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  • 2000-2004  (210)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: Delphi-cross impact analysis ; fuzzy pattern recognition ; Shanghai environment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The capabilities of third world countries in dealing withenvironmental problems are often limited by available resources and the tremendous costs of environmental monitoring.This paper attempts to introduce a newmethodology that can be used to derive information aboutenvironmental quality in its spatial and temporal dimensions.This methodology, based on an inquiry-feedback network of 8,000families and iteration with controlled-feedback of expertcommunity, has been first tested in Shanghai, China andprocedurally can be divided into two steps: Base-year evaluationand forecasting. Fuzzy pattern recognition is introduced for thesubjective assessment of the citizens' feelings theirperceived environment and a four-round Delphi-Cross Impactanalysis is conducted for forecasting the environmental changesup to 2000. Results show that the base-year environmentalsituations were poor. In the foreseeable future, the conditionsfor housing, social services, public health, greenspace anddrinking water will be substantially improved. Due to the rapidgrowth of manufacturing, the city will continue its deteriorating trend of air and water quality into the next century according to the forecast.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: Daphnia carinata ; Lake Colac ; Lough Calvert ; nutrients ; salinity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract In an effort to combat rising groundwater tables andexpanding saline lakes, saline water has been disposedof into the aquatic environment, despite there beinglittle information as to the environmental effects.Monitoring of the effect of saline lake water disposalon aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality wasconducted in the Barwon River, south west Victoria,Australia, in association with toxicity tests. Thedisposal of saline lake water was associated withchanges in macroinvertebrate community structure.Contrary to expectations, increases in electricalconductivity (a measure of salinity) was not the onlywater quality parameter associated with saline waterdisposal. An experiment was conducted where thetoxicity of saline lake water was compared to that ofa prepared solution of the same electricalconductivity. Toxicity was greater in the saline lakewater than the prepared solution. The results suggestthat saline water disposal is impacting onmacroinvertebrate fauna but electrical conductivity isnot the only factor responsible. These results haveconsequences for both management of aquatic resourcesand for monitoring programs which are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: bioavailable ; lead ; sediment ; soil
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract This study determined the spatial distribution of soiland of sediment-associated lead in Iqaluit, Nunavut.Samples were collected from the following areas:outside the built-up area of the town to reflectbackground concentrations; known or potential pointsources of lead, such as the Upper Base, the SylviaGrinnell Dump and the Metal Dump (North 40); andresidential and commercial areas of Iqaluit and Apex,a satellite community. In the laboratory, the 〈63 μm sample fraction was analyzed for total lead andbioavailable lead, estimated by non-residual acidextractable lead content. The research findings revealthat elevated levels of bioavailable lead are presentin the study area. Total lead concentrations generallydo not exceed environmental guidelines. However, leadconcentrations in the Sylvia Grinnell Dump, and Apexand Iqaluit grid areas exceed health-based guidelines.The research concludes that there is not a serioushealth hazard posed by lead levels in the soil andsediment in the study area. However, severalenvironmental (elevated lead levels, bioavailableforms of lead and bare soil surfaces) and behaviouralfactors (vigorous and unsupervised play outside) maycreate a risk of lead exposure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: Candida sp ; effluents ; Endomycopsis sp ; hydrocarbon ; petroleum ; pollution ; ultisol ; yeast-isolates
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The population counts of hydrocarbon-utilising yeasts weremonitored at six sampling stations in the Benin City municipalarea over a four-week period. Although the population countswere relatively constant in each locality, the highest countsoccurred in areas heavily polluted by domestic and industrialeffluents. A total of thirty-five hydrocarbon-degrading yeastswere isolated from soil at the sampling stations usingn-hexadecane as sole carbon source. The isolates were identifiedas belonging to the genera Candida (27 strains), Endomycopsis (4 strains). All the organisms grew on long-chainn-alkane, kerosene, diesel oil and crude oil but failed to growon short-chain n-alkane, aromatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons.Measurement of growth attributes of the isolates usingn-hexadecane, diesel oil and crude oil as substrates showed thatthe Candida species were better utilizers of hydrocarbonsubstrates relative to Endomycopsis and Schizosaccharomyces species.