosphere climate system on interannual to decadal timescales has been studied by means of ensemble forecast experiments with a global coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model. Over most parts of the globe the model’s predictability can be sufficiently explained by damped persistence as expected from the stochastic climate model concept with damping times of considerably less than a year. Nevertheless, the tropical Pacific and the North Atlantic Ocean exhibit oscillatory coupled ocean–atmosphere modes, which lead to longer predictability timescales. While the tropical mode shares many similarities with the observed ENSO phenomenon, the coupled mode within the North Atlantic region exhibits a typical period of about 30 yr and relies on an interaction of the oceanic thermohaline circulation and the atmospheric North Atlantic oscillation. The model’s ENSO-like oscillation is predictable up to one-third to one-half (2–3 yr) of the oscillation period both in the ocean and the atmosphere. The North Atlantic yields considerably longer predictability timescales (of the order of a decade) only for quantities describing the model’s thermohaline circulation. For surface quantities and atmospheric variables only marginal predictability (of the order of a year) was obtained. The predictability of the coupled signal at the surface is destroyed by the large amount of internally generated (weather) noise. This is illustrated by means of a simple conceptual model for coupled ocean–atmosphere variability and predictability.
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: The role of anomalous Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) in forcing east African rainfall anomalies during December–January 1997/98 has been investigated by means of atmospheric model response experiments. It is shown that the strong precipitation anomalies that led to severe flooding over eastern equatorial Africa can be directly related to the contemporaneous changes in the Indian Ocean’s SST. The authors’ set of ensemble experiments prescribing SST anomalies in different ocean basins indicates further that the El Niño–related SST anomalies in the equatorial Pacific did not directly drive the changes in the climate over eastern Africa.
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  • 27
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 11 (4). pp. 602-624.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: The interdecadal variability as simulated by coupled ocean–atmosphere models is reviewed. Emphasis is given to that class of interdecadal variability that arises from ocean–atmosphere interactions. The interdecadal variability simulated can be classified roughly into four classes: tropical interdecadal variability, interdecadal variability that involves both the Tropics and the extratropics as active regions, midlatitudinal interdecadal variability involving the wind-driven ocean gyres, and midlatitudinal interdecadal variability involving the thermohaline circulation. Several coupled models predict the existence of different interdecadal climate cycles, with periods ranging from approximately 10–50 yr. This implies some inherent predictability at decadal timescales, provided that these interdecadal cycles exist in the real climate system.
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  • 28
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 11 (5). pp. 831-847.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: In this paper a decadal climate cycle in the North Atlantic that was derived from an extended-range integration with a coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model is described. The decadal mode shares many features with the observed decadal variability in the North Atlantic. The period of the simulated oscillation, however, is somewhat longer than that estimated from observations. While the observations indicate a period of about 12 yr, the coupled model simulation yields a period of about 17 yr. The cyclic nature of the decadal variability implies some inherent predictability at these timescales. The decadal mode is based on unstable air–sea interactions and must be therefore regarded as an inherently coupled mode. It involves the subtropical gyre and the North Atlantic oscillation. The memory of the coupled system, however, resides in the ocean and is related to horizontal advection and to the oceanic adjustment to low-frequency wind stress curl variations. In particular, it is found that variations in the intensity of the Gulf Stream and its extension are crucial to the oscillation. Although differing in details, the North Atlantic decadal mode and the North Pacific mode described by M. Latif and T. P. Barnett are based on the same fundamental mechanism: a feedback loop between the wind driven subtropical gyre and the extratropical atmospheric circulation.
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  • 29
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 10 (9). pp. 2221-2239.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: The dominant variability modes in the Tropics are investigated and contrasted with the anomalous situation observed during the last few years. The prime quantity analyzed is anomalous sea surface temperature (SST) in the region 30°S–60°N. Additionally, observed tropical surface wind stress fields were investigated. Further tropical atmospheric information was derived from a multidecadal run with an atmospheric general circulation model that was forced by the same SSTs. The tropical SST variability can be characterized by three modes: an interannual mode [the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)], a decadal mode, and a trend or unresolved ultra-low-frequency variability. The dominant mode of SST variability is the ENSO mode. It is strongest in the eastern equatorial Pacific, but influences also the SSTs in other regions through atmospheric teleconnections, such as the Indian and North Pacific Oceans. The ENSO mode was strong during the 1980s, but it existed with very weak amplitude and short period after 1991. The second most energetic mode is characterized by considerable decadal variability. This decadal mode is connected with SST anomalies of the same sign in all three tropical oceans. The tropical Pacific signature of the decadal mode resembles closely that observed during the last few years and can be characterized by a horseshoe pattern, with strongest SST anomalies in the western equatorial Pacific, extending to the northeast and southeast into the subtropics. It is distinct from the ENSO mode, since it is not connected with any significant SST anomalies in the eastern equatorial Pacific, which is the ENSO key region. However, the impact of the decadal mode on the tropical climate resembles in many respects that of ENSO. In particular, the decadal mode is strongly linked to decadal rainfall fluctuations over northeastern Australia in the observations. It is shown that the anomalous 1990s were dominated by the decadal mode. Considerable SST variability can be attributed also to a linear trend or unresolved ultra-low-frequency variability. This trend that might be related to greenhouse warming is rather strong and positive in the Indian Ocean and western equatorial Pacific where it accounts for up to 30% of the total SST variability. Consistent with the increase of SST in the warm pool region, the trends over the tropical Pacific derived from both the observations and the model indicate a strengthening of the trade winds. This is inconsistent with the conditions observed during the 1990s. If the wind trends reflect greenhouse warming, it must be concluded that the anomalous 1990s are not caused by greenhouse warming. Finally, hybrid coupled ocean–atmosphere model experiments were conducted in order to investigate the sensistivity of ENSO to the low-frequency changes induced by the decadal mode and the trend. The results indicate that ENSO is rather sensitive to these changes in the background conditions.
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  • 30
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 10 (7). pp. 1488-1504.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon is modeled as a stochastically driven dynamical system. This was accomplished by adding to a Hybrid Coupled Model (HCM) of the tropical Pacific ocean–atmosphere system a stochastic wind stress anomaly field that was derived from observations. The model exhibits irregular interannual fluctuations, whose space–time characteristics resemble those of the observed interannual climate variability in this region. To investigate the predictability of the model, the authors performed ensemble integrations with different realizations of the stochastic wind stress forcing. The ensembles were initialized at various phases of the model’s ENSO cycle simulated in a 120-yr integration with a particular noise realization. The numerical experiments indicate that the ENSO predictability is severely limited by the stochastic wind stress forcing. Linear stochastic processes were fitted to the restart ensembles in a reduced state space. A predictability measure based on a comparison of the stationary and the time-dependent probability distributions of the fitted linear models reveals an ENSO predictability limit of considerably less than an average cycle length.
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  • 31
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 9 (10). pp. 2407-2423.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: The dynamics and predictability of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America are investigated by analyzing various observational datasets and the output of a state of the art coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model that was integrated for 125 years. Both the observations and model results support the picture that the decadal variability in the region of interest is based on a cycle involving unstable ocean–atmosphere interactions over the North Pacific. The period of this cycle is of the order of a few decades. The cycle involves the two major circulation regimes in the North Pacific climate system, the subtropical ocean gyre, and the Aleutian low. When, for instance, the subtropical ocean gyre is anomalously strong, more warm tropical waters are transported poleward by the Kuroshio and its extension, leading to a positive SST anomaly in the North Pacific. The atmospheric response to this SST anomaly involves a weakened Aleutian low, and the associated fluxes at the air–sea interface reinforce the initial SST anomaly, so that ocean and atmosphere act as a positive feedback system. The anomalous heat flux, reduced ocean mixing in response to a weakened storm track, and anonmalous Ekman heat transport contribute to this positive feedback. The atmospheric response, however, consists also of a wind stress curl anomaly that spins down the subtropical ocean gyre, thereby reducing the poleward heat transport and the initial SST anomaly. The ocean adjusts with some time lag to the change in the wind stress curl, and it is this transient ocean response that allows continuous oscillations. The transient response can be expressed in terms of baroclinic planetary waves, and the decadal timescale of the oscillation is therefore determined to first order by wave timescales. Advection by the mean currents, however, is not negligible. The existence of such a cycle provides the basis of long-range climate forecasting over North America at decadal timescales. At a minimum, knowledge of the present phase of the decadal mode should allow a “now-cast” of expected climate “bias” over North America, which is equivalent to a climate forecast several years ahead.
