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  • 2005-2009  (2,104,946)
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  • 1
  • 2
    Call number: Z 06.0500
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1824-7741
    Former Title: Vorgänger Geologisch-paläontologische Mitteilungen, Innsbruck
    Language: German , English
    Note: Ersch. unregelmäßig , Beiträge teilweise in Englisch
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Leiden : Nijhoff ; 1.2009 -
    Call number: IASS 17.92082
    Type of Medium: Monograph non-lending collection
    ISSN: 1876-8814
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 4
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Leningrad : Gidrometeorolog. Izd.
    Call number: MOP 33767
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 663 S.
    Language: Russian
    Note: In kyrill. Schr., russ.
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 5
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Stuttgart : Schweizerbart Science Publishers ; Volume 1, number 1 (1978)-
    Call number: M 18.91571
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 134 Seiten
    ISSN: 2363-7196
    Series Statement: Global tectonics and metallogeny : special issue Vol. 10/2-4
    Classification:
    Tectonics
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Global tectonics and metallogeny
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 6
    Journal available for loan
    Journal available for loan
    München : Altop Verlag ; 2007 -
    Call number: Z 19.92410
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1865-4266
    Former Title: Vorg. Nachhaltiges Wirtschaften in Deutschland
    Language: German
    Note: Ungezählte Beil. ab 2010: Special , Ersch. jährl. 4x
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 7
    Unknown
    London : Penguin Books
    ISBN: 9780141985206
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 8
    Call number: 3/S 07.0034(2016)
    In: Annual report
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 51 Seiten
    ISSN: 1865-6439 , 1865-6447
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Annual report ... / Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Call number: (DE-599)GBV03709842X
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Language: German
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 10
    Call number: AWI A3-20-93434
    In: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin, Band XXXII, Heft 1
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 121 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin 32,1
    Language: German
    Note: Zugleich: Dissertation, Freie Unversität Berlin, [ca. 1963] , INHALTSVERZEICHNIS PROBLEMSTELLUNG UND ZIELSETZUNG 1. BEMERKUNGEN ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSGELÄNDE UND ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSMATERIAL 1.1 Das Beobachtungsgelände 1.2 Das Beobachtungsmaterial 2. HOMOGENITÄTSBETRACHTUNGEN 2.1 Temperatur 2.2 Niederschlag 2.3 Wind 2.4 Sonnenschein und Bewölkung 3. TEMPERATURVERHÄLTNISSE 3.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 3.2 Tageswerte 3.3 Pentadenwerte 3.4 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 3.5 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 3.6 Der tägliche Gang 3.7 Vorkommen bestimmter Schwellenwerte 3.71 Frost- und Eistage 3.72 Sommer- und Tropentage 4. DER WASSERGEHALT DER LUFT 4.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 4.2 Tageswerte 4.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 4.4 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 4.5 Der tägliche Gang 5. BEWÖLKUNGSVERHÄLTNISSE 5.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 5.2 Tageswerte 5.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 5.4 Der tägliche Gang 5.5 Heitere und trübe Tage 5.6 Nebel 6. SONNENSCHEIN 6.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 6.2 Tageswerte 6.3 Der tägliche Gang 7. NIEDERSCHLAGSVERHÄLTNISSE 7.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 7.2 Niederschlagsbereitschaft 7.3 Tageswerte 7.4 Der tägliche Gang 7.5 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 7.6 Niederschlags- und Trockenperioden 7.7 Niederschlag und Wind· 7.8 Schneeverhältnisse 7.81 Schneefall und Schneedecke 7.82 Schneehöhe 7.9 Gewitter 8. WINDVERHÄLTNISSE 8.1 Windrichtung 8.2 Windgeschwindigkeit 8.21 Der jährliche Gang 8.22 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 8.23 Sturmtage und Windstillen 8.24 Der tägliche Gang 9.ZUSAMMENFASSUNG VERZEICHNIS DER TEXTTABELLEN VERZEICHNIS DER ABBILDUNGEN LITERATURVERZEICHNIS TABELLENANHANG
    Location: AWI Reading room
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 11
    Call number: AWI A3-20-93434-2
    In: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin, Band XXXII, Heft 2
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 218 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin 32,2
    Language: German
    Note: Zugleich: Dissertation, Freie Unversität Berlin, [ca. 1963] , INHALTSVERZEICHNIS PROBLEMSTELLUNG UND ZIELSETZUNG 1. BEMERKUNGEN ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSGELÄNDE UND ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSMATERIAL 1.1 Das Beobachtungsgelände 1.2 Das Beobachtungsmaterial 2. HOMOGENITÄTSBETRACHTUNGEN 2.1 Temperatur 2.2 Niederschlag 2.3 Wind 2.4 Sonnenschein und Bewölkung 3. TEMPERATURVERHÄLTNISSE 3.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 3.2 Tageswerte 3.3 Pentadenwerte 3.4 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 3.5 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 3.6 Der tägliche Gang 3.7 Vorkommen bestimmter Schwellenwerte 3.71 Frost- und Eistage 3.72 Sommer- und Tropentage 4. DER WASSERGEHALT DER LUFT 4.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 4.2 Tageswerte 4.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 4.4 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 4.5 Der tägliche Gang 5. BEWÖLKUNGSVERHÄLTNISSE 5.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 5.2 Tageswerte 5.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 5.4 Der tägliche Gang 5.5 Heitere und trübe Tage 5.6 Nebel 6. SONNENSCHEIN 6.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 6.2 Tageswerte 6.3 Der tägliche Gang 7. NIEDERSCHLAGSVERHÄLTNISSE 7.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 7.2 Niederschlagsbereitschaft 7.3 Tageswerte 7.4 Der tägliche Gang 7.5 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 7.6 Niederschlags- und Trockenperioden 7.7 Niederschlag und Wind· 7.8 Schneeverhältnisse 7.81 Schneefall und Schneedecke 7.82 Schneehöhe 7.9 Gewitter 8. WINDVERHÄLTNISSE 8.1 Windrichtung 8.2 Windgeschwindigkeit 8.21 Der jährliche Gang 8.22 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 8.23 Sturmtage und Windstillen 8.24 Der tägliche Gang 9.ZUSAMMENFASSUNG VERZEICHNIS DER TEXTTABELLEN VERZEICHNIS DER ABBILDUNGEN LITERATURVERZEICHNIS TABELLENANHANG
    Location: AWI Reading room
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 12
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Madrid : Secc
    Call number: PIK N 456-17-90913
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 536 Seiten
    Series Statement: Ministerio de Transportes Turismo Y Comunicaciones : Publicación Serie A 114
    Parallel Title: 1,1=6; 2,1=13 von Publicaciones / D / Ministerio del Aire, Subsecretaria de Aviación Civil, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional
    Language: Spanish
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 13
    Call number: IASS 15.89494
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: Losebl.-Ausg.
    Edition: Stand: Oktober 2010
    ISBN: 9783768501828
    Language: German
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 14
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    [Edgecumbe, N.Z.] : A. Muller
    Call number: M 15.89146
    Description / Table of Contents: An account of the results of the 2 March 1987 earthquake in the eastern Bay of Plenty and the aftermath's effects on the people and places on the Rangitaiki Plains
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 223 S., , Ill.
    Language: English
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 15
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Garmisch-Partenkirchen : Institut für atmosphärische Umweltforschung der Fraunhofer- Gesellschaft
    Call number: MOP 44829 / Mitte
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 25 S. , graph. Darst.
    Language: English
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 16
    Call number: MOP 19538/1d-6d
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 111 S.
    ISSN: 0486-2287
    Language: Russian
    Note: In kyrill. Schr.
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 19
    Call number: IASS 13.0067
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 20
    Call number: 8/M 11.0116 ; M 11.0116 2. Ex. ; 8/M 11.0116 3. Ex.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: Getr. Zählung
    Series Statement: Natural hazards and earth system sciences : Special issue 2009
    Classification:
    B..
    Location: Reading room
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 21
    Call number: K 95.0020 / R6
    In: Geologische Karte der Republik Österreich
    Type of Medium: Map available for loan
    Pages: 1 Kt. : mehrfarb. ; 54 x 82 cm, gefaltet 12 x 21 cm + Erl.-H. (192 S., 2010) im Umschlag
    ISBN: 9783853160558
    Location: Upper compact magazine
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  • 22
    Map available for loan
    Map available for loan
    Associated volumes
    Call number: K 11.0087 / Fach 25
    In: Karte der oberflächennahen Rohstoffe der Bundesrepublik Deutschland
    Type of Medium: Map available for loan
    Pages: 1 Kt., gefaltet + Erl.-H. (119 S.)
    Edition: Stand 03/2007
    Location: Upper compact magazine
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  • 23
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 319: 21-28.
    Publication Date: 2009-07-27
    Description: There are at present no validated methods for reliably finding economically significant accumulations of natural gas hydrate in marine environments. The seismic bottom simulating reflector (BSR) has been regarded as a primary indicator of hydrate presence in marine environments, but the presence of a BSR conveys no information about the abundance of hydrate in the sediments above it. Seafloor features such as gas seeps, pockmarks or hydrate outcrops may be qualitative markers of deeper hydrate presence, but cannot be interpreted quantitatively. Another approach to exploration geophysics is required to find exploitable gas hydrate reservoirs with high reliability. It is known that in many cases gas is supplied to the gas hydrate stability zone primarily through faults or fractures. In a certain range of gas flux, these fissures should become mineralized with gas hydrate and form vertical or subvertical dykes. The dip and strike of these dykes are controlled by the principal stress directions, which can be predetermined. Thus multiple hydrate dykes are expected to be parallel. Even if the greatest volume of gas hydrate is to be found in sub-horizontal permeable beds, the steeply dipping mineralized conduits that fed gas to them may be the most reliable marker of substantial subsurface hydrate presence. Geological and geophysical survey methods sensitive to parallel arrays of vertical and subvertical hydrate dykes are presented.
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  • 24
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 319: 121-130.
