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  • Animals  (2,869)
  • Inorganic Chemistry  (1,777)
  • LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
  • 1995-1999  (4,738)
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  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barinaga, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 4;282(5395):1794-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874625" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use ; Cognition/drug effects/physiology ; Epilepsy/drug therapy ; Humans ; KCNQ2 Potassium Channel ; KCNQ3 Potassium Channel ; Neurons/*physiology ; Potassium/metabolism ; Potassium Channels/*chemistry/drug effects/genetics/physiology ; Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated ; Sympathetic Nervous System/cytology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hopper, A K -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 11;282(5396):2003-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA. ahopper@psu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874653" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acylation ; Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Nucleus/*metabolism ; Cytoplasm/metabolism ; Introns ; Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Oocytes ; Protein Biosynthesis ; RNA Precursors/*metabolism ; *RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional ; RNA Splicing ; RNA, Messenger/metabolism ; RNA, Transfer/chemistry/*metabolism ; RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl/chemistry/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism ; Xenopus
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vogel, G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 18;282(5397):2168.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9890820" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Asthma/*immunology/physiopathology ; Bronchoconstriction ; Eosinophils/immunology ; Goblet Cells/immunology ; Humans ; Interleukin-13/pharmacology/*physiology ; Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit ; Interleukin-4/pharmacology/physiology ; Lung/immunology/physiopathology ; Mice ; Receptors, Interleukin/metabolism ; Receptors, Interleukin-13 ; Receptors, Interleukin-4/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Th2 Cells/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wickelgren, I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 4;282(5395):1797,1799.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874627" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Behavior, Animal/drug effects ; Brain/metabolism ; Cocaine-Related Disorders/drug therapy ; Conditioning (Psychology)/drug effects ; Dopamine/metabolism ; Humans ; Nicotine/pharmacology ; Papio ; *Smoking Cessation ; Tobacco Use Disorder/*drug therapy/metabolism ; Vigabatrin ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacology/therapeutic use
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sikorski, R -- Peters, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 18;282(5397):2213.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9890829" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Brain Tissue Transplantation ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line ; Cell Movement ; Cerebellum/cytology ; Cerebral Ventricles/cytology/embryology ; *Fetal Tissue Transplantation ; Humans ; Mice ; Neuroglia/cytology ; Neurons/cytology ; *Stem Cell Transplantation ; Stem Cells/cytology/enzymology ; beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Normile, D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 11;282(5396):1975-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874644" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Husbandry/*methods ; Animals ; Blastocyst ; Cattle/embryology/*genetics ; Cell Differentiation ; Cells, Cultured ; *Cloning, Organism ; Embryo Transfer/veterinary ; Fallopian Tubes/cytology ; Female ; Japan ; *Nuclear Transfer Techniques ; Oocytes ; Ovarian Follicle/cytology ; Pregnancy
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Abramson, P R -- Pinkerton, S D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 11;282(5396):1993-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874650" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anura/*genetics/physiology ; *Biological Evolution ; Male ; Selection, Genetic ; *Sexual Behavior, Animal ; *Vocalization, Animal
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Spear, P G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 11;282(5396):1999-2000.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Northwestern University Medical School, Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. p-spear@nwu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874652" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Adhesion ; Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Dystroglycans ; Humans ; Laminin/metabolism ; Lassa Fever/*virology ; Lassa virus/*metabolism ; Leprosy/*microbiology ; Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus/metabolism ; Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Models, Biological ; Mycobacterium leprae/*metabolism ; Receptors, Virus/metabolism ; Schwann Cells/microbiology
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 11;282(5396):1972-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874643" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/cytology/*genetics/physiology ; Cell Lineage ; Chromosome Mapping ; DNA, Helminth/chemistry/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Expression Regulation ; *Genes, Helminth ; Genetic Techniques ; *Genome ; Humans ; Mutation ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-09-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hagmann, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Aug 20;285(5431):1200-1, 1203.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10484727" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Acetyltransferases/chemistry/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Cycle Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Chromatin/chemistry/*metabolism/*ultrastructure ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Histone Acetyltransferases ; Histones/*metabolism ; Methylation ; *Mitosis ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases/metabolism ; Transcription Factors ; p300-CBP Transcription Factors
