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  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd  (2,229)
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)
  • 2005-2009  (2,229)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: We investigate the possible future of Post-Kyoto climate policies until 2020. Based on a cross-impact analysis, we first evaluate an expert poll to identify the most likely Post-Kyoto climate policy scenarios. We then use a computable general equilibrium model to assess the economic implications of these scenarios. We find that Post-Kyoto agreements will include only small reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions, with abatement duties predominantly assigned to the industrialized countries, while developing countries remain uncommitted, but can sell emission abatement to the industrialized world. Equity rules to allocate abatement duties are mainly based on sovereignty or ability-to-pay. Global adjustment costs to Post-Kyoto policies are very moderate, but regional costs to fuel exporting countries can be substantial because of distinct terms-of-trade effects on fossil fuel markets.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: Are private firms more efficient than public ones? Does privatisation improve performance? In order to answer these questions, it is necessary to disentangle the impact of ownership and competition upon business performance. This paper presents empirical evidence relating to the hypothesis that public ownership and competition are determinants of firms' productivity. It concludes that public ownership has a significant negative effect on productivity and also that privatisation has a positive impact on efficiency. Furthermore, increased competition is found to have a positive effect on productivity. These results are interpreted as confirming that privatisation is effective as a means of increasing firms' efficiency, at least in a non-regulated and relatively competitive sector, such as manufacturing.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: Investment incentives targeted at attracting multinational firms have been extensively researched, and empirical evidence has shown them to be influential. The same is not true of exit restrictions. Yet, as recent theory suggests, there may be a trade-off between entry incentives and ease of exit. This paper focuses on that trade-off in the case of US multinationals in 33 host countries. An indicator of labour market regulations is used as a measure of ease of exit. Results suggest that both entry incentives and labour market regulations are important and ignoring the latter neglects an important dimension in firms' location decision.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: This paper explores the conflict of real and monetary convergence during the EMU run-up of the Central and Eastern European member states. Using a Balassa-Samuelson model of productivity driven inflation, we find a high probability of higher inflation in the new member states. We compare the policy options which make the compliance possible, i.e. fiscal tightening and nominal appreciation within the ERM2 band. Nominal appreciation within ERM2 seems the better option to achieve the compliance with the Maastricht criteria, as no discretionary government intervention is necessary, and losses in terms of real growth are smaller. Having once opted for nominal appreciation by fixing the ERM2 entry rate as the central rate (Irish model), a high degree of flexibility is provided in coping with erratic short-term capital inflows. The strategy of setting the ERM2 entry rate above the central rate (Greek model) implies a clear exchange rate path within ERM2 and thereby less exchange rate volatility. Despite the merits of nominal appreciation, countries committed to hard euro pegs, or with high budget deficits, may choose fiscal contraction as a solution.
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  • 5
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: This paper suggests that, while medieval cathedrals served many purposes and, indeed, were some of the greatest technical achievements of their time, they served a rational economic purpose as well. Protestant entry into the market for Christian religion finally materialized in the early sixteenth century. The Roman Catholic Church did not make a ‘mistake’ in failing to forestall entry. We argue that the Church made a conscious rational effort to do so by supplying excess capacity and particular forms of capital in medieval cathedrals. While the attempt to forestall entry was ultimately unsuccessful, the extent of cathedral building helps explain why some areas of Europe remained Catholic and alternative forms of Christianity took hold in other locales.
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  • 6
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: Theory presents two channels through which profit sharing can cause workers to increase their coworkers' productivity: greater cooperation and increased peer pressure. This paper argues that these generate opposite influences on coworker relations, and that which dominates varies according to circumstances and type of worker. Using German data, we show that, for non-supervisory men, profit sharing increases cooperation, but that for those who highly value success on the job, it has no influence on cooperation, and for supervisors it reduces cooperation. Moreover, the findings show striking gender differences in the effect of profit sharing. We contend these patterns fit with underlying theoretical expectations.
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  • 7
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: The ‘market discipline’ approach to subnational finance requires that moral hazard derived from the possibility of a central government bailout be made insignificantly small. Therefore, governments interested in following this approach and willing to abide by its rules should start by creating the conditions for a default and its resolution to be possible. This article discusses the use of lending ceilings as an instrument to allow the default, without dragging in the central government.
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  • 8
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: There is a growing interest in the academic and policy making communities in understanding the effects of sectoral specialisation on labour market performance. The existing empirical evidence, mainly based on US data, generally finds a positive correlation between sectoral specialisation and labour market indicators such as wages and unemployment. The policy implication one can draw from these results is that fostering sectoral diversification may reduce unemployment. However, this lesson may not hold for all countries. In particular, in the case of Europe, the diversity of labour market institutions may play a distinct role in shaping the relationship between sectoral specialisation and labour market performance.In this paper, we investigate the relationship between regional sectoral specialisation and regional unemployment rate in the context of different collective bargaining institutions in the EU countries. We find that collective bargaining institutions do play a role in shaping the unemployment rate differentials across regions belonging to the same country. Furthermore, the relationship between regional specialisation and the regional unemployment rate is stronger in countries with intermediate and decentralised collective bargaining institutions in comparison to countries with centralised collective bargaining institutions.Our results suggest that labour market institutions are likely to influence the outcome of policies aiming at fostering regional diversification. While such policies may result in reducing regional unemployment in countries with decentralised and intermediate levels of collective bargaining, they may not make a big difference in countries with centralised collective bargaining institutions.
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  • 9
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 10
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 11
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: A meta-analysis of thirty-four restriction tests from nine studies of the natural rate of unemployment hypothesis (NRU) finds the statistical trace of a false empirical hypothesis. A theme of bias and misspecification among those studies that tend to be more supportive of NRU emerges. When combined with a separate meta-analysis of NRU's falsifying hypothesis, unemployment ‘hysteresis’ (Stanley 2004a), the natural rate hypothesis may be regarded as empirically ‘falsified’ (Popper 1959). Monte Carlo simulations validate the meta-regression methods used here to integrate different restriction tests and to identify their limitations.
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  • 12
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: This paper distinguishes four types of ‘Prisoners’ Dilemma games – provision, the commons, selfishness, and altruism – based on the public character of benefits and costs. Although each of these four games has the same 2 × 2 ordinal game form, each differs in terms of strategic, dynamic, and policy implications. Similar differences characterize the n-person representations of the four games. When paired in 3 × 3 representations, the least-desirable Nash equilibrium of the two embedded 2 × 2 games results. The four types of PD games also have different evolutionary and informational requirements for cooperation. Applications include the environment, biology, counterterrorism, and international relations.
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  • 13
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: ‘Policymakers’ efforts to boost trend output growth may be hampered by the presence of a trade-off between productivity gains and job creation. This paper presents empirical evidence that the negative relationship between productivity growth and employment growth that prevailed in the 1960s and 1970s has disappeared since then. This finding is robust to using alternative measures and including other explanatory variables. The improved trade-off may be good news for policymakers who aim at raising the ‘speed limit’ of the economy.
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  • 14
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: The importance of aesthetic considerations is widely acknowledged in mathematics and the natural sciences. Beauty motivates mathematical and scientific discoveries and serves as a criterion for their acceptance by the scientific community. In contrast, there is little attention to beauty in the models, theorems and other objects of economic theory. This holds even though mathematics is an important tool of economic analysis. The pure theory of international trade provides useful examples to discuss the role of aesthetics in economic theory. The central feature of the discipline of economics which distinguishes it from the natural sciences and appears to explain the paucity of beauty in economics is that economic models lack generality.
