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  • 1990 - 1994  (634,234)
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  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: Cellular growth is an important crystal growth process and offers an interesting example of natural pattern formation. The present work has been undertaken to study cellular growth, especially its pattern formation, both experimentally and numerically. In situ observations of faceted cellular growth clearly revealed cellular interactions in the array of cells. Cell tip splitting and loss of cells were observed to be the two main mechanisms for the adjustment of cell spacings during growth. For the first time, the true time-dependent faceted cellular growth has been modelled properly. The time evolution of faceted cellular growth has demonstrated the dynamical features of cellular growth processes. It was shown that the pattern formation was determined by cellular interactions in the array, either transient or persistent depending on the growth condition. The cellular structures were irregular when persistent interactions occurred, whereas relatively regular structures could be formed once the transient interactions had stopped. As a result of cellular interactions, a finite range of stable cell spacings was found under a given growth condition. Numerical experiments were carried out for k 〉 1 and k 〈 1 (where k is the solute partition coefficient), under a number of different growth conditions. It was found that these two cases were not symmetric as far as solute distribution is concerned; however the pattern formation behaviours were similar. For k 〉 1 shallow cells were retained, while for k 〈 1, the formation of liquid grooves along the cell boundary depended on the growth condition. The solute effect plays an important role in the cellular interactions in the array. The results were compared with experimental observations in thin film silicon single crystals. It is felt that a general behaviour of pattern formation is found and should be expected for other processes such as non-faceted cellular or eutectic growth. In addition, the solute flow in steady state cellular array growth was studied using the point source technique. Preliminary work was carried out to measure steady state non-faceted cell shapes. Heat flow in zone melting was studied numerically.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (208 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540544852
    Language: English
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  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: The present interest in sediments which are rich in organic matter results not only from their economic significance as potential oil and gas source rocks, but also from the fact that their deposition is the result of special environments. Subtle changes in the environmental conditions may result in great variations in the geochemical and petrographical characteristics of the organic matter. Therefore, the study of organic matter-rich sediments can provide a key to past sedimentary conditions. In addition, the elucidation of the depositional controls is of importance for oil and gas exploration strategies, for which the knowledge of source rock distribution and quality is critical. Furthermore, organic matter reacts extremely sensitive to changes in temperature during burial. The result of this sensitivity is the generation of volatile products such as carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen, oil and gas and a reorganization of the solid organic residue. Some of these changes are quantified as maturity parameters which can be used as calibration tools in basin modelling, i.e., in the modelling of temperature histories of sedimentary basins. The use of maturity parameters and other organic matter characteristics as indicators for diagenetic conditions and depositional processes is, however, restricted, if analyses are performed on outcrop samples, because weathering also affects organic matter.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (216 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540566618
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Description / Table of Contents: Starting from a more general discussion of mechanisms controlling organic carbon deposition in marine environments and indicators useful for paleoenvironmental reconstructions, this study concentrates on detailed organic-geochemical and sedimentological investigations of late Cenozoic deep-sea sediments from (1) the Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea (ODP-Leg 105), (2) the upwelling area off Northwest Africa (ODP-Leg 108), and (3) the Sea of Japan (ODP-Leg 128). Of major interest are shortas well as long-term changes in organic carbon accumulation during the past 20 m.y. As shown in the data from ODP-Legs 105, 108, and 128, sediments characterized by similar high organic carbon contents can be deposited in very different environments. Thus, simple total organic carbon data do not allow (i) to distinguish between different factors controlling organic carbon enrichment and (ii) to reconstruct the depositional history of these sediments. Data on both quantity and composition of the organic matter, however, provide important informations about the depositional environment and allow detailed reconstructions of the evolution of paleoclimate, paleoceanic circulation, and paleoproductivity in these areas. The results have significant implications for quantitative models of the mechanisms of climatic change. Furthermore, the data may also help to explain the formation of fossil black shales, i.e., hydrocarbon source rocks. (1) BAFFIN BAY AND LABRADOR SEA The Miocene to Quaternary sediments at Baffin Bay Site 645 are characterized by relatively high organic carbon contents, most of which range from 0.5% to almost 3%. This organic carbon enrichment was mainly controlled by increased supply .of terrigenous organic matter throughout the entire time interval. Two distinct maxima were identified: (i) a middle