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  • 11
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-08-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Amado, R G -- Chen, I S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jul 30;285(5428):674-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, UCLA School of Medicine and UCLA AIDS Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. ramado@ucla.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10454923" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; *Gene Transfer Techniques ; Genes, Viral ; *Genetic Therapy ; *Genetic Vectors ; HIV/*genetics/physiology ; HIV Infections/therapy/virology ; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/cytology/physiology ; Humans ; Lentivirus/*genetics/physiology ; Mutagenesis, Insertional ; Plasmids ; Recombination, Genetic ; Retinitis Pigmentosa/therapy ; Transfection ; Virus Replication
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 1999-12-22
    Description: In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (Corvus species) as well as the deaths of several exotic birds at a zoological park in the same area. Complete genome sequencing of a flavivirus isolated from the brain of a dead Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), together with partial sequence analysis of envelope glycoprotein (E-glycoprotein) genes amplified from several other species including mosquitoes and two fatal human cases, revealed that West Nile (WN) virus circulated in natural transmission cycles and was responsible for the human disease. Antigenic mapping with E-glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies and E-glycoprotein phylogenetic analysis confirmed these viruses as WN. This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lanciotti, R S -- Roehrig, J T -- Deubel, V -- Smith, J -- Parker, M -- Steele, K -- Crise, B -- Volpe, K E -- Crabtree, M B -- Scherret, J H -- Hall, R A -- MacKenzie, J S -- Cropp, C B -- Panigrahy, B -- Ostlund, E -- Schmitt, B -- Malkinson, M -- Banet, C -- Weissman, J -- Komar, N -- Savage, H M -- Stone, W -- McNamara, T -- Gubler, D J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Dec 17;286(5448):2333-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA. rsl2@cdc.gov〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10600742" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology ; Antibodies, Viral/immunology ; Base Sequence ; Bird Diseases/epidemiology/virology ; Birds/virology ; *Disease Outbreaks ; Encephalitis Viruses, Japanese/classification/genetics ; Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect ; Genome, Viral ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; New England/epidemiology ; New York City/epidemiology ; Phylogeny ; Songbirds/virology ; Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry/genetics/immunology ; West Nile Fever/*epidemiology/veterinary/*virology ; West Nile virus/*classification/*genetics/immunology/isolation & purification
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-05-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, R F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 23;284(5414):578-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10328734" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cells, Cultured ; Electric Stimulation ; Electrodes ; Electrodes, Implanted ; *Electronics ; Electrophysiology ; Humans ; Nerve Net/*physiology ; Nervous System Diseases/*therapy ; Neurons/*physiology ; Rats ; Silicon ; *Transistors, Electronic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 14
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-09-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wetzel, D L -- LeVine, S M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Aug 20;285(5431):1224-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Microbeam Molecular Spectroscopy Lab, Kansas State University, Manhatten, KS 66506, USA. dwetzel@ksu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10484732" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biochemistry/*methods ; Biological Science Disciplines/*methods ; Forensic Medicine ; Humans ; Specimen Handling ; *Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation/methods ; Spectrum Analysis, Raman
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  • 15
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-03-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Whitacre, C C -- Reingold, S C -- O'Looney, P A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Feb 26;283(5406):1277-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. whitacre.3@osu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10084932" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibody Formation ; *Autoimmune Diseases/genetics/immunology/therapy ; *Autoimmunity ; Cytokines/biosynthesis/immunology ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Gonadal Steroid Hormones/physiology ; Hormones/physiology ; Humans ; Immunity, Cellular ; Male ; Pregnancy ; Pregnancy Complications/immunology ; *Sex Characteristics ; Th1 Cells/immunology ; Th2 Cells/immunology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 16
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-06-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hagmann, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jun 4;284(5420):1600-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10383332" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ADAM Proteins ; Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents ; Antirheumatic Agents ; Arthritis/*drug therapy ; Binding Sites ; Cloning, Molecular ; Enzyme Precursors/chemistry/metabolism ; Gelatinases/antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 ; Metalloendopeptidases/antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Neoplasms/*drug therapy ; Procollagen N-Endopeptidase ; Protease Inhibitors/*pharmacology ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Structure, Secondary