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  • 32
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 9 (1). pp. 219-239.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: The physics of the Indo–Pacific warm pool are investigated using a coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation model. The model, developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fair Meteorologic, Hamburg, does not employ a flux correction and is used with atmospheres at T42 and T21 resolution. The simulations are compared with observations, and the model's mean and seasonal heat budgets and physics in the Indo–Pacific warm pool region are explored for the T42 resolution run. Despite the simulation of a split intertropical convergence zone, and of a cold tongue that extends too far to the west, simulated warm pool temperatures are consistent with observations at T42 resolution, while the T21 resolution yields a cold bias of 1K. At T42 resolution the seasonal migration of the warm pool is reproduced reasonably well, as are the surface heat fluxes, winds, and clouds. However, simulated precipitation is too small compared to observations, implying that the surface density flux is dominated by fluxes of heat. In the Pacific portion of the warm pool, the average net heat gain of the ocean amounts to 30–40 W m−2. In the northern branch, this heat gain is balanced by vertical advection, while in the southern branch, zonal, meridional, and vertical advection cool the ocean at approximately equal rates. At the equator, the surface heat flux is balanced by zonal and vertical advection and vertical mixing. The Indonesian and Indian Ocean portions of the warm pool receive from the atmosphere 30 and 50 W m−2, respectively, and this flux is balanced by vertical advection. The cooling due to vertical advection stems from numerical diffusion associated with the upstream scheme, the coarse vertical resolution of the ocean model, and near-inertial oscillations forced by high-frequency atmospheric variability. The seasonal migration of the warm pool is largely a result of the seasonal variability of the net surface heat flux, horizontal and vertical advections are of secondary importance and increase the seasonal range of surface temperature slightly everywhere in the warm pool, with the exception of its southern branch. There, advection reduces the effect of the surface flux. The seasonal variability of the surface heat flux in turn is mainly determined by the shortwave radiation, but evaporation modifies the signal significantly. The annual cycles of reduction of solar radiation due to clouds and SST evolve independently from each other in the Pacific portion of the warm pool; that is, clouds have little impact on SST. In the Indian Ocean, however, clouds limit the maximum SST attained during the annual cycle. In the western Pacific and Indonesian portion of the warm pool, penetrative shortwave radiation leads to convective mixing by heating deeper levels at a greater rate than the surface, which experiences heat losses due to turbulent and longwave heat fluxes. In the deeper levels, there is no mechanism to balance the heating due to penetrative radiation, except convection and its attendant mixing. In the Indian Ocean, however. the resulting vertical heating profile due to the surface fluxes decreases monotonically with depth and does not support convective mixing. Concurrently, the warm pool is shallower in the Indian Ocean compared with the western Pacific, indicating that convective mixing due to penetrative radiation is important in maintaining the vertical structure of the Pacific portion of the warm pool.
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  • 33
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 8 (4). pp. 952-964.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: The authors have investigated the interactions of the tropical oceans on interannual timescales by conducting a series of uncoupled atmospheric and oceanic general circulation experiments and hybrid-coupled model simulations. The results illustrate the key role of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation phenomenon in generating interannual variability in all three tropical ocean basins. Sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific force SST anomalies of the same sign in the Indian Ocean and SST anomalies of the opposite sign in the Atlantic via a changed atmospheric circulation. However, although air-sea interactions in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans are much weaker than those in the Pacific, they contribute significantly to the variability in these two regions. The role of these air-sea interactions is mainly that of an amplifier by which the ENSO-induced signals are enhanced in the ocean and atmosphere. This process is particularly important in the tropical Atlantic region. The authors investigated, also, whether ENSO is part of a zonally propagating “wave,” which travels around the globe with a timescale of several years. Consistent with observations, the upper-ocean heat content in the various numerical simulators seems to propagate slowly around the globe. SST anomalies in the Pacific Ocean introduce a global atmospheric response, which in turn forces variations in the other tropical oceans. Since the different oceans exhibit different response characteristics to low-frequency wind changes, the individual tropical ocean responses can add up coincidentally to look like a global wave, and that appears to be the situation. In particular, no evidence is found that the Indian Ocean can significantly affect the ENSO cycle in the Pacific. Finally, the potential for climate forecasts in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans appears to be enhanced if one includes, in a coupled way, remote influences from the Pacific.
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  • 34
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 7 (10). pp. 1449-1462.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: We have investigated the seasonal cycle and the interannual variability of the tropical Indian Ocean circulation and the Indian summer monsoon simulated by a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model in a 26- year integration. Although the model exhibits significant climate drift, overall, the coupled GCM simulates realistically the seasonal changes in the tropical Indian Ocean and the onset and evolution of the Indian summer monsoon. The amplitudes of the seasonal changes, however, are underestimated. The coupled GCM also simulates considerable interannual variability in the tropical Indian Ocean circulation, which is partly related to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation phenomenon and the associated changes in the Walker circulation. Changes in the surface wind stress appear to be crucial in forcing interannual variations in the Indian Ocean SST. As in the Pacific Ocean, the net surface beat flux acts as a negative feedback on the SST anomalies. The interannual variability in monsoon rainfall, simulated by the coupled GCM, is only about half as strong as observed. The reason for this is that the simulated interannual variability in the Indian monsoon appears to be related to internal processes within the atmosphere only. In contrast, an investigation based on observations shows a clear lead-lag relationship between interannual variations in the monsoon rainfall and tropical Pacific SST anomalies. Furthermore, the atmospheric GCM also fails to reproduce this lead-lag relationship between monsoon rainfall and tropical Pacific SST when run in a stand-alone integration with observed SSTs prescribed during the period 1970–1988. These results indicate that important physical processes relating tropical Pacific SST to Indian monsoon rainfall are not adequately modeled in our atmospheric GCM. Monsoon rainfall predictions appear therefore premature.
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: The space-time structure and predictability of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon was investigated. Two comprehensive datasets were analyzed by means of an advanced statistical method, one based on observational data and the other on data derived from an extended-range integration performed with a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. It is shown that a considerable portion of the ENSO-related low-frequency climate variability in both datasets is associated with a cycle involving slow propagation in the equatorial oceanic beat content and the surface wind field. The existence of this cycle implies the ability of climate predictions in the tropics up to lead times of about one year. This is shown by conducting an ensemble of predictions with our coupled general circulation model. For the first time a coupled model of this type was successfully applied to ENSO predictions.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: A hybrid coupled model (HCM) of the tropical ocean–atmosphere system is described. The ocean component is a fully nonlinear ocean general circulation model (OGCM). The atmospheric element is a statistical model that specifies wind stress from ocean-model sea surface temperatures (SST). The coupled model demonstrates a chaotic behavior during extended integration that is related to slow changes in the background mean state of the ocean. The HCM also reproduces many of the observed variations in the tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere system. The physical processes operative in the model together describe a natural mode of climate variability in the tropical Pacific ocean–atmosphere system. The mode is composed of (i) westward-propagating Rossby waves and (ii) an equatorially confined air–sea element that propagates eastward. Additional results showed that the seasonal dependence of the anomalous ocean–atmosphere coupling was vital to the model's ability to both replicate and forecast key features of the tropical Pacific climate system. A series of hindcast and forecast experiments was conducted with the model. It showed real skill in forecasting fall/winter tropical Pacific SST at a lead time of up to 18 months. This skill was largely confined to the central equatorial Pacific, just the region that is most prominent in teleconnections with the Northern Hemisphere during winter. This result suggests the model forecasts of winter SST at leads times of at least 6 months are good enough to be used with atmospheric models (statistical or OGCM) to attempt long-range winter forecasts for the North American continent. This suggestion is confirmed in Part II of this paper.