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: aquatic bacteria ; benthic macroinvertebrates ; bioindicator ; eutrophication ; nitrogen ; phosphorus ; stream pollution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A combination field and laboratorystudy was conducted to evaluate the ability of arecently developed bioindicator to detect detrimentalnutrient conditions in streams. The method utilizesbacterial growth on aquatic insects to determinenutrient impacts. Field investigations indicated thatelevated concentrations of nitrate and phosphate wereassociated with growth of filamentous bacteria oninsect body surfaces, and that there was a significantreduction in the density of major insect taxa in thenutrient-enriched stream reaches. Laboratoryinvestigations confirmed a strong linkage betweenbacterial growth and reduced survival of insects. Survival was examined for insects with bacterialinfestation ranging from 0% to greater than 50%coverage of the body surface. A threshold forcatastrophic mortality occurred at about 25% bodycoverage; there were few survivors above that amount. Based on these findings, the diagnostic endpoint forthe bioindicator is 25% body coverage by bacterialgrowth, a level that signifies major impacts and isalso easy to detect visually. This study providesadditional evidence that the insect-bacteriabioindicator is a reliable tool for assessing nutrientimpacts on stream macroinvertebrate communities. Thebioindicator should prove useful for identifyingnutrient-impacted sites as well as monitoring thesuccess of management actions to improve water quality.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: ecosystem management ; ecological integrity ; socioeconomic resiliency ; resource use
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Driven by the need to replace interim direction, address recent species listings as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act, and break the gridlock of implementing actions, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (FS) and the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), initiated an effort to develop a scientifically-sound, ecosystem-based strategy for lands they administer in the Interior Columbia Basin. The effort included an integrated assessment of 58.3 million ha in seven states describing the Basin's current conditions and risks associated with different management strategies. The assessment provides the foundation for environmental impact statements outlining management direction for 31 million hectares of FS and BLM administered lands. The process produced a framework for ecosystem management, ecosystem component (social, economic, landscape, terrestrial, and aquatic) assessments, and estimates of ecological integrity and socioeconomic resiliency.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: Regional vulnerability ; comparative risk assessment ; place-based risk assessment ; early warning ; integrated assessment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) is an approach to place-based ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by EPA's Office of Research and Development. The pilot assessment will be done for the mid-Atlantic region and builds on data collected for the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. ReVA is being developed to identify those ecosystems most vulnerable to being lost or degraded in the next 5 to 50 years and to elucidate which stressors cause the greatest risk to ecosystem goods and services. The goal here is not exact predictions, but an early warning system to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes we should expect over the next few decades. As such, ReVA represents a new risk paradigm for EPA that will require innovative approaches to combine existing knowledge, focus new research, and synthesize many types of information into a meaningful assessment designed to inform environmental decision-makers about future environmental risk.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: landscape assessment ; landscape indicators ; remote sensing ; ecological change detection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A group of landscape ecological indicators were applied to biophysical data masked to the Tensas River Basin. The indicators were used to identify and prioritize sources of nutrients in a Mississippi/Atchafalaya River System sub-basin. Remotely sensed data were used for change detection assessment. With these methods, we were able to look at land use practices over the past twenty years in the Tensas River Basin of Louisiana. A simple land use classification was applied to multispectral scanner (MSS) data from 1972 and 1991. The landscape analysis methods described in this paper will show how to use these methods to assess the impact of human land use practices that are being implemented to improve environmental quality. Landscape assessment methods can be used as a simple, timely, cost effective approach for monitoring, targeting, and modeling ecosystem health in watersheds. Although this study was conducted in the southeast, the methods described in this paper may be applicable to western landscapes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: database design ; information management ; statistical analysis ; environmental assessments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) collects data that are used to statistically assess the environmental condition of large geographic regions. These data are then posted on the EMAP web site so that anyone can use them. Databases used for the statistical analyses, "analytical" databases, differ in design from the "general-use" databases used by a secondary audience. Their scope is usually restricted in time, in geographic extent, and in type and content of data, often being limited to a single scientific discipline. Their structure may be more horizontal than vertical, so that statistical programs can import the data easily. Their design is strongly influenced by the nature of the scientific analysis because the goal is to create a good computing environment for that analysis. We illustrate these aspects of design with an analytical database for estuaries in the U.S. mid-Atlantic region.
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