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  • 17
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-05-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, R F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 9;284(5412):243-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10232968" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biocompatible Materials ; *Biomedical Engineering ; Brain/*drug effects/metabolism ; Caffeine/administration & dosage/adverse effects/*pharmacology ; Catalysis ; Genetic Engineering ; Genetic Therapy/*methods ; Humans ; Polycarboxylate Cement/chemical synthesis ; Polymers/chemical synthesis ; Rats ; Substance-Related Disorders/*etiology
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  • 18
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-04-16
    Description: A tissue engineering approach was developed to produce arbitrary lengths of vascular graft material from smooth muscle and endothelial cells that were derived from a biopsy of vascular tissue. Bovine vessels cultured under pulsatile conditions had rupture strengths greater than 2000 millimeters of mercury, suture retention strengths of up to 90 grams, and collagen contents of up to 50 percent. Cultured vessels also showed contractile responses to pharmacological agents and contained smooth muscle cells that displayed markers of differentiation such as calponin and myosin heavy chains. Tissue-engineered arteries were implanted in miniature swine, with patency documented up to 24 days by digital angiography.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Niklason, L E -- Gao, J -- Abbott, W M -- Hirschi, K K -- Houser, S -- Marini, R -- Langer, R -- HL60435/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K08HL03492/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 16;284(5413):489-93.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anesthesia, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA. nikla001@mc.duke.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10205057" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Arteries/cytology/physiology/transplantation ; Biocompatible Materials ; Biodegradation, Environmental ; Biomedical Engineering ; Bioreactors ; Cattle ; Cell Culture Techniques ; Cell Transplantation ; Culture Media ; *Culture Techniques ; Dinoprost/pharmacology ; Endothelium, Vascular/*cytology/physiology ; Mitosis ; Muscle Contraction ; Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/*cytology/physiology ; Polyglycolic Acid ; Stress, Mechanical ; Swine ; Swine, Miniature ; Tissue Transplantation ; Vascular Patency
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  • 19
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-08-14
    Description: The circadian clock consists of a feedback loop in which clock genes are rhythmically expressed, giving rise to cycling levels of RNA and proteins. Four of the five circadian genes identified to date influence responsiveness to freebase cocaine in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Sensitization to repeated cocaine exposures, a phenomenon also seen in humans and animal models and associated with enhanced drug craving, is eliminated in flies mutant for period, clock, cycle, and doubletime, but not in flies lacking the gene timeless. Flies that do not sensitize owing to lack of these genes do not show the induction of tyrosine decarboxylase normally seen after cocaine exposure. These findings indicate unexpected roles for these genes in regulating cocaine sensitization and indicate that they function as regulators of tyrosine decarboxylase.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Andretic, R -- Chaney, S -- Hirsh, J -- DA05942/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- GM/DA 27318/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Aug 13;285(5430):1066-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, Gilmer Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10446052" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ARNTL Transcription Factors ; Animals ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors ; Behavior, Animal/drug effects ; Biological Clocks/genetics ; CLOCK Proteins ; *Casein Kinase Iepsilon ; Circadian Rhythm/*genetics ; Cocaine/*pharmacology ; Dopamine Agonists/pharmacology ; *Drosophila Proteins ; Drosophila melanogaster/*drug effects/genetics/physiology ; *Genes, Insect ; Insect Proteins/genetics/physiology ; Male ; Motor Activity/drug effects ; Mutation ; Nuclear Proteins/*genetics/physiology ; Period Circadian Proteins ; Protein Kinases/genetics/physiology ; Quinpirole/pharmacology ; Receptors, Dopamine D2/agonists/physiology ; Trans-Activators/genetics/physiology ; Transcription Factors/genetics ; Tyramine/metabolism/pharmacology ; Tyrosine Decarboxylase/metabolism
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  • 20
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-06-12
    Description: Models for replication and transcription often display polymerases that track like locomotives along their DNA templates. However, recent evidence supports an alternative model in which DNA and RNA polymerases are immobilized by attachment to larger structures, where they reel in their templates and extrude newly made nucleic acids. These polymerases do not act independently; they are concentrated in discrete "factories," where they work together on many different templates. Evidence for models involving tracking and immobile polymerases is reviewed.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cook, P R -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jun 11;284(5421):1790-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK. Peter.Cook@Path.OX.AC.UK〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10364545" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *DNA Replication ; DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/*metabolism ; DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/*metabolism ; Humans ; Models, Genetic ; Replication Origin ; Templates, Genetic ; *Transcription, Genetic