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  • 37
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 6 (1). pp. 5-21.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: A 26-year integration has been performed with a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (CGCM). The oceanic part resolves all three oceans in the latitude band 70°N–70°S but is dynamically active only between 30°N and 30°S. The atmosphere is represented by a global low-order spectral model. The coupled model was forced by seasonally varying insolation. Although the simulated time-averaged mean conditions in both atmosphere and ocean show significant deviations from the observed climatology, the CGCM realistically simulates the interannual variability in the tropical Pacific. In particular, the CGCM simulates an irregular ENSO with a preferred time scale of about 3 years. The mechanism for the simulated interannual variability in the tropical Pacific is related to both the “delayed action oscillator” and the “slow SST mode.” It therefore appears likely that either both modes can coexist or they degenerate to one mode within certain locations of the parameter space. This hypothesis is also supported by calculations performed with simplified coupled models, in which the atmospheric GCM was replaced by linear steady-state atmosphere models. Further, evidence is found for an eastward migration of zonal wind anomalies over the western Pacific prior to the extremes of the simulated ENSO, indicating a link to circulation systems over Asia. Because an earlier version of the CGCM did not simulate interannual variability in the tropical Pacific, additional experiments with a simplified coupled model have been conducted to study the sensitivity of coupled systems to varying mean oceanic background conditions. It is shown that even modest changes in the background conditions can push the coupled system from one flow regime into another.
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: The ECMWF-T21 atmospheric GCM is forced by observed near-global SST from January 1970 to December 1985. Its response in low level winds and surface wind stress over the Pacific Ocean is compared with various observations. The time dependent SST clearly induces a Southern Oscillation (SO) in the model run which is apparent in the time series of all variables considered. The phase of the GCM SO is as observed, but its low frequency variance is too weak and is mainly confined to the western Pacific. Because of the GCM's use as the atmospheric component in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, the response of an equatorial oceanic primitive equation model to both the modeled and observed wind stress is examined. The ocean model responds to the full observed wind stress forcing in a manner almost identical to that when it is forced by the first two low frequency EOFs of the observations only. These first two EOFs describe a regular eastward propagation of the SO signal from the western Pacific to the central Pacific within about a year. The ocean model's response to the modeled wind stress is too weak and similar to the response when the observed forcing is truncated to the first EOF only. In other words, the observed SO appears as a sequence of propagating patterns but the simulated SO as a standing oscillation. The nature of the deviation of the simulated wind stress from observations is analyzed by means of Model Output Statistics (MOS). It is shown that a MOS-corrected simulated wind stress, if used to force an ocean GCM, leads to a significant enhancement of low frequency SST variance, which is most pronounced in the western Pacific.
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  • 39
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22 (11). pp. 1257-1273.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Results of a three-dimensional primitive equation model are presented simulating turbulent mesoscale motions in the seasonal thermocline on an f plane. The model is based on a hybrid vertical coordinate scheme and conserves isopycnic potential vorticity. Mesoscale turbulence is modeled in terms of an unstable potential vorticity front. The model integration starts from a purely zonal, 60-km-wide geostrophically balanced jet, on which is superimposed a small initial perturbation. The most unstable mode exhibits a wavelength of 85 km and is driven by a mixed type of instability. Characteristic dynamical ingredients of the wave are enhanced cyclonic and anticyclonic relative vorticity in the troughs and the ridges, respectively, due to the curvature of the flow. Vertical motion of up to 10 m d−1 occurring downstream of the ridges (downwelling) and downstream of the troughs (upwelling) is driven by geostrophic advection of relative vorticity. The contrast of static stability across the front is changing during amplification of the instability: in troughs the stability is decreasing whereas in ridges it is increasing. The density field exhibits local anomalies of the isopycnals' depths (bumps) due to the ageostrophic cross-jet advection of potential vorticity streamers wound up in cyclones and anticyclones. Locally, the potential vorticity gradients are enhanced, creating a multiple front structure. The model results support observations and findings of earlier atmospheric and oceanic models. It is emphasized that mesoscale turbulent structures may have a profound influence on primary productivity, mixed-layer, and internal wave dynamics.
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  • 40
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 23 (8). pp. 1638-1646.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: New light is shed on Worthington's concept of the North Atlantic circulation, postulating the existence of two anticyclonic gyres. This concept, which seems to have been laid to rest in the last decade, has now been reinforced by the results of a simple linear Sverdrup circulation model yielding a band of westward transport all across the North Atlantic at about the Azores latitude. This narrow band is called the Azores Countercurrent (AzCC) and matches the position of westward flow required by Worthington's “northern gyre.” An anomaly in the meridional change of the wind-stress curl in the eastern North Atlantic has been identified as the driving mechanism. A comparison with observations shows that the AzCC is verified in many analyses of historical datasets and synoptic surveys. A lack of the AzCC in other analyses is probably due to missing meridional sections, strong smoothing, and the superimposed Ekman flow close to the sea surface directed to the southeast. The AzCC has not been verified in low-resolution general circulation models applying simplified wind-stress fields and large friction coefficients, but there is evidence for its existence in recent high-resolution models driven by realistic wind stresses. Based on these findings, a new pattern for the wind-driven upper ocean circulation of the midlatitude North Atlantic is presented.
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  • 41
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24 (5). pp. 928-948.
    Publication Date: 2018-08-13
    Description: Observations of upper-ocean western boundary current (WBC) transports reveal asymmetries between the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres of the Atlantic Ocean. To find out what mechanism might cause these asymmetries the linearized steady-state vorticity equation is applied to the interior of a layer of constant thickness representing the upper Atlantic Ocean. WBC transports are then required to balance the interior volume flux deficit. The ocean is forced by climatological wind stress at the surface; thermohaline forcing is introduced by vertical motion at the lower boundary. A series of model runs using selected combinations of different basin geometries, wind stress fields, and thermohaline forcing patterns yields the following results: asymmetries of WBC transports cannot be explained by the topography shape of coastlines. The wind stress causes 12 Sv (Sv ≡ 1 × 106 m3 s −1) cross-equatorial transport to the north but it cannot account for the other WBC asymmetries. These can be explained by superimposing a thermohaline flow component to the wind-driven circulation. The best agreement with observations could be obtained from a model run driven by a sinking rate of 20 Sv in the northern North Atlantic and 4 Sv in the Weddell Sea compensated by 15 Sv return flow from other oceans via the Agulhas Current or Drake Passage and uniform upwelling of 9 Sv in the Atlantic. In tropical and subtropical latitudes this run reproduces all observed asymmetries, but in subpolar latitudes the model fails. Further conclusions can be drawn from the model results. (i) Up to 20 Sv northward transport of Antarctic Intermediate Water is needed at about 10°S to explain the difference of modeled transports and observations. For the same reasons an Antilles Current of up to 16 Sv is required. (ii) The major part of the northward heat transport in the North Atlantic has to occur via the tropical countercurrents and the North Equatorial Current. Only less than 7 Sv take the shortest way to the Caribbean via the Guyana Current. (iii) Fifty-six percent of the Florida Straits transport is wind driven.
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  • 42
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22 (4). pp. 421-430.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: In this paper, the historical hydrographic database for the south Indian Ocean is used to investigate (i) the hydrographic boundary between the subtropical gyre and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the subtropical front (STF), and especially (ii) the southern current band of the gyre. A current band of increased zonal speeds in the upper 1000 m is found just north of the STF in the west near South Africa and at the surface STF in the open Indian Ocean until the waters off the coast of Australia are reached. As neither any other investigation of this current nor a name for it are known, the flow has been called the South Indian Ocean Current (SIOC). This name is anologous to the same current band in the South Atlantic Ocean, the South Atlantic Current. The STF is located in the entire south Indian Ocean near 40-degrees-S. The associated current band of increased zonal speeds is the SIOC, which is found at or north of the STF. East of 100-degrees-E the SIOC separates from the STF and continues to the northeast. The zonal flow south of the STF is normally weak and serves to separate the South Indian Ocean and Circumpolar currents. Near Africa the SIOC has a typical volume transport of 60 Sv (1 Sv = 10(6) m3 s-1) in the upper 1000 m relative to deep potential density surfaces of sigma(4) = 45.87 kg m-3 (2800-3500 m) or sigma(2) = 36.94 kg m-3 (1500-2500 m). Near western Australia the SIOC is reduced to about 10 Sv as it turns to the northeast.
