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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Animals ; Indicators ; Air pollution ; Ecosystem responses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract With existing and proposed air-quality regulations, ecological disasters resulting from air emissions such as those observed at Copperhill, Tennessee, and Sudbury, Ontario, are unlikely. Current air-quality standards, however, may not protect ecosystems from subacute and chronic exposure to air emissions. The encouragement of the use of coal for energy production and the development of the fossil-fuel industries, including oil shales, tar sands, and coal liquification, point to an increase and spread of fossil-fuel emissions and the potential to influence a number of natural ecosystems. This paper reviews the reported responses of ecosystems to air-borne pollutants and discusses the use of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to these pollutants. Animal species and populations can act as important indicators of biotic and abiotic responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These responses can indicate long-term trends in ecosystem health and productivity, chemical cycling, genetics, and regulation. For short-term trends, fish and wildlife also serve as monitors of changes in community structure, signaling food-web contamination, as well as providing a measure of ecosystem vitality. Information is presented to show not only the importance of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air-quality degradation, but also their value as air-pollution indices, that is, as air-quality-related values (AQRV), required in current air-pollution regulation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2008-04-12
    Description: Pseudogenes populate the mammalian genome as remnants of artefactual incorporation of coding messenger RNAs into transposon pathways. Here we show that a subset of pseudogenes generates endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) in mouse oocytes. These endo-siRNAs are often processed from double-stranded RNAs formed by hybridization of spliced transcripts from protein-coding genes to antisense transcripts from homologous pseudogenes. An inverted repeat pseudogene can also generate abundant small RNAs directly. A second class of endo-siRNAs may enforce repression of mobile genetic elements, acting together with Piwi-interacting RNAs. Loss of Dicer, a protein integral to small RNA production, increases expression of endo-siRNA targets, demonstrating their regulatory activity. Our findings indicate a function for pseudogenes in regulating gene expression by means of the RNA interference pathway and may, in part, explain the evolutionary pressure to conserve argonaute-mediated catalysis in mammals.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2981145/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2981145/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tam, Oliver H -- Aravin, Alexei A -- Stein, Paula -- Girard, Angelique -- Murchison, Elizabeth P -- Cheloufi, Sihem -- Hodges, Emily -- Anger, Martin -- Sachidanandam, Ravi -- Schultz, Richard M -- Hannon, Gregory J -- P01 CA013106-34/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM062534/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM062534-07/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM062534-08/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 May 22;453(7194):534-8. doi: 10.1038/nature06904. Epub 2008 Apr 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Watson School of Biological Sciences and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18404147" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Computational Biology ; DNA Transposable Elements/genetics ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Gene Library ; Mice ; Oocytes/*metabolism ; Pseudogenes/*genetics ; *RNA Interference ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Small Interfering/*genetics ; Ribonuclease III/deficiency/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2008-08-01
    Description: Percolation theory is most commonly associated with the slow flow of liquid through a porous medium, with applications to the physical sciences. Epidemiological applications have been anticipated for disease systems where the host is a plant or volume of soil, and hence is fixed in space. However, no natural examples have been reported. The central question of interest in percolation theory, the possibility of an infinite connected cluster, corresponds in infectious disease to a positive probability of an epidemic. Archived records of plague (infection with Yersinia pestis) in populations of great gerbils (Rhombomys opimus) in Kazakhstan have been used to show that epizootics only occur when more than about 0.33 of the burrow systems built by the host are occupied by family groups. The underlying mechanism for this abundance threshold is unknown. Here we present evidence that it is a percolation threshold, which arises from the difference in scale between the movements that transport infectious fleas between family groups and the vast size of contiguous landscapes colonized by gerbils. Conventional theory predicts that abundance thresholds for the spread of infectious disease arise when transmission between hosts is density dependent such that the basic reproduction number (R(0)) increases with abundance, attaining 1 at the threshold. Percolation thresholds, however, are separate, spatially explicit thresholds that indicate long-range connectivity in a system and do not coincide with R(0) = 1. Abundance thresholds are the theoretical basis for attempts to manage infectious disease by reducing the abundance of susceptibles, including vaccination and the culling of wildlife. This first natural example of a percolation threshold in a disease system invites a re-appraisal of other invasion thresholds, such as those for epidemic viral infections in African lions (Panthera leo), and of other disease systems such as bovine tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) in badgers (Meles meles).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Davis, S -- Trapman, P -- Leirs, H -- Begon, M -- Heesterbeek, J A P -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jul 31;454(7204):634-7. doi: 10.1038/nature07053.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Theoretical Epidemiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, Yalelaan 7, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands. S.A.Davis@uu.nl〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18668107" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Disease Outbreaks ; Gerbillinae/microbiology/parasitology ; Kazakhstan/epidemiology ; *Models, Biological ; Plague/epidemiology/parasitology/*transmission/veterinary ; Population Density ; Population Dynamics ; Rodent Diseases/epidemiology/parasitology/transmission ; Siphonaptera/microbiology/physiology ; Yersinia pestis/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2008-12-05
    Description: Juxtaposition between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria is a common structural feature, providing the physical basis for intercommunication during Ca(2+) signalling; yet, the molecular mechanisms controlling this interaction are unknown. Here we show that mitofusin 2, a mitochondrial dynamin-related protein mutated in the inherited motor neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth type IIa, is enriched at the ER-mitochondria interface. Ablation or silencing of mitofusin 2 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and HeLa cells disrupts ER morphology and loosens ER-mitochondria interactions, thereby reducing the efficiency of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in response to stimuli that generate inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate. An in vitro assay as well as genetic and biochemical evidences support a model in which mitofusin 2 on the ER bridges the two organelles by engaging in homotypic and heterotypic complexes with mitofusin 1 or 2 on the surface of mitochondria. Thus, mitofusin 2 tethers ER to mitochondria, a juxtaposition required for efficient mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉de Brito, Olga Martins -- Scorrano, Luca -- TCR07002/Telethon/Italy -- England -- Nature. 2008 Dec 4;456(7222):605-10. doi: 10.1038/nature07534.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dulbecco-Telethon Institute, Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, Via Orus 2, 35129 Padova, Italy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19052620" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/metabolism ; Calcium Signaling ; Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease/genetics ; Endoplasmic Reticulum/*metabolism ; Fibroblasts ; GTP Phosphohydrolases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate/metabolism ; Membrane Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Mice ; Mitochondria/*metabolism ; Mitochondrial Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Organelle Shape
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2008-04-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yang, Qisen -- Xia, Lin -- England -- Nature. 2008 Apr 17;452(7189):810-1. doi: 10.1038/452810c.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18421324" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological/physiology ; Animal Migration/*physiology ; Animals ; Animals, Wild/physiology ; Antelopes/*physiology ; Human Activities ; *Railroads ; Tibet
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2008-02-29