Miocene maximum, possibly reflecting a dense vegetation cover and fluvial sediment supply from adjacent islands, that decreased during late Miocene and early Pliocene time because of expansion of tundra vegetation due to global climatic deterioration; (ii) a late Pliocene-Pleistocene maximum possibly caused by glacial erosion and meltwater outwash. Significant amounts of marine organic carbon were accumulated in western Baffin Bay during middle Miocene time, indicating higher surface-water productivity (up to about 150 gC m -2 y-l) resulted from the inflow of cold and nutrient-rich Arctic water masses. The decrease in average surface-water productivity to values similar to those of the modern Baffin Bay was recorded during the late Miocene and was probably caused by the development of a seasonal sea-ice cover. At Labrador Sea Sites 646 and 647, organic carbon contents are low varying between 0.10% and 0.75%; the origin of most of the organic matter probably is marine. A major increase in organic carbon accumulation at Site 646 at about 7.2 Ma may indicate increased surface-water productivity triggered by the onset of the cold East-Greeniand Current system. Near 2.4 Ma, i.e., parallel to the development of major Northern Hemisphere Glaciation, accumulation rates of both organic carbon and biogenic opal decreased, suggesting a reduced surface-water productivity because of the development of dosed seasonal sea-ice cover in the northern Labrador Sea. The influence of varying sea-ice cover on surface-water productivity is also documented in the short-term glacial/interglacial fluctuations in organic carbon deposition at Sites 646 and 647. (2) UPWELLING AREAS OFF NORTHWEST AFRICA The upper Pliocene-Quaternary sediments at coastal-upwelling Site 658 are characterized by high organic carbon contents of 4%; the organic matter is a mixture of marine and terrigenous material with a dominance of the marine proportion. The upper Miocene to Quaternary pelagic sediments from close-by non-upwelling Sites 657 and 659, on the other hand, display low organic carbon values of less than 0.5%. Only in turbidites and slumps occasionally intercalated at the latter two sites, high organic carbon values of up to 3% occur. The high accumulation rates of marine organic carbon recorded at Site 658 reflect the high-productivity upwelling environment. Paleoproductivity varies between 100 and 400 gC m "2 y-1 during the past 3.6 m.y. and is clearly triggered by changes in global climate. However, there is no simple relationship between climate and organic carbon supply, i.e., it is not possble to postulate that productivity was generally higher at Site 658 during glacials than during interglacials or vice versa. Changes in the relative importance between upwelling activity (which was increased during glacial intervals) and fluvial nutrient supply (which was increased during interglacial intervals) may have caused the complex productivity record at Site 658. Most of the maximum productivity values, for example, were recorded at peak interglacials and at terminations indicating the importance of local fluvial nutrient supply at Site 658. Near 0.5 Ma, a long-term decrease in paleoproductivity occurs, probably indicating a decrease in fluvial nutrient supply and/or a change in nutrient "content of the upwelled waters. The former explanation is supported by the contemporaneous decrease in terrigenous organic carbon and (river-borne) clay supply suggesting an increase in long-term aridity in the Central Sahara. At Site 660, underneath the Northern Equatorial Divergence Zone, (marine) organic carbon values of up to 1.5% were recorded in upper Pliocene-Quaternary sediments. During the last 2.5 Ma, the glacial sediments are carbonate-lean and enriched in organic carbon probably caused by the influence of a carbonate-dissolving and oxygen-poor deep-water mass. (3) SEA OF JAPAN Based on preliminary results of organic-geochemical investigations, the Miocene to Quaternary sediments from ODP-Sites 798 (Oki Ridge) and 799 (Kita-Yamato-Trough) are characterized by high organic carbon contents of up to 6%; the organic matter is a mixture between marine and terrigenous material. Dominant mechanisms controlling (marine) organic carbon enrichments are probably high-surface water productivity and increased preservations rates under anoxic deep-water conditions. In the lower Pliocene sediments at Site 798 and the Miocene to Quaternary sediments at Site 799, rapid burial of organic carbon in turbidites may have occurred episodically. Distinct cycles of dark laminated sediments with organic carbon values of more than 5% and light bioturbated to homogenous sediments with lower organic carbon contents indicate dramatic shortterm paleoceanographic variations. More detailed records of accumulation rates of marine and terrigenous organic carbon and biogenic opal as well as a detailed oxygen isotope stratigraphy are required for a more precise reconstruction of the environmental history of the Sea of Japan through late Cenozoic time.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (217 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540463078
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Description / Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION Ecometry concerns measurements and interpretation of ecological data and relationships between data. It deals with most matters involved in the scientific aspects of the representativity and information value of samples and does not, in fact, concern statistical methods. In particular, ecometry can be regarded as an approach to obtain so-called load models and load diagrammes (effect-dose-sensitivity diagrammes), which are one of the aims/final products in aquatic environmental consequence analysis (H~- kanson, 1990; all these terms will be explained later on). This publication is meant to demonstrate what can and cannot be done using ecometric approaches. It must be emphasized at the outset that the main intention here is not to provide new radioecological knowledge on how Cs-137 is dispersed in aquatic ecosystems after the Chernobyl accident and is taken up in fish, but to use Cs-137 as a type substance and pike as a biological indicator to go through methods which should also apply to other types of environmentally hazardous substances (it could just as well have been substance X in ecosystem Y). As a secondary effect, we may also learn something about Cs-137. Several terms and methods, which have not been used earlier in the aquatic environmental sciences, e.g., ecometric analysis and dynamic modelling using moderators, will be discussed and defined...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (158 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540539971