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  • 15
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: Both the economic theory of federalism and international environmental economics are interested in finding conditions under which countries or groups of countries would like to start cooperation with other countries. In the framework of the standard public-good model this paper presents a criterion for individually rational and thus voluntary international cooperation aiming at the provision of an international public good. This basic criterion can be traced back to Wicksell and Rawls and reflects the idea of reciprocity. In a further step, it is used to specify determinants that affect the decision of a group of countries to enter a coalition. It turns out that in this context the adjustment behavior of the original coalition members as well as that of the remaining outsiders is of particular importance. Finally the theoretical considerations are confronted with actual behavior of countries and groups of countries (as the EU, US and the developing countries) in the Kyoto process leading to a discussion of further prospects for global climate-change policy.
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  • 16
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: We explore the economic implications of the possible Turkish accession to the European Union. We focus on three main changes associated with Turkish membership: (i) accession to the internal European Market; (ii) institutional reforms in Turkey triggered by EU-membership; and (iii) migration in response to the free movement of workers. Overall, the macroeconomic implications for EU countries are small but positive. European exports increase by around 20%. Turkey experiences larger economic gains than the EU: consumption per capita is estimated to rise by about 4% as a result of accession to the internal market and free movement of labour. If Turkey would succeed in reforming its domestic institutions in response to EU-membership, consumption per capita in Turkey could raise by an additional 9%. These benefits would spill over to the EU.
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  • 17
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: This article shows that therapeutic advice for behavior within the family is to create a functioning property-rights system and to emulate voluntary transactions within a competitive economic market. The optimal organization of the family requires that relations are structured so that non-cooperative game playing is minimized and transaction costs are reduced. The article employs economic analysis to explain why ‘setting limits’ is preferred to punishment (Pigouvian taxes). It also explains why there is conflict between children and their parents even when the parent's utility is the present discounted value of the child's utility function.
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  • 18
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 19
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1467-646X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Previous studies have found that companies use income-increasing positive discretionary accruals (DAC) prior to initial public offerings (IPOs) to inflate earnings as a signal to anticipate future income and future dividends. This study, directly explores the role of DAC in prospectus information of 691 A-shares IPOs in China during the period 1995–2002 and its relationship with market-adjusted returns. The results suggest that in China, pre-IPO non-discretionary accruals (NDAC) as well as DAC have informative value in explaining first-day returns as well as first-year adjusted returns. However, in yearly cross-sectional models, I find that firms use income-decreasing accruals (conservative accounting) in prospectus financial statements. This downward manipulation or income “understatement” creates a regulatory setting that could explain initial underpricing and abnormally high IPO returns for A-shares. In addition, the results show that as state ownership (SO) increases, cash flow also increases, exacerbating agency costs and adverse selection problems. These findings may suggest that managers might be using more conservative accounting in Prospectus financial data to offset the agency costs related to high cash flow, and high SO, by “banking income” and possibly therefore “smoothing” the effects of possible future suboptimal earnings.
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  • 21
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    R & D management 35 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9310
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1467-9310
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: High-performing project teams are crucial for effective research and development (R&D). To become high performing, teams need to make use of their different skills and reflect upon their collective actions, thereby combining knowledge that could lead to value-adding activities for the company. This article describes the use of team coaching in supporting team reflection and learning in global R&D project teams. A collaborative research approach was used during the 8 months of coaching, with several inquiry methods being employed. The results indicate that coaching interventions have a positive effect on team performance, both from an efficiency perspective as well as from a creativity and climate perspective. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed, as is future research.
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  • 23
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    R & D management 35 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9310
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: One crucial yet relatively unexamined perspective on issues of concern to both organizations and nations, the creativity and productivity of scientific efforts, is the insider perspective. Insiders are privy to confidential information – in this study, first-hand observations of good and bad leadership – because of their position within the laboratory. The insider perspective can help answer such questions as: What are scientists' lived experiences of effective management? What have they observed as some of the impacts of ineffective management? What worries them in terms of their own capacity to lead and manage? This paper describes interim results of an ongoing, exploratory study of insiders in academia, government, and industry. For the past 5 years, more than 200 scientific researchers from Europe, Asia, and the US have been asked open-ended questions about (1) the best example of scientific leadership they have encountered; (2) the worst example; and (3) their most difficult problems leading scientific endeavours. Their responses to date have included unexpected and surprising results. Good leaders are most frequently described as caring and compassionate (in contrast to the expected description of technically competent). Bad leaders are most frequently described as (surprisingly) abusive. The other important (and ‘unintended’) finding is that gender inequity persists. These responses illuminate some of the challenges facing those who manage research and development (R&D), who study the management of R&D, and who are responsible for national policies regarding R&D.
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  • 24
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    R & D management 35 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9310
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: This paper presents and discusses the contribution of ‘mentoring’ relationships to organisational learning and knowledge creation in the early stages of research and development (R&D) projects. Our study considers the characteristics of a scientific leader, the nature of the context he creates, and how dialogue contributes to scientific breakthrough. Our study is unusual in as much as research on knowledge creation has developed separately, yet in parallel, with that of mentoring. It is rare to combine these disciplines and yet our research shows there is much to learn from examining the two as a process.We conducted our research at TECHNO, a high-tech-based European company producing advanced equipment dedicated to particles acceleration. Interviews were carried out in 2002–2003 with the founder of the company, the head of the R&D and engineering department, and team members involved in the low energy cyclotron project.Our exploratory research enabled us to identify differences in actors' perceptions about the nature and characteristics of these relationships. Our study also suggests that not all sets of relationships can tolerate the degree of intensity provided by the ‘mentor’. TECHNO has other ‘mentors’ who do not manage to generate the same creative context. Complementary mentoring styles based on premises and process reflection allow to support and enhance ‘upper levels’ learning by junior team members. We examine the nature of the leaders as mentors and catalysts within the learning process and briefly discuss implications for setting up and maintaining learning teams.
