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  • 1995 - 1999  (555,920)
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  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE The aim of this volume is two-fold. At the more pragmatic level, it is to help answer the many questions about the structure of the Pacific continental margin of North America, which have arisen over the years as a result of continuing field mapping and geophysical surveys. The second objective is methodological - to illustrate the irreplaceable role of geological information among the various data sets used in earth-science studies. The need to address these issues became apparent to the author during the several years he spent taking part in geological and geophysical studies on the west coast of Canada. All too often, results of geologic field mapping disagreed with tectonic predictions from too-straightforward local applications of global plate reconstructions, which due to their generality do not always take a full account of specific character of particular regions. To be sure, the global approach has during the last q~/artercentury greatly expanded the vision of geoscientists, previously restricted to continental regions. However, a negative by-product of this expansion has been a decline of attention paid to local information, as tectonic studies have increasingly relied on simply fitting the development of a particular region into this or that prefabricated tectonic template. Direct geological observations have limitations of their own. The observer in most cases deals with products of geologic processes, rather than with the processes themselves. Field mapping provides local information, and many years of effort are needed before a regional overview becomes possible. Geologic mapping is restricted to the ground surface, and even the deepest drillholes cannot sample more than the outermost shell of the Earth. The factual side of geologic mapping is usually limited to determination of rock types and their relationships in areas of exposure. Conclusions about the three-dimensional structure of a region and its evolution are still mostly inferential. Broad incorporation into geological studies of geophysical data, assisted by ever-more-sophisticated modern computers, provides a huge volume of information unobtainable in other ways. Geophysical methods quickly afford regional coverage or images of the Earth's deep interior. Geophysical methods have prompted the application in geological sciences of methodologies borrowed from exact sciences, such as mathematics and physics. Particularly important has been quantitative modeling, which allows a scientist to use the known parameters of a system to predict others. But in taking this approach too far, one encounters a dangerous pitfall. A model is a simplified representation of a natural phenomenon. The quality of this or that representation is relative, and a representation is never perfect. To incorporate all characteristics of a geologic phenomenon, in a parametrized form, into a numerical or physical imitation is impossible. This requires one to rely on simplifying assumptions, and a model is no better than the assumptions at its base. Unrealistic assumptions lead to unrealistic models. When a disagreement arises between model predictions and observations - such as those from geologic field mapping - a modeler may be tempted to downplay the differences or the significance of the offending observations. It becomes tempting to underestimate the role of an experienced geologist as a principal arbiter of the realism of a model. But it is geological data and geological control that provide the ultimate means of testing abstract models. From this methodological position, the present study of the western North American continental margin is organized as follows: 1. Geological information, available from field mapping and drilling, is gathered and summarized. 2. Current geophysical models for this region are considered, with particular attention to their underlying assumptions. 3. The available data, geological and geophysical, are synthesized into an internally consistent geologic-evolution concept. 4. This concept is tested by comparison with direct geological observations from field mapping and drilling. Because most current data sets and models cover northwestern Washington and western British Columbia, particular attention was paid to these areas. Fortunately, these areas contain many keys that help understand the structure of the entire western North American continental margin, which has baffled scientists for decades. The author does not claim to have resolved all these problems, but he does believe he has made a useful contribution to understanding continental-oceanic plate interrelations at this continental margin. Rigidity of lithospheric plates is a critical assumption in current models of plate evolution. The lithophere of a plate is created at spreading centers manifested in the global system of mid-ocean ridges. It moves away from the place of its birth towards boundaries with other plates, with which it can interact in a variety of ways. Some interactions are of strike-slip type, with two plates simply sliding past each other. However, to