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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (11,819)
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)
  • 2005-2009  (11,819)
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  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In:  Science, 325 (5944). pp. 1114-1118.
    Publication Date: 2017-10-24
    Description: One of the mysteries regarding Earth’s climate system response to variations in solar output is how the relatively small fluctuations of the 11-year solar cycle can produce the magnitude of the observed climate signals in the tropical Pacific associated with such solar variability. Two mechanisms, the top-down stratospheric response of ozone to fluctuations of shortwave solar forcing and the bottom-up coupled ocean-atmosphere surface response, are included in versions of three global climate models, with either mechanism acting alone or both acting together. We show that the two mechanisms act together to enhance the climatological off-equatorial tropical precipitation maxima in the Pacific, lower the eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures during peaks in the 11-year solar cycle, and reduce low-latitude clouds to amplify the solar forcing at the surface.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The oceans are a major sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Historically, observations have been too sparse to allow accurate tracking of changes in rates of CO2 uptake over ocean basins, so little is known about how these vary. Here, we show observations indicating substantial variability in the CO2 uptake by the North Atlantic on time scales of a few years. Further, we use measurements from a coordinated network of instrumented commercial ships to define the annual flux into the North Atlantic, for the year 2005, to a precision of about 10%. This approach offers the prospect of accurately monitoring the changing ocean CO2 sink for those ocean basins that are well covered by shipping routes.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Picoeukaryotes are a taxonomically diverse group of organism less than 2 micrometers in diameter. Photosynthetic marine picoeukaryotes in the genus Micromonas thrive in ecosystems ranging from tropical to polar and could serve as sentinel organisms for biogeochemical fluxes of modern oceans during climate change. These broadly distributed primary producers belong to an anciently diverged sister clade to land plants. Although Micromonas isolates have high 18S ribosomal RNA gene identity, we found that genomes from two isolates shared only 90 of their predicted genes. Their independent evolutionary paths were emphasized by distinct riboswitch arrangements as well as the discovery of intronic repeat elements in one isolate, and in metagenomic data, but not in other genomes. Divergence appears to have been facilitated by selection and acquisition processes that actively shape the repertoire of genes that are mutually exclusive between the two isolates differently than the core genes. Analyses of the Micromonas genomes offer valuable insights into ecological differentiation and the dynamic nature of early plant evolution.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2009-10-17
    Description: The mammalian heart is formed from distinct sets of first and second heart field (FHF and SHF, respectively) progenitors. Although multipotent progenitors have previously been shown to give rise to cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle, and endothelial cells, the mechanism governing the generation of large numbers of differentiated progeny remains poorly understood. We have employed a two-colored fluorescent reporter system to isolate FHF and SHF progenitors from developing mouse embryos and embryonic stem cells. Genome-wide profiling of coding and noncoding transcripts revealed distinct molecular signatures of these progenitor populations. We further identify a committed ventricular progenitor cell in the Islet 1 lineage that is capable of limited in vitro expansion, differentiation, and assembly into functional ventricular muscle tissue, representing a combination of tissue engineering and stem cell biology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2895998/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2895998/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Domian, Ibrahim J -- Chiravuri, Murali -- van der Meer, Peter -- Feinberg, Adam W -- Shi, Xi -- Shao, Ying -- Wu, Sean M -- Parker, Kevin Kit -- Chien, Kenneth R -- K08 HL081086/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K08 HL081086-01/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K08 HL091209/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL079126/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL079126-01A1/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL002807/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Oct 16;326(5951):426-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1177350.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charles River Plaza, CPZN 3200, 185 Cambridge Street, Boston, MA 02114-2790, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19833966" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Cell Cycle ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line ; Cell Lineage ; Cells, Cultured ; Embryonic Stem Cells/*cytology/physiology ; Gene Expression ; Heart/embryology ; Heart Ventricles/*cytology/embryology ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Muscle Development ; Myocardial Contraction ; Myocytes, Cardiac/*cytology/physiology ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; *Tissue Engineering ; *Ventricular Function
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-04-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vinson, Valda J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Apr 10;324(5924):197. doi: 10.1126/science.324.5924.197.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19359575" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Evolution, Molecular ; Motion ; Protein Conformation ; Proteins/*chemistry/*physiology ; Signal Transduction ; Thermodynamics
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-12-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, Robert F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Dec 18;326(5960):1610-1. doi: 10.1126/science.326.5960.1610.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20019260" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acids/chemistry/*metabolism ; Crime ; Glycoproteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Glycosylation ; Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Research/*standards ; *Retraction of Publication as Topic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-08-01
