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  • 2005 - 2009  (292,887)
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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Bonn : Helmholtz Association ; 2006-
    Associated volumes
    Call number: 3/S 07.0034(2016)
    In: Annual report
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 51 Seiten
    ISSN: 1865-6439 , 1865-6447
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Annual report ... / Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
    Language: English
    Location: Reading room
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Köln : Bundesanzeiger-Verl. ; Nachgewiesen 2009 -
    Call number: NBM 12.0207
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: CD-ROM
    ISBN: 9783935064569
    Series Statement: Sicherheit, Technik, Gefahrgut
    Note: Ersch. 2-3x jährl.
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  • 3
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Cottbus : BTU ; 2009(2010) -
    Call number: M 12.0196
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Location: Upper compact magazine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2009-11-05
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2009-10-09
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2009-10-01
    Description: Unmodeled sub-daily ocean S2 tide signals that alias into lower frequencies have been detected in the analysis of gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) space gravity fields of GRGS. The most significant global S2 aliased signal occurs off the northwest coast of Australia in a shallow continental shelf zone, a region with high tidal amplitudes at a period of 161 days. The GRACE S2 aliased equivalent water height grids are convolved with Green’s functions to produce GRACE aliased tidal loading (GATL) vertical displacements. The analysis of hourly global positioning system (GPS) vertical coordinate estimates at permanent sites in the region confirms the presence of spectral power at the S2 frequency when the same ocean tide model (FES2004) was used. Thus, deficiencies in the FES2004 ocean tide model are detected both directly and indirectly by the two independent space geodetic techniques. Through simulation, the admittance (ratio of amplitude of spurious long-wavelength output signal in the GRACE time-series to amplitude of unmodeled periodic signals) of the GRACE unmodeled S2 tidal signals, aliased to a 161-day period, is found to have a global average close to 100%, although with substantial spatial variation. Comparing GATL with unmodeled S2 tidal sub-daily signals in the vertical GPS time-series in the region of Broome in NW Australia suggests an admittance of 110–130%. ©2009 Springer-Verlag
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2009-09-16
    Description: The temporal change of the rotation vector of a rotating body is, in the first order, identical in a space-fixed system and in a body-fixed system. Therefore, if the motion of the rotation axis of the earth relative to a space-fixed system is given as a function of time, it should be possible to compute its motion relative to an earth-fixed system, and vice versa. This paper presents such a transformation. Two models of motion of the rotation axis in the space-fixed system are considered: one consisting only of a regular (i.e., strictly conical) precession and one extended by circular nutation components, which are superimposed upon the regular precession. The Euler angles describing the orientation of the earth-fixed system with respect to the space-fixed system are derived by an analytical solution of the kinematical Eulerian differential equations. In the first case (precession only), this is directly possible, and in the second case (precession and nutation), a solution is achieved by a perturbation approach, where the result of the first case serves as an approximation and nutation is regarded as a small perturbation, which is treated in a linearized form. The transformation by means of these Euler angles shows that the rotation axis performs in the earth-fixed system retrograde conical revolutions with small amplitudes, namely one revolution with a period of one sidereal day corresponding to precession and one revolution with a period which is slightly smaller or larger than one sidereal day corresponding to each (prograde or retrograde) circular nutation component. The peculiar feature of the derivation presented here is the analytical solution of the Eulerian differential equations. ©2009 Springer-Verlag
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2009-09-10
    Description: We apply global optimization in order to optimize the referencing (and consequently the stability) of the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) with respect to ITRF2005. These EOP are derived at a daily sampling from SLR data, simultaneously with weekly station positions. The EOP referencing is carried out with minimum constraints applied weekly to the three rotations and over core station networks. Our approach is based on a multi objective genetic algorithm, a particular stochastic global optimization method, the reference system effects being the objectives to minimize. We thus use rigorous criteria for the optimal weekly core station selection. The results evidence an improvement of 10% of the stability for Polar Motion (PM) series in comparison to the results obtained with the network specially designed for EOP referencing by the Analysis Working Group of the International Laser Ranging Service. This improvement of nearly 25 μas represents 50% of the current precision of the IERS 05 C04 PM reference series. We also test the possibility of averaging the weekly networks provided by our algorithm (the Genetically Modified Networks—GMN) over the whole time period. Although the dynamical nature of the GMN is clearly a key point of their success, we can derive such a global mean core network, which could be useful for practical applications regarding EOP referencing. Using this latter core network moreover provides more stable EOP series than the conventional network does. ©2009 Springer-Verlag
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2009-09-01
    Description: The direct recovery of surface mass anomalies using GRACE KBRR data processed in regional solutions provides mass variation estimates with 10-day temporal resolution. The approach undertaken herein uses a tailored orbit estimation strategy based solely on the KBRR data and directly estimates mass anomalies from the GRACE data. We introduce a set of temporal and spatial correlation constraints to enable high resolution mass flux estimates. The Mississippi Basin, with its well understood surface hydrological modelling available from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), which uses advanced land surface modeling and data assimilation techniques, and a wealth of groundwater data, provides an opportunity to quantitatively compare GRACE estimates of the mass flux in the entire hydrological column with those available from independent and reliable sources. Evaluating GRACE’s performance is dependent on the accuracy ascribed to the hydrological information, which in and of itself is a complex challenge (Rodell in Hydrogeol J, doi: 10.1007/s10040-006-0103-7 , 2007). Nevertheless, the Mississippi Basin is one of the few regions having a large hydrological signal that can support a meaningful GRACE comparison on the spatial scale resolved by GRACE. The isolation of the hydrological signal is dependent on the adequacy of the forward mass flux modeling for tides and atmospheric pressure variations. While these models have non-uniform global performance they are excellent in the Mississippi Basin. Through comparisons with the independent hydrology, we evaluate the effect on the solution of changing correlation times and distances in the constraints, altering the parameter recovery for areas external to the Mississippi Basin, and changing the relative strength of the constraints with respect to the KBRR data. The accuracy and stability of the mascon solutions are thereby assessed, especially with regard to the constraints used to stabilize the solution. We show that the mass anomalies, as represented by surface layer of water within regional cells have accuracy estimates of ±2–3 cm on par with the best hydrological estimates and consistent with our accuracy estimates for GRACE mass anomaly estimates. These solutions are shown to be very stable, especially for the recovery of semi-annual and longer period trends, where for example, the phase agreement for the dominant annual signal agrees at the 10-day level of resolution provided by GRACE. This validation confirms that mascons provide critical environmental data records for a wide range of applications including monitoring ground water mass changes. ©2009 Springer-Verlag