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  • 25
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    R & D management 35 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9310
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: The present research uses conversations with new product innovators in commercial organisations to explore how they experience innovating in those organisations. Based on their words, the study explores how innovators experience the complex social settings and structures of their organisation, how this affects creativity, and how innovative climates are enabled or inhibited by it. Organic, self-organising working structures are shown to enable creative commercial innovation more easily than hierarchical settings. Innovators' own words also identify what motivates them. ‘Excitement’ and ‘creative buzz’ are shown to be common intrinsic motivators and ‘tangible benefit’ for organisation or customers is shown to reinforce this. Innovators' experience of networks is also studied, along with their experiences of leadership in organisations. While this study is exploratory in scope, it is hoped that it will be of value in organisations looking to build effective partnerships with their innovators.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1467-9310
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Profiles of inventors' technological competence are a valuable source of information for decision-making in research and development (R&D) management, e.g. concerning inventor assessment, human resource development and R&D team-building. In the following exposition, a new method of inventor profiling will be put forward, which is based in particular on semantic patent analysis and multidimensional scaling. First, in the course of semantic patent analysis, specialized software, equipped with a natural language processor, reads the patent text transferring the contents into a subject–action–object–format (SAO). The extracted SAO structures are then used to create similarity matrices for patents or patent sets, respectively, according to a specific similarity value. Subsequently, an inventor competence map can be produced by means of multidimensional scaling.The benefits of this method for R&D-related issues in human resource management will be illustrated by the example of a German mechanical engineering company. Two distinct types of profiles were generated and tested: (i) the profile of a single key inventor and (ii) a profile of key inventor sets. The single key inventor profile gives information on the range of competence, i.e. the homogeneity or heterogeneity of a certain inventor's competences, providing far more detailed insights than resorting to bibliographic data like international patent classification (IPC) classes or citations, whereas the latter kind of profile establishes the position of a certain key inventor in relation to others, helping to highlight specific groups of inventors and their domains. These results are clearly apt to support human resource management.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1467-9310
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: International evidence shows that research is increasingly being carried out in organisational forms built around cross-sectoral (government, academic and business) and transdisciplinary teams with well-defined national social, economic or environmental objectives in view. As a result, new and unfamiliar forms of organisational arrangements for research are emerging within universities and elsewhere. These collaborative research centres have been variously termed ‘hybrid’ or ‘parasitic’. This paper draws upon around 30 in-depth interviews with participants from selected Australian Cooperative Research Centres (CRC). It examines how researchers reconcile the many demands of their dual role, first, as a government researcher or academic, and second as a committed participant in an industry-collaborative research centre. These collaborations go beyond ‘applied research’ to span fundamental research and immediately useful knowledge. But reward systems and performance measures for academic researchers are still founded largely on ‘discovery’, while those for government researchers are based upon ‘application’. The risk is that researchers will be deflected by the collaboration in ways that conflict with their institutional responsibilities. The paper reports work analysing the management strategies used by the CRCs and their public sector partners to ensure that their common goals are achieved while preserving their institutional interests and the expectations of their research staff. The aim is to identify effective ways of managing the various ‘risks’ of cross-sector collaborative research and development (R&D) in Australia and more widely.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1467-9310
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: As research and innovation have become central to the economy, the challenge of managing these activities has taken on greater importance. Studies have focused on the impact of organizational variables on research activities, such as work environment, human resource factors, and managerial practices. But little attention has been paid to the effect of differences among types of research projects. While the notion that differences exist among research projects is acknowledged, particularly in the research & development portfolio literature, there have been relatively few studies into the dimensions by which research projects, and needs of project team members, differ. Further, there is little recognition that these differences translate into the need for different research project management practices. The objective of this paper is to investigate differences among research projects along three dimensions, amount of funding, complexity of project teams, and research orientation. These dimensions are selected because of their central theoretical importance in the organizational literature, as well as posing a number of different challenges for research management. This study looked at 18 research projects at a national laboratory and analyzed the responses of project members to a comprehensive research environment survey conducted in 2001. The results of the analysis indicate that there are significant differences between types of projects along three dimensions and suggest ways that research performance can be improved through management intervention.
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  • 29
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1467-9493
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: This article broadly positions the successful establishment of the field of French tropical geography in the immediate postwar period against developments stemming from a longer history of French colonial engagement in Africa, Asia and South America, and clarifies the seemingly late timing of, and paradoxes involved in, the creation of a body of French scientific knowledge about the tropics. Colonial scientific research did not develop in France until the end of the nineteenth century. However, the colonial geography appearing at this time did not rely on fieldwork but, rather, catered to the demands of the business class for overseas expansion and to public curiosity. Even while the medical geography of tropical areas and knowledge of tropical soils and ecology progressed greatly between 1900 and 1940, there were still only a few French geographers working in the tropics. With the advent of the Second World War, when “big science” appeared in France and its colonial empire, the number of French geographers involved in tropical research grew rapidly. The field of tropical geography built up by Pierre Gourou was a synthesis of approaches developed in South America, Africa and Indochina. Although it soon came under strong criticism for its pessimistic view of prospects for industrialisation and urbanisation in the tropics, it seduced French geographers because it matched the contemporary interest in zonality and relied on a genre de vie analysis of, typically, rural areas. Thus, the postwar blossoming of tropical geography shaped by Gourou was more a response to various internal dynamics within French geography than an exercise in imperialism. Its demise was not due to the eclipse of French colonialism but, rather, its inability to deal with the modernisation of tropical societies.
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    The @world economy 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9701
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Law , Economics
    Notes: This paper attempts to explore the underlying causes of twin crises experienced by Turkey in November 2000 and February 2001. We study an extensive set of leading indicators of crises that are drawn from the existing literature. Our results identify three sets of vulnerabilities in the Turkish economy in triggering the financial crisis and bringing about the collapse of the Turkish lira. These are: first, the weak external position caused by excessive debt burden combined with the loss of competitiveness; second, the weak fiscal position resulting from the record levels of interest payments on domestic borrowing; and most importantly, third, weaknesses in the financial and banking sector. Given these observations, we argue that the success of financial sector reform is instrumental not only for putting the economy on a sustainable recovery path but also for reducing the likelihood of similar crises in the future. The general lesson to be drawn from this experience is that a sound financial system is a pre-condition for the successful operation of a fixed exchange rate regime.
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    The @world economy 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9701
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Law , Economics
    Notes: Since the beginning of the 1990s Japan has experienced economic stagnation. The economy had been allowed to overheat in the 1980s and a bubble had been built up. When this burst, there was massive asset-deflation, which led to a banking crisis. The bad debts were not faced up to effectively. Japanese banks could not achieve high enough margins to recapitalise themselves, and the government was for a long time reluctant to intervene effectively. The shock made economic agents more pessimistic, which led to an imbalance between savings and investment-demand. Excess savings were placed abroad and used to finance a domestic fiscal deficit, but this was not enough to close the gap and sustain growth. To be able to run a large current account surplus the yen needed to depreciate, but this was not achieved due to expectations about a future appreciation. The strategy to get out of the liquidity trap would include credible inflation targeting and yen depreciation. Monetary policy should have an inflation target well above zero per cent. Such macroeconomic measures need to be complemented by structural reforms such as deregulation of financial services, competition policy and reallocation of public investments. The Japanese development model with close connections between firms and banks needs to be reformed. Japan should be able to achieve stable growth again, but since the catch-up phase is over one would not expect growth in Japan to be higher than in other developed countries, even if Japan undertakes the needed reforms.
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  • 32
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @world economy 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9701
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Law , Economics
    Notes: This paper analyses the growth of production and employment in China during the period 1978 to the early 1990s. It argues that the Chinese experience with export-led growth provides an excellent case study of the phenomenon of a vent for surplus resources provided by exports, identified by Adam Smith in the Wealth of Nations and elaborated by Hla Myint. The paper extends the Smith-Myint model of ‘vent-for-surplus’ productive capacity to ‘vent-for-surplus’ resources by allowing for foreign investment flows. The ‘vent-for-surplus’ effect of exports on employment and growth is examined in a dynamic labour demand framework for a panel of township and village enterprises (TVEs) in China.
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  • 33
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @world economy 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9701
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Law , Economics
    Notes: Books reviewed:PETER NOLAN, China at the Crossroads.HUBERT STRAUSS, Demand and Supply of Aggregate Exports of Goods and Services: Multivariate Cointegration Analyses for the United States, Canada, and Germany.HORST SIEBERT (ed.), Macroeconomic Policies in the World Eco-nomy.JAMES R. MARKUSEN, Multinational Firms and the Theory of Inter-national Trade.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Characterization of 16 grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) accessions collected in central Italy (Marche region) was performed for morphological and agronomic traits and for 3-(-N-oxalyl)-L-2,3 diaminoprop-ionic acid (ODAP) content. Field trials, carried out in two locations, revealed high among-population genetic variation. In particular, an evident differentiation between commercial populations, cultivated by market-oriented farms, and household populations (not market-oriented) was found. Genotype × environment interaction was negligible. Medium-high values of ODAP content were observed following colorimetric and capillary electrophoresis analyses. A high positive correlation between the two methods was found (r = 0.83**), but the colorimetric values showed, on average, significant 14% lower ODAP values. This research represents a pre-breeding activity aimed at developing a breeding programme for the preservation and utilization of Italian grasspea germplasm within sustainable or organic agricultural systems.