    Description: Ecological restoration is an activity that ideally results in the return of an ecosystem to an undisturbed state. Ecosystem services are the benefits humans derive from ecosystems. The two have been joined to support growing environmental markets with the goal of creating restoration-based credits that can be bought and sold. However, the allure of these markets may be overshadowing shortcomings in the science and practice of ecological restoration. Before making risky investments, we must understand why and when restoration efforts fall short of recovering the full suite of ecosystem services, what can be done to improve restoration success, and why direct measurement of the biophysical processes that support ecosystem services is the only way to guarantee the future success of these markets. Without new science and an oversight framework to protect the ecosystem service assets which people depend, markets could actually accelerate environmental degradation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Palmer, Margaret A -- Filoso, Solange -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jul 31;325(5940):575-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1172976.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Solomons, MD 20688, USA. mpalmer@umd.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19644112" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Biophysical Processes ; *Conservation of Natural Resources ; *Ecosystem ; *Environment ; Humans ; Wetlands
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2009-10-03
    Description: Light is an electromagnetic wave composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields, the one never occurring without the other. In light-matter interactions at optical frequencies, the magnetic component of light generally plays a negligible role. When we "see" or detect light, only its electric field is perceived; we are practically blind to its magnetic component. We used concepts from the field of metamaterials to probe the magnetic field of light with an engineered near-field aperture probe. We visualized with subwavelength resolution the magnetic- and electric-field distribution of propagating light.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Burresi, M -- van Oosten, D -- Kampfrath, T -- Schoenmaker, H -- Heideman, R -- Leinse, A -- Kuipers, L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Oct 23;326(5952):550-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1177096. Epub 2009 Oct 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Nanophotonics, Stichting voor Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM) Institute-FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMOLF), Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam, Netherlands. burresi@amolf.nl〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19797622" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-11-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Donazar, Jose A -- Margalida, Antoni -- Carrete, Martina -- Sanchez-Zapata, Jose A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Oct 30;326(5953):664. doi: 10.1126/science.326_664a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19900914" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Birds/*physiology ; Conservation of Natural Resources ; Europe ; Food Supply ; Population Dynamics ; *Sanitation/legislation & jurisprudence
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2009-09-26
    Description: Starburst galaxies exhibit in their central regions a highly increased rate of supernovae, the remnants of which are thought to accelerate energetic cosmic rays up to energies of approximately 10(15) electron volts. We report the detection of gamma rays--tracers of such cosmic rays--from the starburst galaxy NGC 253 using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The gamma-ray flux above 220 billion electron volts is F = (5.5 +/- 1.0(stat) +/- 2.8(sys)) x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1), implying a cosmic-ray density about three orders of magnitude larger than that in the center of the Milky Way. The fraction of cosmic-ray energy channeled into gamma rays in this starburst environment is five times as large as that in our Galaxy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Acero, F -- Aharonian, F -- Akhperjanian, A G -- Anton, G -- Barres de Almeida, U -- Bazer-Bachi, A R -- Becherini, Y -- Behera, B -- Bernlohr, K -- Bochow, A -- Boisson, C -- Bolmont, J -- Borrel, V -- Brucker, J -- Brun, F -- Brun, P -- Buhler, R -- Bulik, T -- Busching, I -- Boutelier, T -- Chadwick, P M -- Charbonnier, A -- Chaves, R C G -- Cheesebrough, A -- Chounet, L-M -- Clapson, A C -- Coignet, G -- Dalton, M -- Daniel, M K -- Davids, I D -- Degrange, B -- Deil, C -- Dickinson, H J -- Djannati-Atai, A -- Domainko, W -- Drury, L O'C -- Dubois, F -- Dubus, G -- Dyks, J -- Dyrda, M -- Egberts, K -- Emmanoulopoulos, D -- Espigat, P -- Farnier, C -- Fegan, S -- Feinstein, F -- Fiasson, A -- Forster, A -- Fontaine, G -- Fussling, M -- Gabici, S -- Gallant, Y A -- Gerard, L -- Gerbig, D -- Giebels, B -- Glicenstein, J F -- Gluck, B -- Goret, P -- Goring, D -- Hauser, D -- Hauser, M -- Heinz, S -- Heinzelmann, G -- Henri, G -- Hermann, G -- Hinton, J A -- Hoffmann, A -- Hofmann, W -- Hofverberg, P -- Hoppe, S -- Horns, D -- Jacholkowska, A -- de Jager, O C -- Jahn, C -- Jung, I -- Katarzynski, K -- Katz, U -- Kaufmann, S -- Kerschhaggl, M -- Khangulyan, D -- Khelifi, B -- Keogh, D -- Klochkov, D -- Kluzniak, W -- Kneiske, T -- Komin, Nu -- Kosack, K -- Kossakowski, R -- Lamanna, G -- Lenain, J-P -- Lohse, T -- Marandon, V -- Martineau-Huynh, O -- Marcowith, A -- Masbou, J -- Maurin, D -- McComb, T J L -- Medina, M C -- Mehault, J -- Moderski, R -- Moulin, E -- Naumann-Godo, M -- de Naurois, M -- Nedbal, D -- Nekrassov, D -- Nicholas, B -- Niemiec, J -- Nolan, S J -- Ohm, S -- Olive, J-F -- de Ona Wilhelmi, E -- Orford, K J -- Ostrowski, M -- Panter, M -- Paz Arribas, M -- Pedaletti, G -- Pelletier, G -- Petrucci, P-O -- Pita, S -- Puhlhofer, G -- Punch, M -- Quirrenbach, A -- Raubenheimer, B C -- Raue, M -- Rayner, S M -- Reimer, O -- Renaud, M -- Rieger, F -- Ripken, J -- Rob, L -- Rosier-Lees, S -- Rowell, G -- Rudak, B -- Rulten, C B -- Ruppel, J -- Sahakian, V -- Santangelo, A -- Schlickeiser, R -- Schock, F M -- Schwanke, U -- Schwarzburg, S -- Schwemmer, S -- Shalchi, A -- Sikora, M -- Skilton, J L -- Sol, H -- Stawarz, L -- Steenkamp, R -- Stegmann, C -- Stinzing, F -- Superina, G -- Szostek, A -- Tam, P H -- Tavernet, J-P -- Terrier, R -- Tibolla, O -- Tluczykont, M -- van Eldik, C -- Vasileiadis, G -- Venter, C -- Venter, L -- Vialle, J P -- Vincent, P -- Vivier, M -- Volk, H J -- Volpe, F -- Wagner, S J -- Ward, M -- Zdziarski, A A -- Zech, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Nov 20;326(5956):1080-2. doi: 10.1126/science.1178826. Epub 2009 Sep 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Astroparticules, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, CC 70, Place Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19779150" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2009-08-22
