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  • EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING  (4,546)
  • 2010-2014
  • 1990-1994  (1,270)
  • 1980-1984  (3,276)
  • 1925-1929
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-03-29
    Description: This conference reviewed the recent developments in remote monitoring of surface temperatures, which will be significant in future global change studies. Various techniques to derive surface temperature from existing and future remote sensing systems such as earth observing system (EOS) are discussed. Five sessions were held: (1) The nature of the problem of remote sensing of surface temperatures; (2) Surface temperature measurements from current satellites; (3) Modeling and surface observations of various techniques to measure temperature and/or emissivity, modeling of vegetation; (4) The effects of variable spectral emissivity from the determination of surface kinetic temperature using multispectral thermal infrared measurements; and (5) Future satellite systems including EOS/ASTER, EOS/MODIS-N, and EOS/AIRS.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 14; 3
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-03-12
    Description: The purpose of the handbook is to update the various snowcover interpretation techniques, document the snow mapping techniques used in the various ASVT study areas, and describe the ways snowcover data have been applied to runoff prediction. Through documentation in handbook form, the methodology developed in the Snow Mapping ASVT can be applied to other areas.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TP-1829 , NAS 1.60:1829 , REPT-81F0067-VOL-8
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-03-12
    Description: Ground surveys and aerial observations were used to monitor rapidly changing moisture conditions in the Salt-Verde watershed. Repetitive satellite snow cover observations greatly reduce the necessity for routine aerial snow reconnaissance flights over the mountains. High resolution, multispectral imagery provided by LANDSAT satellite series enabled rapid and accurate mapping of snow-cover distributions for small- to medium-sized subwatersheds; however, the imagery provided only one observation every 9 days of about a third of the watershed. Low resolution imagery acquired by the ITOSa dn SMS/GOES meteorological satellite series provides the daily synoptic observation necessary to monitor the rapid changes in snow-covered area in the entire watershed. Short term runoff volumes can be predicted from daily sequential snow cover observations.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TP-1823 , NAS 1.60:1823 , REPT-81F0061-VOL-2
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-03-12
    Description: Both LANDSAT and NOAA satellite data were used in improving snowmelt runoff forecasts. When the satellite snow cover data were tested in both empirical seasonal runoff estimation and short term modeling approaches, a definite potential for reducing forecast error was evident. A cost benefit analysis run in conjunction with the snow mapping indicated a $36.5 million annual benefit accruing from a one percent improvement in forecast accuracy using the snow cover data for the western United States. The annual cost of employing the system would be $505,000. The snow mapping has proven that satellite snow cover data can be used to reduce snowmelt runoff forecast error in a cost effective manner once all operational satellite data are available within 72 hours after acquisition. Executive summaries of the individual snow mapping projects are presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TP-1822 , NAS 1.60:1822 , REPT-81F0060-VOL-1
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The ERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) demonstrated that it is possible to measure high resolution topography over large areas using interferometry with repeat orbit data sets. Given that the ERS-1 orbit is known with high precision, an automatic system for generation of interferograms is presented. Least squares estimation using ground control points provides an accurate method for determining the precise interferometric baseline. The system parameters which affect the accuracy of the Digital Elevation Models (DEM's) are errors in the interferometric baseline, decorrelation caused by baseline separation, thermal noise, and surface change. An adaptive filter based on the local interferometric coherence was developed to improve phase unwrapping of the interferogram. Final accuracies of the DEM's generated for single scene pairs in Alaska (U.S.) and Bonn (Germany) are on the order of 5 to 10 m.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: CNES, From Optics to Radar, SPOT, and ERS Applications; p 483-490
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A technique is presented that allows extraction of compositional and textural information from visible, near and thermal infrared remotely sensed data. Using a library of both emissivity and reflectance spectra, endmember abundances and endmember thermal inertias are extracted from AVIRIS (Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) and TIMS (Thermal Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) data over Lunar Crater Volcanic Field, Nevada, using a dual inversion. The inversion technique is motivated by upcoming Mars Observer data and the need for separation of composition and texture parameters from sub pixel mixtures of bedrock and dust. The model employed offers the opportunity to extract compositional and textural information for a variety of endmembers within a given pixel. Geologic inferences concerning grain size, abundance, and source of endmembers can be made directly from the inverted data. These parameters are of direct relevance to Mars exploration, both for Mars Observer and for follow-on missions.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 169-170
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  • 7
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The potential of using the NASA airborne polarimetric radar system to assess the subsurface characteristics of the Rogers lake bed and the Atchadafaya Basin study sites is described. Preliminary analysis of acquired data indicated that VV polarization is capable of muddy water penetration and that the radar system could be used to assess underwater sediment distribution. Statistical analysis of the data will provide insight on the depth of muddy water penetration.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA, Washington, 4th Airborne Geoscience Workshop; p 303
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The ocean surface color (water-leaving radiances) and thermal structure across the Iceland-Faeroe Front under both clear and cloudy conditions were measured from a NASA research aircraft on 25 May 1989. The measurements were made along four north-south lines that were 125 km in length and spaced 35 km apart. The color measurements were made with a 14 channel, non-polarized Multispectral Airborne Radiometer System (MARS) while the thermal data were collected by a thermal radiometer and aircraft bathythermographs. The satellite imagery (NOAA AVHRR) sequence show the development of meanders through the frontal region. These aircraft ocean color and thermal data characterize the biological distribution and are closely coupled to the physical processes occurring in the frontal systems. The ratio of several channels of the ocean color data are used to determine the surface chlorophyll. The retrieved data correlate well with laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence obtained at the same time and historical chlorophyll data. The observed chlorophyll patchiness appearing across the Iceland-Faeroe Front is believed to be directly and indirectly related to primary and secondary circulation processes in ocean frontal systems. High chlorophyll concentrations were observed on the north side of the front and are inferred to be the result from the advection of Icelandic Coastal Water into the region. The sharp chlorophyll decline at and south of the thermal frontal boundary is clearly related to the subsurface thermal structure.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA, Washington, 4th Airborne Geoscience Workshop; p 97
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  • 9
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Progress is reported in producing maps of Australia showing; crustal magnetic anomalies at constant elevation; bulk surface magnetization; and the geomagnetic field intensity, inclination and declination for the Australian region from global models of the geomagnetic field derived from MAGSAT data. The development of a data base management system is also considered.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E85-10100 , NASA-CR-175615 , NAS 1.26:175615
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Research activities performed on MAGSAT scalar data over South America, Central America, and the adjacent marine areas are summarized. The geologic utility of magnetic anomalies detected by satellite is demonstrated by focusing on the spherical-Earth interpretation of scalar MAGSAT data in combination with ancillary geological and geophysical data to obtain lithospheric models for these regions related to their contemporary crustal dynamics processes, geologic history, current volcanism seismicity and natural resources.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10126 , NASA-CR-172801 , NAS 1.26:172801
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Extrapolation of impact cratering rates derived from Canada and Europe suggests that in the cratonic regions of Australia, India, Africa, and Brazil, 14-15 impact craters 20 km diameter should have formed during the last 120 my, and survived erosional erasure. In fact, in these areas, only 2 craters are known that approximately qualify: (1) Gosses Bluff, 22 km, 130 + or - 6 my old, and; Strangways, 24 km and 150 + or - 70 my old. It is therefore likely that about a dozen relatively large and preserved impact craters await discovery in these less explored cratons. A larger number of younger and smaller craters must also exist. An informal search is reported for impact craters using photographs obtained by Shuttle astronauts. Photographs taken with the 250 mm lens on Hassalblad cameras have a resolution of 25 m and cover a nominal area of 50x60 sq km. A larger format Linhof camera with similar resolution but 4 times larger area was flown March 1984, and will fly again in the future. Shuttle imagery has numerous advantages in looking for impact craters and for other types of Earth observations.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Hydrology moels are reviewed in order to provide information for evaluating the use of remote sensing capabilities. Strategies for using remotely sensed data in hydrology moels are also discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10082 , NASA-CR-173232 , CP-G204249 , NAS 1.26:173232