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  • 43
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25 (11). pp. 2532-2546.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: In late austral summer 1991 a cyclonic thermocline eddy was detected in the subtropical western South Atlantic off the Brazilian shelf near the city of Vitória. This Vitória eddy was tracked for 55 days by surface drifters drogued at 100-m depth. The drifters had been deployed in the western boundary current regime by FS Meteor as part of a basinwide surface current study. The analysis of a combined CTD/XBT section across the Vitória eddy, together with drifter data and satellite images of the thermal surface structure revealed the unexpected complexity of the region. The eddy interacted not only with the local topography and the Brazil Current, located farther offshore, but also with an extended upwelling regime north of Cabo Frio. The hydrographic and kinematic properties and anomalies of the Vitóia eddy are analyzed and compared with similar vortices described elsewhere in literature.
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  • 44
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26 . pp. 1142-1164.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The authors use different versions of the model of the wind- and thermohaline-driven circulation in the North and Equatorial Atlantic developed under the WOCE Community Modeling Effort to investigate the mean flow pattern and deep-water formation in the subpolar region, and the corresponding structure of the basin-scale meridional overturning circulation transport. A suite of model experiments has been carded out in recent years, differing in horizontal resolution (1° × 1.2°, 1/3° × 0.4°, 1/6° × 0.2°), thermohaline boundary conditions, and parameterization of small-scale mixing. The mass transport in the subpolar gyre and the production of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) appears to be essentially controlled by the outflow of dense water from the Greenland and Norwegian Seas. in the present model simulated by restoring conditions in a buffer zone adjacent to the boundary near the Greenland–Scotland Ridge. Deep winter convection homogenizes the water column in the center of the Labrador Sea to about 2000 m. The water mass properties (potential temperature about 3°C, salinity about 34.9 psu) and the volume (1.1×1053 km3) of the homogenized water are in fair agreement with observations. The convective mixing has only little effect on the net sinking of upper-layer water in the subpolar gyre. Sensitivity experiments show that the export of NADW from the subpolar North Atlantic is more strongly affected by changes in the overflow conditions than by changes in the surface buoyancy fluxes over the Labrador and Irminger Seas, even if these suppress the deep convection completely. The host of sensitivity experiments demonstrates that realistic meridional overturning and heat transport distributions for the North Atlantic (with a maximum of 1 PW) can be obtained with NADW production rates of 15–16 Sv, provided the spurious upwelling of deep water that characterizes many model solutions in the Gulf Stream regime is avoided by adequate horizontal resolution add mixing parameterization.
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  • 45
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28 . pp. 999-1002.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: New analytical, circular eddy solutions of the nonlinear, reduced-gravity, shallow-water equations in a rotating system are presented. While previous analytical solutions were limited to the description of pulsons, which are oscillating, frontal, warm-core eddies with paraboloidic shape and linear velocity components, the new solutions describe more general radial structures of eddy shape and azimuthal velocity. In particular, the new solutions, which contain as a subset the circular pulson solution, also allow for the description of circular, frontal, warm-core eddies with small azimuthal velocities at their periphery and/or with motionless cores, which are frequently observed characteristics of warm-core eddies in the World Ocean.
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  • 46
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 15 . pp. 380-386.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: A ship rain gauge has been developed that can be used under high wind speeds such as those experienced by ships at sea. The instrument has an improved aerodynamic design and an additional lateral collecting surface, which is effective especially with high wind speeds. The ship rain gauge has been calibrated at sea against a specially designed optical disdrometer. An accuracy of 2%–3% has been obtained for 6-hourly sums. The ship rain gauge has also successfully been tested at a test site of the German Weather Service and presently is used on research vessels and voluntary observing ship.
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  • 47
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29 (6). pp. 1251-1264.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: A dynamic–thermodynamic sea ice–mixed layer model for the Weddell Sea is complemented by a simple, diagnostic model to account for local sea ice–atmosphere interaction. To consider the atmospheric influence on the oceanic mixed layer, the pycnocline upwelling velocity is calculated using the theory of Ekman pumping. In several experiments, formation and conservation of a polynya in the Weddell Sea are investigated. Intrusion of heat into the lower atmosphere above the polynya area is assumed to cause a thermal perturbation and a cyclonic thermal wind field. Superposed with daily ECMWF surface winds, this modified atmospheric forcing field intensifies oceanic upwelling and induces divergent ice drift. Simulation results indicate that in case of a weak atmospheric cross-polynya flow the formation of a thermal wind field can significantly extend the lifetime of a large polynya. The repeated occurrence of the Weddell polynya in the years 1974–76 thus appears to be an effect of feedback mechanisms between sea ice, atmosphere, and oceanic mixed layer.
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  • 48
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Applied Meteorology, 36 . pp. 919-930.
    Publication Date: 2017-07-03
    Description: A neural network is used to calculate the longwave net radiation (Lnet) at the sea surface from measurements of the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). The neural network applied in this study is able to account largely for the nonlinearity between Lnet and the satellite-measured brightness temperatures (TB). The algorithm can be applied for instantaneous measurements over oceanic regions with the area extent of satellite passive microwave observations (30–60 km in diameter). Comparing with a linear regression method the neural network reduces the standard error for Lnet from 17 to 5 W m−2 when applied to model results. For clear-sky cases, a good agreement with an error of less than 5 W m−2 for Lnet between calculations from SSM/I observations and pyrgeometer measurements on the German research vessel Poseidon during the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE) 1989 is obtained. For cloudy cases, the comparison is problematic due to the inhomogenities of clouds and the low and different spatial resolutions of the SSM/I data. Global monthly mean values of Lnet for October 1989 are computed and compared to other sources. Differences are observed among the climatological values from previous studies by H.-J. Isemer and L. Hasse, the climatological values from R. Lindau and L. Hasse, the values of W. L. Darnell et al., and results from this study. Some structures of Lnet are similar for results from W. L. Darnell et al. and the present authors. The differences between both results are generally less than 15 W m−2. Over the North Atlantic Ocean the authors found a poleward increase for Lnet, which is contrary to the results of H.-J. Isemer and L. Hasse.
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  • 49
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 10 (11). pp. 2711-2724.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: Parameterization of turbulent wind stress and sensible and latent heat fluxes is reviewed in the context of climate studies and model calculations, and specific formulas based on local measurements are recommended. Wind speed is of key importance, and in applying experimental results, the differences between local and modeled winds must be considered in terms of their method of observation or calculation. Climatological wind data based on Beaufort wind force reports require correction for historical trends. Integrated long-term net turbulent and radiative heat fluxes at the sea surface, calculated from archived data, are consistent with meridional heat transport through oceanographic sections; this lends support to the methods used
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  • 50
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 55 (17). pp. 2874-2883.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-16
    Description: The roles of ice particle size distributions (SDs) and particle shapes in cirrus cloud solar radiative transfer are investigated by analyzing SDs obtained from optical array probe measurements (particle sizes larger than 20–40 μm) during intensive field observations of the International Cirrus Experiment, the European Cloud and Radiation Experiment, the First ISCCP Regional Experiment, and the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment. It is found that the cloud volume extinction coefficient is more strongly correlated with the total number density than with the effective particle size. Distribution-averaged mean single scattering properties are calculated for hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, and polycrystals at a nonabsorbing (0.5 μm), moderately absorbing (1.6 μm), and strongly absorbing (3.0 μm) wavelength. At 0.5 μm (1.6 μm) (3.0 μm), the spread in the resulting mean asymmetry parameters due to different SDs is smaller than (comparable to) (smaller than) the difference caused by applying different particle shapes to these distributions. From a broadband solar radiative transfer point of view it appears more important to use the correct particle shapes than to average over the correct size distributions.
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  • 51
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24 . pp. 326-344.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Global mean and eddy fields from a four-year experiment with a 1/6° × 1/5° horizontal resolution implementation of the CME North Atlantic model are presented. The time-averaged wind-driven and thermohaline circulation in the model is compared to the results of a 1/3° × 2/5° model run in very similar configuration. In general, the higher resolution results are found to confirm that the resolution of previous CME experiments is sufficient to describe many features of the large-scale circulation and water mass distribution quite well. While the increased resolution does not lead to large changes in the mean flow patterns, the variability in the model is enhanced significantly. On the other hand, however, not all aspects of the circulation have improved with resolution. The Azores Current Frontal Zone with its variability in the eastern basin is still represented very poorly. Particular attention is also directed toward the unrealistic stationary anticyclones north of Cape Hatteras and in the Gulf of Mexico.