    Description: CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis by suppressing aberrant or excessive immune responses. The core genetic program of Tregs and their ability to suppress pathologic immune responses depends on the transcription factor Foxp3. Despite progress in understanding mechanisms of Foxp3-dependent gene activation, the molecular mechanism of Foxp3-dependent gene repression remains largely unknown. We identified Eos, a zinc-finger transcription factor of the Ikaros family, as a critical mediator of Foxp3-dependent gene silencing in Tregs. Eos interacts directly with Foxp3 and induces chromatin modifications that result in gene silencing in Tregs. Silencing of Eos in Tregs abrogates their ability to suppress immune responses and endows them with partial effector function, thus demonstrating the critical role that Eos plays in Treg programming.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2859703/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2859703/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pan, Fan -- Yu, Hong -- Dang, Eric V -- Barbi, Joseph -- Pan, Xiaoyu -- Grosso, Joseph F -- Jinasena, Dinili -- Sharma, Sudarshana M -- McCadden, Erin M -- Getnet, Derese -- Drake, Charles G -- Liu, Jun O -- Ostrowski, Michael C -- Pardoll, Drew M -- R01 AI058156/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI058156-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI089830/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Aug 28;325(5944):1142-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1176077. Epub 2009 Aug 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Immunology and Hematopoiesis Division, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19696312" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Alcohol Oxidoreductases/metabolism ; Animals ; Carrier Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Colitis/immunology ; DNA Methylation ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Forkhead Transcription Factors/*metabolism ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; *Gene Silencing ; Histones/metabolism ; Humans ; Interleukin-2/biosynthesis/genetics ; Jurkat Cells ; Methylation ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; RNA Interference ; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology/*physiology ; Transduction, Genetic ; Zinc Fingers
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-12-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, Robert F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Dec 11;326(5959):1472-5. doi: 10.1126/science.326.5959.1472.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20007878" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-11-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, Robert F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Oct 23;326(5952):517. doi: 10.1126/science.326_517.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19900877" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/*methods ; Crops, Agricultural/genetics/*growth & development ; *Droughts ; Plants, Genetically Modified/growth & development ; Seeds/growth & development ; Water ; Zea mays/genetics/*growth & development
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  • 14
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-09-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Butera, Robert J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Sep 18;325(5947):1499. doi: 10.1126/science.325_1499a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250, USA. rbutera@gatech.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19762628" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Education, Graduate/*economics ; *Fellowships and Scholarships ; Financing, Government ; *Research Support as Topic ; *Training Support ; United States ; United States Government Agencies/economics
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  • 15
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-01-03
    Description: Video games have enormous mass appeal, reaching audiences in the hundreds of thousands to millions. They also embed many pedagogical practices known to be effective in other environments. This article reviews the sparse but encouraging data on learning outcomes for video games in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines, then reviews the infrastructural obstacles to wider adoption of this new medium.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mayo, Merrilea J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jan 2;323(5910):79-82. doi: 10.1126/science.1166900.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 4801 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 USA. mmayo@kauffman.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19119223" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Child ; *Educational Technology/economics/standards ; Engineering/*education ; Humans ; *Learning ; *Mathematical Concepts ; Problem Solving ; Science/*education ; *Video Games/economics/standards
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  • 16
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-10-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dowswell, Christopher -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Oct 16;326(5951):381. doi: 10.1126/science.1182211.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19833952" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/*history/methods ; Crops, Agricultural/*history ; Developing Countries ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Internationality ; Nobel Prize ; United States
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  • 17
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-06-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Parfitt, Tom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jun 12;324(5933):1382-4. doi: 10.1126/science.324_1382a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19520934" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arctic Regions ; Cold Climate ; Expeditions ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Ice Cover ; Internationality ; Oceanography/*history ; Politics ; Russia
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  • 18
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-07-25
    Description: Network analysis has emerged as a powerful way of studying phenomena as diverse as interpersonal interaction, connections among neurons, and the structure of the Internet. Appropriate use of network analysis depends, however, on choosing the right network representation for the problem at hand.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Butts, Carter T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jul 24;325(5939):414-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1171022.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Sociology and Institute for Mathematical Behavioral Sciences, University of California at Irvine, 3151 Social Science Plaza, Irvine, CA 92697-5100, USA. buttsc@uci.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19628855" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans ; Humans ; Models, Theoretical ; Nerve Net ; *Systems Theory ; Time
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  • 19
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-01-03
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mazur, Eric -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jan 2;323(5910):50-1. doi: 10.1126/science.1168927.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. mazur@physics.harvard.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19119207" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 20
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-06-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Volf, Petr -- Sadlova, Jovana -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jun 26;324(5935):1644. doi: 10.1126/science.324_1644b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Parasitology, Charles University in Prague, Prague 128 44, Czech Republic. volf@cesnet.cz〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19556486" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Hybridization, Genetic ; Insect Vectors/parasitology ; Leishmania/*genetics/growth & development/pathogenicity ; Phlebotomus/*parasitology