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  • 13
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The merits, shortcomings, and future outlook of thermal IR remote sensing are appraised from a philosophical and speculative point of view in the light of the HCMM experiments. Two key questions stemming from HCMM addressed are: thermal remote sensing from space platforms now on a solid foundation in terms of demonstrated applications of real utility as well as theory, and where should NASA's research be focused in thermal remote sensing and are the potential applications sufficient to justify inclusion of thermal sensors in later generations of Earth resources satellites.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) Anthology; p 237-244
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  • 14
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A gallery of what might be called the ""Best of HCMM'' imagery is presented. These 100 images, consisting mainly of Day-VIS, Day-IR, and Night-IR scenes plus a few thermal inertia images, were selected from the collection accrued in the Missions Utilization Office (Code 902) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. They were selected because of both their pictorial quality and their information or interest content. Nearly all the images are the computer processed and contrast stretched products routinely produced by the image processing facility at GSFC. Several LANDSAT images, special HCMM images made by HCMM investigators, and maps round out the input.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) Anthology; p 63-168
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  • 15
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The remote sensing of temperature is performed by sensing radiation emitted from solids, liquids, and gases in the thermal infrared region of the spectrum, in which thermal emission is dominant over reflected solar energy. For Earth resources applications, thermal sensing of solids and liquids is performed in two ""windows'' of the atmosphere where atmospheric absorption and emission are at a minimum. Temperature measurement, intrinsic thermal properties, factors in interpreting thermal data, the use of thermal inertia, and the measurements obtained by the heat capacity mapping radiometer are discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) Anthology; p 7-14
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  • 16
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Radar observations of snowpacks were made at test sites in Kansas, South Dakota, and Colorado using truck mounted scatterometers covering the 1 to 18 GHz frequency range and the atmospheric window frequency of 35 GHz. Experiments were conducted as a function of snow depth, wetness, and surface roughness. The acquired data were used to model the backscattering coefficient in terms of snow and underlying soil parameters. The results indicate that the radar return (1) increase with increasing water equivalent; (2) decrease with increasing wetness; (3) is sensitive to the snow surface roughness only when the snow is wet;(4) is sensitive to the state (frozen or thawed) of the underlying soil if the snow is dry; and (5) is repetitive from one site to another and from one season to the next. Additionally, the measurements indicate the multifrequency observation or day-night observations may potentially provide the means for monitoring snow water equivalent, snow wetness, and the soil state.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Microwave Remote Sensing of Snowpack Properties; p 131-146
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: A one dimensional model for studying the thermal dynamics of cooling lakes was developed and verified. The model is essentially a set of partial differential equations which are solved by finite difference methods. The model includes the effects of variation of area with depth, surface heating due to solar radiation absorbed at the upper layer, and internal heating due to the transmission of solar radiation to the sub-surface layers. The exchange of mechanical energy between the lake and the atmosphere is included through the coupling of thermal diffusivity and wind speed. The effects of discharge and intake by power plants are also included. The numerical model was calibrated by applying it to Cayuga Lake. The model was then verified through a long term simulation using Lake Keowee data base. The comparison between measured and predicted vertical temperature profiles for the nine years is good. The physical limnology of Lake Keowee is presented through a set of graphical representations of the measured data base.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-165623-VOL-2 , TR-43-4-VOL-2
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  • 18
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    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-154634 , E80-10246 , KSC-TR-51-3
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  • 19
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Disaster mitigation consists of many activities, including vulnerability assessment, disaster warning and prediction and disaster relief. Various types of satellites can be applied to these endeavors: communications, geophysical, meteorological and Earth resources. The latter two are considered 'remote sensing' satellites. There are many limitations in the design and development of remote sensing satellites; limitations in cost and the acceptable data rate and limitations in our technology. Nevertheless, there are a large number of satellites, both currently in orbit and planned, with capabilities pertinent to disaster mitigation. Some of these are operational and can be relied upon to provide continued data sources. Others are experimental and provide the disaster management community and opportunity to assess the potential usefulness of the techniques and to impact the design of future operational systems. A table lists the operational parameters and potential application in disaster mitigation of 44 current and planned remote sensing satellites and instruments.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: (ISSN 0278-4017); : Composite material
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Optical data processing techniques have the inherent advantage of high data throughout, low weight and low power requirements. These features are particularly desirable for onboard spacecraft in-situ real-time data analysis and data compression applications. the proposed multi-layer optical holographic neural net pattern recognition technique will utilize the nonlinear photorefractive devices for real-time adaptive learning to classify input data content and recognize unexpected features. Information can be stored either in analog or digital form in a nonlinear photofractive device. The recording can be accomplished in time scales ranging from milliseconds to microseconds. When a system consisting of these devices is organized in a multi-layer structure, a feedforward neural net with bifurcating data classification capability is formed. The interdisciplinary research will involve the collaboration with top digital computer architecture experts at the University of Southern California.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Colorado Univ., Applied Information Systems Research Program (AISRP) Workshop 3 Meeting Proceedings; 1 p
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Numerous mesas and irregular, channel-cut escarpments south of Harmakhis and Reull Valles suggesting at least two resurfacing events with subsequent periods of erosion are revealed from detailed geologic mapping of three adjacent 1:500,000-scale quadrangles (MTM-40262, -40267, -40272). Also, two distinct episodes of surface water runoff, each from different styles of water release, are evident. Geologic mapping is based on 1:500,000-scale photomosaics of the Harmakhis vallis region, and is an outgrowth of preliminary regional geologic mapping on a 1:2,000,000-scale on the east rim of Hellas Basin.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1179
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: ; p. Vol. 1, 888 p.; v
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The extensive field studies necessary to understand the development of desert sand seas are hampered by their large size and inaccessibility. Remote sensing data used in conjunction with detailed field studies and textural and mineralogical analyses of surface sediments at specific ground-control points can provide a wealth of information on dune types and activity, regional aeolian dynamics, sediment sources and thickness, and depositional history for sand seas. The information available from LANDSAT TM (VNIR), AIRSAR (microwave), and AVIRIS (high spectral resolution VNIR) is compared using Kelso Dunes as a test case.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1990; p 313
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The detection and monitoring of stress and damage in forested areas is of utmost importance to forest managers for planning purposes. Remote sensing are the most suitable means to obtain this information. This requires that remote sensing data employed in a forest survey be properly chosen and utilized for their ability to measure canopy spectral features directly related to key tree and canopy properties that are indicators of forest health and vitality. Plant reflectance in the visible to short wave IR regions (400 to 2500 nm) provides information on its biochemical, biophysical, and morphological make up, whereas plant fluorescence in the 400 to 750 nm region is more indicative of the capacity and functioning of its photosynthetic apparatus. A measure of both these spectral properties can be used to provide an accurate assessment of stress and damage within the forest canopy. Foliar chlorophyll and nitrogen are essential biochemical constituents required for the proper functioning and maintenance of a plant's biological processes. Chlorophyll-a is the prime reactive center for photosynthesis, by which a plant converts CO2 and H2O into necessary plant products. Nitrogen forms an important component of the amino-acids, enzymes, proteins, alkaloids, and cyanogenic compounds that make up a plant, including its pigments. Both chlorophyll and nitrogen have characteristic absorption features in the visible to short wave IR region. By measuring the wavelength position and depth of these features and the fluorescence response of the foliage, the health and vitality of a canopy can be ascertained. Examples for a stressed Norway spruce forest in south-eastern Austria are presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Multisource Data Integration in Remote Sensing; p 59