    Description: Autophagy, or cellular self-digestion, is a cellular pathway involved in protein and organelle degradation, with an astonishing number of connections to human disease and physiology. For example, autophagic dysfunction is associated with cancer, neurodegeneration, microbial infection and ageing. Paradoxically, although autophagy is primarily a protective process for the cell, it can also play a role in cell death. Understanding autophagy may ultimately allow scientists and clinicians to harness this process for the purpose of improving human health.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2670399/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2670399/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mizushima, Noboru -- Levine, Beth -- Cuervo, Ana Maria -- Klionsky, Daniel J -- R01 AG021904/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG021904-06/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R03 AG019834/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R03 AG019834-02/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R21 AG025355/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R21 AG025355-02/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Feb 28;451(7182):1069-75. doi: 10.1038/nature06639.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18305538" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/physiology ; Animals ; Autophagy/immunology/*physiology ; Cell Death ; Cell Survival ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate/immunology ; Neoplasms/pathology ; Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2008-09-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Marnett, Lawrence J -- England -- Nature. 2008 Sep 18;455(7211):300-1. doi: 10.1038/455300a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18800126" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arabidopsis/enzymology/genetics ; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Evolution, Molecular ; Intramolecular Oxidoreductases/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Oxylipins/*metabolism
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  • 8
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2008-12-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Spradling, Allan C -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Dec 4;456(7222):583-5. doi: 10.1038/456583a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19052613" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*physiology ; Animals ; Cell Dedifferentiation ; Cell Division ; Centrosome/*metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/*cytology ; Male ; *Spermatogenesis ; Spermatozoa/*cytology ; Stem Cells/*cytology ; Testis/cytology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2008-06-20
    Description: Lancelets ('amphioxus') are the modern survivors of an ancient chordate lineage, with a fossil record dating back to the Cambrian period. Here we describe the structure and gene content of the highly polymorphic approximately 520-megabase genome of the Florida lancelet Branchiostoma floridae, and analyse it in the context of chordate evolution. Whole-genome comparisons illuminate the murky relationships among the three chordate groups (tunicates, lancelets and vertebrates), and allow not only reconstruction of the gene complement of the last common chordate ancestor but also partial reconstruction of its genomic organization, as well as a description of two genome-wide duplications and subsequent reorganizations in the vertebrate lineage. These genome-scale events shaped the vertebrate genome and provided additional genetic variation for exploitation during vertebrate evolution.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Putnam, Nicholas H -- Butts, Thomas -- Ferrier, David E K -- Furlong, Rebecca F -- Hellsten, Uffe -- Kawashima, Takeshi -- Robinson-Rechavi, Marc -- Shoguchi, Eiichi -- Terry, Astrid -- Yu, Jr-Kai -- Benito-Gutierrez, E Lia -- Dubchak, Inna -- Garcia-Fernandez, Jordi -- Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J -- Grigoriev, Igor V -- Horton, Amy C -- de Jong, Pieter J -- Jurka, Jerzy -- Kapitonov, Vladimir V -- Kohara, Yuji -- Kuroki, Yoko -- Lindquist, Erika -- Lucas, Susan -- Osoegawa, Kazutoyo -- Pennacchio, Len A -- Salamov, Asaf A -- Satou, Yutaka -- Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana -- Schmutz, Jeremy -- Shin-I, Tadasu -- Toyoda, Atsushi -- Bronner-Fraser, Marianne -- Fujiyama, Asao -- Holland, Linda Z -- Holland, Peter W H -- Satoh, Nori -- Rokhsar, Daniel S -- BBS/B/12067/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BBS/B/12067/2/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jun 19;453(7198):1064-71. doi: 10.1038/nature06967.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18563158" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chordata/classification/*genetics ; Conserved Sequence ; DNA Transposable Elements/genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Duplication ; Genes/genetics ; Genetic Linkage ; Genome/*genetics ; Humans ; Introns/genetics ; Karyotyping ; Multigene Family ; Phylogeny ; Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics ; Proteins/genetics ; Synteny ; Time Factors ; Vertebrates/classification/genetics
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  • 10
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2008-01-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wenner, Melinda -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jan 24;451(7177):388-9. doi: 10.1038/451388a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18216825" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Endogenous Retroviruses/genetics/immunology ; Genetic Complementation Test ; HIV Infections/*complications/immunology/virology ; HIV-1/immunology/pathogenicity/*physiology ; Herpesvirus 6, Human/pathogenicity/*physiology ; Herpesvirus 7, Human/physiology ; Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Humans ; Mice ; Models, Immunological ; Palatine Tonsil/immunology/virology ; Roseolovirus Infections/*complications/immunology/virology ; Superinfection/*immunology/microbiology/prevention & control/*virology ; Tissue Culture Techniques ; Virus Replication
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2008-06-20
    Description: T helper (T(H)) cells constitute an important arm of the adaptive immune system because they coordinate defence against specific pathogens, and their unique cytokines and effector functions mediate different types of tissue inflammation. The recently discovered T(H)17 cells, the third subset of effector T helper cells, have been the subject of intense research aimed at understanding their role in immunity and disease. Here we review emerging data suggesting that T(H)17 cells have an important role in host defence against specific pathogens and are potent inducers of autoimmunity and tissue inflammation. In addition, the differentiation factors responsible for their generation have revealed an interesting reciprocal relationship with regulatory T (T(reg)) cells, which prevent tissue inflammation and mediate self-tolerance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bettelli, Estelle -- Korn, Thomas -- Oukka, Mohamed -- Kuchroo, Vijay K -- R01 AI073542/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI073542-01/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI073542-02/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS059996/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jun 19;453(7198):1051-7. doi: 10.1038/nature07036.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18563156" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autoimmune Diseases/immunology/pathology ; Cytokines/immunology/metabolism ; Humans ; Interleukin-17/*immunology/*metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/classification/*cytology/*immunology/metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology ; Transcription Factors/metabolism
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2008-03-26
    Description: The neuronal repressor REST (RE1-silencing transcription factor; also called NRSF) is expressed at high levels in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, but its role in these cells is unclear. Here we show that REST maintains self-renewal and pluripotency in mouse ES cells through suppression of the microRNA miR-21. We found that, as with known self-renewal markers, the level of REST expression is much higher in self-renewing mouse ES cells than in differentiating mouse ES (embryoid body, EB) cells. Heterozygous deletion of Rest (Rest+/-) and its short-interfering-RNA-mediated knockdown in mouse ES cells cause a loss of self-renewal-even when these cells are grown under self-renewal conditions-and lead to the expression of markers specific for multiple lineages. Conversely, exogenously added REST maintains self-renewal in mouse EB cells. Furthermore, Rest+/- mouse ES cells cultured under self-renewal conditions express substantially reduced levels of several self-renewal regulators, including Oct4 (also called Pou5f1), Nanog, Sox2 and c-Myc, and exogenously added REST in mouse EB cells maintains the self-renewal phenotypes and expression of these self-renewal regulators. We also show that in mouse ES cells, REST is bound to the gene chromatin of a set of miRNAs that potentially target self-renewal genes. Whereas mouse ES cells and mouse EB cells containing exogenously added REST express lower levels of these miRNAs, EB cells, Rest+/- ES cells and ES cells treated with short interfering RNA targeting Rest express higher levels of these miRNAs. At least one of these REST-regulated miRNAs, miR-21, specifically suppresses the self-renewal of mouse ES cells, corresponding to the decreased expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and c-Myc. Thus, REST is a newly discovered element of the interconnected regulatory network that maintains the self-renewal and pluripotency of mouse ES cells.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2830094/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2830094/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Singh, Sanjay K -- Kagalwala, Mohamedi N -- Parker-Thornburg, Jan -- Adams, Henry -- Majumder, Sadhan -- CA81255/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA97124/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA081255/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA081255-10/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA097124/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA097124-07/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 May 8;453(7192):223-7. doi: 10.1038/nature06863. Epub 2008 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cancer Genetics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18362916" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biomarkers ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line ; Cell Lineage ; Cell Proliferation ; Chromatin/genetics/metabolism ; Embryonic Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Repressor Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription Factors/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2008-11-07