    Publication Date: 2009-07-27
    Description: We have initiated a systematic study of sediment-hydrate interaction under subsurface-mimic conditions to initially focus on marine hydrates. A major obstacle to studying natural hydrate systems has been the absence of a sophisticated mimic apparatus in which the hydrate formation phenomenon can be reproduced with precision. We have designed and constructed a bench-top unit, namely flexible integrated study of hydrates (FISH), for this purpose. The unit is fully instrumented to precisely record temperatures, pressures and changes in gas volume during absorption/evolution. The Labview software allows rapid and continuous data collection during the hydrate formation/dissociation cycle. In our integrated approach, several host sediments collected from Blake Ridge, a well-researched hydrate site, were characterized using the computed microtomography technique at Beamline X-26A of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The characterized depleted sediments were then used to study the hydrate formation/decomposition kinetics under various pressures in the FISH unit. We report two hydrate formation methods: one under continuous methane gas-flow conditions (dynamic mode) and the other in which hydrates are formed from the dissolved gas phase by diffusion (static mode). Also reported is a depressurization method, namely the step-down pressure method, to yield gas evolution data. Data from such runs with host sediment from the deepest site (667 metres) is presented. During hydrate formation, the data reveals a temperature signature that is consistent with an exothermic hydrate formation event. In the decomposition cycle, data at various pressures was analysed to yield curves with similar slopes, suggesting a zero-order dependence. The capabilities of the FISH unit and the implications of these runs in establishing a database of sediment-hydrate kinetics and pore saturation are discussed.
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  • 25
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 310: 329-338.
    Publication Date: 2009-03-19
    Description: The history of the emancipation of modern science can be traced in the history of the relationship between creation and evolution, but this is also an example of the growing importance of scholarly-theoretical issues within theology, especially in relation to the interpretation of the Bible. Three phases can be distinguished: (1) the time when teachings about creation were the dominant model; (2) the time when the scientific model of evolution clashed with the theological doctrine of creation; (3) a phase of open dialogue. The third phase began with the recognition of the scientific method by the encyclicals of Pope Pius XII in 1943 and 1950. However, only in the recent past, initiated by the second Vatican Council, was room made for a fruitful collaboration and the instigation of complementary scientific-theological models. The basic openness to dialogue and the recognition of the working methods of theology and science highlight extreme positions that, from their method of argumentation, must be called fundamentalist. Creationism' insists upon a literal-naive understanding of the Bible, which cannot be supported by scholarly-theological means, whereas the intelligent design movement', under the guise of empirical science, tries to present religiously motivated statements as empirical facts. Both groups are characterized by a closed world view and the use of arguments that do not follow from their premises. The present attempts at a scientific-theological synthesis are diverse and show that creation and evolution can be thought of together without inconsistency. For this dialogue to be successful, the open demonstration of one's own methods and the recognition of the theoretically accounted for methods of the dialogue partner are essential. This paper endeavours to demonstrate some of the theological methods relevant to the question of creation and evolution.
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2009-05-29
    Description: Salt cavities for the storage of natural gas in bedded or domal salt structures are an important element of current and future energy supply management. In Germany, the mechanical design of salt cavities has a history of more than 35 years. This paper gives a personal view of current salt cavity design. It discusses the geomechanical characteristics of storage cavities and principle safety demands for their design as well as recent design concepts and methods for providing geotechnical proof of safety with specialized criteria, limit values and safety margins. In view of the uncertainties inherent in the design of geotechnical mechanical structures, monitoring of excavation and operation are essential parts of underground geotechnical constructions. A new monitoring software code is presented that will help both to document that past and to plan future cavern operation. Cavern abandonment is an object of current research, especially the basic understanding of mechanisms acting or becoming active at elevated fluid pressures (gas or brine) at the level of primary (lithostatic) rock mass pressures. This paper presents some basic knowledge and a computer code for analysing the long-term behaviour of sealed liquid-filled salt cavities with simulation of pressure build-up, infiltration and following seepage flow.
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2009-05-29
    Description: Safety is a primary concern at underground gas storage (UGS) sites. Thorough evaluation of all potential migration pathways is critical to ensure UGS containment and public safety. Substantial risk is directly associated with inaccurate technical evaluations, that may result in subsequent gas migration from a UGS facility. Existing wellbores, including abandoned oil and gas wells, old dry exploration wells and water wells represent primary potential vertical gas migration conduits, which are not always thoroughly analysed during UGS site evaluation studies. Most abandoned oil and gas wells develop leaks over time, even when plugged in accordance with current (US) government regulations. Leaking wells in urban areas represent significant health and safety hazards. Many cities including Los Angeles permit construction of new homes directly over abandoned wells, even though state agencies recommend against this practice, thus placing residents at risk. Explosions and fires, along with possible exposure to substances such as benzene and toluene, are possible when gas reaches the surface through leaking wells and accumulates inside building voids. These potential problems are amplified with UGS fields, where operating pressures, already raised above the declining pressures of the field, fluctuate when alternating gas injection and extraction induce cyclic stress on wellbores and caprock sequences.
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  • 28
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 312: NP.
    Publication Date: 2009-04-06
    Description: The Upper Triassic to Middle Jurassic succession of the Shemshak Group (up to 4000 m in thickness in the Alborz Mountains, Northern Iran) contains key information about the closure of the Palaeotethys Ocean, the rise and denudation of the Cimmeride Mountains, and the succeeding opening of the South Caspian Basin. Here at Emamzadeh-Hashem Pass (NW of Tehran, Iran), the Shemshak Group is embraced between Upper Palaeozoic-Middle Triassic (foreground) and Upper Jurassic carbonates (background). Photography by: Markus Wilmsen.
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  • 29
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 319: 131-144.
    Publication Date: 2009-07-27
    Description: Reservoirs of clathrate hydrates of natural gases (hydrates), found worldwide and containing huge amounts of bound natural gases (mostly methane), represent potentially vast and yet untapped energy resources. Since CO2-containing hydrates are considerably more stable thermodynamically than methane hydrates, if we find a way to replace the original hydrate-bound hydrocarbons with the CO2, two goals can be accomplished at the same time: safe storage of carbon dioxide in hydrate reservoirs, and in situ release of hydrocarbon gas. We have applied the techniques of magnetic resonance imaging as a tool to visualize the conversion of CH4 hydrate within Bentheim sandstone matrix into the CO2 hydrate. Corresponding model systems have been simulated using the phase field theory approach. Our theoretical studies indicate that the kinetic behaviour of the systems closely resembles that of CO2 transport through an aqueous solution. We have interpreted this to mean that the hydrate and the matrix mineral surfaces are separated by liquid-containing channels. These channels will serve as escape routes for released natural gas, as well as distribution channels for injected CO2.
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  • 30
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 320: NP.
    Publication Date: 2009-07-27
    Description: Periglacial and paraglacial environments, located outside ice sheet margins but responding to similar climate forcings, are key to identifying climate change effects upon the Earth system. These environments are relicts of cold Earth processes and so are most sensitive to global warming. Changes in the distribution and thickness of permafrost in continental interiors have implications for ecosystem and landscape stability. Periglacial Alpine environments are experiencing increased rockfall and mass movement, leading to rock glacier instability and sediment release to downstream rivers. In turn, these landscape effects impact on natural hazards and human activities in these sensitive and geologically transient environments. Papers in this volume explore some of these interrelated issues in field studies from Europe, North America and Asia. The volume will be of interest to geomorphologists, modellers, environmental managers, planners and engineers working on landscape, climate and environmental change in periglacial and paraglacial areas.
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2009-07-27
    Description: An area of focused fluid venting off NE Sakhalin, Sea of Okhotsk, was investigated in 2003 during the 31st and 32nd international expeditions of R/V Akademik M. A. Lavrentyev within the framework of the CHAOS Project. More than 40 structures related to seafloor gas venting were discovered and gas hydrates were sampled from three of these: CHAOS, Hieroglyph and Kitami. Geochemical analyses were used to define the mechanisms of gas hydrate accumulation and the sources of fluids involved. Chemical and isotopic analyses of the interstitial and hydrate waters suggest that hydrates were formed from seawater (or in-situ pore water) and an ascending fluid enriched in salts. Hydrate formation occurs at locations of the most intensive saline water upflow, and this is probably a function of the gas solubility in water in equilibrium with hydrate. The water involved in gas hydrate formation consists of about 70% pore water derived from the host sediment and 30% from the ascending fluid. The overall isotopic composition of the fluid' taking part in hydrate formation was calculated as{delta} 2H{approx}-11{per thousand} and {delta}18O{approx}-1.5{per thousand}.
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  • 32
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 320: 1-4.
    Publication Date: 2009-07-27
    Description: Periglacial and paraglacial (cold-climate) environments, located outside the margins of past and present ice sheets but responding to similar climate forcings, are key to identifying climate change effects upon the Earth system (Warburton 2007). These environments are relicts of cold Earth processes and thus are most sensitive to climate change that took place during the last glacial–interglacial transition, and at the present time under enhanced global climate warming. These effects include changes in humidity/aridity and radiation balance, which are most significant in the higher latitudes and at high elevations where periglacial and paraglacial environments are most common and where these environments occur near their climatic limits (Harris 1994; Matsuoka 2001). Variations in humidity and radiation balance have implications for heat budgets, water balance, land surface stability, downslope sediment supply, biodiversity and biogeochemical cycling (e.g. Schneider et al. 1999; Scott et al. 2008). The dynamics of cold-climate environments are, therefore, strongly controlled by external climatic forcing; and hence periglacial and paraglacial processes (and the landforms and sediments that result from them) can be considered as a transient response to the landscape disturbance and land surface instability that accompanies climatic change (Hewitt et al. 2002). This view of a transient landscape responding to environmental disturbance is significant because it underpins influential deterministic and steady-state models in cold-climate science (Church & Slaymaker 1989; André 2003; Warburton 2007). These models predict a rapid increase in sediment yield (which results from land...
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  • 33
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 319: 161-170.