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2009-08-20
    Description: Many regions around the world require improved gravimetric data bases to support very accurate geoid modeling for the modernization of height systems using GPS. We present a simple yet effective method to assess gravity data requirements, particularly the necessary resolution, for a desired precision in geoid computation. The approach is based on simulating high-resolution gravimetry using a topography-correlated model that is adjusted to be consistent with an existing network of gravity data. Analysis of these adjusted, simulated data through Stokes’s integral indicates where existing gravity data must be supplemented by new surveys in order to achieve an acceptable level of omission error in the geoid undulation. The simulated model can equally be used to analyze commission error, as well as model error and data inconsistencies to a limited extent. The proposed method is applied to South Korea and shows clearly where existing gravity data are too scarce for precise geoid computation. ©2009 Springer-Verlag
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2009-08-01
    Description: Thermal expansion of radio telescopes has long been recognized as an effect which cannot be neglected in geodetic and astrometric VLBI data analysis if millimeter accuracy is desired. In this article, the author documents the conventions which are being set by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) for a consistent modelling of this effect in its routine product generation. For the largest telescopes, the annual cycle of thermal expansion may change the height of the VLBI reference point by as much as 20 mm. However, for telescopes which are used in present-day IVS operations, the variations rather range from 4 to 6 mm. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2009-08-01
    Description: A reliable and accurate gradiometer calibration is essential for the scientific return of the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) mission. This paper describes a new method for external calibration of the GOCE gradiometer accelerations. A global gravity field model in combination with star sensor quaternions is used to compute reference differential accelerations, which may be used to estimate various combinations of gradiometer scale factors, internal gradiometer misalignments and misalignments between star sensor and gradiometer. In many aspects, the new method is complementary to the GOCE in-flight calibration. In contrast to the in-flight calibration, which requires a satellite-shaking phase, the new method uses data from the nominal measurement phases. The results of a simulation study show that gradiometer scale factors can be estimated on a weekly basis with accuracies better than 2 × 10−3 for the ultrasensitive and 10−2 for the less sensitive axes, which is compatible with the requirements of the gravity gradient error. Based on a 58-day data set, scale factors are found that can reduce the errors of the in-flight-calibrated measurements. The elements of the complete inverse calibration matrix, representing both the internal gradiometer misalignments and scale factors, can be estimated with accuracies in general better than 10−3. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2009-08-01
    Description: The main scope of this research is to assess the ultimate accuracy that can be achieved for the slant total electron content (sTEC) estimated from dual-frequency global positioning system (GPS) observations which depends, primarily, on the calibration of the inter-frequency biases (IFB). Two different calibration approaches are analyzed: the so-called satellite-by-satellite one, which involves levelling the carrier-phase to the code-delay GPS observations and then the IFB estimation; and the so-called arc-by-arc one, which avoids the use of code-delay observations but requires the estimation of arc-dependent biases. Two strategies are used for the analysis: the first one compares calibrated sTEC from two co-located GPS receivers that serve to assess the levelling errors; and the second one, assesses the model error using synthetic data free of calibration error, produced with a specially developed technique. The results show that the arc-by-arc calibration technique performs better than the satellite-by-satellite one for mid-latitudes, while the opposite happens for low-latitudes. ©2009 Springer-Verlag
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2009-07-12
    Description: The very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) antenna in Medicina (Italy) is a 32-m AZ-EL mount that was surveyed several times, adopting an indirect method, for the purpose of estimating the eccentricity vector between the co-located VLBI and Global Positioning System instruments. In order to fulfill this task, targets were located in different parts of the telescope’s structure. Triangulation and trilateration on the targets highlight a consistent amount of deformation that biases the estimate of the instrument’s reference point up to 1 cm, depending on the targets’ locations. Therefore, whenever the estimation of accurate local ties is needed, it is critical to take into consideration the action of gravity on the structure. Furthermore, deformations induced by gravity on VLBI telescopes may modify the length of the path travelled by the incoming radio signal to a non-negligible extent. As a consequence, differently from what it is usually assumed, the relative distance of the feed horn’s phase centre with respect to the elevation axis may vary, depending on the telescope’s pointing elevation. The Medicina telescope’s signal path variation Δ L increases by a magnitude of approximately 2 cm, as the pointing elevation changes from horizon to zenith; it is described by an elevation-dependent second-order polynomial function computed as, according to Clark and Thomsen (Techical report, 100696, NASA, Greenbelt, 1988), a linear combination of three terms: receiver displacement Δ R , primary reflector’s vertex displacement Δ V and focal length variations Δ F . Δ L was investigated with a combination of terrestrial triangulation and trilateration, laser scanning and a finite element model of the antenna. The antenna gain (or auto-focus curve) Δ G is routinely determined through astronomical observations. A surprisingly accurate reproduction of Δ G can be obtained with a combination of Δ V , Δ F and Δ R . ©2009 Springer-Verlag
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2009-07-01