    Description: Here we present the first diploid genome sequence of an Asian individual. The genome was sequenced to 36-fold average coverage using massively parallel sequencing technology. We aligned the short reads onto the NCBI human reference genome to 99.97% coverage, and guided by the reference genome, we used uniquely mapped reads to assemble a high-quality consensus sequence for 92% of the Asian individual's genome. We identified approximately 3 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) inside this region, of which 13.6% were not in the dbSNP database. Genotyping analysis showed that SNP identification had high accuracy and consistency, indicating the high sequence quality of this assembly. We also carried out heterozygote phasing and haplotype prediction against HapMap CHB and JPT haplotypes (Chinese and Japanese, respectively), sequence comparison with the two available individual genomes (J. D. Watson and J. C. Venter), and structural variation identification. These variations were considered for their potential biological impact. Our sequence data and analyses demonstrate the potential usefulness of next-generation sequencing technologies for personal genomics.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2716080/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2716080/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Jun -- Wang, Wei -- Li, Ruiqiang -- Li, Yingrui -- Tian, Geng -- Goodman, Laurie -- Fan, Wei -- Zhang, Junqing -- Li, Jun -- Zhang, Juanbin -- Guo, Yiran -- Feng, Binxiao -- Li, Heng -- Lu, Yao -- Fang, Xiaodong -- Liang, Huiqing -- Du, Zhenglin -- Li, Dong -- Zhao, Yiqing -- Hu, Yujie -- Yang, Zhenzhen -- Zheng, Hancheng -- Hellmann, Ines -- Inouye, Michael -- Pool, John -- Yi, Xin -- Zhao, Jing -- Duan, Jinjie -- Zhou, Yan -- Qin, Junjie -- Ma, Lijia -- Li, Guoqing -- Yang, Zhentao -- Zhang, Guojie -- Yang, Bin -- Yu, Chang -- Liang, Fang -- Li, Wenjie -- Li, Shaochuan -- Li, Dawei -- Ni, Peixiang -- Ruan, Jue -- Li, Qibin -- Zhu, Hongmei -- Liu, Dongyuan -- Lu, Zhike -- Li, Ning -- Guo, Guangwu -- Zhang, Jianguo -- Ye, Jia -- Fang, Lin -- Hao, Qin -- Chen, Quan -- Liang, Yu -- Su, Yeyang -- San, A -- Ping, Cuo -- Yang, Shuang -- Chen, Fang -- Li, Li -- Zhou, Ke -- Zheng, Hongkun -- Ren, Yuanyuan -- Yang, Ling -- Gao, Yang -- Yang, Guohua -- Li, Zhuo -- Feng, Xiaoli -- Kristiansen, Karsten -- Wong, Gane Ka-Shu -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Durbin, Richard -- Bolund, Lars -- Zhang, Xiuqing -- Li, Songgang -- Yang, Huanming -- Wang, Jian -- 077192/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- R01 HG003229/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003229-04/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Nov 6;456(7218):60-5. doi: 10.1038/nature07484.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Beijing Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518000, China. wangj@genomics.org.cn〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18987735" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Animals ; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/*genetics ; Consensus Sequence ; Databases, Genetic ; *Diploidy ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; *Genomics ; Haplotypes/genetics ; Humans ; Internet ; Pan troglodytes/genetics ; Phenotype ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Sensitivity and Specificity ; Sequence Alignment
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2008-07-25
    Description: Statistical dependencies in the responses of sensory neurons govern both the amount of stimulus information conveyed and the means by which downstream neurons can extract it. Although a variety of measurements indicate the existence of such dependencies, their origin and importance for neural coding are poorly understood. Here we analyse the functional significance of correlated firing in a complete population of macaque parasol retinal ganglion cells using a model of multi-neuron spike responses. The model, with parameters fit directly to physiological data, simultaneously captures both the stimulus dependence and detailed spatio-temporal correlations in population responses, and provides two insights into the structure of the neural code. First, neural encoding at the population level is less noisy than one would expect from the variability of individual neurons: spike times are more precise, and can be predicted more accurately when the spiking of neighbouring neurons is taken into account. Second, correlations provide additional sensory information: optimal, model-based decoding that exploits the response correlation structure extracts 20% more information about the visual scene than decoding under the assumption of independence, and preserves 40% more visual information than optimal linear decoding. This model-based approach reveals the role of correlated activity in the retinal coding of visual stimuli, and provides a general framework for understanding the importance of correlated activity in populations of neurons.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2684455/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2684455/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pillow, Jonathan W -- Shlens, Jonathon -- Paninski, Liam -- Sher, Alexander -- Litke, Alan M -- Chichilnisky, E J -- Simoncelli, Eero P -- EY018003/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018003/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018003-01/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018003-02/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018003-03/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Aug 21;454(7207):995-9. doi: 10.1038/nature07140. Epub 2008 Jul 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, UCL, 17 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, UK. pillow@gatsby.ucl.ac.uk〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18650810" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Macaca mulatta/*physiology ; *Models, Neurological ; Photic Stimulation ; Retinal Ganglion Cells/*physiology ; Time Factors ; Vision, Ocular/*physiology
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2008-03-21
    Description: The RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST, also known as NRSF) is a master repressor of neuronal gene expression and neuronal programmes in non-neuronal lineages. Recently, REST was identified as a human tumour suppressor in epithelial tissues, suggesting that its regulation may have important physiological and pathological consequences. However, the pathways controlling REST have yet to be elucidated. Here we show that REST is regulated by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and use an RNA interference (RNAi) screen to identify a Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein complex containing the F-box protein beta-TRCP (SCF(beta-TRCP)) as an E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for REST degradation. beta-TRCP binds and ubiquitinates REST and controls its stability through a conserved phospho-degron. During neural differentiation, REST is degraded in a beta-TRCP-dependent manner. beta-TRCP is required for proper neural differentiation only in the presence of REST, indicating that beta-TRCP facilitates this process through degradation of REST. Conversely, failure to degrade REST attenuates differentiation. Furthermore, we find that beta-TRCP overexpression, which is common in human epithelial cancers, causes oncogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells and that this pathogenic function requires REST degradation. Thus, REST is a key target in beta-TRCP-driven transformation and the beta-TRCP-REST axis is a new regulatory pathway controlling neurogenesis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2688689/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2688689/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Westbrook, Thomas F -- Hu, Guang -- Ang, Xiaolu L -- Mulligan, Peter -- Pavlova, Natalya N -- Liang, Anthony -- Leng, Yumei -- Maehr, Rene -- Shi, Yang -- Harper, J Wade -- Elledge, Stephen J -- F31 NS054507-01/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG011085/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG011085-16/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM054137/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM054137-13/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Mar 20;452(7185):370-4. doi: 10.1038/nature06780.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Genetics, Harvard Partners Center for Genetics and Genomics, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18354483" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line, Tumor ; *Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Conserved Sequence ; Humans ; Mice ; Neurons/*cytology/*pathology ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational ; RNA Interference ; Repressor Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases/*metabolism ; Substrate Specificity ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism ; Ubiquitin/metabolism ; beta-Transducin Repeat-Containing Proteins/genetics/*metabolism