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-10-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lasley, E N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Sep 10;285(5434):1649-50.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10523176" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Animal Experimentation ; *Animal Welfare ; Animals ; *Animals, Laboratory ; Federal Government ; Government Regulation ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.) ; New Mexico ; *Pan troglodytes ; Research ; United States ; United States Department of Agriculture
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-12-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wickelgren, I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Dec 3;286(5446):1826-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10610569" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Astrocytes/cytology ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Survival ; Embryo, Mammalian ; Mice ; Neurons/cytology ; Oligodendroglia/cytology ; Rats ; Spinal Cord/cytology/*physiology ; Spinal Cord Injuries/*therapy ; *Stem Cell Transplantation ; Stem Cells/cytology
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 1999-03-12
    Description: Wnt/Wingless directs many cell fates during development. Wnt/Wingless signaling increases the amount of beta-catenin/Armadillo, which in turn activates gene transcription. Here the Drosophila protein D-Axin was shown to interact with Armadillo and D-APC. Mutation of d-axin resulted in the accumulation of cytoplasmic Armadillo and one of the Wingless target gene products, Distal-less. Ectopic expression of d-axin inhibited Wingless signaling. Hence, D-Axin negatively regulates Wingless signaling by down-regulating the level of Armadillo. These results establish the importance of the Axin family of proteins in Wnt/Wingless signaling in Drosophila.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hamada, F -- Tomoyasu, Y -- Takatsu, Y -- Nakamura, M -- Nagai, S -- Suzuki, A -- Fujita, F -- Shibuya, H -- Toyoshima, K -- Ueno, N -- Akiyama, T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Mar 12;283(5408):1739-42.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Oncogene Research, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10073940" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing ; Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein ; Animals ; Armadillo Domain Proteins ; Axin Protein ; Body Patterning ; Carrier Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Chromosome Mapping ; Cytoplasm/metabolism ; Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism ; Down-Regulation ; Drosophila/*embryology/genetics/metabolism ; *Drosophila Proteins ; Embryo, Nonmammalian/metabolism ; Extremities/embryology ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Genes, Insect ; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; In Situ Hybridization ; Insect Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Phenotype ; Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/*metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; *Repressor Proteins ; *Signal Transduction ; *Trans-Activators ; *Transcription Factors ; Wings, Animal/embryology/metabolism ; Wnt1 Protein
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 1999-07-27
    Description: Candida glabrata is an important fungal pathogen of humans that is responsible for about 15 percent of mucosal and systemic candidiasis. Candida glabrata adhered avidly to human epithelial cells in culture. By means of a genetic approach and a strategy allowing parallel screening of mutants, it was possible to clone a lectin from a Candida species. Deletion of this adhesin reduced adherence of C. glabrata to human epithelial cells by 95 percent. The adhesin, encoded by the EPA1 gene, is likely a glucan-cross-linked cell-wall protein and binds to host-cell carbohydrate, specifically recognizing asialo-lactosyl-containing carbohydrates.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cormack, B P -- Ghori, N -- Falkow, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jul 23;285(5427):578-82.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Fairchild D039, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5124, USA. bcormack@jhmi.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10417386" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Calcium/metabolism ; Candida/*genetics/*pathogenicity/physiology ; Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/microbiology ; Carbohydrates/pharmacology ; Cell Adhesion ; Cloning, Molecular ; Epithelial Cells/*microbiology ; Female ; *Fungal Proteins ; Genes, Fungal ; Humans ; Lectins/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism ; Ligands ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred DBA ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis, Insertional ; Mutation ; Plasmids ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Transformation, Genetic ; Tumor Cells, Cultured ; Virulence/genetics
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 1999-10-26
    Description: The transferrin receptor (TfR) undergoes multiple rounds of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and reemergence at the cell surface, importing iron-loaded transferrin (Tf) and recycling apotransferrin after discharge of iron in the endosome. The crystal structure of the dimeric ectodomain of the human TfR, determined here to 3.2 angstroms resolution, reveals a three-domain subunit. One domain closely resembles carboxy- and aminopeptidases, and features of membrane glutamate carboxypeptidase can be deduced from the TfR structure. A model is proposed for Tf binding to the receptor.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lawrence, C M -- Ray, S -- Babyonyshev, M -- Galluser, R -- Borhani, D W -- Harrison, S C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Oct 22;286(5440):779-82.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Children's Hospital Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, 320 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10531064" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; CHO Cells ; Carboxypeptidases/chemistry ; Cell Membrane/chemistry ; Conserved Sequence ; Cricetinae ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Dimerization ; Ferric Compounds/metabolism ; Glycosylation ; Humans ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Receptors, Transferrin/*chemistry/metabolism ; Transferrin/metabolism