    Description: Four widely used algorithms for the computation of the Earth’s gravitational potential and its first-, second- and third-order gradients are examined: the traditional increasing degree recursion in associated Legendre functions and its variant based on the Clenshaw summation, plus the methods of Pines and Cunningham–Metris, which are free from the singularities that distinguish the first two methods at the geographic poles. All four methods are reorganized with the lumped coefficients approach, which in the cases of Pines and Cunningham–Metris requires a complete revision of the algorithms. The characteristics of the four methods are studied and described, and numerical tests are performed to assess and compare their precision, accuracy, and efficiency. In general the performance levels of all four codes exhibit large improvements over previously published versions. From the point of view of numerical precision, away from the geographic poles Clenshaw and Legendre offer an overall better quality. Furthermore, Pines and Cunningham–Metris are affected by an intrinsic loss of precision at the equator and suffer from additional deterioration when the gravity gradients components are rotated into the East-North-Up topocentric reference system. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2009-07-01
    Description: Errors in high-frequency ocean tide models alias to low frequencies in time-variable gravity solutions from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). We conduct an observational study of apparent gravity changes at a period of 161 days, the alias period of errors in the S2 semidiurnal solar tide. We examine this S2 alias in the release 4 (RL04) reprocessed GRACE monthly gravity solutions for the period April 2002 to February 2008, and compare with that in release 1 (RL01) GRACE solutions. One of the major differences between RL04 and RL01 is the ocean tide model. In RL01, the alias is evident at high latitudes, near the Filchner-Ronne and Ross ice shelves in Antarctica, and regions surrounding Greenland and Hudson Bay. RL04 shows significantly lower alias amplitudes in many of these locations, reflecting improvements in the ocean tide model. However, RL04 shows continued alias contamination between the Ronne and Larson ice shelves, somewhat larger than in RL01, indicating a need for further tide model improvement in that region. For unknown reasons, the degree-2 zonal spherical harmonics (C20) of the RL04 solutions show significantly larger S2 aliasing errors than those from RL01. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2009-06-17
    Description: We revisit the empirical moving window filtering method of Swenson and Wahr (Geophys Res Lett 33:L08402, 2006) and its variants, Chambers (Geophys Res Lett 33:L17603, 2006) and Chen et al. (Geophys Res Lett 34: L13302, 2007), for reducing the correlated errors in the Stokes coefficients (SCs) of the spherical harmonic expansion of the GRACE determined monthly geopotential solutions. Based on a comparison of the three published approaches mentioned, we propose a refined approach for choosing parameters of the decorrelation filter. Our approach is based on the error pattern of the SCs in the monthly GRACE geopotential solutions. We keep a portion of the lower degree-order SCs with the smallest errors unchanged, and high-pass filter the rest using a moving window technique, with window width decreasing as the error of the SCs increases. Both the unchanged portion of SCs and the window width conform with the error pattern, and are adjustable with a parameter. Compared to the three published approaches mentioned, our unchanged portion of SCs and window width depend on both degree and order in a more complex way. We have used the trend of mass change to test various parameters toward a preferred choice for a global compromise between the removal of the correlated errors and the minimization of signal distortion. ©2009 Springer-Verlag
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2009-06-13
    Description: GPS zero-difference applications with a sampling rate up to 1 Hz require corresponding high-rate GPS clock corrections. The determination of the clock corrections in a full network solution is a time-consuming task. The Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) has developed an efficient algorithm based on epoch-differenced phase observations, which allows to generate high-rate clock corrections within reasonably short time (〈 2 h) and with sufficient accuracy (on the same level as the CODE rapid or final clock corrections, respectively). The clock determination procedure at CODE and the new algorithm is described in detail. It is shown that the simplifications to speed up the processing are not causing a significant loss of accuracy for the clock corrections. The high-rate clock corrections have in essence the same quality as clock corrections determined in a full network solution. In order to support 1 Hz applications 1-s clock corrections would be needed. The computation time, even for the efficient algorithm, is not negligible, however. Therefore, we studied whether a reduced sampling is sufficient for the GPS satellite clock corrections to reach the same or only slightly inferior level of accuracy as for the full 1-s clock correction set. We show that high-rate satellite clock corrections with a spacing of 5 s may be linearly interpolated resulting in less than 2% degradation of accuracy. ©2009 Springer-Verlag
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2009-07-01
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2009-06-01
    Description: Standard least-squares collocation (LSC) assumes 2D stationarity and 3D isotropy, and relies on a covariance function to account for spatial dependence in the observed data. However, the assumption that the spatial dependence is constant throughout the region of interest may sometimes be violated. Assuming a stationary covariance structure can result in over-smoothing of, e.g., the gravity field in mountains and under-smoothing in great plains. We introduce the kernel convolution method from spatial statistics for non-stationary covariance structures, and demonstrate its advantage for dealing with non-stationarity in geodetic data. We then compared stationary and non- stationary covariance functions in 2D LSC to the empirical example of gravity anomaly interpolation near the Darling Fault, Western Australia, where the field is anisotropic and non-stationary. The results with non-stationary covariance functions are better than standard LSC in terms of formal errors and cross-validation against data not used in the interpolation, demonstrating that the use of non-stationary covariance functions can improve upon standard (stationary) LSC. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2009-06-01
    Description: In this paper, a new geometry index of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observing networks, the volume of network V , is examined as an indicator of the errors in the Earth orientation parameters (EOP) obtained from VLBI observations. It has been shown that both EOP precision and accuracy can be well described by the power law σ  =  aV c in a wide range of the network size from domestic to global VLBI networks. In other words, as the network volume grows, the EOP errors become smaller following a power law. This should be taken into account for a proper comparison of EOP estimates obtained from different VLBI networks. Thus, performing correct EOP comparison allows us to investigate accurately finer factors affecting the EOP errors. In particular, it was found that the dependence of the EOP precision and accuracy on the recording data rate can also be described by a power law. One important conclusion is that the EOP accuracy depends primarily on the network geometry and to lesser extent on other factors, such as recording mode and data rate and scheduling parameters, whereas these factors have a stronger impact on the EOP precision. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2009-06-26