compensate for the creation of new lithosphere at spreading centers, older lithosphere at some plate boundaries descends into the mantle as it is overriden by other plates. At such plate boundaries lie subduction zones. If both regimes occur along a single plate boundary, the transition between them must be abrupt. Unless it can be tied to a change in orientation of the boundary, it must be associated with a junction of not two, but three different plates. Such a template was used to interpret the structure and tectonic evolution of the western North American continental margin in the late 1960s and thereafter (Atwater, 1970; McManus et al., 1972; Barr and Chase, 1974; Riddihough and Hyndman, 1976). To satisfy the principles of rigid-plate tectonics, both regimes have to exist along this continental margin. Also needed in rigid-plate reconstructions is a plate triple junction somewhere between the areas of proven ongoing subduction (in Oregon and southern Washington) and transform plate motion (along the southeastern Alaska margin; Atwater, 1970; McManus et al., 1972). Such a triple junction has been placed off Queen Charlotte Sound offshore British Columbia (Keen and Hyndman, 1979; Riddihough et al., 1983), where a spreading center has been postulated between the Pacific and Explorer oceanic plates (Hyndman et al. 1979; Riddihough, 1984). Off northern Vancouver Island, a transform boundary between the Explorer and Juan de Fuca oceanic plates has been postulated, but both these plates are assumed to be subducting beneath Vancouver Island (Hyndman et al., 1979; Riddihough and Hyndman, 1989)o With the assumed universality of the rigid-plate model, "broad similarity" has been suggested between the geology of western Oregon and that of western British Columbia, and the Cascadia zone of active subduction has been extended as far north as the mouth of Queen Charlotte Sound (Riddihough, 1979, 1984). An accretionary sedimentary prism (Yorath, 1980) - or even an accretionary complex containing several exotic "terranes" (Davis and Hyndman, 1989) - has been postulated off Vancouver Island. Geological observations onshore and offshore (Shouldice, 1971; Tiffin et al., 1972) have come to be considered too "surficial" to be of major consequence for large-scale tectonic modeling (Yorath et al., 1985a,b; Yorath, 1987). Variants of the principal geophysical model for this area during the last decade (Clowes et al., 1987; Hyndman et alo, 1990; Spence et al. 1991; Yuan et al., 1992; Dehler and Clowes, 1992) have become increasingly distant from geological observations. As new model variants emerged, they were checked for internal consistency, compatibility with neighboring local models and fidelity to the overall assumed tectonic picture. However, detailed geological work continued, and many of its results proved incompatible with the conventional wisdom (Gehrels, 1990; Babcock et al., 1992, 1994; Allan et al., 1993; Lyatsky, 1993a). Importantly, questions arose about the applicability in this region of the conventional, simple rigid-plate assumption, as it was shown to be unable to account for all the geological and geophysical peculiarities in some areas (Carbotte et al., 1989; Allan et al., 1993; Davis and Currie, 1993). New solutions were made necessary by new findings and by rediscovery of forgotten old data (see Lyatsky et al., 1991; Lyatsky, 1993b). Without aiming to resolve all the outstanding debates, tectonic implications of the geologic mapping and drilling results in this region are considered in the following chapters. These results are integrated with geochemical and geophysical data. Interpretations of these data, made by this author and by other workers, are verified by geological observations and by geologically plausible extrapolations from these observations. In searching for solutions consistent with all the information, the author has restricted himself to analyzing continental-crust structures along this continental margin. He believes, however, that future models for the offshore regions of the northeastern Pacific should consider the results obtained herein.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (352 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540608424
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Keywords: air-sea exchange processes and flux ; geochemical processes in seawater ; primary production and other biological processes ; particle flux and sediment geochemistry ; submarine hydrothermal processes ; modeling and physical oceanography
