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  • 1
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: fission yeast ; cell cycle ; phleomycin ; DNA damage ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The effect of phleomycin, a bleomycin-like antibiotic, has been investigated in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We report that in response to phleomycin-induced DNA damage, growth was inhibited and S. pombe cells arrested in the G2-phase of the cell cycle. DNA repair mutants rad9 and rad17 did not arrest and were hypersensitive to phleomycin. Cell cycle mutants that entered mitosis without monitoring the completion of DNA replication also displayed an increased sensitivity to this DNA-damaging agent. Thus, phleomycin could be used as a tool in the fission yeast S. pombe model system for the study of DNA damage and cell cycle checkpoints, or as a new selective agent.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: galactose ; transcription ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The SIP1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a carbon-catabolite-specific negative regulator of GAL gene transcription and acts as a multicopy suppressor of growth defects associated with impaired Snf1p protein kinase activity. The Sip1 protein is known to undergo phosphorylation when associated in vitro with the Snf1 protein kinase. We have carried out in vivo studies of the genetic and carbon control of Sip1p phosphorylation. Metabolic labeling reveals phosphorylation of Sip1p under both carbon catabolite-repressing and non-repressing conditions and in both SNF1 wild-type and snf1-deletion cells. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis immunoblot assay, we detect apparent changes in Sip1p phosphorylation states in response to changes in carbon source. At least one dephosphorylation of Sip1p occurs with a shift from non-repressing carbon source to repressing carbon source. The MIG1 gene, acting through SNF1-dependent and SNF1-independent pathways, is required for some Sip1p phosphorylations. REG1 appears to be required for at least one dephosphorylation of Sip1p, whereas SSN6 appears to be required for at least one phosphorylation of Sip1p. These results reveal new complexities in carbon response signaling, and may reflect the involvement of the Sip1 protein in the same complex as the Mig1 and Ssn6 proteins.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; UAS ; promoter ; transcription ; nitrogen metabolism ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: UASNTR, the UAS responsible for nitrogen catabolite repression-sensitive transcriptional activation of many nitrogen catabolic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been previously thought to operate only as a pair of closely related dodecanucleotide sites each containing the sequence GATAA at its core. Here we show that a single UASNTR site is also able to combine with another unrelated cis-acting element to mediate transcription as well. In one instance the unrelated cis-acting element was TTTGTTTAC situated upstream of GLN1, while in another the cis-acting element was the one previously shown to bind the PUT3 protein. When a UASNTR site functions in combination with an unrelated site, the regulatory responses observed are a hybrid consisting of characteristics derived from both the UASNTR site and the unrelated site as well. These observations resolve several significant inconsistencies that have plagued studies focused on elucidation of the mechanisms involved in the global regulation of nitrogen catabolism.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 11 (1995), S. 293-300 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: yeast ; Candida utilis ; alcoholic fermentation ; Kluyver effect ; oxygen limitation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The facultatively fermentative yeast Candida utilis exhibits the Kluyver effect for maltose: this disaccharide is respired and assimilated but, in contrast to glucose, it cannot be fermented. To study the mechanism of the Kluyver effect, metabolic responses of C. utilis to a transition from aerobic, sugar-limited growth to oxygen-limited conditions were studied in chemostat cultures. Unexpectedly, the initial response of maltose-grown cultures to oxygen limitation was very similar to that of glucose-grown cultures. In both cases, alcoholic fermentation occurred after a lag phase of 1 h, during which glycerol, pyruvate and D-lactate were the main fermentation products. After ca. 10 h the behaviour of the maltose- and glucose-grown cultures diverged: ethanol disappeared from the maltose-grown cultures, whereas fermentation continued in steady-state, oxygen-limited cultures grown on glucose. The disappearance of alcoholic fermentation in oxygen-limited chemostat cultures growing on maltose was not due to a repression of the synthesis of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The results demonstrate that the Kluyver effect for maltose in C. utilis does not reflect an intrinsic inability of this yeast to ferment maltose, but is caused by a regulatory phenomenon that affects a key enzyme in maltose metabolism, probably the maltose carrier. The observed kinetics indicate that this regulation occurs at the level of enzyme synthesis rather than via modification of existing enzyme activity.