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: This paper describes Landsat-4 sensors, spacecraft disturbances, and the methodology used to correct Thematic Mapper (TM) images. The discussion includes system requirements, mathematical modeling, in-orbit angular motion measurement, Fast Fourier Transformer (FFT) data analysis, and scan system correction. Emphasis is given to the cause and effect of the electromechanical disturbances beginning with the scan mirror and its interaction and sensitivity to externally and self-generated disturbances. Ground-testing results are compared with those obtained in orbit.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: IAF PAPER 84-117
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: The use of remote sensing for irrigated areas, especially in the region of Guaira, Brazil (state of Sao Paulo), is examined. Major principles of utilizing LANDSAT data for the detection and mapping of irrigated lands are discussed. In addition, initial results obtained by computer processing of digital data, use of MSS (Multispectral Scanner System)/LANDSAT products, and the availability of new remote sensing products are highlighted. Future activities include the launching of the TM (Thematic Mapper)/LANDSAT 4 with 30 meters of resolution and SPOT (Systeme Probatorie d'Observation de la Terre) with 10 to 20 meters of resolution, to be operational in 1984 and 1986 respectively.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-173945 , NAS 1.26:173945 , INPE-2852-PRE/392
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  • 27
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    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-154634-SUMM , E80-10247 , KSC-TR-51-3-SUMM
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Because changes in the Earth's environment have become major global issues, continuous, longterm scientific information is required to assess global problems such as deforestation, desertification, greenhouse effects and climate variations. Global change studies require understanding of interactions of complex processes regulating the Earth system. Space-based Earth observation is an essential element in global change research for documenting changes in Earth environment. It provides synoptic data for conceptual predictive modeling of future environmental change. This paper provides a brief overview of remote sensing technology from the perspective of global change research.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Geocarto (ISSN 1010-6049); 8; 4; p. 7-18
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A brief mission overview of STS-49 is given, and some of the pictorially outstanding and scientifically interesting photographs obtained during the mission are presented. The Earth observations are described and include the following: the Southwestern Pacific Ocean -- wind and water; the Southwestern Pacific Ocean -- coasts and volcanoes; the US; Cuba and the Bahamas; South America; Africa; the Red Sea and Western Indian Ocean; and the Indian Subcontinent.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Geocarto (ISSN 1010-6049); 9; 2; p. 67-80
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The advantages of the astronaut photography during Space Shuttle missions are briefly examined, and the scope and applications of the Space Shuttle earth observations photography database are discussed. The global and multidisciplinary nature of the data base is illustrated by several examples of geologic applications. These include the eruption of Mount Pinatubo (Philippine Islands), heat flow and ice cover on Lake Baikal in Siberia (Russia), and windblown dust in South America. It is noted that hand-held photography from the U.S. Space Shuttle provides unique remotely-sensed data for geologic applications because of the combination of varying perspectives, look angles, and illumination, and changing resolution resulting from different lenses and altitudes.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: PE&RS - Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0099-1112); 59; 8; p. 1225-1231.
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A review of the imagery acquired during the STS 50 mission of the Space Shuttle is presented. The earth viewing photography from this flight includes photos of dust plumes over several portions of the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean. Over land, prominent dust plumes were seen over Iraq, North Africa, Sudan, and West Africa. The color infrared photography includes images of the tropical rain forests of South America and South and Southeast Asia. Other examples include photographs of floods in Argentina, photos of Lake Chad in Africa, Coastal Madagascar, the Aswan dam and the Nile, geologic features of North Africa, the center pivot irrigation land areas of Saudi Arabia, flooding in Asian rivers, and sediment plumes of South American and South and Southeast Asian coasts.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Geocarto International (ISSN 1010-6049); 8; 2; p. 67-80.
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The Science and Technology Laboratory Applications Software (ELAS) was originally designed to analyze and process digital imagery data, specifically remotely-sensed scanner data. This capability includes the processing of Landsat multispectral data; aircraft-acquired scanner data; digitized topographic data; and numerous other ancillary data, such as soil types and rainfall information, that can be stored in digitized form. ELAS has the subsequent capability to geographically reference this data to dozens of standard, as well as user created projections. As an integrated image processing system, ELAS offers the user of remotely-sensed data a wide range of capabilities in the areas of land cover analysis and general purpose image analysis. ELAS is designed for flexible use and operation and includes its own FORTRAN operating subsystem and an expandable set of FORTRAN application modules. Because all of ELAS resides in one "logical" FORTRAN program, data inputs and outputs, directives, and module switching are convenient for the user. There are over 230 modules presently available to aid the user in performing a wide range of land cover analyses and manipulation. The file management modules enable the user to allocate, define, access, and specify usage for all types of files (ELAS files, subfiles, external files etc.). Various other modules convert specific types of satellite, aircraft, and vector-polygon data into files that can be used by other ELAS modules. The user also has many module options which aid in displaying image data, such as magnification/reduction of the display; true color display; and several memory functions. Additional modules allow for the building and manipulation of polygonal areas of the image data. Finally, there are modules which allow the user to select and classify the image data. An important feature of the ELAS subsystem is that its structure allows new applications modules to be easily integrated in the future. ELAS has as a standard the flexibility to process data elements exceeding 8 bits in length, including floating point (noninteger) elements and 16 or 32 bit integers. Thus it is able to analyze and process "non-standard" nonimage data. The VAX (ERL-10017) and Concurrent (ERL-10013) versions of ELAS 9.0 are written in FORTRAN and ASSEMBLER for DEC VAX series computers running VMS and Concurrent computers running MTM. The Sun (SSC-00019), Masscomp (SSC-00020), and Silicon Graphics (SSC-00021) versions of ELAS 9.0 are written in FORTRAN 77 and C-LANGUAGE for Sun4 series computers running SunOS, Masscomp computers running UNIX, and Silicon Graphics IRIS computers running IRIX. The Concurrent version requires at least 15 bit addressing and a direct memory access channel. The VAX and Concurrent versions of ELAS both require floating-point hardware, at least 1Mb of RAM, and approximately 70Mb of disk space. Both versions also require a COMTAL display device in order to display images. For the Sun, Masscomp, and Silicon Graphics versions of ELAS, the disk storage required is approximately 115Mb, and a minimum of 8Mb of RAM is required for execution. The Sun version of ELAS requires either the X-Window System Version 11 Revision 4 or Sun OpenWindows Version 2. The Masscomp version requires a GA1000 display device and the associated "gp" library. The Silicon Graphics version requires Silicon Graphics' GL library. ELAS display functions will not work with a monochrome monitor. The standard distribution medium for the VAX version (ERL~10017) is a set of two 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tapes in DEC VAX BACKUP format. This version is also available on a TK50 tape cartridge in DEC VAX BACKUP format. The standard distribution medium for the Concurrent version (ERL-10013) is a set of two 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tapes in Concurrent BACKUP format. The standard distribution medium for the Sun version (SSC-00019) is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. The standard distribution medium for the Masscomp version, (SSC-00020) is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. The standard distribution medium for the Silicon Graphics version (SSC-00021) is a .25 inch streaming magnetic IRIS tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. Version 9.0 was released in 1991. Sun4, SunOS, and Open Windows are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. MIT X Window System is licensed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
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  • 33