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2008-02-26
    Description: Maintaining cell shape and tone is crucial for the function and survival of cells and tissues. Mechanotransduction relies on the transformation of minuscule mechanical forces into high-fidelity electrical responses. When mechanoreceptors are stimulated, mechanically sensitive cation channels open and produce an inward transduction current that depolarizes the cell. For this process to operate effectively, the transduction machinery has to retain integrity and remain unfailingly independent of environmental changes. This is particularly challenging for poikilothermic organisms, where changes in temperature in the environment may impact the function of mechanoreceptor neurons. Thus, we wondered how insects whose habitat might quickly vary over several tens of degrees of temperature manage to maintain highly effective mechanical senses. We screened for Drosophila mutants with defective mechanical responses at elevated ambient temperatures, and identified a gene, spam, whose role is to protect the mechanosensory organ from massive cellular deformation caused by heat-induced osmotic imbalance. Here we show that Spam protein forms an extracellular shield that guards mechanosensory neurons from environmental insult. Remarkably, heterologously expressed Spam protein also endowed other cells with superb defence against physically and chemically induced deformation. We studied the mechanical impact of Spam coating and show that spam-coated cells are up to ten times stiffer than uncoated controls. Together, these results help explain how poikilothermic organisms preserve the architecture of critical cells during environmental stress, and illustrate an elegant and simple solution to such challenge.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2387185/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2387185/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cook, Boaz -- Hardy, Robert W -- McConnaughey, William B -- Zuker, Charles S -- R01 EY006979/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY006979-18/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Mar 20;452(7185):361-4. doi: 10.1038/nature06603. Epub 2008 Feb 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Departments of Neurobiology and Neurosciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0649, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18297055" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Cell Shape/*drug effects/*physiology ; Drosophila Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/*cytology/drug effects/genetics/physiology ; Electrophysiology ; *Environment ; Eye Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Hot Temperature ; Humidity ; Mechanoreceptors/cytology/physiology ; Mechanotransduction, Cellular/*drug effects/*physiology ; Models, Biological ; Osmotic Pressure ; Stimulation, Chemical ; Stress, Mechanical
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2008-11-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bayry, Jagadeesh -- England -- Nature. 2008 Nov 20;456(7220):285. doi: 10.1038/456285e.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉INSERM, Paris.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19020575" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD/genetics/immunology/*metabolism ; Autoimmune Diseases/genetics/immunology ; CTLA-4 Antigen ; Dendritic Cells/immunology ; Humans ; Immune Tolerance/*immunology ; Mice ; Neoplasms/drug therapy/immunology ; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/*immunology/metabolism
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2008-08-15
    Description: Dorsal-ventral patterning in vertebrate and invertebrate embryos is mediated by a conserved system of secreted proteins that establishes a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) gradient. Although the Drosophila embryonic Decapentaplegic (Dpp) gradient has served as a model to understand how morphogen gradients are established, no role for the extracellular matrix has been previously described. Here we show that type IV collagen extracellular matrix proteins bind Dpp and regulate its signalling in both the Drosophila embryo and ovary. We provide evidence that the interaction between Dpp and type IV collagen augments Dpp signalling in the embryo by promoting gradient formation, yet it restricts the signalling range in the ovary through sequestration of the Dpp ligand. Together, these results identify a critical function of type IV collagens in modulating Dpp in the extracellular space during Drosophila development. On the basis of our findings that human type IV collagen binds BMP4, we predict that this role of type IV collagens will be conserved.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Xiaomeng -- Harris, Robin E -- Bayston, Laura J -- Ashe, Hilary L -- BBS/B/11672/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2008 Sep 4;455(7209):72-7. doi: 10.1038/nature07214.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18701888" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Body Patterning ; Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Count ; Collagen Type IV/genetics/*metabolism ; Drosophila Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/embryology/genetics/*metabolism ; Female ; Male ; Ovary/cytology/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; *Signal Transduction ; Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics/metabolism
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2008-08-12
    Description: Human Argonaute (Ago) proteins are essential components of the RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). Argonaute 2 (Ago2) has a P-element-induced wimpy testis (PIWI) domain, which folds like RNase H and is responsible for target RNA cleavage in RNA interference. Proteins such as Dicer, TRBP, MOV10, RHA, RCK/p54 and KIAA1093 associate with Ago proteins and participate in small RNA processing, RISC loading and localization of Ago proteins in the cytoplasmic messenger RNA processing bodies. However, mechanisms that regulate RNA interference remain obscure. Here we report physical interactions between Ago2 and the alpha-(P4H-alpha(I)) and beta-(P4H-beta) subunits of the type I collagen prolyl-4-hydroxylase (C-P4H(I)). Mass spectrometric analysis identified hydroxylation of the endogenous Ago2 at proline 700. In vitro, both Ago2 and Ago4 seem to be more efficiently hydroxylated than Ago1 and Ago3 by recombinant human C-P4H(I). Importantly, human cells depleted of P4H-alpha(I) or P4H-beta by short hairpin RNA and P4H-alpha(I) null mouse embryonic fibroblast cells showed reduced stability of Ago2 and impaired short interfering RNA programmed RISC activity. Furthermore, mutation of proline 700 to alanine also resulted in destabilization of Ago2, thus linking Ago2 P700 and hydroxylation at this residue to its stability regulation. These findings identify hydroxylation as a post-translational modification important for Ago2 stability and effective RNA interference.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2661850/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2661850/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Qi, Hank H -- Ongusaha, Pat P -- Myllyharju, Johanna -- Cheng, Dongmei -- Pakkanen, Outi -- Shi, Yujiang -- Lee, Sam W -- Peng, Junmin -- Shi, Yang -- AG025688/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- GM53874/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM053874/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM053874-15/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Sep 18;455(7211):421-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07186. Epub 2008 Aug 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, New Research Building 854, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18690212" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Argonaute Proteins ; Enzyme Stability ; Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Hydroxylation ; Mice ; MicroRNAs/genetics ; Proline/*metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Subunits ; RNA-Induced Silencing Complex/genetics/metabolism
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2008-06-20
    Description: The vertebrate body axis is subdivided into repeated segments, best exemplified by the vertebrae that derive from embryonic somites. The number of somites is precisely defined for any given species but varies widely from one species to another. To determine the mechanism controlling somite number, we have compared somitogenesis in zebrafish, chicken, mouse and corn snake embryos. Here we present evidence that in all of these species a similar 'clock-and-wavefront' mechanism operates to control somitogenesis; in all of them, somitogenesis is brought to an end through a process in which the presomitic mesoderm, having first increased in size, gradually shrinks until it is exhausted, terminating somite formation. In snake embryos, however, the segmentation clock rate is much faster relative to developmental rate than in other amniotes, leading to a greatly increased number of smaller-sized somites.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gomez, Celine -- Ozbudak, Ertugrul M -- Wunderlich, Joshua -- Baumann, Diana -- Lewis, Julian -- Pourquie, Olivier -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jul 17;454(7202):335-9. doi: 10.1038/nature07020. Epub 2008 Jun 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18563087" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Body Patterning/genetics ; Chick Embryo/*embryology ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Mice/*embryology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Snakes/*embryology ; Somites/*embryology ; Time Factors ; Zebrafish/*embryology