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  • 52
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Applied Meteorology, 37 (8). pp. 832-844.
    Publication Date: 2017-07-03
    Description: A neural network (NN) has been developed in order to retrieve the cloud liquid water path (LWP) over the oceans from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. The retrieval with NNs depends crucially on the SSM/I channels used as input and the number of hidden neurons—that is, the NN architecture. Three different combinations of the seven SSM/I channels have been tested. For all three methods an NN with five hidden neurons yields the best results. The NN-based LWP algorithms for SSM/I observations are intercompared with a standard regression algorithm. The calibration and validation of the retrieval algorithms are based on 2060 radiosonde observations over the global ocean. For each radiosonde profile the LWP is parameterized and the brightness temperatures (Tb’s) are simulated using a radiative transfer model. The best LWP algorithm (all SSM/I channels except T85V) shows a theoretical error of 0.009 kg m−2 for LWPs up to 2.8 kg m−2 and theoretical “clear-sky noise” (0.002 kg m−2), which has been reduced relative to the regression algorithm (0.031 kg m−2). Additionally, this new algorithm avoids the estimate of negative LWPs. An indirect validation and intercomparison is presented that is based upon SSM/I measurements (F-10) under clear-sky conditions, classified with independent IR-Meteosat data. The NN-based algorithms outperform the regression algorithm. The best LWP algorithm shows a clear-sky standard deviation of 0.006 kg m−2, a bias of 0.001 kg m−2, nonnegative LWPs, and no correlation with total precipitable water. The estimated accuracy for SSM/I observations and two of the proposed new LWP algorithms is 0.023 kg m−2 for LWP ⩽ 0.5 kg m−2.
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  • 53
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29 . pp. 2303-2317.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: A primitive equation model to study the dynamics of the Agulhas system has been developed. The model domain covers the South Atlantic and the south Indian Ocean with a resolution of ⅓° in the Agulhas region while coarser outside. It is driven by a climatology of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. It is shown that the model simulates the Agulhas Current, its retroflection, and the ring shedding successfully. The model results show baroclinic anticyclonic eddies in the Mozambique Channel and east of Madagascar, which travel toward the northern Agulhas Current. After the eddies reach the current they are advected southward with the mean flow. Due to the limited numerical resolution only a few eddies reach the retroflection region without much modification. These eddies are responsible for drastic enhancement of the heat transfer from the Indian Ocean to the South Atlantic and lead to periodicities in the interoceanic heat transport of about 50 days superimposed on the seasonal variability. Combined satellite data from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1 show that the observed vortices in the Mozambique Channel are comparable to those seen in the model. In contrast to this the simulated eddies east of Madagascar seem not to be well reproduced. Analyses of the energy conversion terms between the mean flow and the eddies suggest that barotropic instability plays an important role in the generation of Mozambique Channel eddies. For the generation of Agulhas rings and other eddy structures in the model the barotropic instability mechanism seems to be minor, and baroclinic instability mechanisms are more likely.
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  • 54
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 11 (3). pp. 297-312.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: In this study, a hybrid coupled model (HCM) is used to investigate the physics of decadal variability in the North Pacific. This aids in an understanding of the inherent properties of the coupled ocean–atmosphere system in the absence of stochastic forcing by noncoupled variability. It is shown that the HCM simulates a self-sustained decadal oscillation with a period of about 20 yr, similar to that found in both the observations and coupled GCMs. Sensitivity experiments are carried out to determine the relative importance of wind stresses, net surface heat flux, and freshwater flux on the initiation and maintenance of the decadal oscillation in the North Pacific. It is found that decadal variability is a mode of the coupled system and involves interaction of sea surface temperature, upper-ocean heat content, and wind stress. This interaction is mainly controlled by the wind stress but can be strongly modified by the surface heat flux. The effect of the salinity is relatively small and is not necessary to generate the model decadal oscillation in the North Pacific. There are some limitations with this study. First, the effect of a stochastic forcing is not included. Second, a weak negative feedback is needed to run the control experiment for a longer time period. These two areas will be addressed in a future investigation.
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  • 55
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 4 (5). pp. 487-515.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: Two extended integrations of general circulation models (GCMs) are examined to determine the physical processes operating during an ENSO cycle. The first integration is from the Hamburg version of the ECMWF T21 atmospheric model forced with observed global sea surface temperatures (SST) over the period 1970–85. The second integration is from a Max Planck Institut model of the tropical Pacific forced by observed wind stress for the same period. Both integrations produce key observed features of the tropical ocean-atmosphere system during the 1970–85 period. The atmospheric model results show an eastward propagation of information from the western to eastern Pacific along the equator, although this signal is somewhat weaker than observed. The Laplacian of SST largely drives the surface wind field convergence and hence determines the position of large scale precipitation-condensation heating. This statement is valid only in the near-equatorial zone. Air-sea heat exchange is important in the planetary boundary layer in forcing the wind field convergence but not so important to the main troposphere, which is heated largely by condensation heating. The monopole response seen in the atmosphere above about 500 mb is due to a combination of factors, the most important being adiabatic heating associated with subsidence and tropic-wide variations in precipitation. The models show the role of air-sea heat exchange in the ocean heat balance in the wave guide is one of dissipation/damping. Total air-sea heat exchange is well represented by a simple Newtonian cooling parameterization in the near-equatorial region. In the wave guide, advection dominates the oceanic heat balance with meridional advection being numerically the most important in all regions except right on the equator. The meridional term is largely explained by local Ekman dynamics that generally overwhelm other processes in the regions of significant wind stress. The principal element in this advection term is the anomalous meridional current acting on the climatological mean meridional SST gradient. The eastward motion of the anomalies seen in both models is driven primarily by the ocean. The wind stress associated with the SST anomalies forces an equatorial convergence of heat and mass in the ocean. Outside the region of significant wind forcing, the mass source leads to a convergent geostrophic flow, which drives the meridional heat flux and causes warming to the east of the main wind anomaly. West of the main anomaly the wind and geostrophic divergence cause advective cooling. The result is that the main SST anomaly appears to move eastward. Since the direct SST forcing drives the anomalous wind, surface wind convergence, and associated precipitation, these fields are seen also to move eastward.
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  • 56
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22 (8). pp. 951-962.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The time history of upper-ocean temperatures in the tropical Pacific has been used as a predictor in a statistical prediction scheme to forecast SST anomalies in this region. The temperature variations were taken from the output of an oceanic general circulation model that was forced by observed winds for the period 1961 to 1985. Since such model data are presently used as initial conditions in prediction experiments with coupled ocean–atmosphere models, it is of particular interest to investigate up to what lead time tropical Pacific SST is predictable without the coupling of an atmosphere model to the ocean model. We compared our results with those obtained by the persistence forecast and with those obtained by using the wind stresses themselves as predictors in a statistical forecast model. It is shown that using the upper ocean temperatures from the ocean model forced by observed winds gives significantly better skills at lead times of 6 to 12 months compared to persistence and to the pure wind-stress model. Off-equatorial heat content anomalies at 5°N are shown to contribute significantly to the predictability at these lead times, while those at 12°N do not.
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  • 57
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 76 (1). pp. 5-11.
    Publication Date: 2019-01-21
    Description: Widespread and sustained in situ ocean measurements are essential to an improved understanding of the state of the ocean and its role in global change. Merchant marine vessels can play a major role in ocean monitoring, yet apart from routine weather observations and upper-ocean temperature measurements, they constitute a vastly underutilized resource due to lack of suitable instrumentation. Examples of ways in which vessels can assist include profiling techniques of physical properties, chemical sampling via automated water samplers, optical techniques to measure various biological parameters, and ground truth measurements for remote sensing from orbiting and geostationary satellites. Further, ships can act as relays between subsurface instrumentation and satellite communication services. To take advantage of the opportunities that the maritime industry can provide, two steps must be taken. The first is to initiate an instrumentation development program with emphasis on techniques optimized for highly automated use onboard ships at 15-20-kt speeds. The second is to forge partnerships or links between academic and government laboratories and the maritime industry for the institution and maintenance of such monitoring programs. No doubt significant resources will be required, but in the long run the improved ability to monitor the state of ocean in situ will make the effort more than worthwhile.