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: MacMultiview is an interactive tool for the Macintosh II family which allows one to display and make computations utilizing polarimetric radar data collected by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's imaging SAR (synthetic aperture radar) polarimeter system. The system includes the single-frequency L-band sensor mounted on the NASA CV990 aircraft and its replacement, the multi-frequency P-, L-, and C-band sensors mounted on the NASA DC-8. MacMultiview provides two basic functions: computation of synthesized polarimetric images and computation of polarization signatures. The radar data can be used to compute a variety of images. The total power image displays the sum of the polarized and unpolarized components of the backscatter for each pixel. The magnitude/phase difference image displays the HH (horizontal transmit and horizontal receive polarization) to VV (vertical transmit and vertical receive polarization) phase difference using color. Magnitude is displayed using intensity. The user may also select any transmit and receive polarization combination from which an image is synthesized. This image displays the backscatter which would have been observed had the sensor been configured using the selected transmit and receive polarizations. MacMultiview can also be used to compute polarization signatures, three dimensional plots of backscatter versus transmit and receive polarizations. The standard co-polarization signatures (transmit and receive polarizations are the same) and cross-polarization signatures (transmit and receive polarizations are orthogonal) can be plotted for any rectangular subset of pixels within a radar data set. In addition, the ratio of co- and cross-polarization signatures computed from different subsets within the same data set can also be computed. Computed images can be saved in a variety of formats: byte format (headerless format which saves the image as a string of byte values), MacMultiview (a byte image preceded by an ASCII header), and PICT2 format (standard format readable by MacMultiview and other image processing programs for the Macintosh). Images can also be printed on PostScript output devices. Polarization signatures can be saved in either a PICT format or as a text file containing PostScript commands and printed on any QuickDraw output device. The associated Stokes matrices can be stored in a text file. MacMultiview is written in C-language for Macintosh II series computers. MacMultiview will only run on Macintosh II series computers with 8-bit video displays (gray shades or color). The program also requires a minimum configuration of System 6.0, Finder 6.1, and 1Mb of RAM. MacMultiview is NOT compatible with System 7.0. It requires 32-Bit QuickDraw. Note: MacMultiview may not be fully compatible with preliminary versions of 32-Bit QuickDraw. Macintosh Programmer's Workshop and Macintosh Programmer's Workshop C (version 3.0) are required for recompiling and relinking. The standard distribution medium for this package is a set of three 800K 3.5 inch diskettes in Macintosh format. This program was developed in 1989 and updated in 1991. MacMultiview is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. QuickDraw, Finder, Macintosh, and System 7 are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NPO-18966
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  • 34
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Calibration of polarimetric radar systems is a field of research in which great progress has been made over the last few years. POLCAL (Polarimetric Radar Calibration) is a software tool intended to assist in the calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. In particular, POLCAL calibrates Stokes matrix format data produced as the standard product by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne imaging synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR). POLCAL was designed to be used in conjunction with data collected by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system. AIRSAR is a multifrequency (6 cm, 24 cm, and 68 cm wavelength), fully polarimetric SAR system which produces 12 x 12 km imagery at 10 m resolution. AIRSTAR was designed as a testbed for NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar program. While the images produced after 1991 are thought to be calibrated (phase calibrated, cross-talk removed, channel imbalance removed, and absolutely calibrated), POLCAL can and should still be used to check the accuracy of the calibration and to correct it if necessary. Version 4.0 of POLCAL is an upgrade of POLCAL version 2.0 released to AIRSAR investigators in June, 1990. New options in version 4.0 include automatic absolute calibration of 89/90 data, distributed target analysis, calibration of nearby scenes with calibration parameters from a scene with corner reflectors, altitude or roll angle corrections, and calibration of errors introduced by known topography. Many sources of error can lead to false conclusions about the nature of scatterers on the surface. Errors in the phase relationship between polarization channels result in incorrect synthesis of polarization states. Cross-talk, caused by imperfections in the radar antenna itself, can also lead to error. POLCAL reduces cross-talk and corrects phase calibration without the use of ground calibration equipment. Removing the antenna patterns during SAR processing also forms a very important part of the calibration of SAR data. Errors in the processing altitude or in the aircraft roll angle are possible causes of error in computing the antenna patterns inside the processor. POLCAL uses an altitude error correction algorithm to correctly remove the antenna pattern from the SAR images. POLCAL also uses a topographic calibration algorithm to reduce calibration errors resulting from ground topography. By utilizing the backscatter measurements from either the corner reflectors or a well-known distributed target, POLCAL can correct the residual amplitude offsets in the various polarization channels and correct for the absolute gain of the radar system. POLCAL also gives the user the option of calibrating a scene using the calibration data from a nearby site. This allows precise calibration of all the scenes acquired on a flight line where corner reflectors were present. Construction and positioning of corner reflectors is covered extensively in the program documentation. In an effort to keep the POLCAL code as transportable as possible, the authors eliminated all interactions with a graphics display system. For this reason, it is assumed that users will have their own software for doing the following: (1) synthesize an image using HH or VV polarization, (2) display the synthesized image on any display device, and (3) read the pixel locations of the corner reflectors from the image. The only inputs used by the software (in addition to the input Stokes matrix data file) is a small data file with the corner reflector information. POLCAL is written in FORTRAN 77 for use on Sun series computers running SunOS and DEC VAX computers running VMS. It requires 4Mb of RAM under SunOS and 3.7Mb of RAM under VMS for execution. The standard distribution medium for POLCAL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. It is also available on a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in DEC VAX FILES-11 format or on a TK50 tape cartridge in DEC VAX FILES-11 format. Other distribution media may be available upon request. Documentation is included in the price of the program. POLCAL 4.0 was released in 1992 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NPO-18954
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  • 35
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an image analysis system designed to manipulate and analyze digital data in raster format and provide the user with a wide spectrum of functions and statistical tools for analysis. LAS offers these features under VMS with optional image display capabilities for IVAS and other display devices as well as the X-Windows environment. LAS provides a flexible framework for algorithm development as well as for the processing and analysis of image data. Users may choose between mouse-driven commands or the traditional command line input mode. LAS functions include supervised and unsupervised image classification, film product generation, geometric registration, image repair, radiometric correction and image statistical analysis. Data files accepted by LAS include formats such as Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The enhanced geometric registration package now includes both image to image and map to map transformations. The over 200 LAS functions fall into image processing scenario categories which include: arithmetic and logical functions, data transformations, fourier transforms, geometric registration, hard copy output, image restoration, intensity transformation, multispectral and statistical analysis, file transfer, tape profiling and file management among others. Internal improvements to the LAS code have eliminated the VAX VMS dependencies and improved overall system performance. The maximum LAS image size has been increased to 20,000 lines by 20,000 samples with a maximum of 256 bands per image. The catalog management system used in earlier versions of LAS has been replaced by a more streamlined and maintenance-free method of file management. This system is not dependent on VAX/VMS and relies on file naming conventions alone to allow the use of identical LAS file names on different operating systems. While the LAS code has been improved, the original capabilities of the system have been preserved. These include maintaining associated image history, session logging, and batch, asynchronous and interactive mode of operation. The LAS application programs are integrated under version 4.1 of an interface called the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). TAE 4.1 has four modes of user interaction: menu, direct command, tutor (or help), and dynamic tutor. In addition TAE 4.1 allows the operation of LAS functions using mouse-driven commands under the TAE-Facelift environment provided with TAE 4.1. These modes of operation allow users, from the beginner to the expert, to exercise specific application options. LAS is written in C-language and FORTRAN 77 for use with DEC VAX computers running VMS with approximately 16Mb of physical memory. This program runs under TAE 4.1. Since TAE 4.1 is not a current version of TAE, TAE 4.1 is included within the LAS distribution. Approximately 130,000 blocks (65Mb) of disk storage space are necessary to store the source code and files generated by the installation procedure for LAS and 44,000 blocks (22Mb) of disk storage space are necessary for TAE 4.1 installation. The only other dependencies for LAS are the subroutine libraries for the specific display device(s) that will be used with LAS/DMS (e.g. X-Windows and/or IVAS). The standard distribution medium for LAS is a set of two 9~track 6250 BPI magnetic tapes in DEC VAX BACKUP format. It is also available on a set of two TK50 tape cartridges in DEC VAX BACKUP format. This program was developed in 1986 and last updated in 1992.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: GSC-13075