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  • 35
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant breeding 124 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Increasing protein content is an important objective in breeding high protein oilseed yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L). The objectives of this research were to increase meal protein content, study population variation during three cycles of selection for increased meal protein content, and quantify the relationships of protein with oil and 1000-seed weight. Recurrent selection was employed with half-sib family evaluation in replicated field trials. Meal protein content increased by an average of 1 % per cycle. The correlation between meal protein and seed oil content was negative (r= -0.49 to -0.58). The population shifts, with selection, reflected successful increase of average meal protein content, and an increased frequency of genotypes with high meal protein content. Furthermore, simultaneous selection for meal protein and seed oil content was possible. The correlation between meal protein content and seed weight was positive (r= 0.29-0.39) and thus selecting for increased meal protein content posed no risk of decreasing seed weight in this yellow mustard germplasm.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A synthetic amphidiploid species Cucumis hyriviis Chen & Kirkbride (2n = 4x = 38; genome designated as HHCC) has recently been created from an interspecific mating between C. sativus L. (2n = 2x = 14: genome designated as CC) and C. hystrx. Chakr. (2n = 2x = 24; genome designated as HH). This amphidiploid is resistant to root knot nematode, tolerant to low irradiance, and has higher nutritional value than standard processing cucumber cultivars. An allotriploid (2n = 3x = 26; HCC) was derived from a cross between C. sativus L. and C. hytivus Chen & Kirkbride. Diploid meiotic behaviour in C. sativus and C. hystrix involves the development of seven and 12 metaphase bivalents respectively. In the derived allotriploid. univalents. bivalents, and trivalents (at relatively low frequency) were observed at metaphase I indicating that some homeologues from the C and H genomes can synapse. Based on a comparative karyotype analysis of cucumber (i.e. chromosome size and pairing behaviour) and aliotriploid plants, the seven bivalents observed at metaphase I were ascertained to be cucumber homologues, while the 12 univalents were of C. hystrix origin thus confirming the allotriploid karyotypic constitution to be HCC. On average, the frequency of trivalents was 0.24 at diakinesis and 0.22 in 100 meiocytes at metaphase I. indicating the possibility of genetic exchange due to the homoeology between the C and H genomes. After simultaneous cytokinesis, only polyads were observed in pollen mother cells (PMCs) at telophase II, which led to the production of sterile pollen grains. Multi-polarization of chromosomes was dominant at anaphase II. However. in about 20% PMCs. chromosomes separated to form a 7C + 1-2H complement, suggesting a possible method for the production of alien addition cucumber-C hystrix lines through further backcrossing of the allotriploid to diploid cucumber.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Lodging is a major constraint to increasing yield in many crops, but is of particular importance in the small-grained cereals. This study investigated the genetic control of lodging and component traits in wheat through the detection of underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL), The analysis was based on the identification of genomic regions which affect various traits related to lodging resistance in a population of 96-doubled haploid lines of the cross ‘Milan’בCatbird’, mapped using 126-microsatellite markers. Although major genes related to plant height (Rht genes) were responsible for increasing lodging resistance in this cross, several other traits independent of plant height were shown to be important such as fool and shoot traits, and various components of plant yield. Yield components such as grain number and weight were shown to be an indicator of plant susceptibility to lodging. QTL for lodging and associated traits were found on chromosomes IB, ID. 2B. 2D. 4B, 4D. 6D and 7D. QTL for yield and associated traits were identified on chromosomes IB, ID. 2A. 2B. 2D. 4D and 6A,
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Weather damage reduces the value of commercial mungbean. but hard-seededness can reduce the level of damage. However. attempts lo breed large- and hard-seeded mungbean varieties have been unsuccessful. To understand the relationship between seed weight and hard-seededness. these trails were investigated using a quantitative trail loci (QTL) mapping approach with a recombinant inbred population derived from a cross between a completely soft-seeded variety and a completely hard-seeded genotype. The two parental genotypes also had a sixfold difference in seed weight. QTL analyses revealed four loci for hard-seededness and 11 loci for seed weight. Two of the hard-seeded ness loci co-localized with seed weight QTL. When seed weight was used as a covariate in the analysis of hard-seededness from the field data, two of the four hard-seeded QTL remained significant with the effect al one of these remaining unchanged. These results explain why retaining hard-seededness in large seeded mungbean lines has been unsuccessful. The existence of a persistent locus, however. indicated that breeding large and persistently hard-seeded varieties of mungbean may be possible.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Asian cultivated rice was domesticated from the wild rice, Oryza rufipogon and throughout the domestication process, a wide range of morphological and physiological changes altered the ancestral form. This study was conducted to identify the genetic basis of changes associated with the domestication process. An recombinant Inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 120 lines was developed from a cross between the Juponica cultivar.‘Hwayeongbyeo’and a presumed wild progenitor. O. rufipogon Griff. Acc.01944. The population was genotyped with 124 simple sequence length repeat (SSR) markers, providing an average interval size of 15 cM, and also evaluated for 20 traits related to domestication and agricultural performance. A total of 63 quantitative trait locus (QTLs) and one locus associated with qualitative variation for pericarp coloration were identified using single point and composite interval analysis. The number of QTLs per trait ranged from one to seven. Phenotypic variation associated with each QTL ranged from 3.7 to 40.4%. with an average of 15.3%. The results indicated that most domestication-related traits clustered in chromosomal blocks, and the positions of many of these clusters were consistent with those reported in previous studies and with skewed segregation ratios in these BC1,F7 RILs. For 13 (20.6%) of the QTLs identified in this study. the O. rufipogan -derived allele contributed a desirable agronomic effect despite the overall undesirable characteristics of the wild phenotype. Favourable alleles from O. rufipogan were detected for panicle length, spikelets per panicle, days to heading and leaf discoloration associated with cold stress. When compared with previous studies involving interspecific crosses, it can be concluded that O. rufipogon is useful as a source of valuable alleles for rice improvement and that many of the introgressed regions contain genes that have a favourable impact on phenotype in different genetic backgrounds and different environments.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The use of resistant cultivars is a most economical way to control powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Identification of molecular markers closely linked to resistance genes can greatly increase the efficiency of pyramiding resistance genes in wheat cultivars. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers closely linked lo the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm16. An F2 population with 156 progeny was produced from the cross‘Chancellor’(susceptible) ב70281’ (resistant), A total of 45 SSR markers on chromosomes 4A and 5B of wheat and 15 SSRs on chromosome 3 of rice was used lo lest the parents, as well as the resistant and susceptible bulks: the resulting polymorphic markers were used to genotype the F2 progeny. Results indicated that the SSR marker Xgwm159, located on the short arm of chromosome 5B, is closely linked to Pm16 (genetic distance: 5.3 CM). The cytogenetical data presented in an original report, in combination with this molecular analysis, suggests that Pm16 may he located on a translocated 4A.5BS chromosome.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis DC) belongs, together with globe artichoke (C. (cardunculus L. var. sylvestris L.) and wild cardoon (C. cardunculus L. var., sylvestris (Lamk) Fiori). to the family Asteraceae (Compositae). Cultivated cardoon is of regional importance in Italy. Spain and southern France, where it is used for the preparation of traditional dishes. It has been shown to have potential as a source of oil from its seeds, inulin from its roots and various biopharmaceuticals from its leaves. Levels of genetic diversity and relatedness between eleven Italian and 10 Spanish accessions were assessed by DNA profiling with eight AFLP primer combinations and at five microsatellite loci. The AFLP analysis of genetic similarities showed that the Spanish and Italian accessions represent two distinct gene pools; substantial variation was present within each accession. On the other hand a limited variation was detectable by applying SSR markers.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is the most important grass species for temperate grassland agriculture. The genetic relationship and distance among cultivars is largely unknown but of great interest for breeding programmes. The objectives of this study were to (i) investigate the molecular variation and structure of population cultivars, (ii) describe the relationship among cultivars in terms of the modified Rogers’ distance, and (iii) determine the minimum sample size required for characterization of cultivars of L. perenne using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A total of 22 ryegrass cultivars, mainly of European origin, were investigated with RAPD markers. The minimum sample size required for the characterization of cultivars was about 20 individuals per population. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a much larger genetic variation within cultivars (66%) than between them (34%).
