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  • 1995-1999  (200)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. F5 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 114-120 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A standard method for evaluating the fire performance of pipe insulation is not available in North America. In Europe, however, the regional standards organization NORDTEST has had available for several years now a method specifically designed for this purpose. The NORDTEST NT FIRE 036 test is a full-scale room fire test where the pipe insulation is installed along the ceiling and subjected to a gas burner fire. Four classes of performance (Class I through III, plus unrated) are used to evaluate the products. In the present work, 4, different pipe insulation products, representing the most common materials used for this purpose, have been examined according to this test. The results showed that rock wool insulation gave the best fire performance, with phenolic foam being in the least safe rated category. Synthetic foam rubber and polyethylene insulation products gave intermediate performance.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 258-261 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Process Safety Management (PSM) programs are expected to reduce the probability and severity of hazardous incidents. This paper presents a real life incident that occurred in a plan before a PSM program was put in place. A detailed description of the incident is provided with appropriate discussions of noncompliance with the PSM rule. Finally, the paper provides a theoretical scenario where a fully operational PSM program would have prevented the incident. The case history and discussion provided in this paper also reinforces the concept of maintaining process and equipment integrity through multiple barriers of safety. A fully operational PSM program represents such a multiple barrier safety systems.The incident occurred in a high temperature boiler in a process plant. The incident was caused by a sequence of four occurrences that combined to cause the boiler to lose water level and have serious internal and tube damage. The problem was not detected until a mechanic who was going to work on the feed pump realized that there was flames coming out of the boiler stack. The mechanic told the operator about the problem and the boiler was manually tripped. The boiler feedwater pump was not blocked in until 30 minutes after the incident was over. If this pump was started during or directly after the incident, the addition of boiler feedwater to the over-heated boiler would have caused an explosion. At the time the incident was reported there were 8-10 employees in the area of the boilers.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 247-257 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Current guidelines for sizing of vents in dust explosions deal with panel inertia effects either by suggesting that the issue be approached experimentally on a case-by-case basis (VDI 3673) or by recommending a maximum mass per unit area (NFPA 68). This empirical approach to the problem is surprising, given that this aspect of explosion venting should be easily amenable to analytical treatment. From this assessment, an analysis of vent panel dynamics was carried out based on a simplified explosion model, which has also been used to develop a generalized vent sizing correlation. The main result of the analysis is the identification of a dimensionless parameter which fully characterizes the effects associated with the inertia of the panel. This inertia parameter includes: the reactivity of the mixture; the volume of the enclosure; the mass of the vent per unit area; the number of equal panels on the vented volume; and a panel shape factor. The analysis has quanitified the intuitive expectation that the mass per unit area of the panel is not a property that should be considered in isolation, and that panel inertia effects are more important the more reactive the mixture and the smaller the volume. The predictions from the model have been validated by comparison with available data for both dust and gas explosions. The extensive validation work that has supported their development provides confidence that the design correlations derived from the analysis can be used reliably to account for an effect that is either neglected or referred to testing by existing guidelines.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. 32-36 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Recent catastrophic piping failures dramatically demonstrate the importance of implementing a piping program. Piping system leaks and ruptures have caused death and injury to plant workers, firefighters, and the public. Significant financial consequences due to unexpected downtime and property damage have plagued industry. The environment has also suffered from the release of toxic chemicals. In the chemical industry, roughly 30% of the catastrophic losses have been historically attributable to piping failures.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 6-7 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: As process safety and risk management stewards, one of the first things we should be concerned about is the reliability of our pressure relief system. The importance of pressure relief systems to the CPI and HPI is paramount. Yet this issue has frequently not received the recognition it deserves, even though it is mandated by OSHA 1910.119. Although relief systems presently in service at process facilities may have been adequate for the original plant design, it is likely that the same systems are now being exposed to higher capacities and different relief scenarios. Therefore, verification of the adequacy of these systems should have been done concurrently with operational changes. Many in industry have only recently recognized this, and are striving to incorporate such procedures in their engineering standards. Others are still uncertain how to proceed, and two obvious questions that come to mind are (1) what is the most logical way for us to verify the adequacy of an existing system?, and (2) how to we document this information systematically, in order to avoid replicating our efforts every time we make a process modification?
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 8-13 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: OSHA's Process Safety Management Standard, 29 CFR 1910.119 (September, 1992) requires that process hazard evaluations be performed on covered processes. The regulations contain 14 areas for consideration, six of which are related to the need to provide comprehensive information of all process materials, including the consequences of inadvertent mixing of process materials. This information can be made available to those involved in the manufacturing process through the development of an Interaction Matrix. A brief overview of the subject is given in a publication by the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) [1].In 1996 AIChE announced the availability of the computer package CHEMPAT that provides a straight-forward method of generating and documenting the interaction matrix, or Compatibility Chart, and accompanying database. CHEMPAT was developed, and used internally, by the Dow Chemical Company since 1987. It was donated by Dow to AIChE in 1995 for use by the chemical process industries.This paper outlines the approach used to develop chemical compatibility information and briefly describes the use of CHEMPAT in that process.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 18-22 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A Simple case study of a relatively high-friction pipeline with pump-assisted gravity flow (e.g., for high viscosity fluids such as hydrocarbon products) illustrates three features which lead to unexpectedly high transient pressure surges for which conventional alleviation practices (such as extended value-closure times or surge-relief devices at the pump discharge) are ineffective: (i)the use of a value to control flow in a long or high-friction pipeline;(ii)a system with a value closure a significant distance downstream of a pump; and(iii)a system where surge protection is located a significant distance away from a control value.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 14-17 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The shipment of hazardous chemicals can pose signficant risk to the general public and the environment. These shipments are made in a variety of packages ranging from small bottles to large tank trucks, tank cars, and barges. However, the many standards and regulations that have been established to govern the design and use of these packages define what many consider to be the minimum requirements for risk management. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to more thoroughly identify the risk minimization options and verify the design of a package for a particular service. This method is based on the concept of a threat analysis of the proposed movement of the hazardous chemical. The threat analysis looks for unusual (but realistic) threats to the package that may result in the release of the hazardous chemical to the environment. Such unusual threats may include events such as: Dropping of the package during loading; Accident enroute; External fire during shipment; Random acts of vandalism (using the package as a practice target); Puncture (fork lift collision with package, rail/truck accident); Crushing (sudden starting or stopping). By conducting an engineering analysis of the strength and ability of the container to withstand these unusual events, a package design that can withstand the threats indentified in the threat analysis can be defined.
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 23-24 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Large scale centralized manufacture of chemicals coupled with distribution to remote customers has obvious economic advantages derived from economy of scale. In some cases, however, concern for safety and environment can drive a search for competitive small scale processes for production of toxic chemicals at the end-use site, thereby eliminating the potential hazards associated with transportation. We will present a case study in which novel technology is being explored to develop a safe, economically attractive process with minimal waste for the synthesis of hydrogen cyanide.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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