    Description: This paper investigates whether in very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) analysis atmospheric loading corrections should be applied a priori at the observation level or whether it is sufficient to correct for atmospheric loading effects a posteriori by adding constant values per session to the estimated station coordinates. Simulated observations at single stations corresponding to the precise point positioning approach of global navigation satellite systems show that the atmospheric loading effect can be fully recovered by a posteriori corrections, i.e., the height differences between both approaches stay well below 1 mm. However, real global VLBI network solutions with sessions from 1984 to 2008 reveal that the effect of neglected atmospheric loading corrections at the stations is distributed to the other stations in the network, thus resulting in station height differences between solutions with observation level and with a posteriori corrections which can be as large as 10 mm and a ‘damping’ effect of the corrections. As soon as the terrestrial reference frame and the corresponding coordinate time series are determined, it would be conceptually wrong to apply atmospheric loading corrections at the VLBI stations. We recommend the rigorous application of atmospheric loading corrections at the observation level to all stations of a VLBI network because the seven parameters for translation, rotation, and in particular the network-scale of VLBI networks are significantly affected. ©2009 Springer-Verlag
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2009-06-10
    Description: Correlation algorithms for geodetic very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) can now be effectively implemented on parallel computers of modest size. We have undertaken a detailed comparison of the output from a trusted geodetic correlator, one that has supported global geodetic VLBI observations for many years, with the output of a software correlator implemented on a small parallel computing cluster. We show that the correlator outputs agree closely, within expected error bounds, after accounting for the differences in the adopted geometric delay models, and therefore that use of the software correlator is feasible for geodetic VLBI processing, as a first step toward routine geodetic data processing. Recent developments in software correlation for geodesy are discussed, including the possibility of real-time processing options. ©2009 The Author(s)〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="http://doi.org/10.1007/s00190-009-0324-3" target="_blank"〉〈img src="http://bib.telegrafenberg.de/typo3temp/pics/f2f773b55e.png" border="0"〉〈/a〉
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2009-06-02
    Description: The goal of this paper is to introduce a more effective technique to approximate for the “repeatability–baseline length” relationship that is used to evaluate the quality of geodetic VLBI results. Traditionally, this relationship is approximated by a quadratic function of baseline length over all baselines. The new model incorporates the mean number of observed group delays of the reference radio sources (i.e. estimated as global parameters) used in the estimation of each baseline. It is shown that the new method provides a better approximation of the “repeatability–baseline length” relationship than the traditional model. Further development of the new approach comes down to modeling the repeatability as a function of two parameters: baseline length and baseline slewing rate. Within the framework of this new approach the station vertical and horizontal uncertainties can be treated as a function of baseline length. While the previous relationship indicated that the station vertical uncertainties are generally 4–5 times larger than the horizontal uncertainties, the vertical uncertainties as determined by the new method are only larger by a factor of 1.44 over all baseline lengths. ©2009 Springer-Verlag
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2009-06-01
    Description: In an elementary approach every geometrical height difference between the staff points of a levelling line should have a corresponding average g value for the determination of potential difference in the Earth’s gravity field. In practice this condition requires as many gravity data as the number of staff points if linear variation of g is assumed between them. Because of the expensive fieldwork, the necessary data should be supplied from different sources. This study proposes an alternative solution, which is proved at a test bed located in the Mecsek Mountains, Southwest Hungary, where a detailed gravity survey, as dense as the staff point density (~1 point/34 m), is available along a 4.3-km-long levelling line. In the first part of the paper the effect of point density of gravity data on the accuracy of potential difference is investigated. The average g value is simply derived from two neighbouring g measurements along the levelling line, which are incrementally decimated in the consecutive turns of processing. The results show that the error of the potential difference between the endpoints of the line exceeds 0.1 mm in terms of length unit if the sampling distance is greater than 2 km. Thereafter, a suitable method for the densification of the decimated g measurements is provided. It is based on forward gravity modelling utilising a high-resolution digital terrain model, the normal gravity and the complete Bouguer anomalies. The test shows that the error is only in the order of 10−3mm even if the sampling distance of g measurements is 4 km. As a component of the error sources of levelling, the ambiguity of the levelled height difference which is the Euclidean distance between the inclined equipotential surfaces is also investigated. Although its effect accumulated along the test line is almost zero, it reaches 0.15 mm in a 1-km-long intermediate section of the line. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2009-06-01
    Description: The proper identification and removal of outliers in the combination of rates of vertical displacements derived from GPS, tide gauges/satellite altimetry, and GRACE observations is presented. Outlier detection is a necessary pre-screening procedure in order to ensure reliable estimates of stochastic properties of the observations in the combined least-squares adjustment (via rescaling of covariance matrices) and to ensure that the final vertical motion model is not corrupted and/or distorted by erroneous data. Results from this study indicate that typical data snooping methods are inadequate in dealing with these heterogeneous data sets and their stochastic properties. Using simulated vertical displacement rates, it is demonstrated that a large variety of outliers (random scattered and adjacent, as well as jointly influential) can be dealt with if an iterative re-weighting least-squares adjustment is combined with a robust median estimator. Moreover, robust estimators are efficient in areas weakly constrained by the data, where even high quality observations may appear to be erroneous if their estimates are largely influenced by outliers. Four combined models for the vertical motion in the region of the Great Lakes are presented. The computed vertical displacements vary between  − 2 mm/year (subsidence) along the southern shores and 3 mm/year (uplift) along the northern shores. The derived models provide reliable empirical constraints and error bounds for postglacial rebound models in the region. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2009-05-01
    Description: The joint Taiwan–US mission FORMOSAT-3/ COSMIC (COSMIC) was launched on April 17, 2006. Each of the six satellites is equipped with two POD antennas. The orbits of the six satellites are determined from GPS data using zero-difference carrier-phase measurements by the reduced dynamic and kinematic methods. The effects of satellite center of mass (COM) variation, satellite attitude, GPS antenna phase center variation (PCV), and cable delay difference on the COSMIC orbit determination are studied. Nominal attitudes estimated from satellite state vectors deliver a better orbit accuracy when compared to observed attitude. Numerical tests show that the COSMIC COM must be precisely calibrated in order not to corrupt orbit determination. Based on the analyses of the 5 and 6-h orbit overlaps of two 30-h arcs, orbit accuracies from the reduced dynamic and kinematic solutions are nearly identical and are at the 2–3 cm level. The mean RMS difference between the orbits from this paper and those from UCAR (near real-time) and WHU (post-processed) is about 10 cm, which is largely due to different uses of GPS ephemerides, high-rate GPS clocks and force models. The kinematic orbits of COSMIC are expected to be used for recovery of temporal variations in the gravity field. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2009-05-01