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lawler, C -- Erbisch, F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jan 1;283(5398):33-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9917260" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biotechnology ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; *Patents as Topic ; Plants, Genetically Modified/*genetics ; United States
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  • 27
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-04-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hancock, D D -- Besser, T E -- Gill, C -- Bohach, C H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 2;284(5411):51-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10215530" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Animal Feed ; Animal Husbandry ; Animals ; Cattle/*microbiology ; Colon/chemistry/*microbiology ; Colony Count, Microbial ; Diet ; Escherichia coli O157/*growth & development ; Food Microbiology ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Meat/microbiology ; *Poaceae
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 1999-12-22
    Description: Mice lacking estrogen receptors alpha and beta were generated to clarify the roles of each receptor in the physiology of estrogen target tissues. Both sexes of alphabeta estrogen receptor knockout (alphabetaERKO) mutants exhibit normal reproductive tract development but are infertile. Ovaries of adult alphabetaERKO females exhibit follicle transdifferentiation to structures resembling seminiferous tubules of the testis, including Sertoli-like cells and expression of Mullerian inhibiting substance, sulfated glycoprotein-2, and Sox9. Therefore, loss of both receptors leads to an ovarian phenotype that is distinct from that of the individual ERKO mutants, which indicates that both receptors are required for the maintenance of germ and somatic cells in the postnatal ovary.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Couse, J F -- Hewitt, S C -- Bunch, D O -- Sar, M -- Walker, V R -- Davis, B J -- Korach, K S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Dec 17;286(5448):2328-31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10600740" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anti-Mullerian Hormone ; Cell Differentiation ; Clusterin ; *Disorders of Sex Development ; Estradiol/physiology ; Estrogen Receptor alpha ; Estrogen Receptor beta ; Female ; Gene Targeting ; Glycoproteins/analysis ; Growth Inhibitors/analysis ; High Mobility Group Proteins/analysis ; Luteinizing Hormone/blood ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; *Molecular Chaperones ; Ovary/*anatomy & histology/cytology/growth & development/*physiology ; Receptors, Estrogen/genetics/*physiology ; SOX9 Transcription Factor ; Seminiferous Tubules/anatomy & histology/cytology ; Sertoli Cells/cytology ; Signal Transduction ; Testicular Hormones/analysis ; Testis/anatomy & histology/cytology/growth & development/physiology ; Transcription Factors/analysis
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 1999-05-21
    Description: Isolated for the first time in 1982 from human gastric biopsy, Helicobacter pylori is responsible for gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. A pathogenicity island acquired by horizontal transfer, coding for a type IV secretion system, is a major determinant of virulence. The infection is now treated with antibiotics, and vaccines are in preparation. The geographic distribution suggests coevolution of man and Helicobacter pylori.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Covacci, A -- Telford, J L -- Del Giudice, G -- Parsonnet, J -- Rappuoli, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 May 21;284(5418):1328-33.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉IRIS, Chiron SpA, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10334982" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Bacterial Vaccines ; Biological Evolution ; Child ; Genetic Variation ; Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology/*microbiology/prevention & ; control/transmission ; Helicobacter pylori/*genetics/immunology/*pathogenicity ; Humans ; Peptic Ulcer/microbiology ; Stomach/*microbiology ; Stomach Neoplasms/microbiology ; Virulence
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  • 30
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-06-05
    Description: Strains of mice that show characteristic patterns of behavior are critical for research in neurobehavioral genetics. Possible confounding influences of the laboratory environment were studied in several inbred strains and one null mutant by simultaneous testing in three laboratories on a battery of six behaviors. Apparatus, test protocols, and many environmental variables were rigorously equated. Strains differed markedly in all behaviors, and despite standardization, there were systematic differences in behavior across labs. For some tests, the magnitude of genetic differences depended upon the specific testing lab. Thus, experiments characterizing mutants may yield results that are idiosyncratic to a particular laboratory.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Crabbe, J C -- Wahlsten, D -- Dudek, B C -- AA00170/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA10760/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- DA10731/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jun 4;284(5420):1670-2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Portland Alcohol Research Center, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, OR 97201, USA. crabbe@ohsu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10356397" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Laboratory/genetics ; Anxiety ; *Behavior, Animal ; Confounding Factors (Epidemiology) ; Drinking Behavior ; *Environment ; Female ; Genetics, Behavioral/*methods ; Genotype ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred Strains/genetics ; Mice, Mutant Strains/genetics ; Motor Activity ; Psychological Tests ; Reproducibility of Results