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2009-07-11
    Description: mu-Opioid receptor (MOR) agonists represent the gold standard for the treatment of severe pain but may paradoxically also enhance pain sensitivity, that is, lead to opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). We show that abrupt withdrawal from MOR agonists induces long-term potentiation (LTP) at the first synapse in pain pathways. Induction of opioid withdrawal LTP requires postsynaptic activation of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and a rise of postsynaptic calcium concentrations. In contrast, the acute depression by opioids is induced presynaptically at these synapses. Withdrawal LTP can be prevented by tapered withdrawal and shares pharmacology and signal transduction pathways with OIH. These findings provide a previously unrecognized target to selectively combat pro-nociceptive effects of opioids without compromising opioid analgesia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Drdla, Ruth -- Gassner, Matthias -- Gingl, Ewald -- Sandkuhler, Jurgen -- P 18129/Austrian Science Fund FWF/Austria -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jul 10;325(5937):207-10. doi: 10.1126/science.1171759.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurophysiology, Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 4, 1090 Vienna, Austria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19590003" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage/*adverse effects/pharmacology ; Animals ; Calcium/metabolism ; Enkephalin, Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)-/administration & dosage/adverse ; effects/pharmacology ; Evoked Potentials ; GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Hyperalgesia/chemically induced ; *Long-Term Potentiation/drug effects ; Male ; Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated/physiology ; Patch-Clamp Techniques ; Piperidines/administration & dosage/adverse effects/pharmacology ; Posterior Horn Cells/drug effects/physiology ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism ; Receptors, Opioid, mu/*agonists ; Signal Transduction ; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/*physiopathology ; Synapses/drug effects/*physiology
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2009-09-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, Robert F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Sep 18;325(5947):1485. doi: 10.1126/science.325_1485a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19762614" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2009-03-28
    Description: The sensitivity of both nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging is very low because the detected signal strength depends on the small population difference between spin states even in high magnetic fields. Hyperpolarization methods can be used to increase this difference and thereby enhance signal strength. This has been achieved previously by incorporating the molecular spin singlet para-hydrogen into hydrogenation reaction products. We show here that a metal complex can facilitate the reversible interaction of para-hydrogen with a suitable organic substrate such that up to an 800-fold increase in proton, carbon, and nitrogen signal strengths are seen for the substrate without its hydrogenation. These polarized signals can be selectively detected when combined with methods that suppress background signals.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Adams, Ralph W -- Aguilar, Juan A -- Atkinson, Kevin D -- Cowley, Michael J -- Elliott, Paul I P -- Duckett, Simon B -- Green, Gary G R -- Khazal, Iman G -- Lopez-Serrano, Joaquin -- Williamson, David C -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Mar 27;323(5922):1708-11. doi: 10.1126/science.1168877.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19325111" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Carbon/analysis ; Hydrogen/*chemistry ; Iridium/chemistry ; Ligands ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; *Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ; Niacinamide/chemistry ; Nitrogen/analysis ; Protons ; Pyridines/chemistry ; Sensitivity and Specificity
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  • 24
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-03-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wald, Chelsea -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Mar 13;323(5920):1418. doi: 10.1126/science.323.5920.1418.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19286529" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 25
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-08-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hegerl, Gabriele C -- Solomon, Susan -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Aug 21;325(5943):955-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1178530. Epub 2009 Aug 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Grant Institute, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, UK. gabi.hegerl@ed.ac.uk〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19661378" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2009-02-21
    Description: Thin layers of phytoplankton are important hotspots of ecological activity that are found in the coastal ocean, meters beneath the surface, and contain cell concentrations up to two orders of magnitude above ambient concentrations. Current interpretations of their formation favor abiotic processes, yet many phytoplankton species found in these layers are motile. We demonstrated that layers formed when the vertical migration of phytoplankton was disrupted by hydrodynamic shear. This mechanism, which we call gyrotactic trapping, can be responsible for the thin layers of phytoplankton commonly observed in the ocean. These results reveal that the coupling between active microorganism motility and ambient fluid motion can shape the macroscopic features of the marine ecological landscape.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Durham, William M -- Kessler, John O -- Stocker, Roman -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Feb 20;323(5917):1067-70. doi: 10.1126/science.1167334.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19229037" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Cell Shape ; Chlamydomonas/cytology/*physiology ; *Ecosystem ; Flagella ; Gravitation ; Movement ; Phytoplankton/cytology/*physiology ; *Water ; *Water Movements
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2009-04-18
