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  • 2000-2004  (222)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Chemical riboflavin production, successfully used for decades, is in the course of being replaced by microbial processes. These promise to save half the costs, reduce waste and energy requirements, and use renewable resources like sugar or plant oil. Three microorganisms are currently in use for industrial riboflavin production. The hemiascomycetes Ashbya gossypii, a filamentous fungus, and Candida famata, a yeast, are naturally occurring overproducers of this vitamin. To obtain riboflavin production with the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis requires at least the deregulation of purine synthesis and a mutation in a flavokinase/FAD-synthetase. It is common to all three organisms that riboflavin production is recognizable by the yellow color of the colonies. This is an important tool for the screening of improved mutants. Antimetabolites like itaconate, which inhibits the isocitrate lyase in A. gossypii, tubercidin, which inhibits purine biosynthesis in C. famata, or roseoflavin, a structural analog of riboflavin used for B. subtilis, have been applied successfully for mutant selections. The production of riboflavin by the two fungi seems to be limited by precursor supply, as was concluded from feeding and gene-overexpression experiments. Although flux studies in B. subtilis revealed an increase both in maintenance metabolism and in the oxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway, the major limitation there seems to be the riboflavin pathway. Multiple copies of the rib genes and promoter replacements are necessary to achieve competitive productivity.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Bioluminescence was used to monitor growth of Escherichia coli in batch cultures on-line. Light emission of a strain engineered for constitutive bioluminescence was monitored with a simple set-up consisting of a photodiode, a photodetector amplifier and a recorder. Bioluminescence and colony forming units (CFU) of the cultures increased and decreased proportionally and were correlated during every growth phase at temperatures between 28 °C and 40 °C. Up to the late log (deceleration) phase, both light emission and CFU increased rapidly. Beyond the stationary phase these characteristics decreased very slowly at lower temperatures, while at higher ones they declined more rapidly. Towards the end of the cultivation, light emission of the cultures dropped to undetectable levels, even though CFU were recovered. This was particularly marked at lower temperatures where non-luminescent cultures retained very high CFU. This indicates that the actual metabolism of cells in a culture can be at a very low level or completely shut down, yet cells retain their capability to be culturable. The on-line technology described here has a number of potential uses in the laboratory and industry.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Active butyrate kinase (Buk) and phosphotransbutyrylase (Ptb) were purified in three steps: ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose and affinity chromatography on Matrex Red A from recombinant Escherichia coli K2006 (pJC7). They were then successfully exploited for in vitro synthesis of 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA (3HBCoA), 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA (4HBCoA), 4-hydroxyvaleryl-CoA (4HVCoA) and poly(hydroxyalkanoic acid) (PHA). In addition, the ability of the PHA synthase of Chromatium vinosum, PhaECCv, to use these CoA thioesters was evaluated. Combination of Buk and Ptb with PhaECCv established a new system for in vitro synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) [poly(3HB)]. In this system, 3-hydroxybutyric acid was converted to 3HBCoA by Buk and Ptb at the expense of ATP. Formation of 3HBCoA was further driven by the polymerization of 3HBCoA molecules to poly(3HB) by PHA synthase, and the released CoA was recycled by Ptb. This system therefore also ensured the regeneration of CoA. With ATP as the energy supply, which was hydrolyzed to ADP and phosphate, 2.6 mg poly(3HB) was obtained from a 1-ml reaction mixture containing 7.6 mg 3-hydroxybutyrate at the beginning. Studies showed that Ptb and PHA synthase were the rate-limiting steps in this system, and initial CoA concentrations ranging from 1 to 7 mM did not inhibit poly(3HB) synthesis. Synthesis of various polyesters of 3HB and 4HB with this system was also tested, and copolyesters containing 4HB of 1–46 mol % were obtained.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  The lactone 6-pentyl-α-pyrone has a characteristic coconut aroma and is produced by Trichoderma species. A study on the fermentative production of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone in both surface and submerged conditions by Trichoderma harzianum was carried out. Maximum concentrations of 455 mg/l and 167 mg/l after 96 h and 48 h of fermentation in surface and submerged conditions, respectively, were obtained without using any additional recovery operations. The resultant yields are higher than those previously reported in the literature, which may be attributable to strain characteristics in combination with the choice of fermentation conditions employed in the present study. Enough scope exists for further improvement in the yields by optimizing the cultural and nutritional parameters.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied microbiology and biotechnology 53 (2000), S. 627-628 