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The Science and Technology Laboratory Applications Software (ELAS) was originally designed to analyze and process digital imagery data, specifically remotely-sensed scanner data. This capability includes the processing of Landsat multispectral data; aircraft-acquired scanner data; digitized topographic data; and numerous other ancillary data, such as soil types and rainfall information, that can be stored in digitized form. ELAS has the subsequent capability to geographically reference this data to dozens of standard, as well as user created projections. As an integrated image processing system, ELAS offers the user of remotely-sensed data a wide range of capabilities in the areas of land cover analysis and general purpose image analysis. ELAS is designed for flexible use and operation and includes its own FORTRAN operating subsystem and an expandable set of FORTRAN application modules. Because all of ELAS resides in one "logical" FORTRAN program, data inputs and outputs, directives, and module switching are convenient for the user. There are over 230 modules presently available to aid the user in performing a wide range of land cover analyses and manipulation. The file management modules enable the user to allocate, define, access, and specify usage for all types of files (ELAS files, subfiles, external files etc.). Various other modules convert specific types of satellite, aircraft, and vector-polygon data into files that can be used by other ELAS modules. The user also has many module options which aid in displaying image data, such as magnification/reduction of the display; true color display; and several memory functions. Additional modules allow for the building and manipulation of polygonal areas of the image data. Finally, there are modules which allow the user to select and classify the image data. An important feature of the ELAS subsystem is that its structure allows new applications modules to be easily integrated in the future. ELAS has as a standard the flexibility to process data elements exceeding 8 bits in length, including floating point (noninteger) elements and 16 or 32 bit integers. Thus it is able to analyze and process "non-standard" nonimage data. The VAX (ERL-10017) and Concurrent (ERL-10013) versions of ELAS 9.0 are written in FORTRAN and ASSEMBLER for DEC VAX series computers running VMS and Concurrent computers running MTM. The Sun (SSC-00019), Masscomp (SSC-00020), and Silicon Graphics (SSC-00021) versions of ELAS 9.0 are written in FORTRAN 77 and C-LANGUAGE for Sun4 series computers running SunOS, Masscomp computers running UNIX, and Silicon Graphics IRIS computers running IRIX. The Concurrent version requires at least 15 bit addressing and a direct memory access channel. The VAX and Concurrent versions of ELAS both require floating-point hardware, at least 1Mb of RAM, and approximately 70Mb of disk space. Both versions also require a COMTAL display device in order to display images. For the Sun, Masscomp, and Silicon Graphics versions of ELAS, the disk storage required is approximately 115Mb, and a minimum of 8Mb of RAM is required for execution. The Sun version of ELAS requires either the X-Window System Version 11 Revision 4 or Sun OpenWindows Version 2. The Masscomp version requires a GA1000 display device and the associated "gp" library. The Silicon Graphics version requires Silicon Graphics' GL library. ELAS display functions will not work with a monochrome monitor. The standard distribution medium for the VAX version (ERL~10017) is a set of two 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tapes in DEC VAX BACKUP format. This version is also available on a TK50 tape cartridge in DEC VAX BACKUP format. The standard distribution medium for the Concurrent version (ERL-10013) is a set of two 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tapes in Concurrent BACKUP format. The standard distribution medium for the Sun version (SSC-00019) is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. The standard distribution medium for the Masscomp version, (SSC-00020) is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. The standard distribution medium for the Silicon Graphics version (SSC-00021) is a .25 inch streaming magnetic IRIS tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. Version 9.0 was released in 1991. Sun4, SunOS, and Open Windows are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. MIT X Window System is licensed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: ERL-10017
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A linear mixing model was applied to coarse spatial resolution data from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The reflective component of the 3.55-3.95 micron channel was used with the two reflective channels 0.58-0.68 micron and 0.725-1.1 micron to run a constrained least squares model to generate fraction images for an area in the west central region of Brazil. The fraction images were compared with an unsupervised classification derived from Landsat TM data acquired on the same day. The relationship between the fraction images and normalized difference vegetation index images show the potential of the unmixing techniques when using coarse spatial resolution data for global studies.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 14; 11; p. 2231-2240.
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The use of SAR data to study geologic processes for better understanding of recent tectonic activity and climate change as well as the mitigation of geologic hazards and exploration for nonrenewable resources is discussed. The geologic processes that are particularly amenable to SAR-based data include volcanism; soil erosion, degradation, and redistribution; coastal erosion and inundation; glacier fluctuations; permafrost; and crustal motions. When SAR data are combined with data from other planned spaceborne sensors including ESA ERS, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite, and the Canadian Radarsat, it will be possible to build a time-series view of temporal changes over many regions of earth.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Episodes (ISSN 0705-3797); 15; 1; p. 21-31.
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: SPOT panchromatic imagery is used to measure subresolution horizontal terrain displacements that are associated with earthquakes, sand dune migration, coastal processes, and glacial motion. The approach is aimed at detecting and measuring surface processes by statistically matching the radiometric patterns in the data that differ spatially in a consistent direction over many pixels. Data obtained from the satellite-derived imagery can facilitate the understanding of natural hazards and the determination of the rates of many environmental processes worldwide.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Episodes (ISSN 0705-3797); 15; 1; p. 56-61.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Viewing terrain data from various remote sensors in three dimensions has proven to be a valuable tool for scientists in understanding a variety of problems. A technique is presented for using image pyramids in such visualization of large terrain data sets, providing up to two orders of magnitude performance enhancement over simpler techniques, while at the same time eliminating false high-frequency information, which causes animations to sparkle.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology (ISSN 0899-9457); p. 157-166.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Application of developments in imaging spectrometry to the study of terrestrial ecosystems, which began in 1983, demonstrate the potential to estimate lignin and nitrogen concentrations of plant canopies by remote-sensing techniques. Estimation of these parameters from the first principles of radiative transfer and the interactions of light with plant materials is not presently possible, principally because of lack of knowledge about internal leaf scattering and specific absorption involving biochemical compounds. From the perspective of remote-sensing instrumentation, sensors are needed to support derivative imaging spectroscopy. Biochemical absorption features tend to occur in functional groupings throughout the 1100- to 2500-nm region. Derivative spectroscopy improves the information associated with the weaker, narrower absorption features of biochemical absorption that are superimposed on the strong absolute variations due to foliar biomass, pigments, and leaf water content of plant canopies. Preliminary sensor specifications call for 8-nm bandwidths at 2-nm centers in four spectral regions (about 400 bands total) and a signal-to-noise performance of at least 1000:1 for 20 percent albedo targets in the 2000-nm region.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology (ISSN 8750-9237); 36; 5; p. 446-456.
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: An evaluation was performed on SWIR (2000-2400 nm) data from two airborne remote sensing systems for discriminating and identifying alteration minerals at Cuprite, Nevada. The data were acquired by the NASA Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the GEOSCAN Mk II multispectral scanner. The evaluation involved comparison of processed imagery and image-derived spectra with existing alteration maps and laboratory spectra of rock samples from Cuprite. Results indicate that both the AVIRIS and GEOSCAN data permit the discrimination of areas of alunite, buddingtonite, kaolinite, and silicification using color composite images formed from three SWIR bands processed with either the decorrelation stretch or a log residual algorithm. The laboratory spectral features alunite, kaolinite and buddingtonite could be seen clearly only in the log residual processed AVIRIS data. However, this does not preclude their identification with the GEOSCAN data.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Geophysics (ISSN 0016-8033); 56; 9; p. 1432-1440.
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The direction angle sensitivity of agricultural field backscatter is studied. The direction angle is defined as the angle between the incident plane and the perpendicular to the row direction. Maximum backscatter power from an angricultural field is expected to occur when the furrow induced slopes are oriented towards the radar, i.e., for a 0 deg direction angle. This effect is known as the cardinal effect. Because of the way the looks are formed in the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR) processor, each look corresponds to a slightly different squint angle. This provides a unique data set to analyze the cardinal effect, as it allows simultaneous observations of the backscatter of a field for sixteen different direction angles. The backscatter variations of the agricultural fields with direction angle at P-, L-, and C-bands is described. The observed variations in backscatter are compared with model predictions. The model predicts that the maximum backscatter occurs for a 0 deg direction angle, but underestimates the backscatter variations with direction angle by more than 10 dB.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 1680-1682.