    Description / Table of Contents: Chapter I. Air-Sea Exchange Processes and Flux --- Chemical composition of marine aerosols over the Central North Pacific—Results ftom the 1991 cruise of Hakurei Maru No. 2 / Uematsu, M., Kawamupa, K., Ibusuki, T. and Kimoto, T. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 3-14 --- Estimation of mineral aerosol fluxes to the Pacific by using environmental plutonium as a tracer / Nakanishi, T., Shiba, Y., Muramatsu, M. and Haque, M. A. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 15-30 --- Land-derived lipid class compounds in the deep-sea sediments and marine aerosols from the North Pacific / Kawamura, K. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 31-51 --- Iron and manganese in the atmosphere and oceanic waters / Nakayama, E., Obata, H., Okamura, K., Isshiki, K., Karatani, H. and Kimoto, T. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 53-68 --- Laboratory estimation of CO2 transfer velocity across the air-sea interface / Komom, S., Shimada, T. and Murakami, Y. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 69-81 --- Dissolution of calcareous tests in the ocean and atmospheric carbon dioxide / Nozaki, Y. and Oba, T. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 83-92 --- Calcium carbonate production and carbon dioxide flux on a coral reef, Okinawa / Ohde, S. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 93-98 --- Chapter II. Geochemical Processes in Seawater --- Generations of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen peroxide in the Seto Inland Sea—Photochemical reactions progressing in the coastal seawater / Fujiwara, K., Takeda, K. and Kumamoto, Y. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 101-127 --- Speciation of organoarsenical compounds in the hydrosphere / Sohrin, Y., Hasegawa, H. and Matsui, M. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 129-138 --- Chemical speciation of selenium in natural waters / Nakaguchi, Y., Koike, Y. and Hiraki, K. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 139-158 --- The concentration distribution and chemical form of arsenic compounds in seawater / Tanaka, S. and Santosa, S. J. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 159-170 --- The rare earth elements and yttrium in the coastal/offshore mixing zone of Tokyo Bay waters and the Kuroshio / Nozaki, Y. and Zhang, J. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 171-184 --- The tetrad effect in seawater; a long dispute and an analytical approach to the confirmation of the effect / Akagi, T. and Masuda, A. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 185-199 --- Detection, characterization and dynamics of dissolved organic ligands in oceanic waters / Tanoue, E. and Midorikawa, T. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 201-224 --- Chapter III. Primary Production and Other Biological Processes --- Nitrate assimilation and new production in open ocean / Kanda, J. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 227-238 --- Primary production and community respiration in the subarctic water of the western North Pacific / Odate, T. and Furuya, K. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 239-253 --- Effects of a seamount on phytoplankton production in the western Pacific Ocean / Furuya, K., Odate, T. and Taguchi, K. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 255-273 --- Marine colloids: Their roles in food webs and biogeochemical fluxes / Nagata, T. and Koike, I. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 275-292 --- Regional and seasonal variations of biomass and bio-mediated materials in the North Pacific Ocean / Yanada, M. and Maita, Y. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 293-306 --- Nitrogen and carbon stable isotopic ecology in the ocean: The transportation of organic materials through the food web / Sugisakj, H. and Tsuda, A. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 307-317 --- The role of carnivorous zooplankton, particularly chaetognaths in ocean flux / Terazaki, M. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 319-330 --- Seasonal changes in deep-sea benthic foraminiferal populations: Results of long-term observations at Sagami Bay, Japan / Kitazato, H. and Ohga, T. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 331-342 --- Chapter IV. Particle Flux and Sediment Geochemistry --- Spatial variation of Al flux in the North Pacific observed with sediment trap / Noriki, S., Iwai, T., Shimamoto, A., Tsunogai, S. and Harada, K. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 345-354 --- Spatial and temporal variation of δ515N in sinking particles in deep waters: Its implication for the origin and transport of particulate organic matter / Nakatsuka, T., Handa, N. and Imaizumi, S. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 355-374 --- 230Th and 231Pa distributions in surface sediments off Enshunada, Japan / Taguchi, K. and Narita, H. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 375-382 --- Remobilization of transition elements in pore water of continental slope sediments / Kato, Y., Tanase, M., Minami, H. and Okabe, S. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 383-405 --- Geochemistry of pore waters from a bathyal Calyptogena community off Hatsushima Island, Sagami Bay, Japan / Masuzawa, T., Nakatsuka, T. and Handa, N. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 407-421 --- Chapter V. Submarine Hydrothermal Processes --- Wide variation of chemical characteristics of submarine hydrothermal fluids due to secondary modification processes after high temperature water-rock interaction: a review / Gamo, T. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 425-451 --- Geochemistry of phase-separated hydrothermal fluids of the North Fiji Basin, Southwest Pacific / Ishibashi, J. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 453-467 --- Chemical modeling of seawater-rock interaction: Effect of rock-type on the fluid chemistry and mineral assemblage / Chiba, H. