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  • Polymers  (12)
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (12)
  • 1990-1994  (9)
  • 1960-1964  (3)
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  • Wiley-Blackwell  (12)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Polymers ; High-temperature polymers ; Materials science ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Research on high-temperature organic polymers was initiated in the late 1950s primarily to meet the needs of the aerospace and electronics industry. Since then, many different heat-resistant polymer systems have been reported, of which several are now commercially available. These polymers are used in many diverse applications such as circuitry in microelectronic components, coatings on cookware, binders in brake systems, sealants for fuel tanks in high-speed aircraft, gears in copying machines, structural components in high-speed aircraft, and space vehicles, films and wire coatings for electrical insulation. Worldwide use for high-temperature polymers in 1988 was estimated at 90 million kilograms with a value of $ 2.3 billion. This market is expected to double by the end of this decade. The major polymer classes discussed in the present paper are polyimides and poly(aryl ethers).
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Polymers ; Liquid crystals ; Crystalline polymers ; Materials science ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: During the past ten years there has been a sharp increase in interest in the opportunities afforded by R & D in the field of specialty polymers. Interest is mainly being shown in two distinct categories of polymers, namely, (a) polymers which are used in very small quantities to fulfill critical needs as a part of device system, and (b) high-performance engineering polymers which significantly extend their mechanical and thermal properties for structural applications. The first category ranges from advanced resists and insulating layers for microelectronic devices to membranes for filtration systems. The second category encompasses improved matrices for advanced composites as well as liquid crystalline polymers. In the present paper an overview is first given of the emerging opportunities for advanced materials and particularly specialty polymers. The status of work on liquid crystalline copolyesters is then discussed with special emphasis on one of the major problems confronting this field, namely interpreting the microstructure of the copolyesters.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Materials science ; Polymers ; Polycarbonates ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Polycarbonate together with the acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymers, and the poly amides constitute the leading groups of engineering thermoplastics; for polycarbonate in particular, continued dynamic growth is prophesized.The underlying reason for this lies not only in its outstanding combination of technical properties and excellent price/performance balance, but also in the chemical and physical potential inherent in the basic structure of polycarbonate. The following review demonstrates with examples how this potential can be used in the development of new polycarbonates through the incorporation of alternative monomers, changes in the linear structure, end group variation, addition of special additives, and blending. The main emphasis of this articles lies in the development of polycarbonates resistant to high temperature, with a good balance of technologically valuable properties. For scientific and practical interests a new criterion is offered for polycarbonates having both high-temperature stability and impact strength.“One must not only make a discovery, but also realize that a discovery has been made.”Hermann Schnell [1]
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Soft matter ; Nobel lecture ; Fluids ; Polymers ; Surfactants ; Liquid crystals ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Copolymers ; Polymers ; Solid-phase synthesis ; Proteins ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The chemical total synthesis of proteins using solid supports has made great progress. It is therefore becoming a reality what E. Fischer already predicted in 1902Cited from Nobel Lectures - Chemistry 1901-1921, Elsevier, Amsterdam 1966, p. 34.: “I foresee the time when physiological chemistry… is able to prepare synthetic enzymes.” The synthesis of peptides of up to 20 amino acids by the well-established solid-phase procedure on polymeric supports (SPPS) has made great progress through the development of newer supports. At the same time, methods have emerged which facilitate the separation and characterization of peptides, thus allowing optimization of the synthesis of pure materials. The new supports which enable one to synthesize peptides by a rapid continuous flow procedure are characterized by hydrophilicity, beads of approximately equal size, similar swelling properties in the solvents used for peptide synthesis, and stability at high pressure. With graft copolymers of weakly cross-linked polystyrene and linear polyethylene glycol (PEG), the synthetic cycle for coupling of one amino acid can routinely be reduced to 10-20 min with a concomitant higher yield. With beads of monodispersed graft copolymer of 10 μm diameter, a synthetic cycle can, in principle, be shortened to 1-5 min. By utilizing this high-speed solid-phase procedure, larger peptides up to the size of proteins could also be prepared in a few hours. With newer mass spectroscopic methods such as ion-spray mass spectrometry, peptides of up to a molecular mass of 100 kDa can be characterized, and with the advent of capillary electrophoresis, another very efficient separation tool, besides HPLC, is at our disposal.
    Additional Material: 27 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Monolayers ; Networks ; Polymers ; Membranes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: This article is concerned with the structure and dynamic properties of thin films that have been chemically stabilized by polymerization and cross-linking reactions. By using different types of monomers it is possible to construct networks with rubber-like elasticity or with glassy properties, or temporary networks, in the interfacial region between oil and water. The systematic study of these ultrathin membrances offers new insights into aspects of current research, and opens up a wide range of potential new applications.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Polymers ; Fractals ; Theoretical chemistry ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Polymer science, an interdisciplinary science well-rooted in organic chemistry and in materials science, encompasses an inordinate number and diversity of substance classes and thus has far-reaching applications. Interestingly, polymers also represent a great challenge to the theoreticians, since their theoretical treatment often necessitates appropriate extensions of the classical methods from solid state physics and from statistical physics. Thus, new concepts often have to be invoked when considering the special properties of polymers. In this review we concentrate on one of the modern concepts in the theory of polymers, namely on scaling. Scaling is closely associated with new developments in the field of fractals and of hierarchical structures. Such concepts are invaluable for the modeling of complex geometries and for describing dynamical processes in polymeric materials. Here, we focus on a presentation of these ideas and we outline examples of recent research in which these concepts have been successfully applied.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Polymers ; Starburst dendrimers ; Dendrimers ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Starburst dendrimers are three-dimensional, highly ordered oligomeric and polymeric compounds formed by reiterative reaction sequences starting from smaller molecules - “initiator cores” such as ammonia or pentaerythritol. Protecting group strategies are crucial in these syntheses, which proceed via discrete “Aufbau” stages referred to as generations. Critical molecular design parameters (CMDPs) such as size, shape, and surface chemistry may be controlled by the reactions and synthetic building blocks used. Starburst dendrimers can mimic certain properties of micelles and liposomes and even those of biomolecules and the still more complicated, but highly organized, building blocks of biological systems. Numerous applications of these compounds are conceivable, particularly in mimicking the functions of large biomolecules as drug carriers and immunogens. This new branch of “supramolecular chemistry” should spark new developments in both organic and macromolecular chemistry.
    Additional Material: 58 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Tacticity ; Polymers ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The reaction course and kinetics of interfunctional reactions with polymers are determined by the microtacticity of the polymer chain. Among other things, this is shown by the hydrolysis of ester and amide polymers of different tacticities, and by ring-closure reactions (anhydride formation). The physical and physico-chemical properties are also governed by the tacticity.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Oligomers ; Pleionomers ; Polymers ; Fibers ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The term “oligomer” is defined, and a survey of methods for the isolation and synthesis of cyclic and linear oligoesters, oligourethanes, oligo(acrylonitriles), and oligoamides is presented. The oligomers serve a valuable function as model substances for the investigation of many properties of the corresponding high polymers. This is shown using several examples (infrared spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, viscosity).
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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