    Description: In collocation applications, the prior covariance matrices or weight matrices between the signals and the observations should be consistent to their uncertainties; otherwise, the solution of collocation will be distorted. To balance the covariance matrices of the signals and the observations, a new adaptive collocation estimator is thus derived in which the corresponding adaptive factor is constructed by the ratio of the variance components of the signals and the observations. A maximum likelihood estimator of the variance components is thus derived based on the collocation functional model and stochastic model. A simplified Helmert type estimator of the variance components for the collocation is also introduced and compared to the derived maximum likelihood type estimator. Reasonable and consistent covariance matrices of the signals and the observations are arrived through the adjustment of the adaptive factor. The new adaptive collocation with related adaptive factor constructed by the derived variance components is applied in a transformation between the geodetic height derived by GPS and orthometric height. It is shown that the adaptive collocation is not only simple in calculation but also effective in balancing the contribution of observations and the signals in the collocation model. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2009-05-01
    Description: The superconducting gravimeter (SG) has a long-period instrumental noise called the parasitic mode at periods around 100 s, whose precise mechanism has not yet been identified. In this paper, another instrumental noise is detected at much higher frequencies by analyzing the high-rate gravity channel of two SGs in Japan. This is also a parasitic oscillation, characterized by frequencies on the order of 1 Hz and very high Q values. Detailed spectra indicate that the noise actually consists of two modes with small frequency separations. Based on a simple theory on the rotational motions of the superconducting sphere in the gravity sensor, the observed modes are tentatively identified as rotational oscillations of the sphere about two orthogonal axes in the horizontal plane. Interactions between the parasitic modes are investigated using the spectra acquired on an earthquake, to conclude that the low-frequency parasitic mode is likely to be a rotational motion of the sphere about the vertical axis. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2009-03-01
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2009-03-01
    Description: The International GNSS Service (IGS) has been producing the total troposphere zenith path delay (ZPD) product that is based on combined ZPD contributions from several IGS Analysis Centers (AC) since GPS week 890 in 1997. A new approach to the production of the IGS ZPD has been proposed that replaces the direct combination of diverse ZPD products with point positioning estimates using the IGS Combined Final orbit and clock products. The new product was formally adopted in 2007 after several years of concurrent production with the legacy product. We describe here the advantages of the new approach for the IGS ZPD product, which enhance the value of the new ZPD product for climate studies. We also address the impact the IGS adoption in November 2006 of new GPS antenna phase center standards has had on the new ZPD product. Finally we describe plans to further enhance the ZPD products. ©2008 The Author(s)〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="http://doi.org/10.1007/s00190-008-0288-8" target="_blank"〉〈img src="http://bib.telegrafenberg.de/typo3temp/pics/f2f773b55e.png" border="0"〉〈/a〉
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2009-03-01
    Description: Several sources of a priori meteorological data have been compared for their effects on geodetic results from GPS precise point positioning (PPP). The new global pressure and temperature model (GPT), available at the IERS Conventions web site, provides pressure values that have been used to compute a priori hydrostatic (dry) zenith path delay z h estimates. Both the GPT-derived and a simple height-dependent a priori constant z h performed well for low- and mid-latitude stations. However, due to the actual variations not accounted for by the seasonal GPT model pressure values or the a priori constant z h, GPS height solution errors can sometimes exceed 10 mm, particularly in Polar Regions or with elevation cutoff angles less than 10 degrees. Such height errors are nearly perfectly correlated with local pressure variations so that for most stations they partly (and for solutions with 5-degree elevation angle cutoff almost fully) compensate for the atmospheric loading displacements. Consequently, unlike PPP solutions utilizing a numerical weather model (NWM) or locally measured pressure data for a priori z h, the GPT-based PPP height repeatabilities are better for most stations before rather than after correcting for atmospheric loading. At 5 of the 11 studied stations, for which measured local meteorological data were available, the PPP height errors caused by a priori z h interpolated from gridded Vienna Mapping Function-1 (VMF1) data (from a NWM) were less than 0.5 mm. Height errors due to the global mapping function (GMF) are even larger than those caused by the GPT a priori pressure errors. The GMF height errors are mainly due to the hydrostatic mapping and for the solutions with 10-degree elevation cutoff they are about 50% larger than the GPT a priori errors. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2009-03-01
    Description: GPS seismology uses convential geodetic models to analyze GPS data at high sampling rates, such as 1 Hz. GPS seismology results are shown for the Denali, San Simeon, Tokachi-oki, and Chuetsu earthquakes. Records for these earthquakes indicate that GPS is an excellent instrument for measuring large displacements near earthquake ruptures. GPS systems can be improved for seismic applications if their sampling rates are increased from 1 to 10 Hz. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2009-03-01
    Description: We identify the key design aspects of a GPS-based system (and in the future, GNSS-based systems) that could contribute to real-time earthquake source determination and tsunami warning systems. Our approach is based on models of both transient and permanent displacement of GPS stations caused by large earthquakes, while considering the effect of GPS errors on inverted earthquake source parameters. Our main conclusions are that (1) the spatial pattern, magnitude, and timing of permanent displacement of GPS stations can be inverted for the earthquake source and so predict the 3D displacement field of the ocean bottom, thus providing the initial conditions for tsunami models, and (2) there are no inherently limiting factors arising from real-time orbit and positioning errors, provided sufficient near-field GPS stations are deployed. This signal could be readily exploited by GPS networks currently in place, and will be facilitated by the IGS Real-Time Project as it comes to fruition. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2009-03-01