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Escherichia coli TG1 transformed with a temperature-regulated interferon-α expression vector was grown to high cell density in defined medium containing glucose as the sole carbon and energy source, utilizing a simple fed-batch process. Feeding was carried out to achieve an exponential increase in biomass at growth rates which minimized acetate production. Thermal induction of such high cell density cultures resulted in the production of ∼4 g interferon-α/l culture broth. Interferon-α was produced exclusively in the form of insoluble inclusion bodies and was solubilized under denaturing conditions, refolded in the presence of arginine and purified to near homogeneity, utilizing single-step ion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose. The yield of purified interferon-α was ∼300 mg/l with respect to the original high cell density culture broth (overall yield of ∼7.5% active interferon-α). The purified recombinant interferon-α was found by different criteria to be predominantly monomeric and possessed a specific bioactivity of ∼2.5 × 108 IU/mg based on viral cytopathic assay.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract New secretion vectors containing the Bacillus sp. endoxylanase signal sequence were constructed for the secretory production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. The E. coli alkaline phosphatase structural gene fused to the endoxylanase signal sequence was expressed from the trc promoter in various E. coli strains by induction with IPTG. Among those tested, E. coli HB101 showed the highest efficiency of secretion (up to 25.3% of total proteins). When cells were induced with 1 mM IPTG, most of the secreted alkaline phosphatase formed inclusion bodies in the periplasm. However, alkaline phosphatase could be produced as a soluble form without reduction of expression level by inducing with less (0.01 mM) IPTG, and greater than 90% of alkaline phosphatase could be recovered from the periplasm by the simple osmotic shock method. Fed-batch cultures were carried out to examine the possibility of secretory protein production at high cell density. Up to 5.2 g/l soluble alkaline phosphatase could be produced in the periplasm by the pH-stat fed-batch cultivation of E. coli HB101 harboring pTrcS1PhoA. These results demonstrate the possibility of efficient secretory production of recombinant proteins in E. coli by high cell density cultivation.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Enzymatic pretreatment of softwood kraft pulp was investigated using xylanase A (XylA) from Neocallimastix patriciarum in combination with mannanase and α-galactosidase. Mannanase A (ManA) from Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa and ManA from Clostridium thermocellum, both family 26 glycosyl hydrolases, are structurally diverse and exhibit different pH and temperature optima. Although neither mannanase was effective in pretreating softwood pulp alone, both enzymes were able to enhance the production of reducing sugar and the reduction of single-stage bleached κ number when used with the xylanase. Sequential incubations with XylA and P. fluorescens ManA produced the largest final κ number reduction in comparison to control pretreated pulp. The release of galactose from softwood pulp by α-galactosidase A (AgaA) from P. fluorescens was enhanced by the presence of ManA from the same microorganism, and a single pretreatment with these enzymes, in combination with XylA, gave the most effective κ number reduction using a single incubation. Results indicated that mixtures of hemicellulase activities can be chosen to enhance pulp bleachability.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Improved strains for the production of riboflavin (vitamin B2) were constructed through metabolic engineering using recombinant DNA techniques in Corynebacterium ammoniagenes. A C. ammoniagenes strain harboring a plasmid containing its riboflavin biosynthetic genes accumulated 17-fold as much riboflavin as the host strain. In order to increase the expression of the biosynthetic genes, we isolated DNA fragments that had promoter activities in C. ammoniagenes. When the DNA fragment (P54-6) showing the strongest promoter activity in minimum medium was introduced into the upstream region of the riboflavin biosynthetic genes, the accumulation of riboflavin was 3-fold elevated. In that strain, the activity of guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP) cyclohydrolase II, the first enzyme in riboflavin biosynthesis, was 2.4-fold elevated whereas that of riboflavin synthase, the last enzyme in the biosynthesis, was 44.1-fold elevated. Changing the sequence containing the putative ribosome-binding sequence of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase/GTP cyclohydrolase II gene led to higher GTP cyclohydrolase II activity and strong enhancement of riboflavin production. Throughout the strain improvement, the activity of GTP cyclohydrolase II correlated with the productivity of riboflavin. In the highest producer strain, riboflavin was produced at the level of 15.3 g l−1 for 72 h in a 5-l jar fermentor without any end product inhibition.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The aflR gene of Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus encodes a binuclear zinc-finger, DNA-binding protein, AflR, responsible for activating the transcription of all known aflatoxin biosynthetic genes including itself. Studies to determine how environmental and nutritional factors affect aflR expression and hence aflatoxin production in A. parasiticus have been difficult to perform due to the lack of aflR“knockout” mutants. Transformation of an O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST)-accumulating strain of A. parasiticus with an aflR-niaD gene disruption vector resulted in clones harboring a recombinationally inactivated aflR gene which no longer produced OMST or aflR transcript. By transformation of this aflR disruptant strain with constructs containing mutated versions of the aflR promoter, we identified three cis-acting sites that were necessary for aflR function: an AflR-binding site, a PacC-binding site, and a G + A-rich site near the transcription start site of aflR.
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