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The traits of elongation, volume expansion, and water absorption are very important in determining the quality of cooked rice grains. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of these traits was performed using a recombinant inbred population derived from a cross between two indica cultivars, ‘Zhenshan 97’ and ‘Minghui 63,’ which are the parents of the most widely grown hybrid rice in China. Using a linkage map based on 221 molecular marker loci covering a total of 1796 cM, a total of 33 QTLs were identified for the nine traits tested. QTLs were detected on chromosomes 1–3, 5–9, and 11, respectively. The QTLs identified included three for cooked rice grain length elongation (chromosomes 2, 6, and 11), six for width expansion (chromosomes 1-3, 6, 9, and 11) and two for water absorption (chromosomes 2 and 6). Interestingly, a single QTL located near the wx gene on chromosome 6 seemed to influence all the traits tested for the cooked rice quality.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A simple protocol of transformation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) at a high frequency has been developed via Agrobacterium mediation, coupled with the use of embryogenic calli as explants. Embryogenic calli derived from only one to two somatic embryogenic calli lines of two Chinese cotton cultivars, the cvs. Ekang 9 and Jihe 321 which have low embryogenic potency were first inoculated with the A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring binary vector pBin438 carrying a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis-active Cry1Ac and API-B chimeric gene. Infected embryogenic calli were co-cultivated for 48 h and were then moved on to the selection medium with kanamycin (100 mg/l) for 7-8 weeks. Then, the kanamycin-resistant calli (Km1) subcultured in proliferation medium would re-differentiate to form somatic embryos in 30 days. Cotyledon embryos were transferred to 100-ml Erlenmeyer flasks for germination and regeneration. Putative transformants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis. Forty-five regenerated plants were successfully transferred to soil, of which 12 proved to have the active Cry1Ac and API-B chimeric gene. Insect resistance was tested by bioassay. The transgenic plants were highly resistant to cotton bollworm (Heliothis armigera) larvae, with mortality (insect resistance) ranging from 95.8 to 100%. In comparison with the methods used in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton hypocotyls or cotyledons, about 6 months are saved by using the method presented in this paper to obtain a large number of transgenic plants.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Inheritance of resistance to anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum capsici (Syd.) Butler & Bisby was studied in interspecific Capsicum populations derived from a cross between a Thai elite cultivar Capsicum annuum L.‘Bangchang’ and a resistant line C. chinense Jacq.‘PBC932′. The resistance was assessed by measuring lesion area per fruit area (LFA) on detached chili fruits, using a laboratory-based injection inoculation. Nil symptoms resembling the resistant parent ‘PBC932’ were also identified in the progeny F2 and BC1 populations. Segregation of resistance (nil LFA) and susceptibility in the F2 fitted a 1: 3 Mendelian ratio, indicating that resistance was responsible by a single recessive gene. The segregation of the trait in the testcrosses in both BC1s also confirmed the 1: 3 gene segregating model as found in the F2.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The Rfm1 gene restores the fertility of the msm1 and msm2 male-sterile cytoplasms in barley. Rfm1 is located on the short arm of chromosome 6H. To develop molecular markers tightly linked to Rfm1 for use in sophisticated marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning, an amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) marker system with isogenic lines and a segregating BC1F1 population was used. Nine hundred primer combinations were screened and a linkage map was constructed around the Rfm1 locus by using 25 recombinant plants selected from 214 BC1F1 plants. Three AFLP markers were identified, e34m2, e46m19 and e48m17, linked to the locus. The most closely linked markers were e34m2, at 1.0 cM distally and e46m19, at 1.1 cM proximally. The two AFLP markers were converted to dominant STS markers. These markers should accelerate programmes for breeding restorer lines and will be useful for map-based cloning.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Most genes for resistance to barley leaf scald map either to the Rrs1 locus on the long arm of chromosome 3H, or the Rrs2 locus on the short arm of chromosome 7H. Other loci containing scald resistance genes have previously been identified using lines derived from wild barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum. A single dominant gene conditioning resistance to scald was identified in a third backcross (BC3F3) line derived from an Israeli accession of wild barley. The resistance gene is linked to three microsatellite markers that map to the long arm of chromosome 7H; the closest of these loci, HVM49, maps 11.5 cM from the resistance gene. As no other scald resistance genes have been mapped to this chromosome arm, it is considered to be a novel scald resistance locus. As the Acp2 isozyme locus is linked to this scald resistance locus, at 17.7 cM, Acp2 is assigned to chromosome 7H. Molecular markers linked to the novel scald resistance gene, designated Rrs15, can be used in breeding for scald resistance.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Three transgenic sugarcane populations produced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection were analysed for the presence of genomic variability. Plants of the original cultivar, plants regenerated without transformation, as well as transformed and untransformed calli were used as control treatments. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) of DNA extracted from leaves or calli assessed genomic profiling. The average DNA polymorphism within each population was determined by calculating the polymorphism index, while the extent of genomic dissimilarity among individual plants within transgenic populations was verified in unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages dendrograms. The results showed that the production of transgenic sugarcane plants by A. tumefaciens infection is accompanied by limited but detectable genomic changes and that, on average, these occur at the same rate in plant populations carrying different transgenes. Main factors contributing to somaclonal variation in transgenic sugarcane plants have been verified by pre-existing DNA polymorphism into the donor genotype and in vitro culture steps during the transformation procedure. The relevant practical conclusion from this finding is that the AFLP analysis may be effectively used to identify individual transgenic plants with the least genomic deviation from the parental ones. The selected genotype would be conserved as cultivated sugarcane is asexually propagated.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Intergeneric hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and a wild weedy species, Imperata cylindrica (2n = 20) resulted in the recovery of a high frequency of wheat haploids, which were obtained through the elimination of I. cylindrica chromosomes. Cytological analysis of the root tips revealed the somatic chromosome count of the regenerants equalled 21. Haploid regenerants were also obtained in all the crosses of wheat F1s with I. cylindrica, implying the genotype nonspecific nature of wheat x I. cylindrica hybridization. Variation among wheat F1 hybrids was observed with respect to seed formation (44.9-84.5%), embryo formation (15.1-47.7%) and regeneration (27.0-75.0%) in crosses with I. cylindrica. Comparisons based on the efficiency of I. cylindrica and maize (Zea mays) as pollen sources indicated that Imperata-mediated haploid production is equally efficient. There is natural coincidence of flowering period of I. cylindrica with that of wheat under sub-temperate conditions which is advantageous compared with maize, which cannot be grown during the winter season in the sub-temperate regions.
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  • 50
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant breeding 124 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Self-incompatibility (SI) in Brassica has been considered as a pollination control mechanism for commercial hybrid seed production, and so far has been extensively used in vegetable types of Brassicas. Oilseed rape Brassica napus (AACC) is naturally self-compatible in contrast to its parental species that are generally self-incompatible. Introduction of S-alleles from its parental species into oilseed rape is therefore needed to use this pollination control mechanism in commercial hybrid seed production. Self-incompatible lines of B. napus, carrying SI alleles in both A and C genomes, were resynthesized from self-incompatible B. oleracea var. italica (CC) cv.‘Green Duke’ and self-incompatible B. rapa ssp. oleifera (AA) cv. ‘Horizon’, ‘Colt’ and ‘AC Parkland’. All resynthesized B. napus lines exhibited strong dominant SI phenotype. Reciprocal cross-compatibility was found between some of these self-incompatible lines. The inheritance of S-alleles in these resynthesized B. napus was digenic confirming that each of the parental genomes contributed one S-locus in the resynthesized B. napus lines. However, the presence of two S-loci in the two genomes was found not to be essential for imparting a strong SI phenotype. Possible use of these dominant self-incompatible resynthesized B. napus lines in hybrid breeding is discussed.