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2008-05-02
    Description: Approximately 50 species, including birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, crustaceans and insects, are known to use the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation. Birds in particular have been intensively studied, but the biophysical mechanisms that underlie the avian magnetic compass are still poorly understood. One proposal, based on magnetically sensitive free radical reactions, is gaining support despite the fact that no chemical reaction in vitro has been shown to respond to magnetic fields as weak as the Earth's ( approximately 50 muT) or to be sensitive to the direction of such a field. Here we use spectroscopic observation of a carotenoid-porphyrin-fullerene model system to demonstrate that the lifetime of a photochemically formed radical pair is changed by application of 〈 or =50 microT magnetic fields, and to measure the anisotropic chemical response that is essential for its operation as a chemical compass sensor. These experiments establish the feasibility of chemical magnetoreception and give insight into the structural and dynamic design features required for optimal detection of the direction of the Earth's magnetic field.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Maeda, Kiminori -- Henbest, Kevin B -- Cintolesi, Filippo -- Kuprov, Ilya -- Rodgers, Christopher T -- Liddell, Paul A -- Gust, Devens -- Timmel, Christiane R -- Hore, P J -- England -- Nature. 2008 May 15;453(7193):387-90. doi: 10.1038/nature06834. Epub 2008 Apr 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18449197" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Migration/*physiology ; Animals ; Anisotropy ; Birds/*physiology ; Earth (Planet) ; *Magnetics ; *Models, Biological ; Orientation/*physiology ; Superoxides/metabolism
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2008-03-07
    Description: Complex dynamics are often shown by simple ecological models and have been clearly demonstrated in laboratory and natural systems. Yet many classes of theoretically possible dynamics are still poorly documented in nature. Here we study long-term time-series data of a midge, Tanytarsus gracilentus (Diptera: Chironomidae), in Lake Myvatn, Iceland. The midge undergoes density fluctuations of almost six orders of magnitude. Rather than regular cycles, however, these fluctuations have irregular periods of 4-7 years, indicating complex dynamics. We fit three consumer-resource models capable of qualitatively distinct dynamics to the data. Of these, the best-fitting model shows alternative dynamical states in the absence of environmental variability; depending on the initial midge densities, the model shows either fluctuations around a fixed point or high-amplitude cycles. This explains the observed complex population dynamics: high-amplitude but irregular fluctuations occur because stochastic variability causes the dynamics to switch between domains of attraction to the alternative states. In the model, the amplitude of fluctuations depends strongly on minute resource subsidies into the midge habitat. These resource subsidies may be sensitive to human-caused changes in the hydrology of the lake, with human impacts such as dredging leading to higher-amplitude fluctuations. Tanytarsus gracilentus is a key component of the Myvatn ecosystem, representing two-thirds of the secondary productivity of the lake and providing vital food resources to fish and to breeding bird populations. Therefore the high-amplitude, irregular fluctuations in midge densities generated by alternative dynamical states dominate much of the ecology of the lake.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ives, Anthony R -- Einarsson, Arni -- Jansen, Vincent A A -- Gardarsson, Arnthor -- England -- Nature. 2008 Mar 6;452(7183):84-7. doi: 10.1038/nature06610.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA. arives@wisc.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18322533" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chironomidae/*physiology ; Computer Simulation ; *Ecosystem ; Eukaryota/physiology ; Food ; *Fresh Water ; Iceland ; Models, Biological ; Population Density ; Stochastic Processes
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2008-11-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Maher, Brendan -- England -- Nature. 2008 Nov 6;456(7218):18-21. doi: 10.1038/456018a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18987709" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Body Height/genetics ; Child ; Epistasis, Genetic ; Gene Dosage/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; *Genomics ; Heredity/*genetics ; Humans ; Individuality ; Mice ; Penetrance ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
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  • 24
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    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2008-10-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gilbert, Natasha -- England -- Nature. 2008 Oct 9;455(7214):717. doi: 10.1038/455717a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18853513" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Asia, Southeastern ; Biodiversity ; Conservation of Natural Resources ; *Data Collection ; *Extinction, Biological ; Mammals/*physiology ; Population Density
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2008-12-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Smith, Noel H -- Clifton-Hadley, Richard -- England -- Nature. 2008 Dec 11;456(7223):700. doi: 10.1038/456700a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19079031" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Husbandry/*methods ; Animals ; Cattle ; Great Britain ; Humans ; Population Surveillance ; Tuberculosis, Bovine/*epidemiology/prevention & control ; Zoonoses/epidemiology/transmission
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2008-09-23
    Description: Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase that participates in numerous signalling pathways involved in diverse physiological processes. Several of these pathways are implicated in disease pathogenesis, which has prompted efforts to develop GSK3-specific inhibitors for therapeutic applications. However, before now, there has been no strong rationale for targeting GSK3 in malignancies. Here we report pharmacological, physiological and genetic studies that demonstrate an oncogenic requirement for GSK3 in the maintenance of a specific subtype of poor prognosis human leukaemia, genetically defined by mutations of the MLL proto-oncogene. In contrast to its previously characterized roles in suppression of neoplasia-associated signalling pathways, GSK3 paradoxically supports MLL leukaemia cell proliferation and transformation by a mechanism that ultimately involves destabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1). Inhibition of GSK3 in a preclinical murine model of MLL leukaemia provides promising evidence of efficacy and earmarks GSK3 as a candidate cancer drug target.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4084721/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4084721/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Zhong -- Smith, Kevin S -- Murphy, Mark -- Piloto, Obdulio -- Somervaille, Tim C P -- Cleary, Michael L -- CA116606/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA55029/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA055029/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA116606/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Oct 30;455(7217):1205-9. doi: 10.1038/nature07284. Epub 2008 Sep 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18806775" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Division ; Cell Line, Transformed ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation ; *Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 ; Disease Models, Animal ; G1 Phase ; Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/antagonists & ; inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase ; Humans ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Isoenzymes/metabolism ; Leukemia, Lymphoid/*drug therapy/enzymology/metabolism/*pathology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, SCID ; Myeloid Progenitor Cells/enzymology/metabolism/pathology ; Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein/*metabolism ; Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid/enzymology/metabolism/pathology
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2008-04-11
    Description: There exists controversy over the nature of haematopoietic progenitors of T cells. Most T cells develop in the thymus, but the lineage potential of thymus-colonizing progenitors is unknown. One approach to resolving this question is to determine the lineage potentials of the earliest thymic progenitors (ETPs). Previous work has shown that ETPs possess T and natural killer lymphoid potentials, and rare subsets of ETPs also possess B lymphoid potential, suggesting an origin from lymphoid-restricted progenitor cells. However, whether ETPs also possess myeloid potential is unknown. Here we show that nearly all ETPs in adult mice possess both T and myeloid potential in clonal assays. The existence of progenitors possessing T and myeloid potential within the thymus is incompatible with the current dominant model of haematopoiesis, in which T cells are proposed to arise from lymphoid-. Our results indicate that alternative models for lineage commitment during haematopoiesis must be considered.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bell, J Jeremiah -- Bhandoola, Avinash -- England -- Nature. 2008 Apr 10;452(7188):764-7. doi: 10.1038/nature06840.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18401411" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Lineage ; Cells, Cultured ; Coculture Techniques ; Dendritic Cells/cytology ; Female ; Granulocytes/cytology ; *Hematopoiesis ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Macrophages/cytology ; Mice ; Models, Biological ; Myeloid Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Stromal Cells/cytology ; T-Lymphocytes/*cytology/metabolism ; Thymus Gland/*cytology