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  • 31
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-05-21
    Description: Ran, a small guanosine triphosphatase, is suggested to have additional functions beyond its well-characterized role in nuclear trafficking. Guanosine triphosphate-bound Ran, but not guanosine diphosphate-bound Ran, stimulated polymerization of astral microtubules from centrosomes assembled on Xenopus sperm. Moreover, a Ran allele with a mutation in the effector domain (RanL43E) induced the formation of microtubule asters and spindle assembly, in the absence of sperm nuclei, in a gammaTuRC (gamma-tubulin ring complex)- and XMAP215 (Xenopus microtubule associated protein)-dependent manner. Therefore, Ran could be a key signaling molecule regulating microtubule polymerization during mitosis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wilde, A -- Zheng, Y -- GM56312-01/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 May 21;284(5418):1359-62.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Embryology, Baltimore, MD 21210, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10334991" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Extracts ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Centrosome/physiology ; Dimethyl Sulfoxide/pharmacology ; Dyneins/physiology ; GTP Phosphohydrolases/genetics/*metabolism ; Guanosine Diphosphate/metabolism ; Guanosine Triphosphate/*metabolism ; Male ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism ; Microtubules/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Mutation ; Nuclear Proteins/analysis/genetics/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Ovum ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism/pharmacology ; Sperm Head/physiology ; Spindle Apparatus/chemistry/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Tubulin/analysis/metabolism ; Xenopus ; *Xenopus Proteins ; ran GTP-Binding Protein
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 1999-04-02
    Description: Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is thought to increase synaptic strength by phosphorylating postsynaptic density (PSD) ion channels and signaling proteins. It is shown that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor stimulation reversibly translocates green fluorescent protein-tagged CaMKII from an F-actin-bound to a PSD-bound state. The translocation time was controlled by the ratio of expressed beta-CaMKII to alpha-CaMKII isoforms. Although F-actin dissociation into the cytosol required autophosphorylation of or calcium-calmodulin binding to beta-CaMKII, PSD translocation required binding of calcium-calmodulin to either the alpha- or beta-CaMKII subunits. Autophosphorylation of CaMKII indirectly prolongs its PSD localization by increasing the calmodulin-binding affinity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen, K -- Meyer, T -- GM-48113/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 2;284(5411):162-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology and Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Box 3709, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10102820" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Actins/metabolism ; Animals ; Calcium/pharmacology ; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 ; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases/*metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; Cytosol/metabolism ; Dendrites/*enzymology ; Electric Stimulation ; Glutamic Acid/pharmacology ; Green Fluorescent Proteins ; Hippocampus/cytology/*enzymology ; Isoenzymes/metabolism ; Luminescent Proteins ; Microscopy, Fluorescence ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/analysis ; Neurons/*enzymology ; Phosphorylation ; Rats ; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/*metabolism ; Synapses/*enzymology ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 1999-10-03
    Description: Precursors of alpha-defensin peptides require activation for bactericidal activity. In mouse small intestine, matrilysin colocalized with alpha-defensins (cryptdins) in Paneth cell granules, and in vitro it cleaved the pro segment from cryptdin precursors. Matrilysin-deficient (MAT-/-) mice lacked mature cryptdins and accumulated precursor molecules. Intestinal peptide preparations from MAT-/- mice had decreased antimicrobial activity. Orally administered bacteria survived in greater numbers and were more virulent in MAT-/- mice than in MAT+/+ mice. Thus, matrilysin functions in intestinal mucosal defense by regulating the activity of defensins, which may be a common role for this metalloproteinase in its numerous epithelial sites of expression.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wilson, C L -- Ouellette, A J -- Satchell, D P -- Ayabe, T -- Lopez-Boado, Y S -- Stratman, J L -- Hultgren, S J -- Matrisian, L M -- Parks, W C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Oct 1;286(5437):113-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Pulmonary Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. wilson_c@kids.wustl.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10506557" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Catalysis ; Cytoplasmic Granules/enzymology ; Escherichia coli/growth & development ; Escherichia coli Infections/immunology/microbiology ; Female ; Humans ; *Immunity, Innate ; *Immunity, Mucosal ; Intestinal Mucosa/enzymology/immunology/microbiology ; Intestine, Small/enzymology/*immunology/microbiology ; Male ; Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 ; Metalloendopeptidases/genetics/*metabolism ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Paneth Cells/enzymology ; Protein Precursors/genetics/*metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Salmonella typhimurium/growth & development/pathogenicity ; Tissue Extracts/pharmacology
