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  • 1995-1999  (402)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: Ascophyllum nodosum ; commercial seaweed extract ; Arabidopsis thaliana ; root-knot nematode ; Meloidogyne javanica ; betaines ; biological control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with a commercially-available, alkaline extract of the marine brown alga, Ascophyllum nodosum, resulted in a significant decrease in the number of females of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, which developed in the roots compared to those of plants grown in a water control medium. Significant reductions in egg recovery were also achieved from plants treated with the seaweed extract. Similar effects were produced when betaine components of the seaweed extract (γ-aminobutyric acid betaine, δ-aminovaleric acid betaine and glycinebetaine) were used in quantities equivalent to those applied in the seaweed extract treatment. As the experiments were conducted under monoxenic conditions, it can be concluded that the results obtained with the application of either the seaweed extract or betaines are indicative of their effects on the plants and are not dependent on microorganisms associated with the rhizosphere.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: Navicula saprophila ; eicosapentaenoicacid ; palmitoleic acid ; palmitic acid ; carbonate ; acetate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Changes in the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content of Navicula saprophila grown photoautotrophically and mixotrophically with the addition of acetate were examined in terms of their growth progress. Among four conditions, mixotrophic conditions in CO2-enriched (about 2%) atmosphere gave a maximum EPA content. As sodium acetate was added to the growth medium, the EPA content increased and reached a maximum value of 34.6 mg EPA g-1 biomass in the early stationary growth phase. In contrast, under photoautotrophic conditions in CO2 enriched atmosphere, the EPA content decreased during this phase. EPA was localized as the fatty acid esters of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, and the addition of acetate strongly enhanced production of the PC ester of EPA.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: community composition ; diversity ; epilithic cyanobacteria ; eutrophication ; monitoring ; species richness ; water quality
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Changes in epilithic cyanobacterial communities were determined in a river characterized by variations in nutrient content. The cyanobacterial community composition of the upstream sites was different from that of the downstream communities, where anthropogenic influences lead to an increase in nutrients (principally soluble reactive phosphate, SRP). There was a general trend in downstream sites towards a decrease in species richness, abundance, and diversity of cyanobacteria. The reduced cyanobacterial species richness in downstream locations was due largely to a marked decrease in the number of heterocystous species, although the number of non-heterocystous species also decreased. Epilithic phycobiliprotein content was positively correlated with the number of cyanobacterial cells, implying that this pigment provides information about the abundance of the cyanobacteria community in the epilithon. The lowest concentrations of phycobiliprotein in the epilithon were observed where concentrations of phosphate were highest. Similarly, the number of heterocystous and non-heterocystous species tended to decrease as the SRP increased, and as the DIN:SRP ratio decreased. However, no relation was found with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The differences among cyanobacterial communities could be interpreted as being a consequence of variations in nutrient composition. Finally, the usefulness of cyanobacteria as an alternative tool for assessing changes in water quality is discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: Diatom communities ; indices ; indicators ; rivers ; water quality ; monitoring ; Poland
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Biological and chemical data were processed to estimate trophic stage and degree of pollution in several streams and rivers in southern Poland. The majority were eutrophic and some of them heavily polluted; only a few were oligo-mesotrophic. The differences in the water quality of the rivers were reflected by different types of diatom community and also by the values for some diatom indices, which were calculated using the latest version of the 'Omnidia' database software. Except for the Sládeček's index, all diatom indices correlated significantly with organic load (COD), oxygen concentration, conductivity and most of the measured ions. Some indices showed a significant negative correlation with trophic level (expressed by NH4-N and PO4-P). In general, IPS (Specific Pollution Sensitivity Index) and GDI (Generic Diatom Index) indices gave the best results. Among the investigated diatom communities, only a few taxa indicated oligo-mesotrophy and oligo-β-mesosaprobity. Most of the sites were characterised by a greater relative contribution of eutraphent and tolerant ones as well as α-mesosaprobic and polysaprobic diatoms. This study suggests that the structure of benthic diatom communities and diatom indices, especially GDI, can be applied for monitoring rivers in Poland.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: Hup gene ; cyanobacteria ; Anabaena ; hydrogenase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A 15-kb DNA fragment containing a cluster of hup genes has been identified and cloned from Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120. These genes are located upstream of the hupL gene in the adjacent fragment in the Anabaena chromosome. Sequence analysis of a 3.5-kb HindIII fragment showed the sequence of hupEAB and a part of the hupD gene, all of which showed high sequence similarity with hyp genes of Escherichia coli and hup genes of several nitrogen-fixing bacteria. These genes are oriented in one direction, as are the hup genes of other organisms. Although the Anabaena hupDEAB genes are in the same cluster as the hypABCDE cluster of E. coli, the relative positions of the genes differ and there is no hupC in Anabaena on either side of hupA or hupB. Unlike several other organisms, hupD and hupE are not closely linked or translationally coupled in Anabaena, but are separated by an intergenic space of 453 bp. RT-PCR analysis of RNA obtained from vegetative cells and heterocysts of Anabaena showed that the hupB gene is expressed only in heterocyst-induced cultures.