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Discussed is a key element in the processing of topographic radar maps acquired by the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar configured as an across-track interferometer (TOPSAR). TOPSAR utilizes a single transmit and two receive antennas; the three-dimensional target location is determined by triangulation based on a known baseline and two measured slant ranges. The slant range difference is determined very accurately from the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas. This phase is measured modulo 2pi, whereas it is the absolute phase which relates directly to the difference in slant range. It is shown that splitting the range bandwidth into two subbands in the processor and processing each individually allows for the absolute phase. The underlying principles and system errors which must be considered are discussed, together with the implementation and results from processing data acquired during the summer of 1991.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 1582-1584.
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Earth photography from the Space Shuttle is used to examine the ice cover on Lake Baikal and correlate the patterns of weakened and melting ice with known hydrothermal areas in the Siberian lake. Particular zones of melted and broken ice may be surface expressions of elevated heat flow in Lake Baikal. The possibility is explored that hydrothermal vents can introduce local convective upwelling and disrupt a stable water column to the extent that the melt zones which are observed in the lake's ice cover are produced. A heat flow map and photographs of the lake are overlaid to compare specific areas of thinned or broken ice with the hot spots. The regions of known hydrothermal activity and high heat flow correlate extremely well with circular regions of thinned ice, and zones of broken and recrystallized ice. Local and regional climate data and other sources of warm water, such as river inlets, are considered.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 1559-1561.
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The authors discuss the feasibility of determining the surface flux of sensible heat from forests with surface temperatures measured by satellites together with temperature soundings in the unstable atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The latent heat flux is derived from the sensible heat flux by means of the energy budget. The study makes use of data collected during HAPEX-MOBILHY (Hydrologic Atmospheric Pilot Experiment-Modelization du Bilan Hydrique). The methodology is based on turbulence similarity for the unstable ABL. The surface temperature data were derived from measurements by the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) aboard the NOAA-9 satellite; the atmospheric profiles were obtained by radiosondes.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 1505-1507.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A radar system based on a network analyzer has been developed to study the backscatter from vegetation. The radar is operated at L-band. Radar measurements of a grass field were made in 1991. The radar returns from the grass were measured at three incidence angles. Ground truth and canopy parameters such as blade and stem dimensions, moisture content of the grass and the soil, and blade and stem density, were measured. These parameters are used in a distorted Born approximation model to compute the backscatter coefficients from the grass layer. The model results are compared with the radar data.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 1754-1757.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A numerical simulation of the satellite-based multispectral passive microwave mapping and precipitation retrieval process is described. The simulation contains three major components: (1) the forward radiative transfer calculation; (2) the sensor observation simulation; and (3) the precipitation retrieval algorithm. Secondary components include a Karhunen-Loeve transformation module and antenna pattern deconvolution module. The simulation facilitates the investigation of candidate precipitation retrieval algorithms using sub-Nyquist brightness temperature imagery, and the comparison of the relative merits of proposed radiometric systems such as the EOS multispectral imaging microwave radiometer (MIMR), the tropical rainfall measurement mission (TRMM) microwave imager (TRMM TMI), and the geosynchronous satellite sensors. A procedure for retrieving rain rates using a statistical iterative approach is outlined.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 1716-1718.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: C-, L-, and P-band polarimetric signatures of wet snow surfaces have been analyzed, based on airborne synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR) surveys of an Alpine test site. The importance of surface roughness is evident in the C- and L-band signatures, whereas the diffuse scattering contribution by internal inhomogeneities in the snowpack increases from the C- to the P-band at incidence angles below 50 deg due to increasing penetration.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 1658-1660.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: In the central Namib Desert, dune-free surfaces are separated abruptly from a sea of yellow and red sand dunes at the Kuiseb River canyon. The off-white hues of the dune-free area result from anomalously high surficial gypsum enrichment. Satellite imagery indicates that the gypsum surfaces are associated with lower surface maximum temperatures than those of the darker dune surfaces to the south. One of various sources of sulfate for the gypsum bodies is oceanic H2S, supplied to desert land-surfaces by regular fog incursions. Since fog events are widespread along the coast, the question of anomalous gypsum accumulations north of the dune sea arises. Satellite imagery, in conjunction with more detailed handheld photography from the space shuttle, indicates that the penetration of fog inland is significantly greater over the gypsum surfaces than it is over the dunes. It is postulated that the thermal gradient between these surfaces generates a heat low centered over the northern part of dune sea and that this enhances fog and H2S advection on its north side onto the nearby dune-free zone. In such a system, gypsum/caliche surfaces reinforce advection of fog over themselves in a positive feedback mode.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 1565-1567.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: An iterative parallel region growing (IPRG) algorithm previously developed by Tilton (1989) produces hierarchical segmentations of images from finer to coarser resolution. An ideal segmentation does not always correspond to one single iteration but to several different ones, each one producing the 'best' result for a separate part of the image. With the goal of finding this ideal segmentation, the results of the IPRG algorithm are refined by utilizing some additional information, such as edge features, and by interpreting the tree of hierarchical regions.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 1406-1408.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The results of a calibration analysis performed on ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images produced by the Alaska SAR facility (ASF) are presented, together with some preliminary results on change detection on the Alaskan north slope derived from the same images. Image quality, geometric and radiometric fidelity, and repeat pass radiometric stability have all been determined to be satisfactory. A calibration workstation has been designed and implemented for use in operational data quality analysis of ASF data products. Higher-level data analysis programs have been developed for interferometry, texture analysis, and change detection.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX.; Vol. 2; p. 1164-1166.; A93-47551 20-43)
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The estimation of incoming and outgoing radiation streams using bidirectional spectral reflectances and bidirectional thermal emittances is described. Good agreement between measured and modeled estimates of the radiation balance is obtained. The data used were collected over selected grassland sites on the Streletskaya Steppe Reserve in Russia in July 1991. Results from this study compare well with results obtained during the first ISLSCP field experiment (FIFE) study in Kansas in 1987-89.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 1042-1045.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Measurements of plant canopy bidirectional reflectance made by the PARABOLA (portable apparatus for rapid acquisition of bidirectional observations of the land and atmosphere) instrument in three spectral bands are analyzed for steppe grassland sites of differing productivity levels. The variation of spectral reflectance and the normalized difference vegetation index in the solar principal plane is presented. Comparisons are made with PARABOLA measurements from selected first ISLSCP field experiment (FIFE) grassland sites in the Konza prairie, Kansas. The Streletskaya steppe sites showed no strong hot spot reflectance, while this effect was present in some FIFE sites but absent in others. The hot spot effect seems to be dependent on canopy geometry and background reflectance characteristics of these sites. Spectral hemispherical reflectance was computed from the angular integration of the bidirectional measurements for the steppe sites. Total shortwave albedo was estimated from these hemispherical reflectance measurements and compared to albedo measured by pyranometers. The albedo estimates from PARABOLA were found to be approximately 12-17 percent higher than the pyranometer measurements.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 1053-1055.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Radar backscatter measurements over the Konza Prairie were obtained by means of C- and X-band scatterometers as a part of the first ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) to determine soil moisture. Nearly simultaneous radar and radiometer data sets were collected along two transects that coincided with direct soil-moisture measurements. The results show that radars can be used for soil-moisture estimation over the complete transect, whereas radiometer sensitivity to soil moisture is drastically reduced over regions left unburned for many years. A combined rough-surface/volume scatter model was formulated. Calculated and measured scattering data are compared to determine the sensitivity of the scattering coefficient to different surface treatments.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 920-922.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by a vegetated canopy (APARc) or landscape (APARs) is a critical parameter in climate processes. A grassland study examined: 1) whether APARs can be estimated from PAR bidirectional exitance fractions; and 2) whether APARs is correlated with spectral vegetation indices (SVIs). Data were acquired with a high resolution continuous spectroradiometer at 4 sun angles on grassland sites. APARs was computed from the scattered surface PAR exitance fractions. The nadir APARs value was the most variable diurnally; it provided a good estimate of the average surface APARs at ~95 percent. APARc was best represented by exitance factors between 30-60* forward.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 749-751.