    Publication Date: 2009-07-27
    Description: The grain sizes of gas hydrate crystallites are largely unknown in natural samples. Single grains are hardly detectable with electron or optical microscopy. For the first time, we have used high-energy synchrotron diffraction to determine grain sizes of six natural gas hydrates retrieved from the Bush Hill region in the Gulf of Mexico and from ODP Leg 204 at the Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon from varying depth between 1 and 101 metres below seafloor. High-energy synchrotron radiation provides high photon fluxes as well as high penetration depth and thus allows for investigation of bulk sediment samples. Gas hydrate grain sizes were measured at the Beam Line BW 5 at the HASYLAB/Hamburg. A moving area detector method', originally developed for material science applications, was used to obtain both spatial and orientation information about gas hydrate grains within the sample. The gas hydrate crystal sizes appeared to be (log-)normally distributed in the natural samples. All mean grain sizes lay in the range from 300 to 600 {micro}m with a tendency for bigger grains to occur in greater depth. Laboratory-produced methane hydrate, aged for 3 weeks, showed half a log-normal curve with a mean grain size value of c. 40 {micro}m. The grains appeared to be globular shaped.
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  • 34
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 320: 29-49.
    Publication Date: 2009-07-27
    Description: Post-glacial weathering of ice-eroded metamorphic bedrock was investigated in the Roldal area (60{degrees}N) of the Hardangervidda Plateau in southern Norway. Quartz veins were used as reference surfaces to determine a mean post-glacial surface lowering rate of 0.55 mm ka-1. Chemical characteristics of late-season runoff were determined for one catchment (Snoskar) and a chemical erosion rate of 4.9 t km-2 a-1 was obtained. A mean in situ fracture enlargement due to microweathering of 0.12 mm ka-1 was also determined. These rates are low, although comparable with similar environments in cold regions, and suggest that microweathering has had relatively little impact on Holocene landscape evolution. Weathering rind thickness was found to be less on fracture walls than on exposed bedrock surfaces, suggesting fractures have not played a significant role in microweathering. Observations of weathering morphology reveal a range of forms including shallow spalling, tafoni and pseudokarren, indicating locally intense weathering activity. Analysis of interrelationships between multiple weathering indices points to the importance of bedrock microweathering as a precursor to macro-breakdown and landform evolution. The research reasserts the importance of chemical activity in cold environments and the importance of moisture supply for effective microweathering.
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  • 35
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 320: 71-84.
    Publication Date: 2009-07-27
    Description: The terms proglacial and periglacial are well-understood descriptors of contemporary and past environments, but the paraglacial concept is more controversial and has prompted vigorous debate. Definitions are reviewed and the paraglacial concept is considered critically. It is argued that the term paraglacial' defined as non-glacial processes conditioned by glaciation' describes landscapes that are adjusted neither to Last Glacial Maximum nor to contemporary geomorphic processes. Where a landscape is paraglacial it can be characterized in terms of rate of change and trajectory of that change. It cannot be defined in relation to glaciers (as in proglacial) or by cold-climate processes (as in periglacial). Almost all paraglacial landforms and all paraglacial landscapes are transient and transitional. An interesting challenge of paraglacial landscapes is then to determine their rates of change; how far they have advanced along the trajectory from glacial to non-glacial; and how to recognize empirically the temporal and spatial relationships between proglacial, periglacial, paraglacial and fluvial landscapes. Implications of this approach to paraglacial landscapes are discussed in relation to historical and dynamic geomorphology.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2009-07-27
    Description: The sequestration of CO2 in the deep geosphere is one potential method for reducing anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere without necessarily incurring a significant change in our energy-producing technologies. Containment of CO2 as a liquid and an associated hydrate phase, under cool conditions, offers an alternative underground storage approach compared with conventional supercritical CO2 storage at higher temperatures. We briefly describe conventional approaches to underground storage, review possible approaches for using CO2 hydrate in CO2 storage generally, and comment on the important role CO2 hydrate could play in underground storage. Cool underground storage appears to offer certain advantages in terms of physical, chemical and mineralogical processes, which may usefully enhance trapping of the stored CO2. This approach also appears to be potentially applicable to large areas of sub-seabed sediments offshore Western Europe.
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2009-10-15
    Description: Extensional structures with geometrical and kinematic features analogous to the known Gulf of Corinth faults, are found further to the south of what is considered to be the southern margin of the of Proto-Corinth Gulf, reaching south to the northern flanks of Mt Mainalon. This mountain front is marked by the North Mainalon Fault Zone, which comprises a series of normal fault segments with NNE dips. Assuming a listric or ramp-flat geometry for the North Mainalon Fault Zone, it could flatten at a depth of 6-8 km, underneath Mt Khelmos. Its southern, shallow part has been truncated by NNE- and NNW-trending faults, which may be linked to northward propagation of the east-west extension in the Southern Peloponnesus, causing further uplift in the central and northern Peloponnesus, while its deeper part is still active and may reach further north and sole onto the hypothesized detachment zone beneath the Gulf of Corinth.
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2009-10-15
    Description: There is a persistent body of literature that suggests low-angle normal faults (LANF) form and slip seismically; if true, the effective friction coefficient is much lower (〈0.3) than that found in laboratory tests of rock friction (c. 0.8) and in low-displacement faults that lack well-developed fault cores. This paper summarizes and discusses the mechanisms proposed to explain the low apparent friction of crustal-scale faults with low resolved shear stresses. Emphasis is placed on differentiating static weakening mechanisms, operating at strain rates c. 10-12 s-1-10-15 s-1, from dynamic weakening mechanisms, operating at strain rates 〉10-1 s-1. Previous published explanations for low fault friction do not appear to meet the key requirements of (i) reducing both static and dynamic frictional strength of LANF and (ii) operating only along crustal-scale faults. Fault rock assemblages in quartzo-feldspathic continental crust reveal that grain size reduction, or comminution, plays a fundamental role in fault zone development. As a fault accrues displacement, a fault core forms that contains granular material. We postulate that dynamic rock fragmentation occurs during the shearing of confined granular material; dynamic fragmentation is a volume-dependent mechanism responsible for reducing the static and dynamic frictional strengths of faults.
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  • 39
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 322: NP.
    Publication Date: 2009-08-20
    Description: This book presents a collection of papers that combines marine and terrestrial geological investigations valuable to hazard assessment in rocky coastal areas, including examples mostly coming from the Italian coasts. The hazardous processes that are discussed include: large slope failures, cliff recession and floods of steep coastal streams. It is assumed that coastal slopes operate as transfer zones of land-born geological processes, which deliver sediment to the coastal and open sea at intermittent time intervals, and therefore place coastal communities that are exposed or vulnerable to these events at high risk. Rocky coastal areas can be associated with regions of active or recent tectonics/volcanic activity, or can develop as low-relief cliffs along non-active margins. In all these settings, mass-wasting phenomena represent the most serious hazardous processes, and there is a need to characterize and model the factors causing them. It is stressed that proper comprehension of coastal mass-wasting hazard has to include shipboard acoustic surveys, historical source investigations and onshore geological features.
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  • 40
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 321: 1-8.
    Publication Date: 2009-10-15
    Description: After the discovery of thrust-and-nappe structure near the turn of the twentieth century, mountain belts were viewed as a direct expression of horizontal shortening of the continental crust, and continental rifting was viewed as a phenomenon distinct from it. By mid-century, broad consensus had emerged, mainly on the basis of physical reasoning, that thrust-and-nappe structure instead reflected gravity sliding secondary to vertical motions of the crust, as embodied in the influential stockwerk folding hypothesis. In a noteworthy period from 1977 to 1982, informally referred to here as the detachment era', not only did the last vestiges of support for the stockwerk hypothesis evaporate, but large-magnitude extension was discovered throughout the Cordillera, manifest primarily by extensional detachments and metamorphic core complexes. Soon afterward extensional detachments were recognized as a global phenomenon, forcing first-order reinterpretation of field relations in most orogens. Although plate tectonics is indisputably the most profound discovery in Earth sciences in the twentieth century, the detachment era arguably had commensurate impact on field-based interpretations of continental tectonics. Three decades later, controversy persists over the origin of metamorphic tectonites in core complexes, and over the existence and mechanics of slip on shallowly dipping extensional detachments.
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  • 41
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 322: 121-141.
    Publication Date: 2009-08-20
    Description: Of the more than 8000 km of coasts in Italy, about 35% consist of cliffs and rocky shores. On them many villages are located, some of them dating back to Roman or Greek times. Typical natural hazards along these coastal areas are rock falls, slides and debris flows. They induce locally extremely high levels of risk, as shown by the many disasters that have occurred in recent time. This paper provides a first portrait over the whole of Italy of (1) the number and distribution of coastal landslides; (2) their typologies; (3) their state of activity; (4) the most common damage and exposed elements; and (5) the most typical mitigation measures. This information has been largely derived from the IFFI archive (Italian Landslides Inventory). Geographic information system processing has allowed us to identify 4135 landslides affecting a large portion of the Italian cliffed coasts. The damage evaluation, based on the AVI archive (inventory of information on sites historically affected by landslides and floods in Italy for the period 1918-2000), has shown the extent of the problem: there have been 408 casualties in the 20th century and 713 significant disruptions of the rail and road networks. A more detailed analysis has been carried out in three sample areas to illustrate the basic factors controlling the genesis and evolution of slope instabilities in the various coastal settings.
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2009-10-15
    Description: We report new, highly precise, U-Pb and Ar/Ar ages for seven Cretaceous rhyolites, tuffs and granites from across Zealandia spanning a 30 Ma period from arc magmatism to continental break-up. Combined with previously published data, these reveal a strong episodicity in Cretaceous silicic magmatism outside the Median Batholith. 112 Ma tuffs are known only from the Eastern Province in association with a Cretaceous normal fault system. Both 101 and 97 Ma groups of rhyolites and tuffs occur across the entire width and half the length of Zealandia from near the palaeotrench to the continental interior, indicating widespread and effectively instantaneous extension. We attribute an increase in A-type character with time (112-101-97-88-82 Ma) to the progressive thinning of the Zealandia continental crust whereby, with time, there is less opportunity for crustal contamination. Extension directions associated with 101, 97 and 82 Ma magmatism and associated core complex exhumation across Zealandia are all oriented c. 30{degrees} oblique to the margin. These observations suggest Zealandia rifting was controlled by either 〉83 Ma capture of Zealandia by the Pacific Plate and/or 〈83 Ma Zealandia-West Antarctica spreading, rather than by laterally migrating triple junctions, slab windows or plume heads.
