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  • 1995 - 1999  (548,490)
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  • 1
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE Through the last few decades inversion concepts have become an integral past of experimental data interpretation in several branches of science. In numerous cases similar inversion-like techniques were developed independently in separate disciplines, sometimes based on different lines of reasoning, and sometimes not to the same level of sophistication. This fact was realized early in inversion history. In the seventies and eighties "generalized inversion" and "total inversion" became buzz words in Earth Science, and some even saw inversion as the panacea that would eventually raise all experimental science into a common optimal frame. It is true that a broad awareness of the generality of inversion methods is established by now. On the other hand, the volume of experimental data varies greatly among disciplines, as does the degree of nonlinearity and numerical load of forward calculations, the amount and accuracy of a priori information, and the criticality of correct error propagation analysis. Thus, some clear differences in terminology, philosophy and numerical implementation remain, some of them for good reasons, but some of them simply due to tradition and lack of interdisciplinary communication. In a sense the development of inversion methods could be viewed as an evolution process where it is important that "species" can arise and adapt through isolation, but where it is equally important that they compete and mate afterwards through interdisciplinary exchange of ideas. This book was actually initiated as a proceedings volume of the "Interdisciplinary Inversion Conference 1995", held at the University of Aarhus, Denmark. The aim of this conference was to further the competition and mating part of above-mentioned evolution process, and we decided to extend the effect through this publication of 35 selected contributions. The point of departure is a story about geophysics and astronomy, in which the classical methods of Backus and Gilbert from around 1970 have been picked up by helioseismology. Professor Douglas Gough, who is a pioneer in this field, is the right person to tell this success story of interdisciplinary exchange of research experience and techniques [1-31] (numbers refer to pages in this book). Practitioners of helioseismology like to stress the fact that the seismological coverage on the Sun in a sense is much more complete and accurate than it is on Earth. Indeed we witness vigorous developments in the Backus & Gilbert methods (termed MOLA/SOLA in the helioseismology literature) [32-59] driven by this fortunate data situation. Time may have come for geophysicists to look into helioseismology for new ideas. Seismic methods play a key role in the study of the Earth's lithosphere. The contributions in [79 - 130,139 - 150] relate to reflection seismic oil exploration, while methods for exploration of the whole crust and the underlying mantle axe presented in [131 - 138, 151 - 166]. Two contributions [167 - 185] present the application of inversion for the understanding of the origin of petroleum and the prediction of its migration in sedimentary basins. Inversion is applied to hydrogeophysical and environmental problems [186 - 222], where again developments are driven by the advent of new, mainly electromagnetic, experimental techniques. The role of inversion in electromagnetic investigations of the lithosphere/astenosphere system as well as the ionosphere axe exemplified in [223 - 238]. Geodesy has a fine tradition of sophisticated linear inversion of large, accurate sets of potential field data. This leads naturally to the fundamental study of continuous versus discrete inverse formulations found in [262-275]. Applications of inversion to geodetic satellite data are found in [239 - 261]. General mathematical and computational aspects are mainly found in [262 - 336]. Nonlinearity in weakly nonlinear problems may be coped with by careful modification of lineaxized methods [295 - 302]. Strongly nonlinear problems call for Monte Carlo methods, where the cooling scedule in simulated annealing [303 - 311,139 - 150] is critical for convergence to a useful (local) minimum, and the set of consistent models is explored through importance sampling [89 - 90]. The use of prior information, directly or indirectly, is a key issue in most contributions, ranging from Bayesian formulations based a priori covariances e.g. [98 - 112,122 - 130, 254 - 261], over more general but also less tractable prior probability densities [79 - 97], to inclusion of specific prior knowledge of shape [284 - 294, 312 - 319]. Given the differences and similarities in approach, can we benefit from exchange of ideas and experience? In practice ideas and experience seldom jump across discipline boundaries by themselves. Normally one must go and get them the hard way, for instance by reading and understanding papers from disciplines far from the home ground. Look at the journey into the interdisciplinary cross-field of inversion techniques as a demanding safari into an enormous hunting ground. This book is meant to provide a convenient starting point.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (341 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540616931