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  • 57
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Results of geologic studies using data collected by the NASA/JPL Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (TIMS), Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), and the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) are discussed. These instruments represent prototypes for the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite instruments ASTER, High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS), and EOS SAR. Integrated analysis of this data type is one of the keys to successful geologic research using EOS. TIMS links the physical properties of surface materials in the 8-12-*mm region to their composition. Calibrated aircraft data make direct lithological mapping possible. AVIRIS, an analog for HIRIS, provides quantitative information about the surface composition of materials based on their detailed visible and infrared spectral signatures (0.4-2.45 mm). Calibrated AVIRIS data make direct identification of minerals possible. The AIRSAR provides additional complementary information about the surface morphology of rocks and soils.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 625-627.
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  • 58
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Capability for synoptic, or wide-area, SAR processing has been added to the JPL Aircraft Synthetic Aperture Radar System (AIRSAR) by means of the CYCLOPS synoptic processor. Polarimetric requirements have been relaxed so that a single node in the system can process SAR data with a throughput of three channels in 3.75 hours. Each channel consists of five minutes of full-range-swath data chosen from the twelve available AIRSAR polarization channels. Processed data consists of 16-look, 16-meter resolution imagery with a swath size of 60 km. The processor fully utilizes the available Doppler bandwidth and provides processing options for range migration correction, zero-Doppler deskew, frequency registration, and radiometric correction. The detected-power output product is scaled so as to provide sigma zero radiometric calibration.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 652-654.
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Preliminary results from an analysis of the multitemporal radar backscatter signatures of tree species acquired by European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are presented. Significant changes in radar backscatter are detected. Correlation of these differences with ground truth observations indicate that these are due to changes in soil and liquid water content as a result of freeze/thaw events. C-band observations acquired by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne SAR (JPL AIRSAR) instrument demonstrate the potential of a C-band radar instrument to monitor drought/flood events. The potential of ERS-1 for monitoring phenologic changes in the forest and for classifying tree species is less promising.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 530-532.
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A study of algorithm development and testing for soil moisture retrieval for bare fields using L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is reported. First-order surface scattering models predict that the copolarization ratio is sensitive to soil moisture but not to surface roughness. All possible ratios of the co-polarization signals and their linear combinations are evaluated. The best sensitivity to soil moisture is achieved from measurements as predicted by the first-order surface scattering model. The effects of system noise and volume scattering of soil are evaluated. To minimize the effect of the volume scattering, an algorithm which includes both the surface and volume scattering has been developed and tested using Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne SAR (JPL AIRSAR) data. The results show that the estimation of soil moisture can be improved after removing the system noise and including the volume scattering effect at large incidence angles.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 495-497.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A laboratory goniometer was designed and built by NASA for acquiring bidirectional scattering data in the principal plane from leaves. Goniometric measurements were taken on individual tree leaves of yellow poplar, red maple, and red oak. Reflectance measurements were taken every 5* and transmittance measurements every 10 in the principal plane. The results indicate that light reflected from leaves usually has a significant specular component. Reflectances measured for 60 incident angle were the most specular. The most isotropic scattering occurred with transmitted light and with 0 incident light reflected from the abaxial surface. The most significant difference observed between the species was due to the heavy wax layer found on the abaxial surface of red oak, which caused the abaxial reflectance to be more specular than it was in the other two species.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 508-510.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The application of an electronically steered thinned array L-band radiometer (ESTAR) for soil moisture mapping is investigated over the arid rangeland Walnut Gulch Watershed. Antecedent rainfall and evaporation for the flights are very different and result in a wide range of soil moisture conditions. The high spatial variability of rainfall events within this region results in moisture conditions with dramatic spatial patterns. Sensor performance is verified using two approaches. Microwave data are used in conjunction with a microwave emission model to predict soil moisture. These predictions are compared to ground observations of soil moisture. A second verification is possible using an extensive data set. Both tests showed that the ESTAR is capable of providing soil moisture with the same level of accuracy as existing systems.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 486-488.
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A radar interferometric technique for topographic mapping of surfaces yields a high resolution, globally consistent approach to generation of digital elevation models. The technique is illustrated with maps generated from SEASAT and European Space Agency Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) data. A SEASAT interferometric image of a forested area which includes some unvegetated lava flows is analyzed. An analysis of errors expected from application of the technique to maps generated from ERS-1 data is presented. An orbital scenario for a global mapping mission is outlined.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 387, 388.
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Recent updates to a geographical information system (GIS) called VICAR (Video Image Communication and Retrieval)/IBIS are described. The system is designed to handle data from many different formats (vector, raster, tabular) and many different sources (models, radar images, ground truth surveys, optical images). All the data are referenced to a single georeference plane, and average or typical values for parameters defined within a polygonal region are stored in a tabular file, called an info file. The info file format allows tracking of data in time, maintenance of links between component data sets and the georeference image, conversion of pixel values to `actual' values (e.g., radar cross-section, luminance, temperature), graph plotting, data manipulation, generation of training vectors for classification algorithms, and comparison between actual measurements and model predictions (with ground truth data as input).
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 245-247.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The authors report on the advantages and disadvantages of a number of camera systems which are currently employed for space shuttle remote sensing operations. Systems discussed include the modified Hasselbad, the Rolleiflex 6008, the Linkof 5-inch format system, and the Nikon F3/F4 systems. Film/filter combinations (color positive films, color infrared films, color negative films and polarization filters) are presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 152-154.
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The results of the first phase of a cooperative effort in geometric orthorectification and generation of sigma(0) images of multiple incidence SAR images are presented. The geometric accuracy of the final image products is approximately 18 m or 1.5 pixels. A method for registering radar imagery collected from an airborne platform to an existing digital elevation model despite the effects of unmodeled variations in the flight path of the platform is demonstrated. The results indicate the requirements for a more detailed digital elevation model.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 111-113.
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Relative phase calibration of radar polarimetry data may be achieved by utilizing the phase information of the receiver calibration tone and knowledge of the antenna path differences among channels measured upon installation of the radar polarimeter. This calibration method does not require any assumptions on the scattering behavior of the scene. This method of phase calibration may be verified by examining the polarization signatures of calibration instruments such as the trihedral corner reflectors.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 104, 105.
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A set of multidate, multilook angle polarimetric SAR data, acquired in Pennsylvania during July 1990 was recorded to determine the effect of local incidence angle. Cosine-based and polynomial models are found to be equally good for correcting SAR data for local incidence angle effects. A modified approach, considering the correction factor as additive rather than multiplicative, gave better results. The standard error in the estimation of soil moisture improves from 8.1 to 5.8 after applying corrections to incidence angle effects.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 86-88.
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the Walnut Gulch watershed near Tombstone, Arizona were acquired on 28 Mar. 1990 and on 1 Aug. 1990. Trihedral corner reflectors were deployed prior to both overflights to allow calibration of the two SAR data sets. During both overflights, gravimetric soil moisture and dielectric constant measurements were made. Detailed vegetation height, density, and water content measurements were made as part of the Monsoon 1990 Experiment. Preliminary results based on analysis of the multitemporal polarimetric SAR data are presented. Only the C-band data (5.7-cm wavelength) radar images show significant difference between Mar. and Aug., with the strongest difference observed in the HV images. Based on the radar data analysis and the in situ measurements, we conclude that these differences are mainly due to changes in the vegetation and not due to the soil moisture changes.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 71-73.