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2009-05-14
    Description: Non-marine Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic formations are widespread in mainland SE Asia. Although the first reports on fossils from some of these formations were published as early as the 1890s, it is only since 1980 that floras and faunas from the Permian, Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous of SE Asia have received the attention they deserve. Fieldwork in various parts of Thailand and Laos has revealed a succession of fossil assemblages that now allows a reconstruction of the evolution of continental ecosystems in that part of the world during the Late Palaeozoic and the Mesozoic. The first papers in this book present the geological background of these floral and faunal successions, as well as historical aspects of their discovery. Descriptions of new taxa and review papers deal with plants, sharks, bony fishes, turtles, crocodilians, dinosaurs and mammal-like reptiles. Papers about the Mesozoic palaeobiogeography, environments and climates of Asia conclude the volume.
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  • 44
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 314: 263-287.
    Publication Date: 2009-04-30
    Description: The Late Devonian, Famennian, Hongguleleng Formation of northwestern China has yielded one of the most diverse echinoderm faunas known from China. New collections and re-evaluation of earlier collections results in recognition of new taxa, increases the known diversity, provides new morphological information on some of the previously reported taxa, and provides new information on the affinity of the Late Devonian echinoderms of the Hongguleleng Formation. New crinoid taxa introduced are Gnarycrinus lanei n. gen., n. sp., Anamesocrinus tieni n. sp., Histocrinus? chenae n. sp., Eumhacrinus tribrachiatus n. gen., n. sp., Sostronocrinus aberratus n. sp. and Labrocrinus granulatus n. gen., n. sp. One new species of blastoid, Hadroblastus liaoi, n. sp. is described. Previous reports listed 46 echinoderms from the Hongguleleng Formation, including 13 blastoids and 33 crinoids. An additional 11 crinoid species bring the total crinoids to 44 species assigned to 32 genera. Similarly, the one additional species of blastoid brings the totals to 14 species assigned to 12 genera. The new echinoderms described herein include the first report of a dimerocrinitid, amphoracrinid, allagacrinid, glossocrinid, histocrinid, cercidiocrinid, dactylocrinid and neoschismatid from the Devonian of northwestern China. Additional morphologic information is provided for three of the previously described taxa and a revision of species assigned to Grabauicrinus is proposed. The crinoids and blastoids suggest closer affinity with Mississippian faunas than with Devonian faunas, and with North American faunas than European faunas. Collectively the blastoid and crinoid faunas from the Hongguleleng indicate that rediversification happened rapidly after extinction in contrast to current suggestions of a long interval of lowered origination following these extinction events.
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2009-09-08
    Description: The IGCP 509 project is collating global information for the Palaeoproterozoic era through the activities of numerous international collaborators. A database system (StratDB) and web interface has been designed to facilitate this process with links to an existing geochronology database (DateView). As a result, all information captured will remain available in a digital format for future researchers. The philosophy and design of the database and some of the outputs available from it are described. One of the principal features of the system is that it facilitates the construction of time-space correlation charts using an innovative application of GIS technology to non-geographic information, which permits users to query a variety of attribute information associated with lithostratigraphic units, metamorphic and deformation episodes associated with user-selected tectonic domains, large igneous provinces and major ore deposits. In the process, much of the manual labour normally associated with the construction of such charts in standard graphical or drafting packages is avoided. Associations between units, deformation, metamorphism, large igneous provinces and ore deposits may become more apparent once linked information is available for querying and investigation. Geochronological information from the DateView database may also be linked to entities stored in StratDB. GIS maps may be linked to the attribute information in StratDB and DateView to construct a variety of time-slice maps or palaeogeographic reconstructions with the same symbology as is used in the time-space correlation charts. This database system will facilitate the dissemination of lithostratigraphic information for many countries to a broader community and will help non-specialists to easily view information for various Palaeoproterozoic tectonic domains. The system is illustrated using a preliminary compilation of information for the Palaeoproterozoic of southern Africa. The correlation charts and time-slice maps provide insights to the geological evolution of this region which emphasize some aspects and correlations which have not previously been extensively considered; for instance, possible correlation of units in the central and western zones of the Limpopo Belt (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Botswana) with the Magondi Belt of Zimbabwe and its extension into northern Botswana.
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2009-09-08
    Description: High-grade pelitic metasedimentary rocks (khondalites) are widely distributed in the northwestern part of the North China Craton and were named the Khondalite Belt'. Prior to the application of zircon geochronology, a stratigraphic division of the supracrustal rocks into several groups was established using interpretative field geology. We report here SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages and Hf-isotope data on metamorphosed sedimentary and magmatic rocks at Daqingshan, a typical area of the Khondalite Belt. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The early Precambrian supracrustal rocks belong to three sequences: a 2.56-2.51 Ga supracrustal unit (the previous Sanggan group'), a 2.51-2.45 Ga supracrustal unit (a portion of the previous upper Wulashan group') and a 2.0-1.95 Ga supracrustal unit (including the previous lower Wulashan group', a portion of original upper Wulashan group' and the original Meidaizhao group') the units thus do not represent a true stratigraphy; (2) Strong tectono-thermal events occurred during the late Neoarchaean to late Palaeoproterozoic, with four episodes recognized: 2.6-2.5, 2.45-2.37, 2.3-2.0 and 1.95-1.85 Ga, with the latest event being consistent with the assembly of the Palaeoproterozoic supercontinent Columbia; (3) During the late Neoarchaean to late Palaeoproterozoic (2.55-2.5, 2.37 and 2.06 Ga) juvenile, mantle-derived material was added to the crust.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2009-09-08
    Description: This paper documents the first detailed structural analysis of the Luliang Massif in the Trans-North China Belt, North China Craton. A nappe, made up of a Terrigeneous and Mafic Unit (TMU) derived from an oceanic basin thrust over gneisses and volcanic-sedimentary rocks, is interpreted as a magmatic arc deposited upon a TTG basement. The nappe is rooted to the west in the Trans-North China Suture that separates the Fuping Block from the Western Block. Nappe stacking, coeval with a top-to-the-SE synmetamorphic D1 event, is dated around 1890-1870 Ma using chemical U-Th/Pb EPMA datings on monazite and U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating on zircon. A second D2 ductile event, characterized by SE-verging folds, reworks the D1 structures. D2 is the first event recorded in the late-orogenic sedimentary series that unconformably covers the metamorphic units formed during D1. These lithological, structural and geochronological results are correlated with those described in the eastern massifs of Hengshan, Wutaishan and Fuping. The Trans-North China Belt resulted from the collision of the Fuping Block and the Western Block after a westward-directed subduction and subsequent closure of an oceanic basin where the TMU was deposited.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2009-08-20
    Description: The Lattari Mountains (a limestone ridge about 20 km south of Vesuvius) received 1-2.5 m of fallout from the famous Plinian eruption of AD 79. As demonstrated by many residual outcrops of thick volcanoclastic debris-flow and alluvial deposits (referred to here as the Durece unit), the pyroclastic fall was soon followed by rapid erosion and landsliding that produced (1) decametre-scale aggradation of some narrow valley floors; (2) reactivation of alluvial fans; and (3) growth of new fan-deltas (extending as far as 500 m) at the coast. This response was primarily due to the steep topography of the area and the high erodability of the pyroclastic materials (light and cohesionless pumice fragments). Several geo-archaeological data indicate that the accelerated sedimentation had a duration of the order of decades and was followed by rapid dissection of the Durece unit deposits and fast dismantling by wave action of the newly created fan-deltas. This case highlights the need to consider the possibly catastrophic reaction of fluvial and coastal systems to large explosive eruptions, even in non-volcanic terrains at some distance from the volcano.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2009-09-08
    Description: Nd-isotope analyses from 114 rock samples are reported from the southern part of the Siberian craton to establish a first-order crustal formation scheme for the region. The Nd-isotope data show considerable variability within and among different cratonic units. In many cases this variability reflects differing degrees of mixing between juvenile and older (up to Eoarchaean) crustal components. The fragments of Palaeoproterozoic juvenile crust within the studied segment of the Siberian craton margin have Nd-model ages of c. 2.0-2.3 Ga. Voluminous Palaeoproterozoic granites (c. 1.85 Ga) were intruded into cratonic fragments and suture zones. These granites mark the stabilization of the southern Siberian craton. The complexity in the Nd data indicate a long history of crustal development, extending from the Eoarchaean to the Palaeoproterozoic eras, which is interpreted to reflect the amalgamation of distinct Archaean crustal fragments, with differing histories, during Palaeoproterozoic accretion at 1.9-2.0 Ga and subsequent cratonic stabilization at 1.85 Ga. Such a model temporally coincides with important orogenic events on nearly every continent and suggests that the Siberian craton participated in the formation of a Palaeoproterozoic supercontinent at around 1.9 Ga.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2009-05-14
    Description: A large cryptodiran turtle, Basilochelys macrobios n. gen. n. sp. is described from the latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous Phu Kradung Formation of NE Thailand, on the basis of skull, shell and other postcranial elements. Basilochelys presents a combination of primitive and derived characters. The derived characters include sculptured skull roof and shell surface; deeply embedded canalis caroticus internus; foramen posterius canalis carotici interni completely surrounded by pterygoid; neural formula of 6〉4〈6〈6〈6〈6; anteroposteriorly expanded eleventh and twelfth marginal scutes extending onto the suprapygal and costal plates; narrow vertebral scutes; plastron sutured to the carapace, with large and wide anterior and posterior lobes, long and narrow bridge, very narrow axillary and inguinal notch; wide entoplastron; humeropectoral sulcus located on the posterior part of the entoplastron; anal notch absent. This taxon is placed in Trionychoidae and considered as the most basal member of that group.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2009-05-14