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  • 51
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant breeding 124 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A novel cytoplasmic male sterility-fertility restoration system has been developed in rapeseed (Brassica napus). The cytoplasmic male sterile line 681A was derived from a spontaneous male sterile mutant in a newly released double-low rapeseed cultivar ‘Xiangyou 13′. The restorer line 714R was identified in the interspecific progeny from a B. napus×B. juncea-cross. Genetic analysis showed that fertility restoration for 681A cytoplasmic male sterility was controlled by a single dominant nuclear gene which might originate from B. juncea. The RAPD marker S1039-520 was found to be linked to the restorer gene in F2 progeny of 681A × 714R with a recombination frequency of 5.45%.
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  • 52
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant breeding 124 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Tocopherols are natural antioxidants in vegetable oils and are important dietary nutrients. Enhanced tocopherol content has become an important objective in oilseed rape breeding. A segregating DH population was tested for 2 years at two locations in replicated field trials. Genotypic differences occurred for α-, γ- and total tocopherol content as well as α/γ-tocopherol ratio, but highly significant genotype x environment interactions resulted in low heritabilities. Using a mixed-model composite interval mapping approach between one and five QTL with additive and/or additive x environment interaction effects could be mapped for α-, γ- and total tocopherol content and α/β-tocopherol ratio. In addition, one to six locus pairs with epistatic interaction effects were identified, indicating a strong contribution of epistasis to trait variation. In total, the additive and epistatic effects explained between 28% (α-tocopherol content) and 73% (total tocopherol content) of the genotypic variance in the population, with individual QTL and locus pairs contributing between 7.5 and 29.2% of variance. Considering the low heritabilities of the tocopherol traits, the results of this study indicate that marker-assisted selection may be an efficient strategy in a breeding program for enhanced tocopherol content in rapeseed.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The genetic basis of pith characteristics in chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum Hegi) was investigated. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were mapped in an F2 population (565 F2 plants) derived from a cross between two inbred chicory lines. A molecular marker linkage map of this cross had previously been constructed based on 129 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Each F2 plant was selfed and plant characteristics were measured in the F3 populations. Although variation in pith characteristics was largely environmentally influenced, QTL for the characteristics length of pith, browning of the pith, hollow pith and apple pith were detected in many linkage groups. Interactions between QTL were found for the three characteristics: pith length, browning of the pith and hollow pith. The QTL detected confirmed the early forcing suitability of the one parent inbred line and late forcing suitability of the other.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Yield and its components were investigated by using a population of 241 recombinant inbred lines (F9 RILs) derived from an elite hybrid rice cross of ‘Zhenshan 97’בMinghui 63′. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for causal analysing of yield traits were detected at different yield component (YC) influences by conditional and unconditional QTL mapping methods. The number of QTLs significantly affecting yield was different at component-special influence. Some QTLs controlling yield identified in one component influence were undetectable at the others. More QTLs for yield could be detected at different YC influences. It is possible to reveal that causal gene expression for yield could be different at different YC influences. Mapping QTLs for component effects of yield could help us in understanding the nature of cause-effect traits for the formation of grain yield.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Using primers annealing to S locus sequences the cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) method was applied to develop a marker and to characterize different alleles at the self-incompatibility locus in Brassica napus. A segregating F2 population from a cross of a self-incompatible (SI) and a self-compatible parent, as well as seven SI lines representing four different S alleles were used. Several primers specific to the S locus in B. oleracea and B. campestris, chosen from the literature, allow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of genomic DNA. However, only one primer pair amplified a single specific and reproducible PCR fragment of the expected length in B. napus. Digestion with restriction endonucleases revealed polymorphisms for two CAPS markers absolutely linked to the S locus. Using the codominant marker efMboI it was possible to discriminate all three F2 genotypes. With this marker and an additional marker using another primer pair it was possible to distinguish between three of the four different S alleles and five of the seven SI lines, respectively.
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  • 56
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    Plant breeding 124 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Resistance to southern corn leaf blight is under the control of a single recessive allele, rhm, and can be scored from lesion number, size, type and sporulation in the lesion, which are best expressed by plants growing under field conditions, although resistance also can be measured at the seedling stage. An assay procedure that can unequivocally score disease severity from the seedling stage to post-flowering in the field is desirable. We analysed pairs of isogenic lines H95/H95rhm and B73/B73Htrhm, the F2 population of H95 × H95rhm consisting of a total of 687 individuals, and 120 F3 families, which were inoculated with conidia of Bipolaris maydis race O. The disease ratings were also studied together with the segregation scores of a single copy DNA probe, agrP144. Among 687 F2 plants derived from the cross H95 x H95rhm, 161 plants were rated as resistant and 526 susceptible, suggesting a 1: 3 ratio. Among the 120 F3 families, there were 32 susceptible, 58 segregating and 30 resistant rows, fitting the expected 1:2:1 ratio for a single gene model. Using agrP144 as a marker, 99.5% restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) allelic segregation scores corresponded to the disease ratings obtained from field data, indicating that the marker agrP144 is tightly linked to the rhm locus. Similarly, the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker p7m36 also is closely linked to the locus but on the opposite side of the marker agrP144.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the major diseases of Brassica crops, often devastating to the cultivation of cruciferous crops in temperate regions. In a previous study (Moriguchi et al. 1999) identified three major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for clubroot resistance, each in a separate linkage group, in a population derived from a cross between a clubroot-susceptible inbred cabbage line, Y2A and a resistant inbred kale line, K269. In this study, the original random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers were converted into sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers to facilitate large-scale marker-assisted screening of clubroot resistance in cabbage breeding. Of 15 RAPD markers closely linked to the three QTLs, nine SCARs were developed as dominant markers after cloning and sequencing. In addition, two RAPD markers were converted into co-dominant cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers, and one RFLP marker out of three tested was converted to a dominant SCAR marker. The effect of selection for resistance by the improved markers was evaluated in progeny plants in the F2 and F3. A total of 138 F2 plants were genotyped with nine SCARs and 121 well-distributed makers consisting of 98 RAPD, 19 RFLP, two isozymes, and two morphological markers in order to estimate the level of resistance and the proportion of undesirable alleles from the kale in non-target areas in each of the F2 populations. An F2 plant, YK118, had kale alleles at QTL1, QTL3 and QTL9. Three F2 plants, namely, YK107, YK25 and YK51 had kale alleles at only QTL1, QTL3 and QTL9, respectively. These F2 plants were selected for their low proportion of alleles derived from kale in non-target regions. YK118, like the resistant kale parent, expressed very high resistance to three field isolates of Plasmodiophora brassicae, whereas the mean disease index in the F2 and F3 plants carrying only single QTLs was intermediate. The QTLs showed no differential response to the isolates. These plants with improved resistance will be useful as parental inbred lines for F1 hybrids.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) cv. ‘Langdon’ (LDN) and its near-isogenic recombinant substitution line no. 68 (RSL no. 68) carrying the high grain protein gene Gpc-B1 from emmer wheat, were compared in three greenhouse experiments to establish in which way Gpc-B1 increases grain protein concentration (GPC). At anthesis, RSL no. 68 had higher soluble protein and amino acids concentrations in the flag leaf than LDN. At maturity, both lines presented a similar above ground biomass and grain yield. However, RSL no. 68 showed a higher total N content in ears, grain and chaff than LDN; N harvest index (NHI) was also higher because of a lower straw N concentration and higher grain N concentration. When both lines were grown with a low N supply, and when N supply was interrupted before anthesis, similar trends were observed but the differences in GPC were smaller. It is concluded that RSL no. 68 accumulates a higher GPC than LDN mainly because of a more efficient N remobilization from the leaves to the ears during grain filling.