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A remote sensing, medical satellite (MEDSAT) aids in the control of carrier (vector) borne disease. The prototype design is a light satellite to test for control of malaria. The design features a 340-kg satellite with visual/IR and SAR sensors in a low inclination orbit observing a number of worldwide test sites. The approach is to use four-band visual/IR and dual-polarized L-band SAR images obtained from MEDSAT in concert with in-situ data to estimate the temporal and spatial variations of malaria risk. This allows public health resources to focus on the most vulnerable areas at the appropriate time. It is concluded that a light-satellite design for a MEDSAT satellite with a Pegasus launch is feasible.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 28-30.
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: An inflight absolute calibration method has been adapted and applied to channel 1 of the AVHRR. The approach is based on AVHRR observations in channels 1, 2 and 4. A rigorous cloud screening is performed, based on the homogeneity of the data in channel 1 and 2 and on the temperature in channel 4. In a combined approach, the off-nadir view satellite count in channel 2 is used to detect the aerosol optical thickness and loading and the count of channel 1 is used to calibrate this channel, based on the predictable Rayleigh scattering component. Water vapor data are used, and the channels are intercalibrated using the ratio between channels 1 and 2 over the glint region.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 9-11.
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  • 72
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Spaceborne laser altimeter systems intended to operate at lunar and Martian orbits are reviewed. Laser altimeter systems capable of long lifetimes with centimeter precision ranging electronics are considered to be essential components of NASA's EOS.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Photonics Spectra (ISSN 0731-1230); 27; 4; p. 89-94.
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) developed at NASA-Stennis' Science and Technology Laboratory (STL) allows U.S. industry to use the specialized resources of STL in the fields of remote sensing and GIS, with a view to the development of new commercial processes and improved services. Attention is given to the novel agreement mechanisms developed by NASA to implement VIP. These agreements encompass a memorandum of understanding, a technical exchange agreement, a sponsored-transfer agreement, a proprietary work agreement, and a joint endeavor agreement.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: PE&RS - Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0099-1112); 59; 6; p. 935-939.
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The feasibility of using imaging spectrometry in studies of playa evaporites is demonstrated by mapping efflorescent salt crusts in Death Valley (California), using Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data and a recently developed least-squares spectral band-fitting algorithm. It is shown that it was possible to remotely identify eight different saline minerals, including three borates that have not been previously reported for the Death Valley efflorescent crusts: hydroboracite, pinnoite, and rivadavite. The three borates are locally important phases in the crusts; at least one of them, rivadavite, appears to be forming directly from brine.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Remote Sensing of Environment (ISSN 0034-4257); 44; 2-3; p. 337-356.
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Multispectral thermal infrared radiance measurements of the Kupaianaha flow field were acquired with the NASA airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) on the morning of 1 October 1988. The TIMS data were used to map both the temperature and emissivity of the surface of the flow field. The temperature map depicted the underground storage and transport of lava. The presence of molten lava in a tube or tumulus resulted in surface temperatures that were at least 10 C above ambient. The temperature map also clearly defined the boundaries of hydrothermal plumes which resulted from the entry of lava into the ocean. The emissivity map revealed the boundaries between individual flow units within the Kupaianaha field. Distinct spectral anomalies, indicative of silica-rich surface materials, were mapped near fumaroles and ocean entry sites. This apparent enrichment in silica may have resulted from an acid-induced leaching of cations from the surfaces of glassy flows.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Bulletin of Volcanology (ISSN 0258-8988); p. 33-44.
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Land surface hydrologic-atmospheric interactions in humid and semi-arid watersheds were investigated. Active and passive microwave sensors were used to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture at the catchment scale in four areas. Results are presented and discussed. The eventual use of this information in the analysis and prediction of associated hydrologic processes is examined.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 13; 5; p. 115-118.
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Quantitative use of remote multispectral measurements to study and map land surface evapotranspiration has been a challenging issue for the past 20 years. Past work is reviewed against process physics. A simple two-layer combination-type model is used which is applicable to both vegetation and bare soil. The theoretic analysis is done to show which land surface properties are implicitly defined by such evaporation models and to assess whether they are measurable as a matter of principle. Conceptual implications of the spatial correlation of land surface properties, as observed by means of remote multispectral measurements, are illustrated with results of work done in arid zones. A normalization of spatial variability of land surface evaporation is proposed by defining a location-dependent potential evaporation and surface temperature range. Examples of the application of remote based estimates of evaporation to hydrological modeling studies in Egypt and Argentina are presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 13; 5; p. 89-100.
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Regional ecological studies are considered in the context of the global change problem. The Kursk-91 international experiment is used to illustrate applications of remote sensing data and data bases of field experiments for assessment of parameters of the state of the soil and vegetative cover and subsequent study of biospheric stability on the basis of regular satellite observations.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Issledovanie Zemli iz Kosmosa (ISSN 0205-9614); 2Apr; p. 63-75.
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A description is presented of the activities and results of the Space Shuttle mission STS-45, known as the Mission to Planet Earth. Observations of Mount St. Helens, Manila Bay and Mt. Pinatubo, the Great Salt Lake, the Aral Sea, and the Siberian cities of Troitsk and Kuybyshev are examined. The geological features and effects of human activity seen in photographs of these areas are pointed out.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Geocarto International (ISSN 1010-6049); 7; 4; p. 69-80.
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The visible bands of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor were used in an empirical assessment of seagrass biomass on shallow banks near Lee Stocking Island in the Bahamas. The TM bands were transformed to minimize the depth-dependent variance in the bottom reflectance signal. Regression analyses were performed between the transformed bands and field measurements of seagrass standing crop (above-ground biomass). Regression equations using spectral data accounted for up to 80 per cent of the variability in seagrass biomass. The unexplained variance was ascribed to variations in bottom sediment color.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 14; 3; p. 621-627.
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: This paper provides a guide for the acquisition, processing, and interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery of desert terrains for use in regional exploration. Sun angle considerations, data quality cautions, noise suppression routines, band selections, data calibration, spectral enhancements, perceptual considerations of displays, and general interpretation guidelines are all discussed as components of an image-information extraction procedure.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing, 8th, Denver, CO, Apr. 29-May 2, 1991, Proceedings. Vol. 1 (A93-28978 10-43); p. 277-285.
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Current atmospheric correction models applied to imaging spectroscopy data include such methods as residual or scene average, flat field correction, regression method or empirical line algorithm, the continuum interpolated band ratio (CIBR) derivation and the LOWTRAN 7 method. Due to the limitations of using residual and flat field corrections on vegetated scenes, three methods will be compared: regression, CIBR derivation and LOWTRAN 7. Field-measured bright and dark targets taken at the time of the 13 April, 1989 AVIRIS overflight of Jasper Ridge, California were used to formulate the regression method atmospheric correction. Using this corrected scene as 'ground truth', the CIBR derivation and the LOWTRAN 7 method with both input models are compared on the vegetated Jasper Ridge scene. Although representing a qualitative approach, this is a first approximation and shows the need for more quantitative analysis.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing, 8th, Denver, CO, Apr. 29-May 2, 1991, Proceedings. Vol. 1 (A93-28978 10-43); p. 413-421.
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  • 83
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Plot-scale hydrologic field studies were initiated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to a) investigate the spatial and temporal variability of surface and subsurface hydrologic processes, particularly as affected by vegetation, and b) develop experimental techniques and associated instrumentation methodology to study hydrologic processes at increasingly large spatial scales. About 150 instruments, most of which are remotely operated, have been installed at the field site to monitor ground atmospheric conditions, precipitation, interception, soil-water status, and energy flux. This paper describes the nature of the field experiment, instrumentation and sampling rationale, and presents preliminary findings.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: Engineering, construction, and operations in space - III: Space '92; Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference, Denver, CO, May 31-June 4, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-41976 17-12); p. 2082-2093.
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