    Description: A new slender-snouted neosuchian crocodyliform, Khoratosuchus jintasakuli gen. et sp. nov., is described from the late Early Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation of NE Thailand. This discovery represents the youngest and most advanced Mesozoic crocodyliform known in Thailand on the basis of the following cranial features: the secondary choanae are relatively posterior and almost enclosed by the pterygoid; the lateral margin of the maxilla is relatively straight without lateral constrictions; the dorsal surface of the skull lacks ridges and fossae; maxillary teeth are homodontous; the anterior end of the jugal and prefrontal terminate at the same level. The specimen bears resemblances to Chinese and European derived neosuchians and suggests a close relationship between the late Early Cretaceous neosuchians of China, Europe and SE Asia.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2009-05-14
    Description: Vertebrate footprints have been discovered in recent years from seven Mesozoic formations of Thailand and Laos dating from the Late Triassic (Kuchinari Group) and the Early Cretaceous (Khorat Group). The sites are reviewed here in chronological order. The ichnological record reflects fairly well the broad picture of the evolution of continental vertebrates in Asia known from the skeletal record. Norian basal archosaurs are replaced by Rhaetian dinosaurs although both footprint morphotypes look different from the contemporaneous European and North American forms. Two successive ornithopod radiations can be observed in the Early Cretaceous, with primitive small tetradactyl Hypsilophodon-like dinosaurs in the Earliest Cretaceous followed by advanced iguanodontoids with tridactyl fleshy footprints in the Aptian. Late Early Cretaceous dinosaur footprints from NE Thailand, however, do not validate previous hypotheses on the geographical distribution of Cretaceous ornithopod tracks in Asia. The ichnological record also reveals a hitherto unsuspected high diversity of theropods in the early Cretaceous with many different morphotypes.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2009-05-14
    Description: Over the last 25 years, rich vertebrate assemblages have been discovered in three distinct formations of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous of Thailand. This work aims to compare the taxonomic assemblages of SE Asia within their palaeogeographical context in Asia. Occurrences of 477 taxa in 94 Regional Faunal Assemblages (RFA) have provided the raw material for producing a dissimilarity matrix based on the Raup & Crick index. These distances have been investigated statistically to infer relationships between the diverse faunal assemblages in space and time. Our results show that the Thai formations are more similar to each other than to any other formations, suggesting a strong provincialism. The relationship of SE Asian RFAs with other Asian RFAs is more influenced by the presence of freshwater or near-shore taxa than by strictly terrestrial ones. Our analysis shows that the faunal interchange between RFAs was rather low from the Late Jurassic to the end of the Early Cretaceous. However, faunal dispersals dramatically decreased during the mid-Early Cretaceous in Asia. The faunas show an overall stronger provincialism during the mid-Early Cretaceous, indicating the role of possible geographical barriers. This event is characterized by the absence of ornithischian dinosaurs in the Sao Khua Formation although they are present in the under- and overlying formations. Taxonomic diversity and exchanges between faunal assemblages recovered rapidly as early as the Aptian in Asia, but the fauna of SE Asia still retained a strong biogeographical signature.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2009-06-22
    Description: Given the tremendous toll in human lives and attendant economic losses, it is appropriate that scientists are working hard to understand better earthquakes, with the aim of forecasting and, ultimately, predicting them. In the last decades increasing attention has been paid to the coseismic effects on the natural environment, creating a solid base of empirical data for the estimation of source parameters of strong earthquakes based on geological observations. The recently introduced INQUA scale (Environmental Seismic Intensity-ESI 2007 Scale) of macroseismic intensity clearly shows how the systematic study of earthquake surface faulting, coseismic liquefaction, tsunami deposits and other primary and secondary ground effects can be integrated with traditional' seismological and tectonic information to provide a better understanding of the seismicity level of an area and the associated hazards. At the moment this is the only scientific means of equating the seismic records to the seismic cycle time-spans extending the seismic catalogues even to tens of thousands of years, improving future seismic hazard analyses. This Special Publication covers some of the latest multidisciplinary work undertaken to achieve that aim. Eighteen papers from research groups from all continents address a wide range of topics related both to palaeoseismological studies and assessment of macroseismic intensity based only on the natural phenomena associated with an earthquake.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2009-05-14
    Description: Phosphatic remains (tooth enamel, turtle shell fragments and fish scales) of continental vertebrates (freshwater fish, crocodilians, turtles, and theropod and sauropod dinosaurs) recovered from eight localities of NE Thailand ranging in age from the Late Jurassic to the late Early Cretaceous have been analysed for their oxygen isotopic compositions ({delta}18Op). From these preliminary data, local meteoric water {delta}18Ow values estimated using {delta}18Op values of crocodilians and turtles range from -4.1{+/-}2{per thousand} at the end of the Jurassic to -8.3{+/-}2{per thousand} during the Early Cretaceous, suggesting a transition from dry to wetter climates with increasing amount of seasonal precipitation from several hundred millimetres per year to several thousand millimetres. Measurable offsets in {delta}18Op values observed between dinosaur taxa (the spinosaurid theropod Siamosaurus, other theropods and nemegtosaurid sauropods) are interpreted in terms of differences in water strategies, and suggest that Siamosaurus had habits similar to those of semi-aquatic vertebrates such as crocodilians or freshwater turtles.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2009-06-22
    Description: The Roman archaeological site of Baelo Claudia (Cadiz, south Spain) is located within the Gibraltar Arch, a region with no significant recent or historical seismicity. However, previous studies have emphasized the occurrence of repeated strong archaeoseismic damage (intensity[≥]IX MSK) at Baelo Claudia tentatively bracketed in this study around AD 40-60 and AD 260-290. A multidisciplinary study has been carried out including the detailed mapping of surface deformation and building damage, surface geology and geomorphology, collection of structural data, and an extensive ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey. The obtained data are not conclusive when considered separately, but evident links between archaeoseismic damage, structural and GPR data indicate that the destruction of the city was linked to seismic shaking. The analysis of the pattern and orientation of deformation clearly indicates SW-NE directed compression due to ground shaking. This analysis also focuses on localized landslides and liquefaction processes, which appear to be coeval with the earthquakes, but the poor geotechnical parameters of the clayey substratum were determinant to amplify the observed level of destruction. The application of the present Spanish seismic code (NCSE-02) indicates that intensity VIII MSK (0.24-0.26 g) can be reached in this zone for 500 year return periods.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2009-06-22
    Description: The 2001 Mw 7.8 Kunlun earthquake occurred in northern Tibet, and produced a 450-km-long surface rupture zone along the western segment of the strike-slip Kunlun fault. There are, however, no historic or instrumental records of large earthquakes in this fault segment. Field investigations of liquefaction structures and radiocarbon dating results reveal that at least three large earthquakes, including the 2001 earthquake, occurred in the western segment of the Kunlun fault during the past seven to nine centuries. Liquefaction structures formed in alluvial deposits composed of sand-gravel yielding 14C ages of 679-901 yr BP are observed on the current stream channel which is sinistrally offset 75-82 m, including 3-6 m displacement produced by the 2001 event. On the basis of the field investigations and 14C dating results, we conclude that the liquefaction structures and subsequent faulting events were caused by at least two large earthquakes of M〉7 prior to the 2001 earthquake and the average recurrence interval of large earthquakes is estimated to be about 400 years in the late Holocene.
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  • 58
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 316: 179-188.
    Publication Date: 2009-06-22
    Description: As a function of the rapid rate of glacial isostatic uplift, deglacial palaeoseismicity in Sweden was exceptionally high, in magnitude as well as frequency. Today, seismic activity is low to moderately low with occasional events reaching M 4-5. In the Late Holocene, 11 events in the order of M 6-7 are recorded. These palaeoseismic events seem also to be recorded in several old place names, as in the tale of the Fenris Wolf. Some of the events generated local to regional tsunamis. The palaeoseismic activity recorded in Late Holocene time implies that our short-term seismic hazard assessment must include the possibility of future events in the order of up to M 7. For long-term hazard assessment, repeating glacial/deglacial phases, we must work with magnitudes of M 8 to 9.
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  • 59
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 316: 189-205.
    Publication Date: 2009-06-22
    Description: A Neolithic wooden well was discovered and excavated between 1989 and 1992 near Erkelenz in the Lower Rhine Embayment. The construction, 3x3 m in size and 13 m deep, was exceptionally large for its time. The larger outer box-frame contained two smaller frames whose construction could be interpreted as an attempt to repair the damaged original well. The outer box was made from 160 oak elements of about 3 m length built in the blockhouse method. The large box is dated to 5090 BC and the two smaller ones to 5057{+/-}5 BC by dendrochronological analysis. At c. 8 m depth several elements of the large box are vertically sheared off and the broken parts moved inward and downward. The cause of this damage has not yet been determined. As the well is located only 3 km from one of the active tectonic faults in the Lower Rhine Embayment, a seismogenic origin of the damage is considered and tested in this paper. This question has relevance for determination of seismic hazard in an area with present-day moderate seismicity but documented occurrence of strong surface-rupturing earthquakes from the palaeoseismic record. First, a geotechnical model for the construction pit with a total volume of c. 540-550 m3 is used to prove the stability of the open pit during well construction and to help explain how the well was built. The seismogenic hypothesis is tested in a deterministic approach using theoretically derived ground motion at the site of the well for two simulated earthquakes with magnitudes 6.2 and 6.8. Ground deformation and relative displacement calculated with a finite element model of the casing are found to be too small to account for the documented damage. Among other potential sources of damage, swelling, shrinking or rotting of the wood elements are possible explanations; however, a conclusive answer to this question remains to be found.
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  • 60
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 316: 217-235.