    Description: A global, 2-hourly atmospheric precipitable water (PW) dataset is produced from ground-based GPS measurements of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) using the International Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Service (IGS) tropospheric products (~80–370 stations, 1997–2006) and US SuomiNet product (169 stations, 2003–2006). The climate applications of the GPS PW dataset are highlighted in this study. Firstly, the GPS PW dataset is used as a reference to validate radiosonde and atmospheric reanalysis data. Three types of systematic errors in global radiosonde PW data are quantified based on comparisons with the GPS PW data, including measurement biases for each of the fourteen radiosonde types along with their characteristics, long-term temporal inhomogeneity and diurnal sampling errors of once and twice daily radiosonde data. The comparisons between the GPS PW data and three reanalysis products, namely the NCEP-NCAR (NNR), ECMWF 40-year (ERA-40) and Japanese reanalyses (JRA), show that the elevation difference between the reanalysis grid box and the GPS station is the primary cause of the PW difference. Secondly, the PW diurnal variations are documented using the 2-hourly GPS PW dataset. The PW diurnal cycle has an annual-mean, peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.66, 0.53 and 1.11 mm for the globe, Northern Hemisphere, and Southern Hemisphere, respectively, with the time of the peak ranging from noon to late evening depending on the season and region. Preliminary analyses suggest that the PW diurnal cycle in Europe is poorly represented in the NNR and JRA products. Several recommendations are made for future improvements of IGS products for climate applications. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2009-03-01
    Description: DGPS services are provided in support of land and marine applications by many government agencies worldwide. Horizontal positioning accuracies in the order of several metres are typically achieved for these systems. Under high levels of ionospheric activity, however, significant degradations in DGPS positioning accuracies can occur. In particular, gradients of up to 50 ppm are associated with a feature known as storm-enhanced density (SED). This feature is a localized enhancement of total electron content (TEC) extending north through the mid-latitudes into the polar region. DGPS positioning errors of 20 m or more can persist for hours during such events. In this paper, archived IGS data from GPS reference stations are used to derive high-resolution TEC maps for two SED events. The impact of SED effects on DGPS horizontal positioning accuracies is then quantified using data from select IGS reference stations in North America and Europe. Results indicate that positioning accuracies may be degraded by factors as large as 10–20 during such events. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2009-03-01
    Description: Since May 2003, the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE), one of the analysis centers of the International GNSS Service, has generated GPS and GLONASS products in a rigorous combined multi-system processing scheme, which promises the best possible consistency of the orbits of both systems. The resulting products, in particular the satellite orbits and clocks, are easily accessible by the user community. In the first part of this article, we focus on the generation of the combined global products at CODE, where we put emphasis not only on accuracy, but also on completeness. We study the impact of GLONASS on the CODE products, and the benefit of using them. Last, but not least, we introduce AGNES (Automated GNSS Network for Switzerland), a regional tracking network of small extensions (roughly 400 km East–West, 200 km North–South), which consequently tracks all GNSS satellites and analyzes their measurements using the CODE products. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2009-03-01
    Description: The Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) is in charge of producing International Atomic Time TAI. In this aim, it uses clock data from more than 60 laboratories spread worldwide. For two decades, GPS has been an essential tool to link these clocks, and products from the International GNSS Service (IGS) have been used to improve the quality of these time links since its creation in the early 1990s. This paper reviews the various interactions between the IGS and time activities at the BIPM, and shows that TAI has greatly benefited from IGS products so that their availability is now an essential need for the quality of TAI links. On the other hand, IGS has also benefited from introducing time laboratories equipped with highly stable clocks in its network of stations. In the future, similar products will be needed for an ensemble of satellite systems, starting with GLONASS and GALILEO. It will be a major challenge to the IGS to obtain a consistent set of products, particularly for what concerns satellite clocks and inter-system bias values. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2009-02-01
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2009-02-01
    Description: Locata is a new positioning technology developed by the Locata Corporation. At the beginning of 2007, the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG) bought and received a network of Locata transceivers with two rovers. The purpose is to solve the challenges identified when surveying in dense multipath areas (i.e. urban canyons). In this paper, the technology is tested in an urban canyon scenario on the University park at the University of Nottingham. By comparing Locata position solutions with the true positions calculated with a total station and a carrier-phase GPS, the results show that centimetre-level accuracy is achievable in difficult environments in the presence of Wi-Fi signals. The rover’s estimated coordinates may diverge in some cases. Finally, a comparison study shows that Real Time Kinematic GPS and Locata technologies have similar accuracy when both are available. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2009-01-01
    Description: Collocation is widely used in physical geodesy. Its application requires to solve systems with a dimension equal to the number of observations, causing numerical problems when many observations are available. To overcome this drawback, tailored step-wise techniques are usually applied. An example of these step-wise techniques is the space-wise approach to the GOCE mission data processing. The original idea of this approach was to implement a two-step procedure, which consists of first predicting gridded values at satellite altitude by collocation and then deriving the geo-potential spherical harmonic coefficients by numerical integration. The idea was generalized to a multi-step iterative procedure by introducing a time-wise Wiener filter to reduce the highly correlated observation noise. Recent studies have shown how to optimize the original two-step procedure, while the theoretical optimization of the full multi-step procedure is investigated in this work. An iterative operator is derived so that the final estimated spherical harmonic coefficients are optimal with respect to the Wiener–Kolmogorov principle, as if they were estimated by a direct collocation. The logical scheme used to derive this optimal operator can be applied not only in the case of the space-wise approach but, in general, for any case of step-wise collocation. Several numerical tests based on simulated realistic GOCE data are performed. The results show that adding a pre-processing time-wise filter to the two-step procedure of data gridding and spherical harmonic analysis is useful, in the sense that the accuracy of the estimated geo-potential coefficients is improved. This happens because, in its practical implementation, the gridding is made by collocation over local patches of data, while the observation noise has a time-correlation so long that it cannot be treated inside the patch size. Therefore, the multi-step operator, which is in theory equivalent to the two-step operator and to the direct collocation, is in practice superior thanks to the time-wise filter that reduces the noise correlation before the gridding. The criteria for the choice of this filter are investigated numerically. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2009-03-01