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 469-486 --- Hydrothermal mineralization in the Mid-Okinawa Trough / Nakashima, K., Sakai, H., Yoshida, H., Chiba, H., Tanaka, Y., Gamo, T., Ishibashi, J. and Tsunogai, U. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 487-508 --- Iron-rich smectite formation in the hydrothermal sediment of Iheya Basin, Okinawa Trough / Masuda, H. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 509-521 --- Formation and alteration of organic compounds in simulated submarine hydrothermal vent environments / Kobayashi, K., Kohara, M., Gamo, T. and Yanagawa, H. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 523-535 --- Localized heat flow anomalies in the middle Okinawa Trough associated with hydrothermal circulation / Kinoshita, M. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 537-559 --- Chapter VI. Modeling and Physical Oceanography --- Material transport models from Tokyo Bay to the Pacific Ocean / Yanagi, T. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 563-574 --- Climate and weather effects on the chlorophyll concentration in the northwestern North Pacific / Sugimoto, T., Tadokoro, K. and Furushima, Y. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 575-592 --- Ecosystem models for the three regional problems in the Northern Pacific / Kishi, M. J. and Kawamiya, M. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 593-611 --- A review on the subtropical mode water of the North Pacific (NPSTMW) / Hanawa, K. and Suga, T. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 613-627 --- Flow distribution at 165°E in the Pacific Ocean / Kawabe, M. and Taira, K. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 629-649 --- Determination of monthly mean sea surface temperature from 1981 to 1990 by the NOAA-AVHRR in the equatorial Pacific / Kishino, M. / Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, / pp. 651-659
    Pages: Online-Ressource (IX, 672 Seiten)
    ISBN: 4887041160
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE In the geologic record, vertical crustal uplift has often resulted in erosional removal of huge thicknesses of sedimentary strata. If the uplift is of a broad regional nature or the uplifted strata remain relatively undeformed and sediments deposited after the uplift are not preserved, the magnitude of uplift and subsequent erosion may be difficult to quantify. This may lead to misinterpretation or omission of chapters of geologic history of a region. Fortunately, a number of indirect methods can be used to infer the thicknesses of missing strata and reconstruct the geologic history. Our book titled "Thick Post-Devonian Sediment Cover Over New York State: Evidence from Fluid-Inclusion, Organic Maturation, Clay Diagenesis and Stable Isotope Studies" uses four techniques of paleotemperature measurements in sedimentary rocks in order to determine burial depths of the existing Paleozoic strata in New York State. Since every technique has its own analytical and interpretative uncertainties, the use of four techniques allowed us to place a better constraint on our results. We show how regionally extensive paleotemperature data can be used to estimate the thicknesses of strata lost from an uplifted sedimentary basin. We also provide a tentative tectonic-, paleogeographic- and depositional history of New York State after the Devonian when the missing strata were deposited...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (113 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540594581
    Language: English
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  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE In recent years, there has been increasing interest from geoscientists in potassic igneous rocks. Academic geoscientists have been interested in their petrogenesis and their potential value in defining the tectonic setting of the terranes into which they were intruded, and exploration geoscientists have become increasingly interested in the association of these rocks with major epithermal gold and porphyry gold-copper deposits. Despite this current interest, there is no comprehensive textbook that deals with these aspects of potassic igneous rocks. This book redresses this situation by elucidating the characteristic features of potassic (high-K) igneous rocks, erecting a hierarchical scheme that allows interpretation of their tectonic setting using whole-rock geochemistry, and investigating their associations with a variety of gold and copper-gold deposits, worldwide. About twothirds of the book is based on a PhD thesis by Dr Daniel MOiler which was produced at the Key Centre for Strategic Mineral Deposits within the Department of Geology and Geophysics at The University of Western Australia under the supervision of Professor David Groves, the late Dr Nick Rock, Professor Eugen Stumpfl, Dr Wayne Taylor, and Dr Brendon Griffin. The remainder of the book was compiled from the literature using the collective experience of the two authors. The book is dedicated to the memory of Dr Rock who initiated the research project but died before its completion...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (225 Seiten)
    Edition: 2nd, updated and enlarged ed.