    Description: At ultracold temperatures, the Pauli exclusion principle suppresses collisions between identical fermions. This has motivated the development of atomic clocks with fermionic isotopes. However, by probing an optical clock transition with thousands of lattice-confined, ultracold fermionic strontium atoms, we observed density-dependent collisional frequency shifts. These collision effects were measured systematically and are supported by a theoretical description attributing them to inhomogeneities in the probe excitation process that render the atoms distinguishable. This work also yields insights for zeroing the clock density shift.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Campbell, G K -- Boyd, M M -- Thomsen, J W -- Martin, M J -- Blatt, S -- Swallows, M D -- Nicholson, T L -- Fortier, T -- Oates, C W -- Diddams, S A -- Lemke, N D -- Naidon, P -- Julienne, P -- Ye, Jun -- Ludlow, A D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Apr 17;324(5925):360-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1169724.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Colorado Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0440, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19372424" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2009-09-12
    Description: RNA interference (RNAi), a gene-silencing pathway triggered by double-stranded RNA, is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species but has been lost in the model budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that RNAi is present in other budding yeast species, including Saccharomyces castellii and Candida albicans. These species use noncanonical Dicer proteins to generate small interfering RNAs, which mostly correspond to transposable elements and Y' subtelomeric repeats. In S. castellii, RNAi mutants are viable but have excess Y' messenger RNA levels. In S. cerevisiae, introducing Dicer and Argonaute of S. castellii restores RNAi, and the reconstituted pathway silences endogenous retrotransposons. These results identify a previously unknown class of Dicer proteins, bring the tool of RNAi to the study of budding yeasts, and bring the tools of budding yeast to the study of RNAi.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3786161/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3786161/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Drinnenberg, Ines A -- Weinberg, David E -- Xie, Kathleen T -- Mower, Jeffrey P -- Wolfe, Kenneth H -- Fink, Gerald R -- Bartel, David P -- GM0305010/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM040266/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM067031/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM067031/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Oct 23;326(5952):544-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1176945. Epub 2009 Sep 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19745116" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Fungal Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Genes, Fungal ; Genetic Loci ; Mutation ; Open Reading Frames ; *RNA Interference ; RNA, Double-Stranded/genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Fungal/genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Small Interfering/genetics/*metabolism ; Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid ; Retroelements ; Ribonuclease III/genetics/metabolism ; Saccharomyces/*genetics/metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*genetics/metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Saccharomycetales/*genetics/metabolism ; Sequence Analysis, RNA ; Transcription, Genetic ; Transformation, Genetic
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2009-08-29
    Description: Coat color and type are essential characteristics of domestic dog breeds. Although the genetic basis of coat color has been well characterized, relatively little is known about the genes influencing coat growth pattern, length, and curl. We performed genome-wide association studies of more than 1000 dogs from 80 domestic breeds to identify genes associated with canine fur phenotypes. Taking advantage of both inter- and intrabreed variability, we identified distinct mutations in three genes, RSPO2, FGF5, and KRT71 (encoding R-spondin-2, fibroblast growth factor-5, and keratin-71, respectively), that together account for most coat phenotypes in purebred dogs in the United States. Thus, an array of varied and seemingly complex phenotypes can be reduced to the combinatorial effects of only a few genes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2897713/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2897713/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cadieu, Edouard -- Neff, Mark W -- Quignon, Pascale -- Walsh, Kari -- Chase, Kevin -- Parker, Heidi G -- Vonholdt, Bridgett M -- Rhue, Alison -- Boyko, Adam -- Byers, Alexandra -- Wong, Aaron -- Mosher, Dana S -- Elkahloun, Abdel G -- Spady, Tyrone C -- Andre, Catherine -- Lark, K Gordon -- Cargill, Michelle -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- Wayne, Robert K -- Ostrander, Elaine A -- 1R01GM83606/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM063056/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM063056/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM063056-09/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Oct 2;326(5949):150-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1177808. Epub 2009 Aug 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19713490" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3' Untranslated Regions ; Animals ; Dogs/*genetics ; Fibroblast Growth Factor 5/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; *Hair/anatomy & histology/growth & development ; Haplotypes ; Keratins, Hair-Specific/*genetics ; Lod Score ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Phenotype ; *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Thrombospondins/*genetics ; United States
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-03-03
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Heinrich, Andreas J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Feb 27;323(5918):1178-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1170744.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Almaden Research Center, IBM Research Division, San Jose, CA 95120, USA. heinrich@almaden.ibm.com〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19251618" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 31
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-07-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Eckstein, Eugene C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jul 24;325(5939):392. doi: 10.1126/science.325_392a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19628840" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2009-12-08