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE In the geologic record, vertical crustal uplift has often resulted in erosional removal of huge thicknesses of sedimentary strata. If the uplift is of a broad regional nature or the uplifted strata remain relatively undeformed and sediments deposited after the uplift are not preserved, the magnitude of uplift and subsequent erosion may be difficult to quantify. This may lead to misinterpretation or omission of chapters of geologic history of a region. Fortunately, a number of indirect methods can be used to infer the thicknesses of missing strata and reconstruct the geologic history. Our book titled "Thick Post-Devonian Sediment Cover Over New York State: Evidence from Fluid-Inclusion, Organic Maturation, Clay Diagenesis and Stable Isotope Studies" uses four techniques of paleotemperature measurements in sedimentary rocks in order to determine burial depths of the existing Paleozoic strata in New York State. Since every technique has its own analytical and interpretative uncertainties, the use of four techniques allowed us to place a better constraint on our results. We show how regionally extensive paleotemperature data can be used to estimate the thicknesses of strata lost from an uplifted sedimentary basin. We also provide a tentative tectonic-, paleogeographic- and depositional history of New York State after the Devonian when the missing strata were deposited...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (113 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540594581
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE Seismic imaging is the process through which seismograms recorded on the Earth's surface are mapped into representations of its interior properties. Imaging methods are nowadays applied to a broad range of seismic observations: from nearsurface environmental studies, to oil and gas exploration, even to long-period earthquake seismology. The characteristic length scales of the features imaged by these techniques range over many orders of magnitude. Yet there is a common body of physical theory and mathematical techniques which underlies all these methods. The focus of this book is the imaging of reflection seismic data from controlled sources. At the frequencies typical of such experiments, the Earth is, to a first approximation, a vertically stratified medium. These stratifications have resulted from the slow, constant deposition of sediments, sands, ash, and so on. Due to compaction, erosion, change of sea level, and many other factors, the geologic, and hence elastic, character of these layers varies with depth and age. One has only to look at an exposed sedimentary cross section to be impressed by the fact that these changes can occur over such short distances that the properties themselves are effectively discontinuous relative to the seismic wavelength. These layers can vary in thickness from less than a meter to many hundreds of meters. As a result, when the Earth's surface is excited with some source of seismic energy and the response recorded on seismometers, we will see a complicated zoo of elastic wave types: reflections from the discontinuities in material properties, multiple reflections within the layers, guided waves, interface waves which propagate along the boundary between two different layers, surface waves which are exponentially attenuated with depth, waves which are refracted by continuous changes in material properties, and others. The character of these seismic waves allows seismologists to make inferences about the nature of the subsurface geology. Because of tectonic and other dynamic forces at work in the Earth, this first-order view of the subsurface geology as a layer cake must often be modified to take into account bent and fractured strata. Extreme deformations can occur in processes such as mountain building. Under the influence of great heat and stress, some rocks exhibit a taffy-like consistency and can be bent into exotic shapes without breaking, while others become severely fractured. In marine environments, less dense salt can be overlain by more dense sediments; as the salt rises under its own buoyancy, it pushes the overburden out of the way, severely deforming originally flat layers. Further, even on the relatively localized scale of exploration seismology, there may be significant lateral variations in material properties. For example, if we look at the sediments carried downstream by a river, it isclear that lighter particles will be carried further, while bigger ones will be deposited first; flows near the center of the channel will be faster than the flow on the verge. This gives rise to significant variation is the density and porosity of a given sedimentary formation as a function of just how the sediments were deposited. Taking all these effects into account, seismic waves propagating in the Earth will be refracted, reflected and diffracted. In order to be able to image the Earth, to see through the complicated distorting lens that its heterogeneous subsurface presents to us, in other words, to be able to solve the inverse scattering problem, we need to be able to undo all of these wave propagation effects. In a nutshell, that is the goal of imaging: to transform a suite of seismograms recorded at the surface of the Earth into a depth section, i.e., a spatial image of some property of the Earth (usually wave speed or impedance). There are two main types of spatial variations of the Earth's properties. There are the smooth changes (smooth meaning possessing spatial wavelengths which are long compared to seismic wavelengths) associated with processes such as compaction. These gradual variations cause ray paths to be gently turned or refracted. On the other hand, there are the sharp changes (short spatial wavelength), mostly in the vertical direction, which we associate with changes in lithology and, to a lesser extent, fracturing. These short wavelength features give rise to the reflections and diffractions we see on seismic sections. If the Earth were only smoothly varying, with no discontinuities, then we would not see any events at all in exploration seismology because the distances between the sources and receivers are not often large enough for rays to turn upward and be recorded. This means that to first order, reflection seismology is sensitive primarily to the short spatial wavelength features in the velocity model. We usually assume that we know the smoothly varying part of the velocity