    ISBN: 9783540620754
    Language: English
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  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Tokyo : TERRAPUB
    Keywords: earth structure and dynamics ; earth core ; earth interior
    Description / Table of Contents: P-wave Velocity Discontinuity in D" Layer beneath Western Pacific with J-Array Records / T. Shibutani, K. Hirahara, and M. Kato / pp. 1-11 --- Formation of Iron Hydrides under the Condition of the Earth's Interior-Implication for the Core Formation Process / T. Yagi / pp. 13-28 --- Computer Simulation of the Structural and Elastic Properties of Iron at Earth's Inner Core Conditions / M. Matsui / pp. 29-34 --- Experimental Study of the Decomposition of Kyanite at High Pressure and High Temperature / T. Irifune, K. Kuroda, T. Minagawa, and M. Unemoto / pp. 35-44 --- Empirical Formulation for the Distribution of Ca2+ between Olivine and Ca-rich Clinopyroxene at 7.5 GPa Pressure / T. Kawasaki / pp. 45-55 --- Rock-Magnetic Study of Sediments: A Brief Review of Bulk Sample Methods / M. Torii / pp. 57-73 --- Intensity of the Geomagnetic Field in Geological Time: A Statistical Study / M. Kono and H. Tanaka / pp. 75-94 --- Strength ol the Magnetic Field in the Earth's Core Estimated from Geomagnetic Field Data / M. Matsushima / pp. 95-104 --- On Truncation Levels in Spherical Harmonic Expansion of Magnetic and Velocity Fields in an MHD Dynamo Model / Y. Tanahashi, Y. Honkura, and M. Matsushima / pp. 105-122 --- Boussinesq Convection in Rotating Spherical Shells ~ A Study on the Equatorial Superrotation / S. Takehiro and Y.-Y. Hayashi / pp. 123-156 --- Bubble Convection / K. Iga and R. Kimura / pp. 157-180 --- Simulation of Fluid Flow in the Earth's Outer Core: Application of a Lattice Gas Method / H. Kabayama, Y. Teshima, H. Takayanagi, and Y. Honkura / pp. 181-213 --- Basic Equations for the Evolution of Partially Molten Mantle and Core / Y. Abe / pp. 215-230 --- A Model for the Structural Evolution of the Earth's Core and Its Relation to the Observations / I. Sumita, S. Yoshida, Y. Hamano, and M. Kumazawa / pp. 231-260 --- Evaporation and Condensation Kinetics and Isotopic Mass Fractionations in the Systems Mg-Si-O-H and Fe-S-H in Relation to the Major Element Compositions of the Earth / A. Tsuchiyama and C. Uyeda / pp. 261-275 --- Isotope line Analysis on Primitive Materials Using Ion Microprobe / C. Uyeda and A. Tsuchiyama / pp. 277-285 --- Element Partitioning between MgSiO3 Perovskite, Magma, and Molten Iron: Constraints for the Earliest Processes of the Earth-Moon System / E. Ohtani, H. Yurimoto, T. Segawa, and T. Kato / pp. 287-300 --- Evolution of the Earth's Obliquity and the Role of Core-Mantle Coupling / T. Ito and Y. Hamano / pp. 301-318 --- Core and Deformable Mantle Couplings beneath the Eurasian and the Pacific Plate Boundary / C. Kakuta / pp. 319-330 --- Differences in Morphology and Structure between Hotspot Tracks: Effects of the Lithospheric Age at the Time of Formation / C. Honsho and K. Tamaki / pp. 331-342 --- Noble Gas Constraints on the Plume Sources in the Earth's Deep Interior / I. Kaneoka / pp. 343-355 --- Polynesian Super Plume: A Window down to the Core/Mantle Boundary / Y. Tatsumi and T. Kogiso / pp. 357-367 ---
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VI, 367 Seiten)
    ISBN: 4887041179
    Language: English
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