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  • 59
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    Plant breeding 124 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Texas and Argentine bluegrass are both dioecious Poa species with distinct morphological characteristics. Argentine bluegrass has a bunch-type growth habit, fine upright leaves and does not produce rhizomes. Texas bluegrass spreads by rhizomes and has wider, longer leaves. In an effort to produce novel germplasm with forage or turf potential, experiments were conducted to determine whether hybrid seed could be produced. Crosses were made using pollen from an Argentine male to fertilize two Texas female plants. Parents were induced to flower in the greenhouse by extending the photoperiod to 18 h with 400 W high-pressure sodium lamps from late December to April. The two crosses produced 〉200 seeds each. Hybrid seedlings segregated for traits from both parents. A sorghum-derived SSR marker confirmed the hybrid nature of a group of seedlings. Seeds harvested from F1 plants using Texas or Texas × Argentine pollen lost the undesirable cottony characteristic of Texas bluegrass. Evaluations for forage and turf potential of hybrid and later generation seed are planned.
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  • 60
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant breeding 124 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: For the discrimination of tea germplasms at the inter-specific level, four tea species and varieties (Camellia sinensis, C. sinensis var. assamica, C. sinensis var. pubilimba, C. sinensis var. kucha) and their 20 wild allied species (C. sp.) preserved in the China National Germplasm Tea Repositories (CNGTR) were investigated using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Fifteen primers were chosen from the 61 screened for RAPD amplification. The average DNA polymorphic frequency of RAPD primers at the inter-specific level was 0.30, varying from 0.16 to 0.60, lower than that at the intra-specific level. Using the presence, sometimes absence of unique RAPD markers, it was possible to discriminate 14 of the germplasms investigated. No single primer could discriminate all the 24 germplasms. However, OPO-13 provided rich band patterns and it could discriminate 10 genotypes. The combination of two and three primers made it possible to discriminate 15 and 21 germplasms, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of band patterns or the DNA fingerprinting based on specific RAPD markers generated by OPO-13, OPO-18, OPG-12 and OPA-13 allowed the discrimination of all 24 germplasms investigated. Therefore, RAPD markers also provide a powerful tool to differentiate tea germplasms at the inter-specific level.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Seed longevity varies considerably in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), but the underlying genetic mechanism of longevity has not been well elucidated. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control seed longevity after various periods of seed storage were sought using recombinant inbred lines derived from a combination involving ‘Milyang23’(Indica-type) and ‘Akihikari’ (Japonica-type). In all, 12 QTLs for germination and normal seedling growth were detected as indices of seed longevity on chromosome 7 (one region) and chromosome 9 (two regions) in treated seeds that had been stored under laboratory conditions for 1, 2 or 3 years.‘Milyang23’ alleles of all QTLs promoted germination and normal seedling growth after all durations of storage. These QTL regions were detected repeatedly in more than one seed condition. Therefore, we infer that these regions control seed longevity.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The commercial utilization of heterosis in seed yield by means of hybrid varieties is of great importance for increasing oilseed rape production in China. This requires a functional system for the production of hybrid seed. The Brassica napus oilseed rape line 9012AB is a recessive epistatic genic male sterility (GMS) two-type line, in which the sterility is controlled by two pairs of recessive duplicate sterile genes (ms1 and ms2) interacting with one pair of a recessive epistatic inhibitor gene (rf). Homozygosity at the rf locus (rfrf) inhibits the expression of the recessive male sterility trait in homozygous ms1ms1ms2ms2 plants. This study was conducted to identify molecular markers for one of the male fertility/sterility loci in the B. napus male sterility line 9012AB. Sterile bulk (BS) and fertile bulk (BF) DNA samples prepared from male sterile and male fertile plants of the homozygous two-type line 9012AB were subjected to amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) analysis. A total of 256 primer combinations were used and seven markers tightly linked to one recessive genic male sterile gene (ms) were identified. Among them, six fragments co-segregated with the target gene in the tested population, and the other one had a genetic distance of 4.3 cM. The markers identified in this study will greatly enhance the utilization of recessive GMS for the production of hybrid seed in B. napus oilseed rape in China.
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  • 63
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    Plant breeding 124 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Cultivation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is strongly affected by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. To identify new sources of genetic diversity for sunflower breeding 25 sunflower inbred lines were analysed using eight Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) primer combinations and their genetic similarities (GS) were estimated. Data were used to develop a Unweighted Pair Group Method using Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA) dendrogram. GS values of 0.58-0.98 were observed but with no separate groupings dependant on oil quality. The inbred lines were screened for their reaction to inoculation with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. Sunflower heads were artificially inoculated with S. sclerotiorum in three environments. Head infection was monitored after 1 week (lesion length) and 2 weeks (head rot). The F5 generation of a cross between a resistant (SWS-B-04) and a susceptible inbred line (SWS-B-01) was also tested for sclerotinia reaction across three environments. Significant differences in sclerotinia resistance, moderate heritabilities and a high correlation between the two assessments were observed. Inbred lines with a high level of resistance could be identified. These lines can be used for further breeding to improve sunflower sclerotinia resistance and to develop superior new hybrids.
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  • 64
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: ‘Yi 4060’ is an elite restorer line of a non-photoperiod-sensitive D2-type cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) line of wheat. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were employed to map one major fertility-restoring gene (D2Rf1) in ‘Yi 4060′. The sterile and fertile DNA pools were established from individuals in BC6, based on bulked segregant analysis. One RAPD marker E09, linked to D2Rf1, was converted to a SCAR marker and designated as E09-SCAR865. The genetic distance between E09-SCAR865 and D2Rf1 is 9.5 cM. Two SSR markers, Xgwm11 and Xgwm18, were also linked to a D2Rf1 and co-segregated with E09-SCAR865. The three molecular markers are useful in marker-assisted breeding of the elite restorer lines for D2 -type CMS lines in wheat.
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  • 65
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant breeding 124 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: An annual sugar beet line homozygous for the dominant gene for early bolting (B) has been mutagenized with different doses of ethylmeth-anesulfonate (EMS). Approximately 15 000 M1 seeds were treated with EMS doses between 0.5 and 1% for 4, 6, 8, 12 and 14 h. Among 10 066 M1s, plants with chlorophyll defects and other abnormalities were found. Germination rates ranged between 30 and 100%, whereas the fertility of M1s dropped to 36%. A dose of 1% EMS applied for 8 h was found to yield an acceptable rate of M2 sterility (16%). Exactly 0.5% of the M2 families contained plants with altered bolting behaviour. After selfing these M2 plants, five non-bolting M3 lines were selected. These plants do not exhibit shoot elongation even after cultivation under long-day conditions. Thus, they are homozygous for new mutagenized, recessive non-bolting alleles. Moreover, four M3 lines showed delayed bolting which was clearly different from the early bolting parent. This demonstrates varying activities of the bolting gene due to different mutational events.