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  • 34
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-02-05
    Description: Traditionally, the interest of population and evolutionary biologists in infectious diseases has been almost exclusively in their role as agents of natural selection in higher organisms. Recently, this interest has expanded to include the genetic structure and evolution of microparasite populations, the mechanisms of pathogenesis and the immune response, and the population biology, ecology, and evolutionary consequences of medical and public health interventions. This article describes recent work in these areas, emphasizing the ways in which quantitative, population-biological approaches have been contributing to the understanding of infectious disease and the design and evaluation of interventions for their treatment and prevention.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Levin, B R -- Lipsitch, M -- Bonhoeffer, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Feb 5;283(5403):806-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, Emory University, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9933155" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Physiological Phenomena ; *Biological Evolution ; Drug Resistance, Microbial ; Humans ; Infection/immunology/*microbiology ; Molecular Epidemiology ; Parasites/genetics/physiology ; Parasitic Diseases/immunology/*parasitology ; Population Dynamics ; Vaccination ; Virus Physiological Phenomena
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 1999-10-09
    Description: CD2-associated protein (CD2AP) is an 80-kilodalton protein that is critical for stabilizing contacts between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. In CD2AP-deficient mice, immune function was compromised, but the mice died at 6 to 7 weeks of age from renal failure. In the kidney, CD2AP was expressed primarily in glomerular epithelial cells. Knockout mice exhibited defects in epithelial cell foot processes, accompanied by mesangial cell hyperplasia and extracellular matrix deposition. Supporting a role for CD2AP in the specialized cell junction known as the slit diaphragm, CD2AP associated with nephrin, the primary component of the slit diaphragm.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shih, N Y -- Li, J -- Karpitskii, V -- Nguyen, A -- Dustin, M L -- Kanagawa, O -- Miner, J H -- Shaw, A S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Oct 8;286(5438):312-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Immunology and Department of Pathology, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10514378" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing ; Animals ; Basement Membrane/ultrastructure ; Cytoskeletal Proteins ; Epithelial Cells/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Extracellular Matrix Proteins/metabolism ; Glomerular Mesangium/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Intercellular Junctions/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Kidney Glomerulus/blood supply/*metabolism/*ultrastructure ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Membrane Proteins ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Microscopy, Electron ; Nephrotic Syndrome/*congenital/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 36
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-10-16
    Description: Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in DNA sequence. Epigenetic phenomena have major economic and medical relevance, and several, such as imprinting and paramutation, violate Mendelian principles. Recent discoveries link the recognition of nucleic acid sequence homology to the targeting of DNA methylation, chromosome remodeling, and RNA turnover. Although epigenetic mechanisms help to protect cells from parasitic elements, this defense can complicate the genetic manipulation of plants and animals. Essential for normal development, epigenetic controls become misdirected in cancer cells and other human disease syndromes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wolffe, A P -- Matzke, M A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Oct 15;286(5439):481-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Molecular Embryology, National Institute of Child Heath and Human Development, NIH, Building 18T, Room 106, Bethesda, MD 20892-5431, USA. awlme@helix.nih.gov〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10521337" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; DNA Methylation ; Evolution, Molecular ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; *Gene Silencing ; Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics ; Genome ; Humans ; Neoplasms/genetics ; RNA/genetics/metabolism ; Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
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  • 37
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-09-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bagla, P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Sep 3;285(5433):1480-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10498530" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Animal Communication ; Animals ; Anura/*physiology ; Female ; Grasshoppers/*physiology ; Male
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  • 38
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-04-02