    Description: High-precision Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite orbits are one of the core products of the International GNSS Service (IGS). Since the establishment of the IGS in 1994, the quality and consistency of the IGS orbits has steadily been improved by advances in the modeling of GPS observations. However, due to these model improvements and reference frame changes, the time series of operational orbits are inhomogeneous and inconsistent. This problem can only be overcome by a complete reprocessing starting with the raw observation data. The quality of reprocessed GPS satellite orbits for the time period 1994–2005 will be assessed in this paper. Orbit fits show that the internal consistency of the orbits could be improved by a factor of about two in the early years. Comparisons with the operational IGS orbits show clear discontinuities whenever the reference frame was changed by the IGS. The independent validation with Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) residuals shows an improvement of up to 30% whereas a systematic bias of 5 cm still persists. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2009-02-01
    Description: A methodology is developed to analyze a multivariate linear model, which occurs in many geodetic and geophysical applications. Proper analysis of multivariate GPS coordinate time-series is considered to be an application. General, special, and more practical stochastic models are adopted to assess the noise characteristics of multivariate time-series. The least-squares variance component estimation (LS-VCE) is applied to estimate full covariance matrices among different series. For the special model, it is shown that the multivariate time-series can be estimated separately, and that the (cross) correlation between series propagates directly into the correlation between the corresponding parameters in the functional model. The time-series of five permanent GPS stations are used to show how the correlation between series propagates into the site velocities. The results subsequently conclude that the general model is close to the more practical model, for which an iterative algorithm is presented. The results also indicate that the correlation between series of different coordinate components per station is not significant. However, the spatial correlation between different stations for individual components is significant (a correlation of 0.9 over short baselines) both for white and for colored noise components. ©2008 The Author(s)〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="http://doi.org/10.1007/s00190-008-0251-8" target="_blank"〉〈img src="http://bib.telegrafenberg.de/typo3temp/pics/f2f773b55e.png" border="0"〉〈/a〉
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2009-02-01
    Description: The Cartesian-to-Geodetic coordinate transformation is re-cast as a minimization algorithm for the height of the Satellite above the reference Earth surface. Optimal necessary conditions are obtained that fix the satellite ground track vector components in the Earth surface. The introduction of an artificial perturbation variable yields a rapidly converging second order power series solution. The initial starting guess for the solution provides 3–4 digits of precision. Convergence of the perturbation series expansion is accelerated by replacing the series solution with a Padé approximation. For satellites with heights 〈 30,000 km the second-order expansions yields ~mm satellite geodetic height errors and ~10−12 rad errors for the geodetic latitude. No quartic or cubic solutions are required: the algorithm is both non-iterative and non-singular. Only two square root and two arc-tan calculations are required for the entire transformation. The proposed algorithm has been measured to be ~41% faster than the celebrated Bowring method. Several numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new algorithm. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2009-01-01
    Description: A conformal approximation to the Transverse Mercator (TM) map projection, global in longitude λ and isometric latitude q , is constructed. New formulas for the point scale factor and grid convergence are also shown. Assuming that the true values of the TM coordinates are given by conveniently truncated Gauss–Krüger series expansions, we use the maximum norm of the absolute error to measure globally the accuracy of the approximation. For a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) zone the accuracy equals 0.21  mm, whereas for the region of the ellipsoid bounded by the meridians  ±20° the accuracy is equal to 0.3  mm. Our approach is based on a four-term perturbation series approximation to the radius r ( q ) of the parallel q , with a maximum absolute deviation of 0.43  mm. The small parameter of the power series expansion is the square of the eccentricity of the ellipsoid. This closed approximation to r ( q ) is obtained by solving a regularly perturbed Cauchy problem with the Poincaré method of the small parameter. ©2008 Springer-Verlag
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2009-08-01
    Description: Diatoms in sediment cores were analysed across a range of stratigraphic resolutions along a transect of 23 lakes spanning the ice-free margin of the west coast of Greenland (~67°N), to explore spatial and temporal patterns of recent (last ~150 years) environmental change in the region. These records display heterogeneous lake development trajectories over the last several centuries. Estimates of species composition turnover (beta-diversity) since 1850 AD are among the lowest for lakes in the Arctic, and are comparable to “unimpacted” reference lakes from temperate regions. Most of the change that occurred in West Greenland lakes pre-dates potential industrial anthropogenic effects, while post-1850 change is well within the natural range of variability for these systems. Nonetheless, a spatial pattern in core “top–bottom” changes is apparent across the transect: lakes in the arid interior of the region, adjacent to the ice sheet, and those with higher pH, register greater change than those in the more maritime climate of the coast. This suggests that climate plays an indirect role in the recent development of these lakes, and that recent anthropogenic forcing has not yet exceeded major ecological thresholds in this region. ©2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2009-08-01
    Description: We recovered a sediment core (DL04) from the depocenter of Dali Lake in central-eastern Inner Mongolia. The upper 8.5 m were analyzed at 1-cm intervals for grain-size distribution to partition the grain-size components and provide a high-resolution proxy record of Holocene lake level changes. Partitioning of three to six components, C1, C2, C3 through C6 from fine to coarse modes within the individual polymodal distributions, into overlapping lognormal distributions, was accomplished utilizing the method of lognormal distribution function fitting. Genetic analyses of the grain-size components suggest that two major components, C2 and C3, interpreted as offshore-suspension fine and medium-to-coarse silt, can serve as sediment proxies for past changes in the level of Dali Lake. Lower modal sizes of both C2 and C3 and greater C3 and lower C2 percentages reflect higher lake stands. The proxy data from DL04 core sediments span the last 12,000 years and indicate that Dali Lake experienced five stages during the Holocene. During the interval ca. 11,500–9,800 cal year BP, lake level was unstable, with drastic rises and falls. Following that interval, the lake level was marked by high stands between ca. 9,800 and 7,100 cal year BP. During the period from ca. 7,100 to 3,650 cal year BP, lake level maintained generally low stands, but displayed a slight tendency to rise. Subsequently, the lake level continued rising, but exhibited high-frequency, high-amplitude fluctuations until ca. 1,800 cal years ago. Since ca. 1,800 cal year BP, the lake has displayed a gradual lowering trend with frequent fluctuations. ©2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2009-12-01