    Language: English
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  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE Following the economical and social development of the local communities, mountain regions of temperate climates are increasingly becoming the site of valuable infrastructures and important urban and industrial settlements. As the catastrophic events of last years in the European Alps have clearly shown, the vulnerability of these territories has correspondingly increased, in terms of both property damage and losses of human life. Until recently, the hydraulic scientific community has paid little attention to mountain watersheds, except perhaps during the period if the hydropower development. Nevertheless attention was then focused on problems and methodologies somewhat different from the issues of actual environmental concern. More recently, however, hydraulic engineers have joined their colleagues from forest and rural engineering, who have traditionally dealt with erosion control in mountain areas, to bring in their own methodology, already experienced in lowland rivers. At the same time, academic people focused an interest in some phenomena, like massive transport, which is typical of mountain environment. To bring together all these contributions and to make the state of the art of the mountain river science (oropotamology) and technology, an International Workshop was called at the University of Trent (Italy), on October 1989, under the sponsorship of Fluvial Hydraulic Section of the IAHR. Three main topics have been recognized as particularly relevant from the point of view of both research and professivnal people: a) Hydrodynamics of steep channels and local scale process; b) Sediment movement and sediment training, with special emphasis on massive transport; c) Particular features of sediment transport related to non-uniform grain-size. However, as it is the case in these circumstances, the contest of several contributions often spread over more than one topic. In the following Introduction to papers, the three topics were split into 11 Sections, each one devoted to a more particular aspect recurrently addressed during the discussion. The same paper, thus, may be mentioned in different Sections of the Introduction.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (468 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540544913
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE This volume presents results from members of the Project 216 "Global Biological Events in Earth History" of the International Geological Correlation Programme (IGCP). The project, initiated by the elder editor (O.H.W.) within the framework of the International Palaeontological Association (IPA) in the late 70s, was officially established in 1984. Subsequently, it led to the first three conferences on Global Bio-Events, and their respective symposia volumes: 1) In G6ttingen, West Germany in 1986 (WaUiser, O. H., Ed., 1986, Global Bio-Events, Springer-Verlag); in Bilbao, Spain in 1987 (Lamolda, M. A., Kauffrnan, E. G., and Walliser, O. H., Eds., 1988, Paleontology and Evolution: Extinction Events; Rev. Espafiola de Paleont., n. extraord.); and in Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A. in 1988 (this volume). The next meeting, on Innovations and Revolutions in the Biosphere, is planned in Oxford, England in 1990, to be hosted by Martin Brasier. During the history of this project, the focus of our research has shifted significantly. Initial focus was on specific global mass extinctions (e.g. the Precambrian/Cambrian, Frasnian/Fammenian, Cretaceous/Tertiary, and Eocene/Oligocene events) to a broader treatment of Phanerozoic mass extinctions, their differences or unifying factors, and their causal mechanisms. Subsequent meetings have attempted to focus attention on a fuller spectrum of global bio-events in Earth history. The Boulder Conference, and this volume, although still strongly influenced by the excitement of mass extinction research, expresses these new trends in bioevent studies. The Boulder conference, held on May 16-23, 1988, focused on a broad spectrum of Abrupt Changes in the Global Biota. Over 100 participants from 13 nations attended this meeting, representing diverse disciplines of palaeobiology, palaeoclimatology, palaeoceanography, sedimentology, geochemistry, and a broad spectrum of the stratigraphic and geological sciences. Four days of talks were supplemented by field trips to the continental Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in the Raton Basin, New Mexico, and to the Cenomanian/Turonian mass extinction interval exposed near Pueblo, Colorado. The Conference itself was characterized by a great diversity of approaches to bio-event research, and the phenomenon of mass extinction. In particular, interactive causes involving both extraterrestrial and earthbound (tectonic, oceanographic, climatic) forces were discussed, and each major Phanerozoic mass extinction was treated by specialists in the field. In addition, many presentations focused on the causal mechanism and patterns of bio-event development that were not restricted to mass extinction intervals, but which could cause regional to global biotic response at any time in Earth history. Thus, both the conference, and this volume, focus attention on climatic and oceanic perturbations from anoxia, advection, rapid thermal