    Description: A general problem in biology is how to incorporate information about evolutionary history and adaptation into taxonomy. The problem is exemplified in attempts to define our own genus, Homo. Here conventional criteria for allocating fossil species to Homo are reviewed and are found to be either inappropriate or inoperable. We present a revised definition, based on verifiable criteria, for Homo and conclude that two species, Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, do not belong in the genus. The earliest taxon to satisfy the criteria is Homo ergaster, or early African Homo erectus, which currently appears in the fossil record at about 1.9 million years ago.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wood, B -- Collard, M -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 2;284(5411):65-71.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anthropology, George Washington University, 2110 G Street NW, Washington, DC 20052, USA. bwood@gwu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10102822" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological ; Animals ; Biological Evolution ; Body Constitution ; Brain/anatomy & histology ; *Fossils ; Hominidae/anatomy & histology/*classification ; Humans ; Jaw/anatomy & histology ; Locomotion ; Phylogeny ; Terminology as Topic
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  • 39
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-02-19
    Description: A single kinesin molecule can move "processively" along a microtubule for more than 1 micrometer before detaching from it. The prevailing explanation for this processive movement is the "walking model," which envisions that each of two motor domains (heads) of the kinesin molecule binds coordinately to the microtubule. This implies that each kinesin molecule must have two heads to "walk" and that a single-headed kinesin could not move processively. Here, a motor-domain construct of KIF1A, a single-headed kinesin superfamily protein, was shown to move processively along the microtubule for more than 1 micrometer. The movement along the microtubules was stochastic and fitted a biased Brownian-movement model.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Okada, Y -- Hirokawa, N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Feb 19;283(5405):1152-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10024239" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Catalytic Domain ; Diffusion ; Drosophila ; Kinesin/chemistry/*metabolism ; Kinetics ; Microscopy, Fluorescence ; Microtubules/*metabolism ; Models, Chemical ; Molecular Motor Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins ; Stochastic Processes ; Thermodynamics
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  • 40
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-08-24
    Description: Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is initiated by the recruitment of the clathrin adaptor protein AP-2 to the plasma membrane where the membrane protein synaptotagmin is thought to act as a docking site. AP-2 also interacts with endocytic motifs present in other cargo proteins. Peptides with a tyrosine-based endocytic motif stimulated binding of AP-2 to synaptotagmin and enhanced AP-2 recruitment to the plasma membrane of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. This suggests a mechanism by which nucleation of clathrin-coated pits is stimulated by the loading of cargo proteins.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Haucke, V -- De Camilli, P -- CA46128/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- NS36252/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Aug 20;285(5431):1268-71.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, 295 Congress Avenue, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10455054" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits ; Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; CHO Cells ; *Calcium-Binding Proteins ; Cattle ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Clathrin/*metabolism ; Coated Pits, Cell-Membrane/*metabolism ; Cricetinae ; *Endocytosis ; Membrane Glycoproteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Membrane Proteins/*metabolism ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Neurons/metabolism ; Oligopeptides/chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Phospholipase D/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Rats ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Synaptic Membranes/*metabolism ; Synaptotagmins ; Tyrosine/chemistry
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 1999-04-09
    Description: Phosphorylation of inhibitor of kappa B (IkappaB) proteins is an important step in the activation of the transcription nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and requires two IkappaB kinases, IKK1 (IKKalpha) and IKK2 (IKKbeta). Mice that are devoid of the IKK2 gene had extensive liver damage from apoptosis and died as embryos, but these mice could be rescued by the inactivation of the gene encoding tumor necrosis factor receptor 1. Mouse embryonic fibroblast cells that were isolated from IKK2-/- embryos showed a marked reduction in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)- and interleukin-1alpha-induced NF-kappaB activity and an enhanced apoptosis in response to TNF-alpha. IKK1 associated with NF-kappaB essential modulator (IKKgamma/IKKAP1), another component of the IKK complex. These results show that IKK2 is essential for mouse development and cannot be substituted with IKK1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Q -- Van Antwerp, D -- Mercurio, F -- Lee, K F -- Verma, I M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 9;284(5412):321-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Signal Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10195897" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis ; Cell Line ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Embryonic and Fetal Development ; Gene Targeting ; I-kappa B Kinase ; I-kappa B Proteins ; Interleukin-1/pharmacology ; Liver/cytology/*embryology ; Mice ; NF-kappa B/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics/*metabolism ; Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/genetics/metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Sequence Deletion ; Signal Transduction ; Transcription Factor RelA ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 1999-04-09
    Description: Imprinted genes display parent-of-ori