    Publication Date: 2009-06-22
    Description: Shallow drilling in the lagoon of the Cabo de Gata area proved sedimentary evidence for a palaeo-tsunami along that part of the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Several coarse-grained intervals form fining-up and thinning-up sequences that are interpreted as tsunamites. Inland-extending sand sheets are used to identify tsunamigenic inundations. Other indicative features found are erosive bases, rip-up clasts, broken shells of bivalves and benthic/planktic foraminifera. The coarse-grained intervals consist of up to three sequences separated from each other by a silty mud drape. These intervals are interpreted as deposits of a tsunami train and correspond to three individual waves. Radiocarbon dating reveals evidence that these layers can be ascribed to deposition during the 1522 Almeria earthquake. The 1522 Almeria earthquake (M〉6.5) affected large areas in the western Mediterranean and caused more than 1000 casualties. The epicentral area was offshore in the Gulf of Almeria (southern Spain) along the Carboneras Fault Zone and seismic shaking triggered submarine slides in the Gulf of Almeria, which may have caused tsunami waves. We have also found another intercalation of tsunamites downhole, which are interpreted as either an expression of repeated earthquake activity or tsunami-like waves induced by submarine slides triggered by seismic shaking in the Gulf of Almeria. Our evidence suggests a definite tsunami potential and hazard for offshore active and seismogenic faults in the western Mediterranean region.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2009-09-08
    Description: Continental lithosphere formed and reworked during the Palaeoproterozoic era is a major component of pre-1070 Ma Australia and the East Antarctic Shield. Within this lithosphere, the Mawson Continent encompasses the Gawler-Adelie Craton in southern Australia and Antarctica, and crust of the Miller Range, Transantarctic Mountains, which are interpreted to have assembled during c. 1730-1690 Ma tectonism of the Kimban-Nimrod-Strangways orogenies. Recent geochronology has strengthened correlations between the Mawson Continent and Shackleton Range (Antarctica), but the potential for Meso- to Neoproterozoic rifting and/or accretion events prevent any confident extension of the Mawson Continent to include the Shackleton Range. Proposed later addition (c. 1600-1550 Ma) of the Coompana Block and its Antarctic extension provides the final component of the Mawson Continent. A new model proposed for the late Archaean to early Mesoproterozoic evolution of the Mawson Continent highlights important timelines in the tectonic evolution of the Australian lithosphere. The Gawler-Adelie Craton and adjacent Curnamona Province are interpreted to share correlatable timelines with the North Australian Craton at c. 2500-2430 Ma, c. 2000 Ma, 1865-1850 Ma, 1730-1690 Ma and 1600-1550 Ma. These common timelines are used to suggest the Gawler-Adelie Craton and North Australian Craton formed a contiguous continental terrain during the entirety of the Palaeoproterozoic. Revised palaeomagnetic constraints for global correlation of proto-Australia highlight an apparently static relationship with northwestern Laurentia during the c. 1730-1590 Ma time period. These data have important implications for many previously proposed reconstruction models and are used as a primary constraint in the configuration of the reconstruction model proposed herein. This palaeomagnetic link strengthens previous correlations between the Wernecke region of northwestern Laurentia and terrains in the eastern margin of proto-Australia.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2009-06-22
    Description: The Hebron Fault in SW Namibia is associated with a 〈1 m to 9.6 m high scarp displacing Proterozoic basement and Middle to Late Pliocene crystalline conglomerates. The young age of strata exposed in the fault scarp together with evidence for displacement of aeolian dunes, post-dating the Middle Stone Age, suggests that latest fault displacements occurred during the Late Pleistocene to recent. Recorded historical seismic events show that the fault zone is still active. Latest movements of the fault are recorded by: down-to-the-SW offset of calcrete-cemented conglomerate; fluvially modified, asymmetric hanging wall, graben-like structures; at least two left-stepping jogs in the fault trace and structural data from basement rocks in which late-stage crush zones overprint earlier cataclasite. These features provide consistent evidence that the present scarp formed predominantly by normal dip-slip displacement on a NW-striking, steeply SW-dipping master fault with only a minor dextral strike-slip component. Strongly veined cataclastic fault rocks adjacent to the scarp in basement most probably originated at depths of 4-10 km. The conclusion is therefore that recent fault activity has reactivated a pre-existing, much older fault. Aerial photographic lineaments and similar fault scarps identified NW and SE of the present study area are interpreted as extensions of the same fault structure. Hence the total length of the Hebron Fault is at least 300 km subparallel to the Atlantic margin of southern Africa. Our observations confirm that the Hebron Fault is a neotectonic feature of regional significance that may relate to late Cenozoic and particularly Quaternary neotectonic activity in NE Namibia and NW Botswana.
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  • 63
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 317: 1-47.
    Publication Date: 2009-08-24
    Description: The modern image of the Geological Society owes much to William Smith whom the Society used, in 1831, to claim ascendency over European rivals. At its birth, however, the Society pursued a science adopted from the Continent, which privileged field data and saw mineralogy and chemistry as the sciences of the Earth. The Society's birth mobilized the nation; its co-operative, mobile, investigative, subtly theoretical and didactic vigour materialized in the production of Greenough's geological map of England. Yet Smith's geology spread virus-like, converting the membership in various ways, some acknowledging Smith, others denying him. In possession of Smith's geology, and impressed by his publications, the Society men emerged from a philosophical wilderness, only to break out in a competitive fever to write an Elements of Geology. The Society's great supporter, John Farey, broke free, disillusioned and determined to destroy Greenough. Nevertheless, Greenough pushed forward with his map, competing directly with Smith and intent on surpassing him. However, following the development of a powerbase for his geology in Yorkshire, Smith rode into London to be crowned the father of a peculiarly English science. Smith's map now became the national icon of English geology, less than a decade after the Society had rendered it obsolete. Next to it, Greenough's map - the Society's glory' - symbolized the Society's co-operative spirit and political acumen, attributes no less important to the science's advance.
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  • 64
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 317: 93-103.
    Publication Date: 2009-08-24
    Description: Four of the Founding Fathers of the Geological Society, Arthur Aikin, Richard Knight, William Hasledine Pepys and Humphry Davy, were chemists, coming to geology through mineralogy. The nature and status of chemistry in 1807 helps us to see why, and we note that chemists were down to earth and empirical minded in contrast to the speculative geologists of the eighteenth century. These four, a closely linked and coherent group, made various and important contributions to the scientific world in London generally, and to the Geological Society in particular. Nevertheless, Davy had very different expectations of the Society from the others: he wanted a dining club under the aegis of the Royal Society (of which he was Secretary), but they (successfully) sought a formal and separate body in which papers would be read and published. By the time of Davy's death in 1829, the Society was chartered and flourishing; and the rise of palaeontology had made chemistry much less central to geology.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2009-06-22
    Description: The macroseismic intensity of the 18 October 1992 Murindo-Atrato earthquake that affected the northwestern states of Colombia (Choco and Antioquia) is reassessed using the newly developed INQUA Environmental Seismic Intensity Scale (ESI 2007) which is based on the evaluation of earthquake environmental effects. To generate the ESI 2007 isoseismal map of northwestern Colombia, a geographical information system was used. Unifying the available information on the seismological and active tectonics framework including historical seismicity, hypocentral depths, foreshocks, aftershocks, focal mechanism, macroseismic data under the same GIS and the map of Quaternary faults allowed us to reinterpret the geological and environmental effects of the 1992 earthquakes sequence. A total of 24 sites from the areas of Quibdo, Bojaya, Rio Sucio, Murindo, Vigia del Fuerte and Turbo were evaluated. A systematic comparison among evaluated intensities (Modified Mercalli and ESI scale) revealed differences from one to two degrees. According to the ESI 2007 scale, the epicentral intensity Io is XI. This represents one degree higher than the epicentral intensity obtained using MM and Medveded Sponhauer Karnik (MSK) intensity scales, probably due to the lack of suitable observations on building damage in this poorly populated and developed region. This information is also useful in order to shed some light on the persistent question of the exact location and dimension of the main rupture zone associated with the earthquake. The isoseismal map derived from the integration of the whole set of environmental effects with other macroseismic data strongly suggests that the causative tectonic structure is the Murindo fault. However, the rupture length derived from the distribution of ground effects is greater than the Murindo fault length, implying that other nearby fault segments were activated during the 1992 event. The new isoseismal map resulting from this work is relevant for the assessment of future seismic risk in the northwestern region of Colombia. Overall, the application of the ESI 2007 scale to the 18 October 1992 earthquake, and to similar strong events in the region, can be useful for disaster management and planning, estimation of damage, and post-earthquake recovery efforts.
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  • 66
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 317: 115-128.
    Publication Date: 2009-08-24
    Description: George Bellas Greenough, co-founder and first President of the Geological Society of London, became interested in geology when he went to study law in Gottingen. There he attended lectures given by Professor Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, an admirer of Jean-Andre de Luc, who greatly influenced Greenough's geological ideas. Greenough himself was not an original researcher, but saw his scientific task as a most diligent gatherer of information and as a critical and - as he felt - impartial reviewer of his fellows' research. In 1819 he published a book entitled A Critical Examination of the First Principles of Geology in a Series of Essays. In this book, as well as in many of his numerous private notes, he struggled with the question of how to develop a proper scientific method for the new science of geology, striving for firm principles and definitions as a basis for geological observations. Although he despised theorizing on general principles, especially when it concerned those whom he called the Huttonians or Plutonists, he himself was not free of a theoretical concept in which he judged the validity of data. This bias sometimes became a drag on scientific progress' because his preoccupation with his own Theory led him to dismiss important developments such as William Smith's biostratigraphy when they did not fall within his horizon of interest. Thus Greenough, and with him the new Society, was slow to recognize their importance and value.
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  • 67
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    Unknown
    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 317: 213-217.