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  • 58
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25 (8). pp. 1771-1787.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The Cape Verde Frontal Zone separates the North and the South Atlantic Central Waters in the eastern North Atlantic. It also represents the boundary between the ventilated subtropical gyre and the quasi-stagnant shadow zone in the southeast. The thermohaline front is nearly compensated with respect to density, and density parameters RP, suggest the existence of double-diffusive processes. Datasets from three cruises to the region, approximately one year apart each, are used to determine the effects of double-diffusive diapycnal versus isopycnal mixing. For this purpose results from the usual temperature-salinity analysis assuming isopycnal mixing are compared to results from a multiparameter analysis where nutrient and oxygen data are also used. Significant diapycnal fluxes are found in the frontal zone between 200 and 300 m, with water mass contents being changed by more than 20% through diapycnal mixing. The associated buoyancy fluxes have a similar magnitude as surface fluxes in the area and thus represent an important contribution to the vertical balances of heat and salt.
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  • 59
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26 . pp. 2251-2266.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: A simple point-vortex “heton” model is used to study localized ocean convection. In particular, the statistically steady state that is established when lateral buoyancy transfer, effected by baroclinic instability, offsets the localized surface buoyancy loss is investigated. Properties of the steady state, such as the statistically steady density anomaly of the convection region, are predicted using the hypothesis of a balance between baroclinic eddy transfer and the localized surface buoyancy loss. These predictions compare favorably with the values obtained through numerical integration of the heton model. The steady state of the heron model can be related to that in other convection scenarios considered in several recent studies by means of a generalized description of the localized convection. This leads to predictions of the equilibrium density anomalies in these scenarios, which concur with those obtained by other authors. Advantages of the heton model include its inviscid nature, emphasizing the independence of the fluxes affected by the baroclinic eddies from molecular processes, and its extreme economy, allowing a very large parameter space to be covered. This economy allows us to examine more complicated forcing scenarios: for example, forcing regions of varying shape. By increasing the ellipticity of the forcing region, the instability is modified by the shape and, as a result, no increase in lateral fluxes occurs despite the increased perimeter length. The parameterization of convective mixing by a redistribution of potential vorticity, implicit in the heton model, is corroborated; the heton model equilibrium state has analogous quantitative scaling behavior to that in models or laboratory experiments that resolve the vertical motions. The simplified dynamics of the heton model therefore allows the adiabatic advection resulting from baroclinic instability to be examined in isolation from vertical mixing and diffusive processes. These results demonstrate the importance of baroclinic instability in controlling the properties of a water mass generated by localized ocean convection. A complete parameterization of this process must therefore account for the fluxes induced by horizontal variations in surface buoyancy loss and affected by baroclinic instability.
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  • 60
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26(10) . pp. 2281-2285.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The compatibility of the Gent and McWilliams thickness mixing parameterization with perturbation thickness fluxes evaluated from eddy-resolving North Atlantic model results is investigated. After extensive spatial and temporal averaging, a linear correlation between the parameterized fluxes and those calculated directly from model fluctuations in the subtropics could be found. A direct estimate of a constant mixing parameter κ could be inferred in the order of 1.0 × 107 cm2 s−1.
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  • 61
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 10 (5). pp. 764-773.
    Publication Date: 2018-06-01
    Description: Ocean deep velocity profiles were obtained by lowering a self-contained 153.6-kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) attached to a CTD-rosette sampler. The data were sampled during two Meteor cruises in the western tropical Atlantic. The ADCP depth was determined by integration of the vertical velocity measurements, and the maximum depth of the cast was in good agreement with the CTD depth. Vertical shears were calculated for individual ADCP velocity profiles of 140-300-m range to eliminate the unknown horizontal motion of the instrument package. Subsequent raw shear profiles were then averaged with respect to depth to obtain a mean shear profile and its statistics. Typically, the shear standard deviations were about 10(-3) s-1 when using up and down traces simultaneously. The shear profiles were then vertically integrated to get relative velocity profiles. Different methods were tested to transform the relative velocities into absolute velocity profiles, and the results were compared with Pegasus dropsonde measurements. The best results were obtained by integrating the raw velocities and relative velocities over the duration of the cast and correcting for the ship drift determined from the Global Positioning System. Below 1000-m depth a reduction of the measurement range was observed, which results either from a lack of scatterers or instrumental problems at higher pressures.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2017-07-20
    Description: Many models of the large-scale thermohaline circulation in the ocean exhibit strong zonally integrated upwelling in the midlatitude North Atlantic that significantly decreases the amount of deep water that is carried from the formation regions in the subpolar North Atlantic toward low latitudes and across the equator. In an analysis of results from the Community Modeling Effort using a suite of models with different horizontal resolution, wind and thermohaline forcing, and mixing parameters, it is shown that the upwelling is always concentrated in the western boundary layer between roughly 30° and 40°N. The vertical transport across 1000 m appears to be controlled by local dynamics and strongly depends on the horizontal resolution and mixing parameters of the model. It is suggested that in models with a realistic deep-water formation rate in the subpolar North Atlantic, the excessive upwelling can be considered as the prime reason for the typically too low meridional overturning rates and northward heat transports in the subtropical North Atlantic. A new isopycnal advection and mixing parameterization of tracer transports by mesoscale eddies yield substantial improvements in these integral measures of the circulation.
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  • 63
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29 (11). pp. 2785-2801.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The Rio Grande Rise acts as a natural barrier for the equatorward flow of Antarctic Bottom Water in the subtropical South Atlantic. In addition to the Vema Channel, the Hunter Channel cuts through this obstacle and offers a separate route for bottom-water import into the southern Brazil Basin. On the occasion of the Deep Basin Experiment, a component of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the expected deep flow through the Hunter Channel was directly observed for the first time by an array of moored current meters and thermistor chains from December 1992 to May 1994. Main results are (i) the Hunter Channel is, in fact, a conduit for bottom-water flow into the Brazil Basin. Our new mean transport from moored current meters [2.92 (±1.24) × 106 m3 s−1] is significantly higher than earlier estimates that were based on geostrophic calculations. (ii) During the WOCE observational period a tendency toward increased bottom-water temperatures was observed. This observation from the Hunter Channel is consistent with findings from the Vema Channel. (iii) The overflow through the Hunter Channel is highly variable and puts in perspective earlier synoptic geostrophic transport estimates
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: During December 1991 to April 1992 measurements with moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) stations and shipboard surveys were carried out in the convection regime of the Gulf of Lions, northwestern Mediterranean. First significant mixed layer deepening and generation of internal waves in the stratified intermediate layer occurred during a mistral cooling phase in late December. Mixed layer deepening to about 400 m, eroding the salinity maximum layer of saltier and warmer Levantine Intermediate Water and causing temporary surface-layer warming, followed during a second cooling period of late January. During a mistral cooling period from 18 to 23 February 1992, convection to 1500-m depth was observed, where the size of the convection regime was 50–100 km extent. Vertical velocities 40–640 m deep, recorded by four ADCPs of a triangular moored array of 2 km sidelength in the center of the convection regime, exceeded 5 cm s−1 and were not correlated over the separation of the moorings. Horizontal scales estimated from event duration and advection velocity were only around 500 m, in agreement with scaling arguments for convective plumes. Plume activity during nighttime cooling was larger than daytime daytime. Significant evidence for rotation of the plumes could not be found. Overall, plume energy, and the degree of mixing accomplished by them, was much lower than observed during a stronger mistral in February 1987. The mean vertical velocity over the mistral period, determined from the four ADCPs, was near zero, confirming the role of plumes as mixing agents rather than as part of a mean downdraft in a convection regime. The cyclonic rim current around the convection regime was confined to a strip of 〈20 km width with an average velocity of about 10 cm s−1, which is in agreement with near-zero vertical mean velocity in the interior based on potential vorticity conservation. A relation between variations of the larger-scale cyclonic North Mediterranean Current along the boundary and the deep convection could not be identified. An unexplained feature still is the cover of the convection regime by a shallow layer of light water that moves in rather quickly from the sides after the cooling ends.