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: 14C ; photosynthesis ; population growth ; Selenastrum capricornutum ; suspended sediment elutriate ; zinc ; cadmium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Short-term 14C-fixation (4 h) Selenastrum capricornutum algal toxicity tests were conducted with Cd (n=8), Zn (n=9) and suspended sediment aqueous elutriates (n=28) and the results were compared to those obtained in a 48 h population growth test. In order to provide more realistic experimental conditions, toxicity tests were carried out in prefiltered nutrient-spiked Lake Geneva water. The population growth inhibition test was significantly more sensitive than the14 C-fixation test for Cd (median EC50-4h and EC50-48h values of 600 and 118 µg L-1, respectively) whereas no significant difference was measured for Zn toxicity (median EC50-4h and EC50-48h values of 97 and 96 µg L-1, respectively). With suspended sediment aqueous elutriates, the relative sensitivity of the two different end points is sample dependent, with ratios of the EC25 for the14 C-fixation: population growth test ranging from 〈0.26 to 〉53.3. Elutriate toxicity shows no apparent relationship between the acute and chronic test, indicating that population growth inhibition cannot be derived directly or predicted from14 C-fixation. Both tests with their specific advantages and limitations provide valuable complementary information to measure the impact of single toxicants or complex mixtures on aquatic plants.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: Atrazine ; redundancy analysis ; flowing waters ; periphyton communities ; diatoms ; Cyanobacteria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The relationship between environmental variables, community composition and the sensitivity of periphyton on artificial substrata to the herbicide atrazine (EC50 values obtained by concentration-effect curves of photosynthesis to atrazine) was studied for 20 stream and river sites on a latitudinal across Europe (Sweden, The Netherlands, Spain). Sensitivity to atrazine was higher in Swedish than in the Spanish or Dutch sites. Direct gradient analyses were used to relate diatom taxa and algal groups with environmental variables. A first redundancy analysis (RDA) based on diatom taxa showed a pollution gradient (atrazine and nutrient concentration) associated to diatom taxa that are indicators of different degrees of pollution. A second RDA based on algal groups showed that diatom-dominated communities corresponded both to sites at higher altitudes and less industrialized areas and to sites with higher atrazine concentration; Cyanobacteria were the most common in industrial areas, whereas Chlorophyceae dominated in sites with high water temperature and alkalinity. Linear regression analyses were applied to find the relationship between the ordination axes obtained and the EC50 values. First axes of both RDA showed significant or marginally significant relationship with atrazine sensitivity. Regression analyses for the Spanish sites indicated that the sensitivity to atrazine was related with light conditions (EC50 was positively correlated with light) and the percentage of different algal groups (EC50 was positively correlated with the percentage of diatoms and negatively correlated with the percentage of green algae). The results indicating that differences in sensitivity are related to environmental variables such as light, nutrients or atrazine concentration, permitted us to identify biological indicators of sensitivity to atrazine in lotic systems: Bacillariophyceae-dominated periphyton communities were more tolerant than Chlorophyceae and Chrysophyceae-dominated communities. In addition, diatom taxa found to be tolerant to atrazine in this study have been considered in the literature to be tolerant to organic pollution.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: Gelidium sesquipedale ; photosynthesis ; fluorescence ; light response curves ; pigments ; depth
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Photosynthesis-light response curves of Gelidium sesquipedale from the west coast of Portugal (Cape Espichel) were determined at four different depths, 3, 10, 15 and 22 m. Data acquisition using chlorophyll a fluorescence methodology and oxygen electrode measurements were compared. Response curves were determined over an increasing range of irradiance values (I), from darkness to 900 μmol photon m-2 s-1 PAR. In general, light response curves obtained for G. sesquipedale showed a similar pattern whether determined by the chlorophyll fluorescence method or by oxygen evolution. The photosynthetic capacity of G. sesquipedale decreased with depth, as expected, revealing a ‘sun’ and ‘shade’ acclimation pattern, between shallow and deeper waters.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of applied phycology 10 (1998), S. 303-314 
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: Gelidium ; Gelidiales ; agarophytes ; seaweed resources ; seaweed harvest ; agar
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The state of the Gelidium agarophyte resource was last reviewed in 1990 during the First International Workshop on Gelidium. The main objective of the present study was to gather and analyse the new information made available since then, with emphasis on the G. sesquipedale resource from the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco. Other Gelidium-based resources world-wide are also reviewed, as well as new attempts to cultivate Gelidium species in the sea. In general, since the late 1980s, G. sesquipedale yields have decreased in Portugal, and increased in Spain and Morocco. Current reported values, in dry weights, are ca. 670 t yr-1 for Portugal (average 1995–1997), 5200 t yr-1 in Spain, and 6950 t yr-1 for Morocco (average 1994–1996). Efforts to develop cultivation of G. sesquipedale in the sea in Spain have yet to progress beyond the demonstration scale. Other important Gelidium-based agarophyte resources are located in: (i) South Africa where, in addition to G. pristoides, new species are being harvested, with total agarophyte landings of 140 t yr-1 in 1996; (ii) Mexico, where G. robustum harvest averaged 750 t yr-1 in 1987–1996; (iii) and Chile where harvest of Gelidium species yielded ca. 460 t yr-1 in 1990–1992. Preliminary research on new techniques for commercial cultivation of Gelidium species is also reported from these countries.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: Canary Islands ; Gelidium canariensis ; hierarchical ; spatial variation ; temporal variation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This study was designed to investigate spatial and temporal variation in Gelidium canariensis populations at two shores in northern Gran Canaria during two years. Spatial scales ranged from some hundred meters (distance between shores), 10 to 30 m (distance between plots) to less than 3 m (distance between quadrats). Gelidium individuals were defined as distinct Gelidium clumps. The results show a significant difference in size of clumps between shores, but not on the smaller spatial scales. No significant temporal variation was found. There was no significant temporal or spatial variation in standing crop or density (counts made in quadrats where Gelidium was present, rather than counts for the total shore). Sporophytic and gametophytic clumps were also distinguished by identifying reproductive structures in the field. The total proportion of sporophytes was larger than the proportion of gametophytes, but at a smaller scale there could be a shift in dominance. The survival rate of clumps was similar between shores with a mean survival rate of 85%, but there was a significant difference in recruitment between shores. The results indicate a stable population structure.
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