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  • 66
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for acid detergent fibre (ADF) in intact rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) were performed for two different sample volumes (10 ml, 500 seeds approximately; and 1 ml, 50 seeds approximately). The inclusion of brown and yellow-seeded cultivars in this work has allowed the whole range of ADF currently described in the literature for this character to be covered. Chemometric techniques have been used for developing calibration equations for both procedures when measuring the two different seed sample volumes. On the basis of the coefficient of determination in the cross-validation (R2cv) obtained for the 10 and 1 ml assays (0.80 and 0.73), and SECV/SEL ratios (2.30 and 2.57), respectively, both equations showed an accuracy sufficient for screening purposes in an ADF range from 6.80 to 13.46% dry wt, which is presented in this work.
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  • 67
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Common bacterial blight (CBB) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli reduces common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yield and quality worldwide. Genetic resistance provides effective disease control; however. a high level of resistance is difficult to attain and does not exist in pinto bean, the most important dry bean market class in North America. Our objective was to determine if a backcross breeding approach with the aid of molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to CBB in a donor parent could be used to attain higher levels of resistance to CBB in pinto bean. QTL conditioning CBB resistance from the donor parent XAN 159 were introgressed into the recurrent parent‘Chase’using classical backcross breeding and intermittent marker-assisted selection.‘Chase’pinto bean is moderately resistant and the breeding line XAN 159 is highly resistant to Xanthomonas campestris. Marker assays confirmed the presence of independent QTL from GN no. 1 Sel 27 and XAN 159 in advanced backcross-derived pinto bean lines with improved CBB resistance. Agronomic characteristics of‘Chase’were fully recovered in the backcross-derived lines. An important QTL for CBB resistance from XAN 159 on linkage group B6 was not introgressed because tight linkage between this QTL and the dominant V allele that causes an unacceptable black-mottled seed coat colour pattern in pinto bean could not be broken.
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  • 68
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Greenbug and Russian wheat aphid (RWA) are two devastating pests of wheat. The first has a long history of new biotype emergence and recently. RWA resistance has just started to break down. Thus, it is necessary to find new sources of resistance that will broaden the genetic base against these pests in wheat. Seventy-five doubled haploid recombinant (DHR) lines for chromosome 6A from the F1 of the cross between “Chinese Spring’ and the “Chinese Spring (Synthetic 6A) (Triticum dicoccoides × Aegilops tauschii)” substitution line were used as a mapping population for testing resistance to greenbug biotype C and to a new strain of RWA that appeared in Argentina in 2003. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) (br antixenosis to greenbug was significantly associated with the marker loci Xgwm1009 and Xgwm1185 located in the centromere region of chromosome 6A. Another QTL which accounted for most of the antixenosis against RWA was associated with the marker loci Xgwm1291 and Xiinni1150. both located on the long arm of chromosome 6A. This is the first report of greenbug and RWA resistance genes located on chromosome 6A. It is also the first report of antixenosis against the new strain of RWA. As most of the RWA resistance genes present in released cultivars have been located in [he D-genome, it is highly desirable to find new sources in other genomes to combine the existing resistance genes with new sources.
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  • 69
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Rice is a moderately salt-sensitive crop species and soil salinity is the single most widespread soil toxicity problem lacing rice production. The quantification of salinity resistance poses serious problems in the field because of climatic factors and field heterogeneity. In the present study. rice germplasm obtained from the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). Philippines, was screened in a naturally lit (11 h daylight) glasshouse-based hydroponics unit at two salinity levels (4 and 6 dS/m), Phenotypic performance based on survival of tolerant, moderately tolerant and susceptible isogenic lines along with tolerant and susceptible parents was evaluated after 10 and 13 days of salt stress. Plants were harvested after second scoring and carbon isotope discrimination in the leaves (A) was measured. δ1 ranged from 19.5 to 22.9%, A highly significant negative correlation (r =−0.95. P 〈 0.001) between δ and visual scoring was observed. Data indicated the potential of using δ as a physiological indicator for salinity tolerance in rice seedlings grown in hydroponics.
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  • 70
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Obtaining new, late-flowering almonds by crossing is a very long process, mainly due to the long juvenile period of the seedlings obtained. It would be very useful to have an early selection method to identify the late-flowering genotypes, which would increase the efficiency of the breeding programmes. In this work, a study was made of the possibility of using the chilling requirements of seeds for germination and the leafing time of seedlings as criteria for early selection of flowering time, in 502 seedlings belonging to 13 families, over a four-year period. Crossings were carried out in 1997. Seeds were stratified at 7°C. and the number of weeks necessary for germination was determined. Seedlings were planted in 1998. Between 1999 and 2002 the leafing time was recorded, and in 2001 and 2002 the time of flowering was also recorded. The results showed that, although some correlation was observed between the germination or leafing time and the flowering time, these correlations were not strong enough to be used as efficient criteria for early selection of late-flowering seedlings within each family. for which variability was limited. To obtain late-flowering cultivars. the best method is to cross progenitors which flower as late as possible, and later select the seedlings according to their flowering time. Leafing time could be used for early selection with certain success when progenitors have very different flowering times (VCTJ early and very late), since the expected variability within families will be very large.
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  • 71
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The effects of elevated CO2 were investigated on seven Scandinavian varieties of oat. Three landraces (before 1920), two varieties of intermediate-age (1920-1940), and two recent varieties (after 1940) were exposed to two atmospheric CO2 concentrations (approx. 380 and 700 ppm). Elevated CO2 increased the yield 7% on average but with large variation between varieties. The yield-response was variety specific and not related to the age of the variety. The mean seed number increased about 11%, with an increase in the landraces and diverging responses within the other age groups. The mean seed weight was reduced about 5.5%, with small changes within the landraces and diverging results within the two other age-groups. The mean dry biomass was increased about 20%; the landraees had a marked increase in dry biomass, while the response in the other varieties ranged from a large increase to a small decrease. These different responses among varieties provide a spectrum of trait-combinations desirable in breeding oats for different purposes. The quality of the seeds was not affected by the elevated CO2.
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  • 72
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The aim of the present study was to produce backcross progenies in a new winter wheat (‘Asakaze komugi’) × winter barley (‘Manas’) hybrid produced in Martonvasar. As no backcross seeds were obtained from the initial hybrids, young inflorescences of the hybrids were used for in vitro multiplication in three consecutive cycles until a backcross progeny was developed. The chromosome constitution of the regenerated hybrids was analysed using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) after each in vitro multiplication cycle. The seven barley chromosomes were present even after the third in vitro multiplication cycle but abnormalities were observed. Sixteen BC; plants containing, according to GfSH analysis, one to three complete barley chromosomes, two deletion barley chromosomes and a dicentric wheat-barley translocation were grown to maturity from the single backcross progeny. The barley chromatin was identified using 20 chromosome-specific barley SSR markers. All seven barley chromosomes were represented in the BC: plants. A deletion breakpoint at FL ±0,3 on the 5HL chromosome arm facilitated the physical localization of microsatellite markers.
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  • 73
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is the most important grass species for temperate grassland agriculture. The level and distribution of genetic variation in gene bank ecotype collections is still largely unknown but of great interest for the planning of breeding programmes. The objectives of this study were to (i) assess the molecular variance and population structure of German ecotypes at the regional and population level, (ii) assign ecotypes to germplasm pools and (iii) compare the relationship between German ecotypes and previously-investigated European cultivars of perennial ryegrass, A total of 22 ecotypes originating from three geographic areas in Germany. each with a sample size of 20 individual plants, were investigated with 156 polymorphic RAPD markers. Genetic distance among ecotypes ranged from 0,27 to 0.48, An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a much larger variation within populations (71%) than among them (29%). Ecotypes from North Germany were significantly different from those of South and Middle Germany. Thus, two distinct germplasm pools could be identified. The 22 ecotypes and 22 previously investigated cultivars shared 98% of the molecular variance.
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  • 74
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    Plant breeding 124 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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