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  • 65
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26 . pp. 1721-1734.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: An initially resting ocean of stratification N is considered, subject to buoyancy loss at its surface of magnitude B0 over a circular region of radius r, at a latitude where the Coriolis parameter is f. Initially the buoyancy loss gives rise to upright convection as an ensemble of plumes penetrates the stratified ocean creating a vertically mixed layer. However, as deepening proceeds, horizontal density gradients at the edge of the forcing region support a geostrophic rim current, which develops growing meanders through baroclinic instability. Eventually finite-amplitude baroclinic eddies sweep stratified water into the convective region at the surface and transport convected water outward and away below, setting up a steady state in which lateral buoyancy flux offsets buoyancy loss at the surface. In this final state quasi-horizontal baroclinic eddy transfer dominates upright “plume” convection. By using “parcel theory” to consider the energy transformations taking place, it is shown that the depth, hfinal at which deepening by convective plumes is arrested by lateral buoyancy flux due to baroclinic eddies, and the time tfinal it takes to reach this depth, is given by both independent of rotation. Here γ and β are dimensionless constants that depend on the efficiency of baroclinic eddy transfer. A number of laboratory and numerical experiments are then inspected and carried out to seek confirmation of these parameter dependencies and obtain quantitative estimates of the constants. It is found that γ = 3.9 ± 0.9 and β = 12 ± 3. Finally, the implications of our study to the understanding of integral properties of deep and intermediate convection in the ocean are discussed.
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  • 66
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28 . pp. 1410-1424.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: In the Gulf of Lions, observations of deep convection have been sporadically carried out over the past three decades, showing significant interannual variability of convection activity. As long time series of meteorological observations of the region are available from coastal stations, heat flux time series for the Gulf of Lions for the individual winters from 1969 to 1994 are derived by calibrating these observations against direct measurements obtained over the convection site. These heat fluxes are also compared against heat fluxes obtained by the French PERIDOT weather model for the winter of 1991/92. A Kraus–Turner one-dimensional mixed layer model is initialized by climatological mean temperature and salinity profiles and then driven by the heat flux time series of the individual years. Resulting convection depths are in satisfactory agreement with existing observational evidence, showing the dominance of interannual variability of local forcing on convection variability. The interannual variability of convection depth causes interannual variations in deep-water properties, and these are also compared with the hydrographic database.
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  • 67
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25 . pp. 289-305.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: This paper describes, and establishes the dynamical mechanisms responsible for, the large-scale, time-mean, midlatitude circulation in a high-resolution model of the North Atlantic basin. The model solution is compared with recently proposed transport schemes and interpretations of the dynamical balances operating in the sub-tropical gyre. In particular, the question of the degree to which Sverdrup balance holds for the subtropical gyre is addressed. At 25°N, thermohaline-driven bottom flows cause strong local departures from the Sverdrup solution for the vertically integrated meridional mass transport, but these nearly integrate to zero across the interior of the basin. In the northwestern region of the subtropical gyre, in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream, higher-order dynamics become important, and linear vorticity dynamics is unable to explain the model's vertically integrated transport. In the subpolar gyre, the model transport bears little resemblance to the Sverdrup prediction, and higher-order dynamics are important across the entire longitudinal extent of the basin. The sensitivity of the model transport amplitudes, patterns, and dynamical balances are estimated by examining the solutions under a range of parameter choices and for four different wind stress forcing specifications. Taking into account a deficit of 7–10 Sv (Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) in the contribution of the model thermohaline circulation to the meridional transports at 25°N, the wind stress climatology of Isemer and Hasse appears to yield too strong of a circulation, while that derived from the NCAR Community Climate Model yields too weak of a circulation. The Hellerman and Rosenstein and ECMWF climatologies result in wind-driven transports close to observational estimates at 25°N. The range between cases for the annual mean southward transport in the interior above 1000 m is 14 Sv, which is 40%–70% of the mean transport itself. There is little sensitivity to the model closure parameters at this latitude. At 55°N, in the subpolar gyre, there is little sensitivity of the model solution to the choice of either closure parameters or wind climatology, despite large differences in the Sverdrup transports implied by the different wind stress datasets. Large year to year variability of the meridional transport east of the Bahamas makes it difficult to provide robust estimates of the sensitivity of the Antilles and deep western boundary current systems to forcing and parameter changes.
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  • 68
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29 . pp. 2065-2098.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: A 12-month mooring record (May 1994–June 1995), together with accompanying PALACE float data, is used to describe an annual cycle of deep convection and restratification in the Labrador Sea. The mooring is located at 56.75°N, 52.5°W, near the former site of Ocean Weather Station Bravo, in water of 3500 m depth. This is a pilot experiment for climate monitoring, and also for studies of deep-convection dynamics. Mooring measurements include temperature (T), salinity (S), horizontal and vertical velocity, and acoustic measurement of surface winds. The floats made weekly temperature–salinity profiles between their drift level (near 1500 m) and the surface. With moderately strong cooling to the atmosphere (300 W m−2 averaged from November to March), wintertime convection penetrated from the surface to about 1750 m, overcoming the stabilizing effect of upper-ocean low-salinity water. The water column restratifies rapidly after brief vertical homogenization (in potential density, salinity, and potential temperature). Both the rapid restratification and the energetic high-frequency variations of T and S observed at the mooring are suggestive of a convection depth that varies greatly with location. Lateral variations in T and S exist down to very small scales, and these remnants of convection decay (with e-folding time 170 day) after convection ceases. Lateral variability at the scale of 100 km is verified by PALACE profiles. The Eulerian mooring effectively samples the convection in a mesoscale region of ocean as eddies sweep past it; the Lagrangian PALACE floats are complementary in sampling the geography of deep convection more widely. This laterally variable convection leaves the water column with significant vertical gradients most of the year. Convection followed by lateral mixing gives vertical salinity profiles the (misleading) appearance that a one-dimensional diffusive process is fluxing freshwater downward. During spring, summer, and fall the salinity, temperature, and buoyancy rise steadily with time throughout most of the water column. This is likely the result of mixing with the encircling boundary currents, compensating for the escape of Labrador Sea Water from the region. Low-salinity water mixes into the gyre only near the surface. The water-column heat balance is in satisfactory agreement with meteorological assimilation models. Directly observed subsurface calorimetry may be the more reliable indication of the annual-mean air–sea heat flux. Acoustic instrumentation on the mooring gave a surprisingly good time series of the vector surface wind. The three-dimensional velocity field consists of convective plumes of width 200 to 1000 m, vertical velocities of 2 to 8 cm s−1, and Rossby numbers of order unity, embedded in stronger (20 cm s−1) lateral currents associated with mesoscale eddies. Horizontal currents with timescales of several days to several months are strongly barotropic. They are suddenly energized as convection reaches great depth in early March, and develop toward a barotropic state, as also seen in models of convectively driven geostrophic turbulence in a weakly stratified, high-latitude ocean. Currents decay through the summer and autumn, apart from some persistent isolated eddies. These coherent, isolated, cold anticyclones carry cores of pure convected water long after the end of winter. Boundary currents nearby interact with the Labrador Sea gyre and provide an additional source of eddies in the interior Labrador Sea. An earlier study of the pulsation of the boundary currents is supported by observations of sudden ejection of floats from the central gyre into the boundary currents (and sudden ingestion of boundary current floats into the gyre interior), in what may be a mechanism for exchange between Labrador Sea Water and the World Ocean.
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  • 69
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 12 (1). pp. 141-149.
    Publication Date: 2018-06-01
    Description: Surface data obtained from 153-kHz acoustic Doppler current profilers deployed in the Greenland Sea at about 350-m depth during the winter of 1988/89 were investigated under several aspects. First a method is described to improve the instrument depth measurements using the binned backscattered energy profile near the surface. The accuracy of the depth estimates is found to be significantly better than 0.5 m. Further, improvements of wind speed estimates were found by using the ambient noise in the 150-kHz band in favor of the surface backscattered energy as suggested by Schott. Limitations of the ambient sound method at low wind speeds are presented when thermal noise overwhelms the wind-induced noise. Finally, a method to detect the presence of sea ice above the ADCP is presented by cross correlating the surface backscatter strength and the magnitudes of all Doppler velocity components. The resulting time series of ice concentration are in overall good agreement with Special Sensor Microwave/Imager estimates but allow for higher temporal resolution. Further, in the vicinity of the ice edge, enhanced high-frequency ambient noise in the 150-kHz band was observed.
