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  • 1995-1999  (159)
  • 1935-1939  (137)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1467-8292
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: : Local authorities in Greece were considered until recently instruments for the implementation of government policy. The article focuses on the major nomothetical reforms in the history of modern Greece to revive local autonomy and provide local people with more opportunities to define their own development needs. Apart from criticizing those reforms and raising points of interest for other countries with a highly centralized system of government, the prospects for community development in Greece are examined and a number of suggestions are offered.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1467-8292
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: A comparison of the essential characteristics of public and private enterprise against the background of agency theory shows that archetypal public enterprise is not an enterprise in the generally accepted legal and economic senses of that expression. If it is to be efficient, therefore, archetypal public enterprise must not be left dependent upon governance and monitoring systems appropriate to private enterprise but must, by means of an intimate and cooperative (and not an ‘arm's length') relationship between the principal (government) and the agent (management), be provided with precisely defined and quantified objectives that lead to an agreed measure of overall performance. The essay's conclusions are important because, inter alia, they shift the efficiency debate from property to governance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1467-8292
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: RESUME*: La gestion communale et les coopératives en élevage difèrent entre pays anglophnes et francophones. Les origines de ces différences remontent aux poliliques coloniales. Les pays francophones ont misé surl‘amélioration des systèmes traditionnels existant, les pays anglophones sur l'installation de colons transférant des systèmes importés et lapromotion d‘élites locales. Ilen résulte une tendance forte à la privatisation du foncier en zone anglophone qui s‘oppose à la recherche d‘une gestion comanunale de l‘espace en pays francophone; aux initiatives des entrepreneurs anglophones népondent des programmes francophones de structuration du milieu éleveur. Onpeut encore souligner que les coopératives des PVD sont communément différentes de celles des pays industrialisés, notammentpar un moindre fonctionnement démocratique et une plus grande implication étatique.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1467-8292
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: This paper examines the desirability of an exogenously induced change in the preferences of individuals in an economy characterized by (i) asymmetrical, localized positive consumption externalities, (ii) private, non-market, negotiation-free transfers, and (iii) the ‘Samaritan's dilemma.’ A model is analysed in which a benefactor (individual 1) makes an unrestricted voluntary transfer to a beneficiary (individual 2) who ran use the transfer to increase 2's consumption of either a purely private good x or a good y that generates external benefits for 1. Once 1 makes a transfer to 2, 1 cannot control how 2 spends it. If 2 fails to take into account this externality, then good y is under consumed and a loss in social welfare results. When such externalities and their concomitant welfare losses arise, conventional solutions are frequently inappropriate, impractical or impossible. This power shows that exogenously inducing the adoption of new externality internalizing preferences by the benefactor and the beneficiary not only increases the benefactor's transfer and the beneficiary's consumption of good y but also produces a ‘socially superior’ state. The welfare improvement is measured in terms of a welfare criterion that is based on the initial and new preferences of each individual
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1467-8292
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: This paper applies the censored regression model under several distributional assumptions to data on charitable giving to public radio stations. The authors show that charitable contributions are positively affected by the level of use of a pure public good. Wing this factor into account they additionally show thd contributions to public radio do not support the public good hypothesis, but rather donors behave as impure altruists.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1467-8292
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: *: This article emphasizes that the cooperative form of organization has an important role to play in developing the institutional variety in the market economy. Cooperatives are important tools for counteracting monopolies and monopsonies. Cooperatives may be analysed in terms of network organizations that enable weaker actors in the market to develop businesses that are beneficial both for themselves as users as well as for the larger national society. The development of new cooperatives is highly dependent on existing social networks in the local environment. Actors trying to promote the establishment of new cooperatives therefore have better chances of success if existing social networks are used as bases for the development of member-owned businesses.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1467-8292
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: /〉: The improvement of the proficiency and capabilities of management staff of public enterprises (BUMN) in Indonesia has become more important with the introduction of a public sector policy which focuses on the efficiency, cost recovery and profitability of public enterprises. Management training in Indonesian BUMN is in most cases an instrument of career development for management staff. Training programmes continue to be influenced by the training concepts of the civil service and reflect the fact that despite the business orientation of the official public sector policy, BUMN continue to be part of the political/administrative system. Business orientation, efficiency, entrepreneurship and profit orientation are seen as the most important characteristics of BUMN managers to be developed in the training programmes; however, management training also aims at the political socialization of BUMN managers into the national leadership. In the implementation of management training, public enterprises tend to cooperate most closely with their respective technical departments and the university sector. Considering the objectives of the public sector policy of the government, BUMN should be allowed to design and implement their management training without interference from other central government institutions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1467-8292
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: *: The revolution in transaction costs brought about by new technology can make it economically efficient to restore purchasing power to citizens in the case of in-kind benefits. Analysis of the economic and institutional evolution of the US electronic benefit transfer (EBT) experience shows that a system of welfare payments can evolve either towards monopolistic (or semi-monopolistic) solutions promoted by government or towards competitive, open-market solutions. The EBT system has addressed the diseconomies created by the high proportion of unbanked citizens among welfare recipients by creating electronic pseudoaccounts for the unbanked piggybacked on the commercial payments infrastructure. The EBT card is the first obligatory payment card to be issued by a government, albeit through the intermediary of a government-designated issuer (GDI). Moving to chip cards, the problems posed by setting up a large-scale network of terminals and the fact that ‘universal’ welfare cards are born as ‘natural’ government monopolies may lead banks, governments and central banks to consider the great economies of scale and of critical mass for migration that can be offered by combining various functions in a single, universally distributed ‘citizen card'. Starting with health care, European citizen cards could gradually take over functions such as the transfer of benefits to specific groups of citizens, payment for other public services, payment of national and local taxes, and payment for utilities. This would make explicit the level of subsidization now implicit in the provision of benefits in kind. The clear indication of deductions, reimbursements and subsidies in the context of payment would mark a considerable advance in the transparency of the welfare market.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1467-8292
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: /〉: The paper presents and analyses the birth and evolution of social cooperatives for work integration in Italy. Born spontaneously in response to the failure of policies for the employment of disadvantaged workers, this particular entrepreneurial form was recognized and regulated in 1991 by enactment of a special law. The paper sets out the main results of recent research studies, results which enable quantification of the phenomenon and illustration of its principal features, as well as providing preliminary information on the effectiveness of this type of cooperative in the integration of disadvantaged workers into the internal or open labour market and on the variables that influence their results. The paper therefore highlights both the advantages and the drawbacks of these initiatives. Overcoming these drawbacks seems to be conditional on recognition of social cooperatives for work integration as instruments of employment policy.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1467-8292
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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