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2008-01-19
    Description: Most eukaryotic genes are interrupted by non-coding introns that must be accurately removed from pre-messenger RNAs to produce translatable mRNAs. Splicing is guided locally by short conserved sequences, but genes typically contain many potential splice sites, and the mechanisms specifying the correct sites remain poorly understood. In most organisms, short introns recognized by the intron definition mechanism cannot be efficiently predicted solely on the basis of sequence motifs. In multicellular eukaryotes, long introns are recognized through exon definition and most genes produce multiple mRNA variants through alternative splicing. The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway may further shape the observed sets of variants by selectively degrading those containing premature termination codons, which are frequently produced in mammals. Here we show that the tiny introns of the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia are under strong selective pressure to cause premature termination of mRNA translation in the event of intron retention, and that the same bias is observed among the short introns of plants, fungi and animals. By knocking down the two P. tetraurelia genes encoding UPF1, a protein that is crucial in NMD, we show that the intrinsic efficiency of splicing varies widely among introns and that NMD activity can significantly reduce the fraction of unspliced mRNAs. The results suggest that, independently of alternative splicing, species with large intron numbers universally rely on NMD to compensate for suboptimal splicing efficiency and accuracy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jaillon, Olivier -- Bouhouche, Khaled -- Gout, Jean-Francois -- Aury, Jean-Marc -- Noel, Benjamin -- Saudemont, Baptiste -- Nowacki, Mariusz -- Serrano, Vincent -- Porcel, Betina M -- Segurens, Beatrice -- Le Mouel, Anne -- Lepere, Gersende -- Schachter, Vincent -- Betermier, Mireille -- Cohen, Jean -- Wincker, Patrick -- Sperling, Linda -- Duret, Laurent -- Meyer, Eric -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jan 17;451(7176):359-62. doi: 10.1038/nature06495.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Genoscope (CEA), 2 rue Gaston Cremieux CP5706, 91057 Evry, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18202663" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Alternative Splicing ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Codon, Terminator/genetics ; Computational Biology ; Eukaryotic Cells/*metabolism ; Expressed Sequence Tags ; Genes, Protozoan/genetics ; Introns/*genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Paramecium/*genetics ; *Protein Biosynthesis ; Protozoan Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; RNA Interference ; RNA Stability ; RNA, Protozoan/genetics/metabolism
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  • 29
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2008-07-04
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Costello, Joseph F -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jul 3;454(7200):45-6. doi: 10.1038/454045a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18596797" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cellular Reprogramming/*genetics ; DNA Methylation ; Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism ; Gene Expression/genetics ; Humans ; Mice ; Pluripotent Stem Cells/*metabolism
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2008-08-22
    Description: Genome stability requires one, and only one, DNA duplication at each S phase. The mechanisms preventing origin firing on newly replicated DNA are well documented, but much less is known about the mechanisms controlling the spacing of initiation events(2,3), namely the completion of DNA replication. Here we show that origin use in Chinese hamster cells depends on both the movement of the replication forks and the organization of chromatin loops. We found that slowing the replication speed triggers the recruitment of latent origins within minutes, allowing the completion of S phase in a timely fashion. When slowly replicating cells are shifted to conditions of fast fork progression, although the decrease in the overall number of active origins occurs within 2 h, the cells still have to go through a complete cell cycle before the efficiency specific to each origin is restored. We observed a strict correlation between replication speed during a given S phase and the size of chromatin loops in the next G1 phase. Furthermore, we found that origins located at or near sites of anchorage of chromatin loops in G1 are activated preferentially in the following S phase. These data suggest a mechanism of origin programming in which replication speed determines the spacing of anchorage regions of chromatin loops, that, in turn, controls the choice of initiation sites.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Courbet, Sylvain -- Gay, Sophie -- Arnoult, Nausica -- Wronka, Gerd -- Anglana, Mauro -- Brison, Olivier -- Debatisse, Michelle -- England -- Nature. 2008 Sep 25;455(7212):557-60. doi: 10.1038/nature07233. Epub 2008 Aug 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut Curie, 26 rue d'Ulm, 75248 Paris, France; UPMC Univ. Paris 06, F-75005 Paris, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18716622" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Chromatin/genetics/*metabolism ; Cricetinae ; Cricetulus ; DNA/biosynthesis/genetics ; DNA Replication/*physiology ; G1 Phase ; *Movement ; Nuclear Matrix/metabolism ; Replication Origin/*genetics ; S Phase ; Time Factors
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2008-09-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Glass, Christopher K -- Saijo, Kaoru -- England -- Nature. 2008 Sep 4;455(7209):40-1. doi: 10.1038/455040a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18769427" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Division ; Cholesterol/biosynthesis/*metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/deficiency/*metabolism ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Mice ; Orphan Nuclear Receptors ; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/deficiency/*metabolism ; Sulfotransferases/metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes/*cytology/*immunology/metabolism
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2008-07-03
    Description: G-protein-coupled receptors have a major role in transmembrane signalling in most eukaryotes and many are important drug targets. Here we report the 2.7 A resolution crystal structure of a beta(1)-adrenergic receptor in complex with the high-affinity antagonist cyanopindolol. The modified turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) receptor was selected to be in its antagonist conformation and its thermostability improved by earlier limited mutagenesis. The ligand-binding pocket comprises 15 side chains from amino acid residues in 4 transmembrane alpha-helices and extracellular loop 2. This loop defines the entrance of the ligand-binding pocket and is stabilized by two disulphide bonds and a sodium ion. Binding of cyanopindolol to the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor and binding of carazolol to the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor involve similar interactions. A short well-defined helix in cytoplasmic loop 2, not observed in either rhodopsin or the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor, directly interacts by means of a tyrosine with the highly conserved DRY motif at the end of helix 3 that is essential for receptor activation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2923055/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2923055/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Warne, Tony -- Serrano-Vega, Maria J -- Baker, Jillian G -- Moukhametzianov, Rouslan -- Edwards, Patricia C -- Henderson, Richard -- Leslie, Andrew G W -- Tate, Christopher G -- Schertler, Gebhard F X -- MC_U105178937/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U105184322/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U105184325/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U105197215/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- U.1051.04.020(78937)/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jul 24;454(7203):486-91. doi: 10.1038/nature07101. Epub 2008 Jun 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18594507" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Agonists ; Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists ; Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/chemistry/metabolism ; Amino Acid Motifs ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; Crystallization ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Ligands ; Models, Molecular ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Mutation ; Pindolol/analogs & derivatives/chemistry/metabolism ; Propanolamines/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1/*chemistry/metabolism ; Thermodynamics ; Turkeys
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2008-07-18