    Publication Date: 2009-08-24
    Description: In the 1780s observations of geological phenomena by American authors appeared in American publications. Europeans had also begun to explore the American geological landscape, notably the immigrant William Maclure. But an American geological community had not yet formed by 1807. Much of this apparent delay' in the development of the geological sciences in the United States resulted from the cultural and political realities of the new nation. In a new and democratic-egalitarian society, it took time to negotiate the nature of the appropriate public support for the practice of science. Individuals with the resources to provide private patronage for scientific undertakings were exceedingly few. The educational institutions that would ultimately be a major factor in the transmission and extension of geological knowledge were only then beginning to multiply and grow. In 1807 Benjamin Silliman completed his first year of science instruction at Yale, but offered only chemistry and mineralogy. Geology would wait several more years. Other institutions and individuals critical to the future of geology in the United States were born' in 1807 - including the United States Coast Survey, and Louis Agassiz and David Dale Owen. Roughly another decade would pass before a geological community' would emerge in the United States.
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2009-06-26
    Description: Eo- to Mesoarchaean greenstone belts (e.g. 3800-3700 Ma Isua, c. 3075 Ma Ivisaartoq, 3071 Ma Qussuk) occur within orthogneisses of the southern West Greenland Craton. Greenstone belts are composed mainly of metavolcanic rocks with minor ultramafic and sedimentary schists. Compositionally, volcanic rocks are dominantly tholeiitic basalts, boninites, and picrites, with minor intermediate to felsic volcanic rocks. These greenstone belts appear to have formed in convergent margin geodynamic settings. Detailed field observations, contrasting ages, and metamorphic and structural histories suggest that this craton was assembled in several accretionary tectonothermal events, involving accretion of arcs, back-arcs, forearcs, and continental fragments by horizontal tectonics. The Superior Province of Canada was also built by the amalgamation of oceanic and continental fragments ranging in age from 3700 to 2650 Ma, during five discrete tectonothermal events over 40 Ma between 2720 and 2680 Ma. The Neoarchaean (2750-2670 Ma) Wawa greenstone belts are composed of tectonically juxtaposed fragments of oceanic plateaux, oceanic island arcs, back-arcs, and siliciclastic trench turbidites. Following juxtaposition, these diverse lithologies were collectively intruded by syn- to post-kinematic granitoids with subduction zone geochemical signatures. Oceanic island arc lavas are easily distinguished from oceanic plateau counterparts because they possess positively fractionated rare earth element (La/Smcn 〉 1 and Gd/Ybcn 〉 1) and high field strength element depleted (Nb/Thpm 〈 1; Nb/Lapm 〈 1) patterns. In addition, the island arc association includes pyroclastic rocks that are rare to absent in the oceanic plateau volcanic association. Structural studies indicate that the Wawa greenstone belts underwent a complex history of deformation including thrusting, strike-slip faulting, and asymmetric folding. These belts constitute part of a c. 1000 km scale subduction-accretion complex that formed along an intra-oceanic convergent plate margin during trenchward migration of the magmatic arc axis. Several first-order geological observations on Archaean greenstone belts of SW Greenland and the Superior Province suggest that Phanerozoic-style plate-tectonic models can provide an elegant explanation for their structural, lithological, metamorphic and geochemical characteristics.
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  • 69
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 318: 237-256.
    Publication Date: 2009-06-26
    Description: Accretionary processes contributed to major continental growth in Fennoscandia during the Palaeoproterozoic, mainly from 2.1 to 1.8 Ga. The composite Svecofennian orogen covers c. 1x106 km2 and comprises the Lapland-Savo, Fennia, Svecobaltic and Nordic orogens. It is a collage of 2.1-2.0 Ga microcontinents and 2.02-1.82 Ga island arcs attached to the Archaean Karelian craton between 1.92 and 1.79 Ga. Andean-type vertical magmatic additions, especially at c. 1.89 and c. 1.8 Ga, were also important in the continental growth. The Palaeoproterozoic crust is the end product of accretionary growth, continental collision and orogenic collapse. Preserved accretional sections are found in areas where docking of rigid blocks has prevented further shortening. The Pirkanmaa belt represents a composite accretionary prism, and other preserved palaeosubduction zones are identified in the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Sea areas. In the southern segment of the Lapland-Savo orogen collision between the Archaean continent (lower plate) and the Palaeoproterozoic arc-microcontinent assembly (upper plate) produced a special type of lateral crustal growth: the Archaean continental edge decoupled from its mantle during initial collision and overrode the arc and its mantle during continued collision.
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2009-06-26
    Description: Analysis of several types of seismic and potential field geophysical data consistently indicate that the majority of the crust underlying the Canadian Cordillera and much of western Canada was originally Proterozoic sedimentary rocks shed off the Canadian Shield into rift or basin structures between 1.84 and 0.54 Ga. These variably metamorphosed strata were primarily quartz- and limestone-rich sediments and thus have distinctive geophysical signatures because of their lower density, lower magnetization, and lower Poisson's ratio compared with more mafic rocks. The sediments formed a prograding wedge that has a distinctive, internally reflective, seismic stratigraphy. In the east, these Proterozoic sedimentary rocks thicken at a hinge line' defined by the margin of the pre-1.84 Ga crystalline basement of the Canadian Shield; previous work mapped this hinge line locally using deep reflection profiles and regionally using distinctive gravity gradients. Here we assemble previously published results of several geophysical methods to define the overall shape of the wedge along the margin and westward to where it pinches out at the modern Moho beneath the crustal collage of exotic and suspect terranes accreted onto North America during the Mesozoic. The volume of crust occupied by this wedge limits the thickness of most accreted terranes to several kilometres and suggests that deeper portions of the accreted blocks detached or underthrust the wedge during accretion and are no longer contiguous to crust exposed at the surface. This type Cenozoic accretionary orogen thus spent most of its prior geological history as a passive or extensional margin punctuated by only a few, brief convergent or accretionary events.
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2009-06-26
    Description: Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic terranes of the North American Cordillera mostly originated from three distinct regions in Palaeozoic time: the western peri-Laurentian margin, western (Asian) Panthalassa, and the northern Caledonides-Siberia. A review of geological history, fossil and provenance data for the Caledonian-Siberian terranes suggests that they probably occupied an intermediate position between northern Baltica, northeastern Laurentia and Siberia, in proximity to the northern Caledonides, in early Palaeozoic time. Dispersion of these terranes and their westward incursion into eastern Panthalassa are interpreted to result from development of a Caribbean- or Scotia-style subduction system between northern Laurentia and Siberia in mid-Palaeozoic time, termed here the Northwest Passage. Westward propagation of a narrow subduction zone coupled with a global change in plate motion, related to the collision of Gondwana with Laurentia-Baltica, are proposed to have led to initiation of subduction along the western passive margin of Laurentia and development of the peri-Laurentian terranes as a set of rifted continental fragments, superimposed arcs and marginal ocean basin(s) in mid- to late Palaeozoic time. Diachronous orogenic activity from Late Silurian in Arctic Canada, to Early Devonian in north Yukon and adjacent Alaska, Middle Devonian in southeastern British Columbia, and Late Devonian-Early Mississippian in the western USA records progressive development of the Northwest Passage and southward propagation of subduction along western Laurentia.
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2009-06-26
    Description: We present the results of geological mapping and geochronological studies of the Tally Ho shear zone (THSZ) and adjacent rocks. The shear zone crops out near the west margin of Stikinia, an oceanic arc and the largest of the accreted terranes within the Cordilleran orogen of western North America. The hanging wall of the largely flat-lying shear zone consists of coarsely crystalline leucogabbro and cumulate pyroxenite interpreted as the lower crustal and possibly lithospheric mantle roots of a magmatic arc. Rocks in the footwall consist of volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Lewes River Arc, a Late Triassic magmatic arc characteristic of Stikinia. Because the shear zone places lower crustal plutonic rocks over a supracrustal sequence, we interpret it as a crustal-scale thrust fault. Kinematic indicators imply top-to-the-east displacement across the shear zone. The geometry of folds of the shear zone is consistent with deformation in response to displacement over ramps in deeper-seated thrust faults kinematically linked to the THSZ. Crystallization of the hanging-wall leucogabbro at 208{+/-}4.3 Ma provides a maximum age constraint for deformation, whereas a post-kinematic granitoid pluton that plugs the shear zone and that crystallized at about 173 Ma provides a lower age limit. The THSZ is, therefore, coeval with: (1) a series of latest Triassic-Early Jurassic shear and fault zones that characterize the length of the west margin of Stikinia; (2) the termination of isotopically juvenile arc magmatism of the Lewes River Arc; (3) crustal loading of Stikinia giving rise to a foreland basin that rapidly filled with westerly derived orogenic molasse that includes clasts of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks; and (4) juxtaposition of Stikinia against continental crust of the Nisling Assemblage of the Yukon-Tanana terrane to the west. These constraints are consistent with a model of deformation in response to the entry of the continental Nisling Assemblage into the trench of the west-facing Lewes River Arc, terminating subduction and imbricating the arc along a series of east-verging thrust faults, including the THSZ.
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  • 73
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 318: 37-74.