    Description: Fanconi anemia is a human cancer predisposition syndrome caused by mutations in 13 Fanc genes. The disorder is characterized by genomic instability and cellular hypersensitivity to chemicals that generate DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). A central event in the activation of the Fanconi anemia pathway is the mono-ubiquitylation of the FANCI-FANCD2 complex, but how this complex confers ICL resistance remains enigmatic. Using a cell-free system, we showed that FANCI-FANCD2 is required for replication-coupled ICL repair in S phase. Removal of FANCD2 from extracts inhibits both nucleolytic incisions near the ICL and translesion DNA synthesis past the lesion. Reversal of these defects requires ubiquitylated FANCI-FANCD2. Our results show that multiple steps of the essential S-phase ICL repair mechanism fail when the Fanconi anemia pathway is compromised.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2909596/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2909596/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Knipscheer, Puck -- Raschle, Markus -- Smogorzewska, Agata -- Enoiu, Milica -- Ho, The Vinh -- Scharer, Orlando D -- Elledge, Stephen J -- Walter, Johannes C -- GM62267/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM062267/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM062267-09/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM044664/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM044664-23/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32CA09216/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Dec 18;326(5960):1698-701. doi: 10.1126/science.1182372. Epub 2009 Nov 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19965384" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell-Free System ; Chromatin/metabolism ; DNA/biosynthesis ; DNA Damage ; *DNA Repair ; *DNA Replication ; Fanconi Anemia/genetics/metabolism ; Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group D2 Protein/*metabolism ; Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group Proteins/*metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism ; S Phase ; Signal Transduction ; Ubiquitinated Proteins/metabolism ; Ubiquitination ; Xenopus Proteins/*metabolism ; Xenopus laevis
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2009-07-11
    Description: Chemical bonding dynamics are fundamental to the understanding of properties and behavior of materials and molecules. Here, we demonstrate the potential of time-resolved, femtosecond electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) for mapping electronic structural changes in the course of nuclear motions. For graphite, it is found that changes of milli-electron volts in the energy range of up to 50 electron volts reveal the compression and expansion of layers on the subpicometer scale (for surface and bulk atoms). These nonequilibrium structural features are correlated with the direction of change from sp2 [two-dimensional (2D) graphene] to sp3 (3D-diamond) electronic hybridization, and the results are compared with theoretical charge-density calculations. The reported femtosecond time resolution of four-dimensional (4D) electron microscopy represents an advance of 10 orders of magnitude over that of conventional EELS methods.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Carbone, Fabrizio -- Kwon, Oh-Hoon -- Zewail, Ahmed H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jul 10;325(5937):181-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1175005.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology, Arthur Amos Noyes Laboratory of Chemical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19589997" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Crystallization ; Graphite/*chemistry ; Lasers ; *Microscopy, Energy-Filtering Transmission Electron ; *Physicochemical Processes ; *Spectroscopy, Electron Energy-Loss
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2009-02-07
    Description: Centrosomes, each containing a pair of centrioles, organize microtubules in animal cells, particularly during mitosis. DNA and centrosomes are normally duplicated once before cell division to maintain optimal genome integrity. We report a new role for the Orc1 protein, a subunit of the origin recognition complex (ORC) that is a key component of the DNA replication licensing machinery, in controlling centriole and centrosome copy number in human cells, independent of its role in DNA replication. Cyclin A promotes Orc1 localization to centrosomes where Orc1 prevents Cyclin E-dependent reduplication of both centrioles and centrosomes in a single cell division cycle. The data suggest that Orc1 is a regulator of centriole and centrosome reduplication as well as the initiation of DNA replication.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2653626/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2653626/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hemerly, Adriana S -- Prasanth, Supriya G -- Siddiqui, Khalid -- Stillman, Bruce -- CA13106/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA013106/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA013106-310025/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA013106-36/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA013106-370025/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Feb 6;323(5915):789-93. doi: 10.1126/science.1166745.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor 11724, NY, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19197067" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Cycle ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Centrioles/*physiology ; Centrosome/*physiology ; Cyclin A/metabolism ; Cyclin E/metabolism ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2/metabolism ; DNA Replication ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Kinetics ; Mutant Proteins/metabolism ; Origin Recognition Complex/genetics/*metabolism ; RNA Interference ; RNA, Small Interfering ; Transfection
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2009-08-22
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Patrinos, Aristides A N -- Bradley, Richard A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Aug 21;325(5943):949-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1177603.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Synthetic Genomics Inc., Washington, DC 20024, USA. apatrinos@syntheticgenomics.com〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19696336" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 36
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-07-04
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Settele, Josef -- Kuhn, Elisabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jul 3;325(5936):41-2. doi: 10.1126/science.1176892.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Community Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle, Germany. Josef.Settele@ufz.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19574375" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Ants/physiology ; *Butterflies/physiology ; Climatic Processes ; *Conservation of Natural Resources ; *Ecosystem ; Europe ; Extinction, Biological ; International Cooperation ; Microclimate ; Population Dynamics
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  • 37
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-03-03
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Carlson, Scott M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Feb 27;323(5918):1169. doi: 10.1126/science.323.5918.1169b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19251612" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2009-09-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Walpole, Matt -- Almond, Rosamunde E A -- Besancon, Charles -- Butchart, Stuart H M -- Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid -- Carr, Genevieve M -- Collen, Ben -- Collette, Linda -- Davidson, Nick C -- Dulloo, Ehsan -- Fazel, Asghar M -- Galloway, James N -- Gill, Michael -- Goverse, Tessa -- Hockings, Marc -- Leaman, Danna J -- Morgan, David H W -- Revenga, Carmen -- Rickwood, Carrie J -- Schutyser, Frederik -- Simons, Sarah -- Stattersfield, Alison J -- Tyrrell, Tristan D -- Vie, Jean-Christophe -- Zimsky, Mark -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Sep 18;325(5947):1503-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1175466.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC), Cambridge, CB3 0DL, UK. matt.walpole@unep-wcmc.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19762630" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biodiversity ; *Conservation of Natural Resources ; *Ecosystem ; Environment ; Genetic Variation ; Humans ; *International Cooperation