change, toxic chemical enrichment, and energy shock from impacts and giant tsunamis as forcing mechanism for regional to global bio-events. The delicate balance of perched ocean/ctimate~fe systems under typical warm equable non-glacial Phanerozoic conditions, and their susceptibility to shock from even small perturbations, was a philosophical theme that ran throughout the meeting. The case for extraterrestrial forcing of tectonic, volcanic, and biological events was greatly strengthened by new data presented at this conference, with special concern for the effects of small comet/meteorite impacts in the oceans, and their chemical/physical/biological signature which might be used, in the absence of shocked minerals, microspheres or trace metals, to identify extraterrestrial events associated with global and regional bio-events. The conference benefitted from the introduction of much new data at high levels of resolution, especially from poorly studied mass extinction intervals. Interactive discussions, and many new ideas characterized the meeting. The new scientific results of this meeting are exciting; they are reviewed in the Conference Report published in Episodes (1988, v. 11, n. 4, p. 289-292). Most of the key papers presented at the Boulder meeting appear in this volume. What lies ahead in bio-event research? Clearly, a great deal of excitement and an age of discovery. We have only touched the surface of this new and dynamic field. We are starting to comprehend the dynamics of global mass extinctions, integrating detailed geochemical, physical and biological data into scenarios of cause and effect. But in the years ahead lies the job of understanding the whole spectrum of regional bioevents preserved in the ancient record, and especially the application of this research to solutions of the critical problems inherent in global change and the modern biotic crisis. Future directions for research at this conference include the investigation and modeling of abrupt chemical and thermal shifts in the ocean, the effects of impacts at deep ocean sites, the documentation of successful survival strategies and repopulation patterns following biotic crises, the deep ocean record of bio-events, and focus on alternative forces other than impacting to account for mass extinction events. This volume introduces some of these new pathways in bio-event research.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (432 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540526056
    Language: English
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  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE This volume contains a selection of papers presented and discussed at the COMTAGWorkshop on "Dynamics and Geomorphology of Mountain Rivers". COMTAG (Commission on Theory, Measurement and Application in Geomorphology) is a commission of the International Geographical Union (IGU). The meeting was held in the monastery of Benediktbeuern in the Bavarian Alps in June 1992. The main objective of the meeting was to review the most recent developments in research on river bed dynamics and bedload transport in mountain rivers. Questions of mountain torrent control and environmental protection were also addressed. The general theme of the meeting finds its appropriate scientific and spatial location in the long tradition of bedload transport studies carried out in the fluvially active German Alps, which are often affected by flood and mass movement hazards. The conference provided an impulse for discussions between researchers in the fields of mountain torrent hydrology, water resources management and bedload transport modelling. In the five years preceding the meeting the editors of this volume had headed a DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) project on "Bedload transport and river bed adjustment in the Lainbach catchment" within the priority programme "Fluvial Geomorphodynamics in the late Quaternary". Results of the investigations and newly developed measurement techniques were introduced to the participants during the meeting and an excursion to the nearby Lainbach River. The meeting was attended by sixty four scientists from fifteen countries. Thirty four papers were presented in sessions on bedload transport in mountain torrents, measurement techniques of solid material transport, mass movements and sediment supply, river bed adjustment and roughness characteristics of steep mountain torrents, models of bedload transport, and catastrophic flooding. From a regional perspective the majority of the contributions dealt with the Alps with a special focus on investigations carried out at the northern fringe of the Alps. Most of the papers presented were submitted for publication, and selected papers have been included in this volume. The workshop was financially supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the Commission of the European Communities (Directorate General for Science, Research and Development), the Freistaat Bayern (Ministerium fOr Unterricht, Kultur, Wissenschaft und Kunst) and the US-Army Research and Development Standardization Group. The participants and the organizers are grateful for these grants. We thank the president of COMTAG, Asher Schick, for his friendly support during the preparation and organization of the workshop. We are also very much indebted to the Kathoiische Stiftungsfachhochschule M~nchen and the Salesianer Don Bo~cos, Benediktbeuern, who opened the rooms of the monastery of Benedikbeuern for scientific sessions and social events during the conference. The organization of the meeting would not have been possible without the help of the local and regional administration, water and forest authorities. We highly appreciate this assistance. In addition, the editors thank the Springer-Verlag for the inclusion of the conference proceedings in this series and the colleagues F. Ahnert, J. Bathurst, W. Bechteler, I. Campbell, P. Carling, N.J. Clifford, S. Custer, T. Davies, A. Dittrich, R. Ferguson, K. Garleff, M. Hassan, R. Hey, H. Ibbeken, J. Karte, H. Keller, D. Knighton, J. Laronne, M. Meunier, M.D. Newson, D. Oostwoud-Wijdenes, I. Reed, K.S.Richards, A. Scheidegger and W. Symader for their valuable contributions as reviewers of the manuscripts that were submitted for this volume.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (326 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540575696