    Publication Date: 2009-06-26
    Description: Regional metamorphism occurs in plate boundary zones. Accretionary orogenic systems form at subduction boundaries in the absence of continent collision, whereas collisional orogenic systems form where ocean basins close and subduction steps back and flips (arc collisions), simply steps back and continues with the same polarity (block and terrane collisions) or ultimately ceases (continental collisions). As a result, collisional orogenic systems may be superimposed on accretionary orogenic systems. Metamorphism associated with orogenesis provides a mineral record that may be inverted to yield apparent thermal gradients for different metamorphic belts, which in turn may be used to infer tectonic setting. Potentially, peak mineral assemblages are robust recorders of metamorphic P and T, particularly at high P-T conditions, because prograde dehydration and melting with melt loss produce nominally anhydrous mineral assemblages that are difficult to retrogress or overprint without fluid influx. Currently on Earth, lower thermal gradients are associated with subduction (and early stages of collision) whereas higher thermal gradients are characteristic of back-arcs and orogenic hinterlands. This duality of thermal regimes is the hallmark of asymmetric or one-sided subduction and plate tectonics on modern Earth, and a duality of metamorphic belts will be the characteristic imprint of asymmetric or one-sided subduction in the geological record. Accretionary orogenic systems may exhibit retreating trench-advancing trench cycles, associated with high (〉750 {degrees}C GPa-1) thermal gradient type of metamorphism, or advancing trench-retreating trench cycles, associated with low (〈350 {degrees}C GPa-1) to intermediate (350-750 {degrees}C GPa-1) thermal gradient types of metamorphism. Whether the subducting boundary advances or retreats determines the mode of evolution. Accretionary orogenic systems may involve accretion of allochthonous and/or para-autochthonous elements to continental margins at subduction boundaries. Paired metamorphic belts, sensu Miyashiro, comprising a low thermal gradient metamorphic belt outboard and a high thermal gradient metamorphic belt inboard, are characteristic and may record orogen-parallel terrane migration and juxtaposition by accretion of contemporary belts of contrasting type. A wider definition of paired' metamorphism is proposed to incorporate all types of dual metamorphic belts. An additional feature is ridge subduction, which may be reflected in the pattern of high dT/dP metamorphism and associated magmatism. Apparent thermal gradients derived from inversion of age-constrained metamorphic P-T data are used to identify tectonic settings of ancient metamorphism, to evaluate the age distribution of metamorphism in the rock record from the Neoarchaean Era to the Cenozoic Era, and to consider how this relates to the supercontinent cycle and the process of terrane export and accretion. In addition, I speculate about metamorphism and tectonics before the Mesoarchaean Era.
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2009-06-26
    Description: Eoarchaean crust in West Greenland (the Itsaq Gneiss Complex, 3870-3600 Ma) is 〉80% by volume orthogneisses derived from plutonic tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suites, 〈10% amphibolites derived from basalts and gabbros, 〈10% crustally derived granite, 〈1% metasedimentary rocks and 〈〈1% tectonic slices of upper mantle peridotite. Amphibolites at 〉3850, c. 3810 and c. 3710 Ma have some compositional similarities to modern island arc basalts (IAB), suggesting their origin by hydrous fluxing of a suprasubduction-zone upper mantle wedge. Most of the Eoarchaean tonalites match in composition high-silica, low-magnesian adakites, whose petrogenesis is dominated by partial melting of garnetiferous mafic rocks at high pressure. However, associated with the tonalites are volumetrically minor more magnesian quartz diorites, whose genesis probably involved melting of depleted mantle to which some slab-derived component had been added. This assemblage is evocative of suites of magmas produced at Phanerozoic convergent plate boundaries in the case where subducted crust is young and hot. Thus, Eoarchaean subduction' first gave rise to short-lived episodes of mantle wedge melting by hydrous fluxing, yielding IAB-like basalts{+/-}boninites. In the hotter Eoarchaean Earth, flux-dominated destructive plate boundary magma generation quickly switched to slab melting of ( subducted') oceanic crust. This latter process produced the voluminous tonalites that were intruded into the slightly older sequences consisting of tectonically imbricated assemblages of IAB-like pillow lavas+sedimentary rocks, gabbros and upper mantle peridotite slivers. Zircon dating shows that Eoarchaean TTG production in the Itsaq Gneiss Complex was episodic (3870, 3850-3840, 3820-3810, 3795, 3760-3740, 3710-3695 and 3660 Ma). In each case, emplacement of small volumes of magma was probably followed by 10-40 Ma quiescence, which allowed the associated thermal pulse to dissipate. This explains why Greenland Eoarchaean crustal growth did not have granulite-facies metamorphism directly associated with it. Instead, 3660-3600 Ma granulite-facies metamorphism(s) in the Itsaq Gneiss Complex were consequential to collisional orogeny and underplating, upon termination of crustal growth. Similar Eoarchaean crustal history is recorded in the Anshan area of China, where a few well-preserved rocks as old as 3800 Ma have been found including high-MgO quartz diorites. For 3800 Ma rocks, this is a rare, if not unique, situation outside of the Itsaq Gneiss Complex. The presence of volumetrically minor 3800 Ma mantle-derived high-MgO quartz diorites in both the Itsaq Gneiss Complex and the Anshan area indicates either that Eoarchaean subduction' zones were overlain by a narrow mantle wedge or that the shallow subduction trapped slivers of upper mantle between the conserved and consumed plates.
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2009-06-26
    Description: Accretionary orogens form at intraoceanic and continental margin convergent plate boundaries. They include the supra-subduction zone forearc, magmatic arc and back-arc components. Accretionary orogens can be grouped into retreating and advancing types, based on their kinematic framework and resulting geological character. Retreating orogens (e.g. modern western Pacific) are undergoing long-term extension in response to the site of subduction of the lower plate retreating with respect to the overriding plate and are characterized by back-arc basins. Advancing orogens (e.g. Andes) develop in an environment in which the overriding plate is advancing towards the downgoing plate, resulting in the development of foreland fold and thrust belts and crustal thickening. Cratonization of accretionary orogens occurs during continuing plate convergence and requires transient coupling across the plate boundary with strain concentrated in zones of mechanical and thermal weakening such as the magmatic arc and back-arc region. Potential driving mechanisms for coupling include accretion of buoyant lithosphere (terrane accretion), flat-slab subduction, and rapid absolute upper plate motion overriding the downgoing plate. Accretionary orogens have been active throughout Earth history, extending back until at least 3.2 Ga, and potentially earlier, and provide an important constraint on the initiation of horizontal motion of lithospheric plates on Earth. They have been responsible for major growth of the continental lithosphere through the addition of juvenile magmatic products but are also major sites of consumption and reworking of continental crust through time, through sediment subduction and subduction erosion. It is probable that the rates of crustal growth and destruction are roughly equal, implying that net growth since the Archaean is effectively zero.
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  • 76
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 318: 351-372.
    Publication Date: 2009-06-26
    Description: The Eurasian margin in SE Asia is a geologically complex region situated at the edge of the Sundaland continent, and is mainly within Indonesia. The external margins of Sundaland are tectonically active zones characterized by intense seismicity and volcanic activity. The region is an obvious modern analogue for older orogens, with a continental core reassembled from blocks rifted from Gondwana, and surrounded by subduction zones for much of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. It is a mountain belt in the process of formation, and contains many features typically associated with older Pacific margin orogens: there is active subduction, transfer of material at subduction and strike-slip boundaries, collision of oceanic plate buoyant features, arcs and continents, and abundant magmatism. The orogenic belt surrounds Sundaland and stretches from Sumatra into eastern Indonesia and the Philippines. The orogen changes character and width from west to east. Its development can be tectonically described only in terms of several small plates and it includes several suture zones. The western part of the orogenic belt, where the Indian plate is subducted beneath continental crust, is a relatively narrow single suture. Further east the orogenic belt includes multiple sutures and is up to 2000 km wide; there is less continental crust and more arc and ophiolitic crust, and there are several marginal oceanic basins. The orogen has grown to its present size during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic as a result of subduction. Continental growth has occurred in an episodic way, related primarily to arrival of continental fragments at subduction margins, after which subduction resumed in new locations. There have been subordinate contributions from ophiolite accretion, and arc magmatism. Relatively small amounts of material have been accreted during subduction from the downgoing plate. In eastern Indonesia the wide plate boundary zone includes continental fragments and several arcs, but the arcs are most vulnerable to destruction and disappearance. Rollback in the Banda region has produced major extension within the collision zone, but future contraction will eliminate most of the evidence for it, leaving a collage of continental fragments, similar to the older parts of Sundaland.
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2009-06-26
    Description: Based on available tectonostratigraphic, geochronological, and structural data for northeastern Canada and western Greenland, we propose that the early, upper plate history of the Trans-Hudson orogen was characterized by a number of accretionary-tectonic events, which led to the nucleation and growth of a northern composite continent (the Churchill domain), prior to terminal collision with and indentation by the lower plate Superior craton. Between 1.96 and 1.91 Ga Palaeoproterozoic deformation and magmatism along the northern margin of the Rae craton is documented both in northeastern Canada (Ellesmere-Devon terrane) and in northern West Greenland (Etah Group-metaigneous complex). The southern margin of the craton was dominated by the accumulation of a thick continental margin sequence between c. 2.16 and 1.89 Ga, whose correlative components are recognized on Baffin Island (Piling and Hoare Bay groups) and in West Greenland (Karrat and Anap nuna groups). Initiation of north-south convergence led to accretion of the Meta Incognita microcontinent to the southern margin of the Rae craton at c. 1.88-1.865 Ga on Baffin Island. Accretion of the Aasiaat domain (microcontinental fragment?) in West Greenland to the Rae craton resulted in formation of the Rinkian fold belt at c. 1.88 Ga. Subsequent accretion-collision of the North Atlantic craton with the southern margin of the composite Rae craton and Aasiaat domain is bracketed between c. 1.86 and 1.84 Ga (Nagssugtoqidian orogen), whereas collision of the North Atlantic craton with the eastern margin of Meta Incognita microcontinent in Labrador is constrained at c. 1.87-1.85 Ga (Torngat orogen). Accretion of the intra-oceanic Narsajuaq arc terrane of northern Quebec (no correlative in Greenland) to the southern margin of the composite Churchill domain at 1.845 Ga was followed by terminal collision between the lower plate Superior craton (no correlative in Greenland) and the composite, upper plate Churchill domain in northern and eastern Quebec at c. 1.82-1.795 Ga. Taken as a set, the accretionary-tectonic events documented in Canada and Greenland prior to collision of the lower plate Superior craton constrain the key processes of crustal accretion during the growth of northeastern Laurentia and specifically those in the upper plate Churchill domain of the Trans-Hudson orogen during the Palaeoproterozoic Era. This period of crustal amalgamation can be compared directly with that of the upper plate Asian continent prior to its collision with the lower plate Indian subcontinent in the early Eocene. In both cases, terminal continental collision was preceded by several important episodes of upper plate crustal accretion and collision, which may therefore be considered as a harbinger of collisional orogenesis and a signature of the formation of supercontinents, such as Nuna (Palaeoproterozoic Era) and Amasia (Cenozoic Era).
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