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2009-08-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McCaw, James M -- McVernon, Jodie -- McBryde, Emma S -- Mathews, John D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Aug 28;325(5944):1071; author reply 1072-3. doi: 10.1126/science.325_1071a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19713508" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Child ; Disease Susceptibility ; Humans ; Immunity ; *Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology ; Influenza, Human/*epidemiology/*immunology
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  • 40
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-07-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vukusic, Pete -- BB/E000177/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- JF16983/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jul 24;325(5939):398-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1177729.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL, UK. p.vukusic@ex.ac.uk〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19628844" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Communication ; Animals ; Beetles/anatomy & histology/*physiology ; Color ; Nanostructures ; Radiation
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2009-08-08
    Description: Pathogens can use DNA recombination to promote antigenic variation (Av) of surface structures to avoid immune detection. We identified a cis-acting DNA sequence near the antigenically variable pilin locus of the human pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This 16-base pair guanine (G)-rich sequence was required for pilin Av and formed a guanine quartet (G4) structure in vitro. Individual mutations that disrupted the structure also blocked pilin Av and prevented nicks required for recombination from occurring within the G4 region. A compound that binds and stabilizes G4 structures also inhibited pilin Av and prevented nicks from occurring on the G-rich strand. This site constitutes a recombination initiation sequence/structure that directs gene conversion to a specific chromosomal locus.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2803317/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2803317/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cahoon, Laty A -- Seifert, H Steven -- R01 AI044239/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI044239-08/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI044239-09/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI044239-10/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI055977/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI055977-03/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI055977-04/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI055977-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI044239/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI055977/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI033493/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI033493-14/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI033493-15/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI033493-16/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37AI033493/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32GM08061/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Aug 7;325(5941):764-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1175653.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19661435" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Antigenic Variation ; Base Pairing ; Base Sequence ; DNA Damage ; DNA, Bacterial/chemistry/*genetics ; Fimbriae Proteins/chemistry/*genetics/*immunology ; Fimbriae, Bacterial ; Gene Conversion ; Guanine/chemistry ; Mesoporphyrins/metabolism/pharmacology ; Neisseria gonorrhoeae/*genetics/growth & development/*immunology ; Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/chemistry ; Recombination, Genetic
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2009-05-02
    Description: Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) are vitally involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Here, we show that a synthetic growth inhibitor called pyrabactin functions as a selective ABA agonist. Pyrabactin acts through PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE 1 (PYR1), the founding member of a family of START proteins called PYR/PYLs, which are necessary for both pyrabactin and ABA signaling in vivo. We show that ABA binds to PYR1, which in turn binds to and inhibits PP2Cs. We conclude that PYR/PYLs are ABA receptors functioning at the apex of a negative regulatory pathway that controls ABA signaling by inhibiting PP2Cs. Our results illustrate the power of the chemical genetic approach for sidestepping genetic redundancy.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2827199/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2827199/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Park, Sang-Youl -- Fung, Pauline -- Nishimura, Noriyuki -- Jensen, Davin R -- Fujii, Hiroaki -- Zhao, Yang -- Lumba, Shelley -- Santiago, Julia -- Rodrigues, Americo -- Chow, Tsz-Fung F -- Alfred, Simon E -- Bonetta, Dario -- Finkelstein, Ruth -- Provart, Nicholas J -- Desveaux, Darrell -- Rodriguez, Pedro L -- McCourt, Peter -- Zhu, Jian-Kang -- Schroeder, Julian I -- Volkman, Brian F -- Cutler, Sean R -- 01GM59138/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM060396/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM060396-08/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM060396/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54GM074901/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 May 22;324(5930):1068-71. doi: 10.1126/science.1173041. Epub 2009 Apr 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California at Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19407142" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Abscisic Acid/agonists/*metabolism ; Arabidopsis/enzymology/genetics/growth & development/*metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/*metabolism ; Genes, Plant ; Germination/drug effects ; Ligands ; Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Mutation ; Naphthalenes/chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Seeds/growth & development/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Sulfonamides/chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Two-Hybrid System Techniques
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  • 43
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-07-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kleppner, Daniel -- Sharp, Phillip A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jul 24;325(5939):368. doi: 10.1126/science.1178927.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19628822" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Automatic Data Processing/standards/trends ; *Research/standards/trends