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Purine-cytosine permease ; S. cerevisiae ; N-linked glycosylation ; immunoprecipitation ; site-directed mutagenesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The purine-cytosine permease (PCP) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was detected by immunological methods. Using antibodies directed against synthetic peptides, whose sequences were derived from the primary structure of the PCP, immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labelled PCP was achieved either from cellular extracts or from in vitro translation mixtures. Non-labelled PCP was also detected on Western blots of membrane proteins. Similar migration rates were observed for PCP originating both from immunoprecipitated cellular extracts and from in vitro translation mixtures. Hence, post-translational processing, if any, only slightly affects the size of the protein. Also no evidence was found for N-linked core-glycosylation: identical migration rates were observed when immunoprecipitated PCP molecules were extracted from cells labelled for 10 min with [35S]methionine, pretreated or not with tunicamycin.On the other hand, the suppresion of the two potential N-linked glycosylation sequences in the DNA did not lead to inactivation of the transport activity, confirming that N-linked glycosylation is not required for the permease activity.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Candida maltosa ; codon usage ; cytochrome P450 ; protein degradation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We demonstrate that serine instead of leucine is specified by the CUG codon in the yeast Candida maltosa. Evidence for this deviation from the universal genetic code was obtained by means of in vitro translation experiments. Depending on the cell-free system used, either serine, in the C. maltosa system, or leucine, in the control with the conventional wheat germ system, was found to be incorporated into the translation products of artificial CUG-containing mRNAs. Moreover, we were able to transfer the non-universal decoding of CUG to the wheat germ system by adding a tRNA fraction isolated from C. maltosa. This finding indicates the presence in C. maltosa of an unusual serine tRNA that recognizes CUG. As a consequence of the altered genetic code, expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of C. maltosa cytochrome P450 genes required an exchange of their CTG triplets by TCT encoding serine in order to produce the authentic proteins. In contrast, heterologous expression of the original C. maltosa genes resulted in the formation of still active but unstable enzymes probably subject to selective proteolysis in the host cells.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Candida maltosa ; codon usage ; heterologous gene expression ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: An alkane-assimilating yeast Candida maltosa had been studied in order to establish systems suitable for biotransformation of hydrophobic compounds. However, functional expression of heterologous genes tested for this purpose had not been successful in several cases. On the other hand, it had been reported that the codon CUG, a universal leucine codon, is read as serine in C. cylindracea. The same altered codon usage had also been suggested by in vitro experiments in some Candida yeasts which are phylogenetically closely related to C. maltosa.In this study we have shown that the failure in functional expression of a heterologous gene is due to the fact that the codon CUG is read as serine in C. maltosa. This conclusion was drawn from the following experimental results: (1) when a cytochrome P450 gene of C. maltosa containing a CTG codon was expressed in C. maltosa, the corresponding amino acid was found to be serine, and not leucine; (2) a tRNA gene with an almost identical structure to that of the tRNA SerCAG gene of C. albicans could be isolated from the genome of C. maltosa; (3) the Saccharomyces cerevisiae URA3 gene, which has one CTG codon, could not complement the ura3 mutation of C. maltosa as itself, but when the CTG codon was changed to another leucine codon, CTC, the mutated gene could complement the ura3 mutation.The last result is the first example of succeeding in functional expression of a heterologous gene in Candida species having an altered codon usage by changing the CTG codon in the gene to another codon.The nucleotide sequence datum reported in this paper will appear in the GSDB, DDBJ, EMBL and NCBI nucleotide sequence databases with the Accession Number D26074.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: S288C ; isogenic ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A set of GAL2+ yeast strains that are isogenic to strain S288C have been constructed. They contain non-reverting mutations in genes commonly used for selection for recombinant plasmids. Strains from this collection are being used for the European Union Yeast Genome Sequencing Programme. Representative strains from this collection have been deposited with the ATCC.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; chromosome X ; DNA sequencing project ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We have sequenced a continuous segment of 17 137 bp on chromosome X. Sequence analysis of this stretch revealed 14 open reading frames (ORFs) at least 100 amino acids long. One gene, encoding the mitochondrial 60S ribosomal protein L8, had already been sequenced. Four ORF products show weak homologies with known protein sequences. The nine remaining ORF products have no homologies with sequences in data banks. The nucleotide sequence of the 17·1 kb fragment is available through the EMBL data library under Accession Number Z34288.
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