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  • 70
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29 . pp. 1682-1700.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Different processes have been proposed to explain the large-scale spreading of Mediterranean Water (MW) in the North Atlantic, however, no systematic study comparing the efficiency of different processes is yet available. Here, the authors present a series of experiments in a unified framework that is designed to quantify the effects of several physical processes on the spreading of MW in an idealized model of the North Atlantic. The common technique of restoring temperature and salinity to an observed distribution near the Mediterranean inflow fails to produce an adequate amount of MW because the eastern boundary region near the MW inflow is rather quiescent in models. Diapycnal processes like double diffusion and cabbeling turn out too inefficient to alone account for the large-scale MW anomaly. However, with a preexisting anomaly, double diffusion leads to a considerable northward and zonal redistribution of MW. The density anomaly induced by cabbeling curtails the zonal spreading of MW while it increases the northward spreading. With isopycnal mixing and the weak mean flow that prevails in the outflow region, a spatial distribution of the MW anomaly is obtained that is inconsistent with observations. Unrealistically high diffusion coefficients would be necessary to reproduce the observed salt flux into the Atlantic. The most effective process in the experiments is the volume flux associated with the Atlantic–Mediterranean exchange. The current system that is established in response to the inflow of MW into the Atlantic carries the anomaly almost 30° of longitude into the basin and along the eastern margin up to the northeastern corner of the domain and farther along the northern boundary.
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  • 71
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 10 . pp. 1153-1172.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: Long-term interannual variations of the intramonthly standard deviations of surface meteorological parameters are studied on the basis of the North Atlantic Ocean Weather Stations (OWSs) dataset. To consider the different scales of short-term synoptic variability, intramonthly statistics were calculated for 3-h sampled data and for running-mean data as well. Year-to-year variability is considered in terms of linear trends and interannual oscillations with characteristic periods of several years. Intramonthly standard deviations for most of the parameters tended to decrease during the OWS observational period. Trends in the parameters for different synoptic-scale statistics are discussed. Intramonthly statistics, computed for different averaging scales, demonstrate remarkably different short-period year to year oscillations. Some relationships between the interannual variations of synoptic activity and the SST anomalies are presented. Intramonthly statistics are found to be an effective indicator of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Finally, the possibility of applying results to statistics computed from climatological datasets and analyses of meteorological centers is discussed.
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  • 72
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28 (10). pp. 1904-1928.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The mean warm water transfer toward the equator along the western boundary of the South Atlantic is investigated, based on a number of ship surveys carried out during 1990–96 with CTD water mass observations and current profiling by shipboard and lowered (with the CTD/rosette) acoustic Doppler current profiler and with Pegasus current profiler. The bulk of the northward warm water flow follows the coast in the North Brazil Undercurrent (NBUC) from latitudes south of 10°S, carrying 23 Sv (Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) above 1000 m. Out of this, 16 Sv are waters warmer than 7°C that form the source waters of the Florida Current. Zonal inflow from the east by the South Equatorial Current enters the western boundary system dominantly north of 5°S, adding transport northwest of Cape San Roque, and transforming the NBUC along its way toward the equator into a surface-intensified current, the North Brazil Current (NBC). From the combination of moored arrays and shipboard sections just north of the equator along 44°W, the mean NBC transport was determined at 35 Sv with a small seasonal cycle amplitude of only about 3 Sv. The reason for the much larger near-equatorial northward warm water boundary current than what would be required to carry the northward heat transport are recirculations by the zonal current system and the existence of the shallow South Atlantic tropical–subtropical cell (STC). The STC connects the subduction zones of the eastern subtropics of both hemispheres via equatorward boundary undercurrents with the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC), and the return flow is through upwelling and poleward Ekman transport. The persistent existence of a set of eastward thermocline and intermediate countercurrents on both sides of the equator was confirmed that recurred throughout the observations and carry ventilated waters from the boundary regime into the tropical interior. A strong westward current underneath the EUC, the Equatorial Intermediate Current, returns low-oxygen water westward. Consistent evidence for the existence of a seasonal variation in the warm water flow south of the equator could not be established, whereas significant seasonal variability of the boundary regime occurs north of the equator: northwestward alongshore throughflow of about 10 Sv of waters with properties from the Southern Hemisphere was found along the Guiana boundary in boreal spring when the North Equatorial Countercurrent is absent or even flowing westward, whereas during June–January the upper NBC is known to connect with the eastward North Equatorial Countercurrent through a retroflection zone that seasonally migrates up and down the coast and spawns eddies. The equatorial zone thus acts as a buffer and transformation zone for cross-equatorial exchanges, but knowledge of the detailed pathways in the interior including the involved diapycnal exchanges is still a problem.
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  • 73
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29 . pp. 1666-1681.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Wind-driven flow in a baroclinic quasigeostrophic channel with simple bottom topography is studied in a model with reduced physics and degrees of freedom as an analogy to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. For a sinusoidal topography an approximate analytical solution is found using a low-order spectral model. Resonance of baroclinic Rossby waves can lead to different flow regimes of which one is a blocked state, where most of the momentum, imparted to the fluid by the wind stress, is transferred to the earth by bottom form stress. For some parameter values there are both resonant and nonresonant solutions to the model equations. It is shown that these results of the low-order model apply also to a more complicated spectral model with sinusoidal but also with Gaussian ridge topography. The steady states of these models are found numerically using a continuation algorithm. In the case of the ridge topography, the resonant and nonresonant steady states coexist over a wide range of topography heights.
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  • 74
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 13 . pp. 1202-1208.
    Publication Date: 2018-06-01
    Description: A method is presented for determining salinity and density from temperature data in conjunction with historical or contemporaneous (but not collocated) CTD observations. The horizontal density ratio r(z) is determined from the temperature and salinity differences at each depth (δT, δS) between pairs or ensembles of profiles. These differences are expressed as a density ratio r=αδT/βδS, where α and β are the expansion coefficients for temperature and salinity, respectively. Salinity at a site where only temperature is measured, as with an expendable bathythermograph (XBT), is computed based on the temperature and salinity at a reference station (SR,TR); that is, S=SR+(T−TR)δS/δT. The method is restrictive in its application because it is most accurate when all water masses in the region of a survey are linear extrapolations from the water masses at each of the reference stations. In reality, it provides useful results when the T and S fields are not simply linear functions of horizontal distance. This approach is particularly useful in regions where, the T(z)−S(z) relation is nonunique, as in the Mediterranean Water in the North Atlantic. The corresponding expression for the lateral density difference for an observed temperature difference (δT) is δρ=−αρ0δT(1−r−1). Observations from regions offshore and along the coast of Portugal are used to evaluate the method. Errors of less than 0.05 psu are exhibited in the evaluation of salinity determined from T-5 XBT drops compared with nearly simultaneous CTD casts. A comparison of water properties and cyclostrophic velocities is made using XCP temperatures and XCP velocities in a meddy.
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  • 75
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 13 . pp. 246-254.
    Publication Date: 2018-06-01
    Description: The incidence angles of the SSM/I radiometers on the DMSP satellites vary from satellite to satellite and exhibit variations of up to 1.5° during one orbit. The effects of these variations on the measured brightness temperatures are investigated on the basis of simulated and measured data for oceanic arm. A deviation of 1° from the nominal incidence angle of 53.0° causes brightness temperature changes of up to 2 K depending on surface and atmospheric conditions. Errors of retrieved geophysical parameters on the order of 5%–10% result when the incidence angle variation is not taken into account. This is a common property of most published statistical algorithms. For total precipitable water and cloud liquid water content the error increases with increasing parameter value. For wind speed the error is largest for low wind speed and decreases with increasing wind speed. Due to the slowly varying latitudinal dependence of the incidence angle, these errors do not cancel out when monthly means are computed. A correction method is developed on the basis of simulated data and tested successfully with measured data. Observed brightness temperature differences between DMSP F10 and F11 are reduced when using corrected data. If diurnal variations of geophysical parameters are investigated, the incidence angle correction is mandatory to obtain useful results, especially for DMSP F10.
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