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2009-11-07
    Description: We report a high-quality draft sequence of the genome of the horse (Equus caballus). The genome is relatively repetitive but has little segmental duplication. Chromosomes appear to have undergone few historical rearrangements: 53% of equine chromosomes show conserved synteny to a single human chromosome. Equine chromosome 11 is shown to have an evolutionary new centromere devoid of centromeric satellite DNA, suggesting that centromeric function may arise before satellite repeat accumulation. Linkage disequilibrium, showing the influences of early domestication of large herds of female horses, is intermediate in length between dog and human, and there is long-range haplotype sharing among breeds.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3785132/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3785132/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wade, C M -- Giulotto, E -- Sigurdsson, S -- Zoli, M -- Gnerre, S -- Imsland, F -- Lear, T L -- Adelson, D L -- Bailey, E -- Bellone, R R -- Blocker, H -- Distl, O -- Edgar, R C -- Garber, M -- Leeb, T -- Mauceli, E -- MacLeod, J N -- Penedo, M C T -- Raison, J M -- Sharpe, T -- Vogel, J -- Andersson, L -- Antczak, D F -- Biagi, T -- Binns, M M -- Chowdhary, B P -- Coleman, S J -- Della Valle, G -- Fryc, S -- Guerin, G -- Hasegawa, T -- Hill, E W -- Jurka, J -- Kiialainen, A -- Lindgren, G -- Liu, J -- Magnani, E -- Mickelson, J R -- Murray, J -- Nergadze, S G -- Onofrio, R -- Pedroni, S -- Piras, M F -- Raudsepp, T -- Rocchi, M -- Roed, K H -- Ryder, O A -- Searle, S -- Skow, L -- Swinburne, J E -- Syvanen, A C -- Tozaki, T -- Valberg, S J -- Vaudin, M -- White, J R -- Zody, M C -- Broad Institute Genome Sequencing Platform -- Broad Institute Whole Genome Assembly Team -- Lander, E S -- Lindblad-Toh, K -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Nov 6;326(5954):865-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1178158.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Broad Institute, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. c.wade@usyd.edu.au〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19892987" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Domestic/genetics ; Centromere/genetics ; Chromosome Mapping ; Chromosomes, Mammalian/*genetics ; Computational Biology ; DNA Copy Number Variations ; Dogs ; Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Genes ; *Genome ; Haplotypes ; Horses/*genetics ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Synteny
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2009-02-07
    Description: The glass transition is the freezing of a liquid into a solid state without evident structural order. Although glassy materials are well characterized experimentally, the existence of a phase transition into the glass state remains controversial. Here, we present numerical evidence for the existence of a novel first-order dynamical phase transition in atomistic models of structural glass formers. In contrast to equilibrium phase transitions, which occur in configuration space, this transition occurs in trajectory space, and it is controlled by variables that drive the system out of equilibrium. Coexistence is established between an ergodic phase with finite relaxation time and a nonergodic phase of immobile molecular configurations. Thus, we connect the glass transition to a true phase transition, offering the possibility of a unified picture of glassy phenomena.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hedges, Lester O -- Jack, Robert L -- Garrahan, Juan P -- Chandler, David -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Mar 6;323(5919):1309-13. doi: 10.1126/science.1166665. Epub 2009 Feb 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19197025" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 46
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-06-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, Robert F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jun 5;324(5932):1257-9. doi: 10.1126/science.324_1257.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19498144" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 47
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-05-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Duggavathi, Rajesha -- Murphy, Bruce D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 May 15;324(5929):890-1. doi: 10.1126/science.1174130.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Animal Science, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9 Canada. raj.duggavathi@mcgill.ca〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19443772" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta/metabolism ; Epidermal Growth Factor/metabolism ; Epiregulin ; Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/genetics/metabolism ; Female ; Granulosa Cells/*metabolism ; Luteinizing Hormone/metabolism ; *MAP Kinase Signaling System ; Mice ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/*metabolism ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/*metabolism ; Ovarian Follicle/physiology ; *Ovulation
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2009-05-02
    Description: Mercury is surrounded by a tenuous exosphere that is supplied primarily by the planet's surface materials and is known to contain sodium, potassium, and calcium. Observations by the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer during MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby revealed the presence of neutral magnesium in the tail (anti-sunward) region of the exosphere, as well as differing spatial distributions of magnesium, calcium, and sodium atoms in both the tail and the nightside, near-planet exosphere. Analysis of these observations, supplemented by observations during the first Mercury flyby, as well as those by other MESSENGER instruments, suggests that the distinct spatial distributions arise from a combination of differences in source, transfer, and loss processes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McClintock, William E -- Vervack, Ronald J Jr -- Bradley, E Todd -- Killen, Rosemary M -- Mouawad, Nelly -- Sprague, Ann L -- Burger, Matthew H -- Solomon, Sean C -- Izenberg, Noam R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 May 1;324(5927):610-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1172525.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303, USA. william.mcclintock@colorado.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19407195" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-12-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Alberts, Bruce -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Nov 27;326(5957):1163. doi: 10.1126/science.1184848.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19965437" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biomedical Research/economics ; Budgets ; Financing, Government ; *Motivation ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/*economics ; *Peer Review, Research ; *Research Support as Topic ; United States
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  • 50
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