model (somehow) and use an imaging algorithm to find the discontinuities. The earliest forms of imaging involved moving, literally migrating, events around seismic time sections by manual or mechanical means. Later, these manual migration methods were replaced by computer-oriented methods which took into account, to varying degrees, the physics of wave propagation and scattering. It is now apparent that all accurate imaging methods can be viewed essentially as linearized inversions of the wave equation, whether in terms of Fourier integral operators or direct gradient-based optimization of a waveform misfit function. The implicit caveat hanging on the word "essentially" in the last sentence is this: people in the exploration community who practice migration are usually not able to obtain or preserve the true amplitudes of the data. As a result, attempts to interpret subtle changes in reflector strength, as opposed to reflector position, usually run afoul of one or more approximations made in the sequence of processing steps that makes up a migration (trace equalization, gaining, deconvolution, etc.) On the other hand, if we had true amplitude data, that is, if the samples recorded on the seismogram really were proportional to the velocity of the piece of Earth to which the geophone were attached, then we could make quantitative statements about how spatial variations in reflector strength are related to changes in geological properties. The distinction here is the distinction between imaging reflectors, on the one hand, and doing a true inverse problem for the subsurface properties on the other. Until quite recently the exploration community was exclusively concerned with the former, and today the word "migration" almost always refers to the imaging problem. The more sophisticated view of imaging as an inverse problem is gradually making its way into the production software of oil and gas exploration companies, since careful treatment of amplitudes is often crucial in making decisions on subtle lithologic plays (amplitude versus offset or AVO) and in resolving the chaotic wave propagation effects of complex structures. When studying migration methods, the student is faced with a bewildering assortment of algorithms, based upon diverse physical approximations. What sort of velocity model can be used: constant wave speed v? v(x), v(x, z), v(x, y, z)? Gentle dips? Steep dips? Shall we attempt to use turning or refracted rays? Take into account mode converted arrivals? 2D (two dimensions)? 3D? Prestack? Poststack? If poststack, how does one effect one-way wave propagation, given that stacking attenuates multiple reflections? What domain shall we use? Time-space? Time-wave number? Frequency-space? Frequency-wave number? Do we want to image the entire dataset or just some part of it? Are we just trying to refine a crude velocity model or are we attempting to resolve an important feature with high resolution? It is possible to imagine imaging algorithms that would work under the most demanding of these assumptions, but they would be highly inefficient when one of the simpler physical models pertains. And since all of these situations arise at one time or another, it is necessary to look at a variety of migration algorithms in daily use. Given the hundreds of papers that have been published in the past 15 years, to do a reasonably comprehensive job of presenting all the different imaging algorithms would require a book many times the length of this one. This was not my goal in any case. I have tried to emphasize the fundamental physical and mathematical ideas of imaging rather than the details of particular applications. I hope that rather than appearing as a disparate bag of tricks, seismic imaging will be seen as a coherent body of knowledge, much as optics is...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (291 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540590514
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Keywords: sustainability ; fisheries ; coastal management ; Seto Inland Sea ; Japan
    Description / Table of Contents: Introduction / Tomotoshi Okaichi / pp. 3-5 --- Seto Inland Sea—Historical Background / Tetsuo Yanagi and Tomotoshi Okaichi / pp. 9-14 --- Biological Productivity of the Lower Trophic Levels of the Seto Inland Sea / Hiroaki Hashimoto, Toshiya Hashimoto, Osamu Matsuda, Kuninao Tada, Kyoichi Tamai, Shin-ichi Uye and Tamiji Yamamoto / pp. 17-58 --- Fisheries Production / Tatsuki Nagai and Yasuki Ogawa / pp. 61-94 --- The Preservation and Creation of Fisheries Grounds / Tetsuo Yanagi / pp. 97-119 --- Strategies for Reduction of Nutrient Loads from the Land / Masahiko Sekine and Masao Ukita / pp. 123-158 --- The Relationship between the Fishery Industry and Environmental Evaluation of the Seto Inland Sea / Hidenori Niizawa, Ken'ichi Nakagami and Kazuhisa Oba / pp. 161-185 --- Legal System and Coastal Management / Mitsuru Nakayama / pp. 189-214 --- Synthesis and Proposal / Tetsuo Yanagi and Tomotoshi Okaichi / pp. 217-219 --- Comparison of the Seto Inland Sea with Other Enclosed Seas from Around the World / Hidetaka Takeoka / pp. 223-247 --- Red Tides in the Seto Inland Sea / Tomotoshi Okaichi / pp. 251-304 --- Law Concerning Special Measures for Conservation of the Environment of the Seto Inland Sea / pp. 307-317 --- International EMECS Center International Center for the Environmental Manage ment of Enclosed Coastal Sea / pp. 321-325
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XXII, 329 Seiten)
    ISBN: 4887041225
    Language: English
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  • 5
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  • 6
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    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
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  • 8
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  • 9
  • 10
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