    Description: Internal brain states form key determinants for sensory perception, sensorimotor coordination and learning. A prominent reflection of different brain states in the mammalian central nervous system is the presence of distinct patterns of cortical synchrony, as revealed by extracellular recordings of the electroencephalogram, local field potential and action potentials. Such temporal correlations of cortical activity are thought to be fundamental mechanisms of neuronal computation. However, it is unknown how cortical synchrony is reflected in the intracellular membrane potential (V(m)) dynamics of behaving animals. Here we show, using dual whole-cell recordings from layer 2/3 primary somatosensory barrel cortex in behaving mice, that the V(m) of nearby neurons is highly correlated during quiet wakefulness. However, when the mouse is whisking, an internally generated state change reduces the V(m) correlation, resulting in a desynchronized local field potential and electroencephalogram. Action potential activity was sparse during both quiet wakefulness and active whisking. Single action potentials were driven by a large, brief and specific excitatory input that was not present in the V(m) of neighbouring cells. Action potential initiation occurs with a higher signal-to-noise ratio during active whisking than during quiet periods. Therefore, we show that an internal brain state dynamically regulates cortical membrane potential synchrony during behaviour and defines different modes of cortical processing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Poulet, James F A -- Petersen, Carl C H -- England -- Nature. 2008 Aug 14;454(7206):881-5. doi: 10.1038/nature07150. Epub 2008 Jul 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Sensory Processing, Brain Mind Institute, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18633351" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Electroencephalography ; Exploratory Behavior/*physiology ; Male ; Membrane Potentials/*physiology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Neurons/*physiology ; Somatosensory Cortex/*physiology ; Wakefulness/*physiology
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  • 34
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2008-09-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Powell, Kendall -- England -- Nature. 2008 Sep 25;455(7212):455-8. doi: 10.1038/455455a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18818627" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Awards and Prizes ; Creativity ; Elephants/physiology ; *Foundations/economics ; Greenhouse Effect ; Hand/physiology ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Humans ; Hybridization, Genetic ; Illinois ; Neurosciences ; *Research Personnel/economics/psychology ; Robotics ; *Science/economics ; Selection, Genetic
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2008-01-22
    Description: Understanding the mechanisms that determine an individual's sex remains a primary challenge for evolutionary biology. Chromosome-based systems (genotypic sex determination) that generate roughly equal numbers of sons and daughters accord with theory, but the adaptive significance of environmental sex determination (that is, when embryonic environmental conditions determine offspring sex, ESD) is a major unsolved problem. Theoretical models predict that selection should favour ESD over genotypic sex determination when the developmental environment differentially influences male versus female fitness (that is, the Charnov-Bull model), but empirical evidence for this hypothesis remains elusive in amniote vertebrates--the clade in which ESD is most prevalent. Here we provide the first substantial empirical support for this model by showing that incubation temperatures influence reproductive success of males differently than that of females in a short-lived lizard (Amphibolurus muricatus, Agamidae) with temperature-dependent sex determination. We incubated eggs at a variety of temperatures, and de-confounded sex and incubation temperature by using hormonal manipulations to embryos. We then raised lizards in field enclosures and quantified their lifetime reproductive success. Incubation temperature affected reproductive success differently in males versus females in exactly the way predicted by theory: the fitness of each sex was maximized by the incubation temperature that produces that sex. Our results provide unequivocal empirical support for the Charnov-Bull model for the adaptive significance of temperature-dependent sex determination in amniote vertebrates.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Warner, D A -- Shine, R -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jan 31;451(7178):566-8. doi: 10.1038/nature06519. Epub 2008 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia. dwarner@iastate.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18204437" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acclimatization/physiology ; Adaptation, Physiological/*physiology ; Animals ; Body Size ; Fadrozole/pharmacology ; Female ; Lizards/*embryology/*physiology ; Male ; Models, Biological ; Ovum/drug effects/growth & development ; Reproduction/physiology ; Sex Characteristics ; Sex Differentiation/*physiology ; *Temperature
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2008-07-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Janvier, Philippe -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jul 10;454(7201):169-70. doi: 10.1038/454169a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18615071" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Eye/*anatomy & histology/*growth & development ; Flounder/*anatomy & histology/*growth & development/physiology ; *Fossils
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  • 37
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2008-12-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wassarman, Paul M -- England -- Nature. 2008 Dec 4;456(7222):586-7. doi: 10.1038/456586a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19052615" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Conserved Sequence ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Egg Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Female ; Fertilization/physiology ; Male ; Membrane Glycoproteins/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Mice ; Ovum/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Protein Folding ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Receptors, Cell Surface/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Spermatozoa/metabolism
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2008-04-04
    Description: Continuous turnover of epithelia is ensured by the extensive self-renewal capacity of tissue-specific stem cells. Similarly, epithelial tumour maintenance relies on cancer stem cells (CSCs), which co-opt stem cell properties. For most tumours, the cellular origin of these CSCs and regulatory pathways essential for sustaining stemness have not been identified. In murine skin, follicular morphogenesis is driven by bulge stem cells that specifically express CD34. Here we identify a population of cells in early epidermal tumours characterized by phenotypic and functional similarities to normal bulge skin stem cells. This population contains CSCs, which are the only cells with tumour initiation properties. Transplants derived from these CSCs preserve the hierarchical organization of the primary tumour. We describe beta-catenin signalling as being essential in sustaining the CSC phenotype. Ablation of the beta-catenin gene results in the loss of CSCs and complete tumour regression. In addition, we provide evidence for the involvement of increased beta-catenin signalling in malignant human squamous cell carcinomas. Because Wnt/beta-catenin signalling is not essential for normal epidermal homeostasis, such a mechanistic difference may thus be targeted to eliminate CSCs and consequently eradicate squamous cell carcinomas.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Malanchi, Ilaria -- Peinado, Hector -- Kassen, Deepika -- Hussenet, Thomas -- Metzger, Daniel -- Chambon, Pierre -- Huber, Marcel -- Hohl, Daniel -- Cano, Amparo -- Birchmeier, Walter -- Huelsken, Joerg -- England -- Nature. 2008 Apr 3;452(7187):650-3. doi: 10.1038/nature06835.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne/ISREC (Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research) and National Center of Competence in Research Molecular Oncology, Chemin des Boveresses 155, 1066 Epalinges, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18385740" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD34/metabolism ; Cell Line, Tumor ; *Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Cells, Cultured ; Epidermis/pathology ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Nude ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Neoplastic Stem Cells/*metabolism/*pathology ; *Signal Transduction ; Skin Neoplasms/*pathology ; beta Catenin/*metabolism
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  • 39
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2008-03-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jayaraman, K S -- England -- Nature. 2008 Mar 6;452(7183):7. doi: 10.1038/452007a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18322485" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biodiversity ; *Classification ; Entomology/*legislation & jurisprudence ; India ; Insects/*classification ; International Cooperation ; Museums
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  • 40
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2008-10-10
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2008 Oct 9;455(7214):707-8. doi: 10.1038/455707b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18843306" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biodiversity ; Conservation of Natural Resources/*methods ; *Ecosystem ; *Extinction, Biological ; Greenhouse Effect