    Language: English
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  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE The emergence of new information from drilling in deep-sea and coastal areas and the surfacing of the plate tectonics theory probably had the greatest impacts in recent decades on the highly accelerated growth of knowledge regarding the evolution of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Studies in recent years have also provided new insights on global sedimentary processes, and isotopic tools in many ways have enhanced our knowledge and have provided even an unexpected added dimension to the mechanisms of some specific processes. Many different uses of isotopic tools in studies of sedimentary processes can be found in the literature, but the information is highly scattered in the vast field of sedimentology. The disseminated state of existing isotopic knowledge on sedimentary systems has undoubtedly deprived many practitioners in the field to fully appreciate the benefits and limitations, and even the apparent confusion, concerning the use of isotopic tools. We have endeavored here to bring together discussions on some major sedimentary systems in the sedimentary cycle and to analyze them according to isotopic evidence. To accomplish such a task required contributions from many individuals. We were fortunate to have friends who accepted to share our goals. We most sincerely thank all the contributors to this book and deeply appreciate their patience and fortitude despite our undue demands on them to reach our objectives...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (529 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540558286
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Description / Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION Humic substances, comprise a class of biogenic, coloured, organic substances that are ubiquitous in soil, sediment and water. Originally, the occurrence and nature of humic substances were regarded as issues of primarily academic interest. This situation is now rapidly changing, and studies of humics have gained recognition as important contributions to environmental science. In particular it has been shown that humic substances, in several different ways can interact with biologically active substances, thereby modifying their environmental impact. Whereas the history of soil humus studies goes back to the 19th century, the awareness of aquatic humus is more recent. The brownish colour that, in many surface waters, shows the presence of substantial amounts of humic substances, was long considered to be a harmless phenomenon that did not call for detailed investigations. Hnmic waters had few known toxic effects, and the refractory character of hnmic substances indicated the they played a peripheral role in most biochemical processes. In fact, it was not until the mid 70's that aquatic humus was brought into focus in environmental science. The event trigging this was the discovery of the interaction between humic substances and chlorine used for disinfection of drinking water. Toxic substances, such as chloroform, were detected in all chlorinated waters, and humic substances were identified as the main precursors. The role of humics in the mobilization and subsequent transport of trace elements in the environment was recognized for the first time in the early 80's. This role was considered to be of particular importance in connection with geologic storage of high-level radioactive waste. In water with "normal" concentration levels of humic compounds, the speciation of e.g. the trivalent actinides, would be entirely dominated by the complexation with these agents. The topics of this conference (Session 1 - Isolation, fractionation and characterization; Session 2 - Biological and chemical transformation and degradation; Session 3 - Complex formation and interactions with solids; Session 4 - Biological activity; and session 5 Halogenation of humic substances) were selected to represent areas of current environmental interest...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (514 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540537021
    Language: English
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  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE The papers contained in the present volume were prepared from the contributions presented during an international Advanced Workshop held in Santander, Cantabria, Spain between 1-5 November 1989. The workshop was a joint activity of the Working Group on Geology and Land-Use Planning (program "Geology and Environment", UNESCO), the Commission on Applied Quaternary Research (INQUA), the Sub-Commission on Maps of Environmental Geology (Commission of the Geological Map of the World) and the Grupo Españiol de Geología Ambiental y Ordenación del Territorio (Spanish Association for Environmental Geology and Land-Use Planning). The aims of the meeting were to discuss a series of topics in which the four participating scientific bodies share an interest, to analyze the existing problems and trends and to identify certain lines along which work and/or actions will be particularly necessary in the near future. It was expected that the discussions and the conclusions of the meeting would provide useful guidelines for earth scientists working on environmental problems and for other professionals and officials who deal with environmental analysis, planning and management, either on a scientific basis or in a decision-making capacity...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (556 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540553533
    Language: English
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