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2008-07-25
    Description: The nuclear receptors known as PPARs and LXRs are lipid-activated transcription factors that have emerged as key regulators of lipid metabolism and inflammation. PPARs and LXRs are activated by non-esterified fatty acids and cholesterol metabolites, respectively, and both exert positive and negative control over the expression of a range of metabolic and inflammatory genes. The ability of these nuclear receptors to integrate metabolic and inflammatory signalling makes them attractive targets for intervention in human metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes, as well as for the modulation of inflammation and immune responses.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bensinger, Steven J -- Tontonoz, Peter -- HL30568/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL66088/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RR021975/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jul 24;454(7203):470-7. doi: 10.1038/nature07202.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 675 Charles E. Young Drive, Los Angeles, California 90049, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18650918" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cholesterol/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; Humans ; Inflammation/immunology/*metabolism ; Macrophages/immunology/metabolism ; Metabolic Diseases/metabolism/pathology ; Orphan Nuclear Receptors ; Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/*metabolism ; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2008-08-16
    Description: For a wide variety of microbial pathogens, the outcome of the infection is indeterminate. In some individuals the microbe is cleared, but in others it establishes a chronic infection, and the factors that tip this balance are often unknown. In a widely used model of chronic viral infection, C57BL/6 mice clear the Armstrong strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), but the clone 13 strain persists. Here we show that the Armstrong strain induces a profound lymphopenia at days 1-3 after infection, but the clone 13 strain does not. If we transiently augment lymphopenia by treating the clone-13-infected mice with the drug FTY720 at days 0-2 after infection, the mice successfully clear the infection by day 30. Clearance does not occur when CD4 T cells are absent at the time of treatment, indicating that the drug is not exerting direct antiviral effects. Notably, FTY720 treatment of an already established persistent infection also leads to viral clearance. In both models, FTY720 treatment preserves or augments LCMV-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses, a result that is counter-intuitive because FTY720 is generally regarded as a new immunosuppressive agent. Because FTY720 targets host pathways that are completely evolutionarily conserved, our results may be translatable into new immunotherapies for the treatment of chronic microbial infections in humans.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Premenko-Lanier, Mary -- Moseley, Nelson B -- Pruett, Sarah T -- Romagnoli, Pablo A -- Altman, John D -- 5F32AI062002/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI042373/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Aug 14;454(7206):894-8. doi: 10.1038/nature07199.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center and Emory University School of Medicine, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. mflanie@emory.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18704087" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chronic Disease ; Fingolimod Hydrochloride ; Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis/complications/*drug therapy/*immunology/prevention & ; control ; Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus/*immunology/physiology ; Lymphopenia/etiology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Propylene Glycols/administration & dosage/*pharmacology/*therapeutic use ; Sphingosine/administration & dosage/*analogs & ; derivatives/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; T-Lymphocytes/drug effects/immunology ; Time Factors
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 43
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2008-04-04
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goffeau, Andre -- England -- Nature. 2008 Apr 3;452(7187):541-2. doi: 10.1038/452541a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18385723" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antifungal Agents/metabolism/pharmacology ; Candida glabrata/drug effects/genetics/*metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; *Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics ; Fungal Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal/genetics ; Humans ; Receptors, Steroid/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects/genetics/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Trans-Activators/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism ; Xenobiotics/metabolism/pharmacology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2008-06-27
    Description: In groundbreaking experiments, Hans Spemann demonstrated that the dorsal part of the amphibian embryo can generate a well-proportioned tadpole, and that a small group of dorsal cells, the 'organizer', can induce a complete and well-proportioned twinned axis when transplanted into a host embryo. Key to organizer function is the localized secretion of inhibitors of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), which defines a graded BMP activation profile. Although the central proteins involved in shaping this gradient are well characterized, their integrated function, and in particular how pattern scales with size, is not understood. Here we present evidence that in Xenopus, the BMP activity gradient is defined by a 'shuttling-based' mechanism, whereby the BMP ligands are translocated ventrally through their association with the BMP inhibitor Chordin. This shuttling, with feedback repression of the BMP ligand Admp, offers a quantitative explanation to Spemann's observations, and accounts naturally for the scaling of embryo pattern with its size.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ben-Zvi, Danny -- Shilo, Ben-Zion -- Fainsod, Abraham -- Barkai, Naama -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jun 26;453(7199):1205-11. doi: 10.1038/nature07059.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18580943" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Body Patterning ; Body Size ; Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 ; Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; Embryo, Nonmammalian/embryology/*metabolism ; Glycoproteins/metabolism ; Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism ; Ligands ; Models, Biological ; Protein Transport ; Xenopus/*embryology/genetics/metabolism ; Xenopus Proteins/metabolism
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2008-03-04
    Description: Microsporidia are highly specialized obligate intracellular parasites of other eukaryotes (including humans) that show extreme reduction at the molecular, cellular and biochemical level. Although microsporidia have long been considered as early branching eukaryotes that lack mitochondria, they have recently been shown to contain a tiny mitochondrial remnant called a mitosome. The function of the mitosome is unknown, because microsporidians lack the genes for canonical mitochondrial functions, such as aerobic respiration and haem biosynthesis. However, microsporidial genomes encode several components of the mitochondrial iron-sulphur (Fe-S) cluster assembly machinery. Here we provide experimental insights into the metabolic function and localization of these proteins. We cloned, functionally characterized and localized homologues of several central mitochondrial Fe-S cluster assembly components for the microsporidians Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Trachipleistophora hominis. Several microsporidial proteins can functionally replace their yeast counterparts in Fe-S protein biogenesis. In E. cuniculi, the iron (frataxin) and sulphur (cysteine desulphurase, Nfs1) donors and the scaffold protein (Isu1) co-localize with mitochondrial Hsp70 to the mitosome, consistent with it being the functional site for Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. In T. hominis, mitochondrial Hsp70 and the essential sulphur donor (Nfs1) are still in the mitosome, but surprisingly the main pools of Isu1 and frataxin are cytosolic, creating a conundrum of how these key components of Fe-S cluster biosynthesis coordinate their function. Together, our studies identify the essential biosynthetic process of Fe-S protein assembly as a key function of microsporidian mitosomes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goldberg, Alina V -- Molik, Sabine -- Tsaousis, Anastasios D -- Neumann, Karina -- Kuhnke, Grit -- Delbac, Frederic -- Vivares, Christian P -- Hirt, Robert P -- Lill, Roland -- Embley, T Martin -- England -- Nature. 2008 Apr 3;452(7187):624-8. doi: 10.1038/nature06606. Epub 2008 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, The Catherine Cookson Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18311129" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Cloning, Molecular ; Fungal Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Iron-Binding Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Iron-Sulfur Proteins/*biosynthesis/genetics/metabolism ; Microsporidia/cytology/genetics/*metabolism ; Mitochondria/metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein Transport ; Rabbits ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/cytology/genetics/metabolism
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