    Description: Testate amoebae are increasingly used in ecological and palaeoecological studies of wetlands. To characterise the amoeba community a certain number of individuals need to be counted under the microscope. To date, most studies have aimed for 150 individuals, but that sample size is not based on adequate evidence. When testate amoeba concentrations are low, it can be difficult or impossible to reach this total. The impacts of lower count totals have never been seriously scrutinised. We investigated the impact of count size on number of taxa identified, quantitative inferences of environmental variables and the strength of the links between amoebae and environmental data in the context of predicting depth to water table. Low counts were simulated by random selection of individuals from four existing datasets. Results show progressively diminishing returns by all criteria as count size increases from low numbers to counts of 150. A higher count is required to identify all taxa than to adequately characterise the community for transfer function inference. We suggest that in most cases, it will be a more efficient use of time to count a greater number of samples to a lower count. While a count of 50 individuals may be sufficient for some samples from some sites we recommend that counts of 100 individuals should be sufficient for most samples. Counts need only be increased to 150 or more where the aim is to identify relatively minor, but still potentially ecologically relevant community changes. This approach will help reduce lack of replication and low resolution, which are common limitations in testate amoeba-based palaeoecological and ecological studies. ©2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2009-12-01
    Description: Sediment chemistry and arcellacean community composition were analyzed to study the ecological effects of copper mine-derived acidic and metal-rich waters in a freshwater bay in eastern Finland. To track spatial and temporal changes in the bay, 32 mine-impacted (top) and pre-impact (bottom) samples were analyzed from 16 short sediment cores taken along a transect extending from the pollution source. In addition, short cores from the impacted and reference sites were studied. Recent sediments displayed a geochemical gradient from the inner bay, where mine water is discharged, to the outer bay. Inner bay sites were enriched with C, S, and Fe, whereas Mn was depleted, but has precipitated in the outer bay. Among the heavy metals, Cu, Al, Zn, and Ni concentrations had increased in the inner and mid bay, while Co and Cd concentrations had increased at mid-bay sites. The change from the natural to mine-impacted condition was also seen in faunal gradients. According to ordination and distance measures, the greatest changes in species composition occurred in the inner bay, with fairly small changes in the outer bay. Numerical methods suggested that metals (Cu, Pb, Al, Zn, Cr), redox-sensitive elements (Fe, Mn), organic carbon and nutrients could be related to changes in arcellacean assemblages. Geochemical changes in the impacted core started at ~20 cm with increases in S alternating with peaks in Cr and Mg. Heavy metal concentrations increased markedly at 10 cm, after the active mining period, suggesting the beginning of acid mine drainage. Geochemical changes at ~20 cm were already apparent in the arcellacean assemblages, but the most notable change coincided with the geochemical shift at 10 cm, with signs of decreased pH. Numerical methods suggest that mining-related metals Co, Cu, Zn and Ni co-vary with arcellaceans, but Al appears to behave independently with respect to the species data. ©2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2009-12-01
    Description: The construction of the Rideau Canal was one of the greatest engineering accomplishments of the nineteenth century, creating a navigable waterway linking the Ottawa River with Lake Ontario. Colonel By Lake, located at the southern end of the canal near Kingston Mills, was created by the damming of the lower Cataraqui River. The canal flooding in 1831 raised water levels by almost 8 m, inundating former wetlands and lowland areas. European settlement in the pre-canal-era (ca. 1780s) was associated with widespread deforestation and limited flooding of wetlands by construction of mill dams. A detailed sediment coring program was conducted in Colonel By Lake to reconstruct the pre-canal environment and to document water level and land-use changes associated with European settlement and canal construction. The paleoenvironmental record was obtained through analysis of multiple environmental indicators including sediment facies, particle size, magnetic susceptibility and downcore changes in testate amoebae (thecamoebian) diversity. The core lithostratigraphy consists of organic-rich muds overlying peaty gyttja and a lowermost unit of fine to coarse silts. The canal flooding surface (ca. 1831) is clearly defined by a shift to finer grain sizes and increased magnetic susceptibility within the upper 40–60 cm. The shift is associated with an overall increase in thecamoebian abundance and diversity, and high numbers of Difflugia oblonga and Cucurbitella tricuspis that indicate a shift to a deeper and more eutrophic environment. In contrast, the pre-canal environment has lower thecamoebian abundance with assemblages characteristic of marsh environments ( Centropyxis constricta , Centropyxis aculeata ). The onset of canal flooding (ca. 1790s) is identified by an increase in Pontigulasia compressa (~50 cm), recording a higher water flow rate. The study shows that a multi-proxy paleoenvironmental approach can clearly define different environmental changes due to land-use changes during colonisation and canal-era construction activities. ©2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2009-12-01
    Description: We present varve chronologies for sediments from two maar lakes in the Valle de Santiago region (Central Mexico): Hoya La Alberca (AD 1852–1973) and Hoya Rincón de Parangueo (AD 1839–1943). These are the first varve chronologies for Mexican lakes. The varved sections were anchored with tephras from Colima (1913) and Paricutín (1943/1944) and 210Pb ages. We compare the sequences using the thickness of seasonal laminae and element counts (Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ti, Mn, Fe, and Sr) determined by micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The formation of the varve sublaminae is attributed to the strongly seasonal climate regime. Limited rainfall and high evaporation rates in winter and spring induce precipitation of carbonates (high Ca, Sr) enriched in 13C and 18O, whereas rainfall in summer increases organic and clastic input (plagioclase, quartz) with high counts of lithogenic elements (K, Al, Ti, and Si). Eolian input of Ti occurs also in the dry season. Moving correlations (5-yr windows) of the Ca and Ti counts show similar development in both sequences until the 1930s. Positive correlations indicate mixing of allochthonous Ti and autochthonous Ca, while negative correlations indicate their separation in sublaminae. Negative excursions in the correlations correspond with historic and reconstructed droughts, El Niño events, and positive SST anomalies. Based on our data, droughts (3–7 year duration) were severe and centred around the following years: the early 1850s, 1865, 1880, 1895, 1905, 1915 and the late 1920s with continuation into the 1930s. The latter dry period brought both lake systems into a critical state making them susceptible to further drying. Groundwater overexploitation due to the expansion of irrigation agriculture in the region after 1940 induced the transition from calcite to aragonite precipitation in Alberca and halite infiltration in Rincón. The proxy data indicate a faster response to increased evaporation for Rincón, the lake with the larger maar dimensions, solar radiation receipt and higher conductivity, whereas the smaller, steeper Alberca maar responded rapidly to increased precipitation. ©2009 The Author(s)〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="http://doi.org/10.1007/s10933-009-9307-x" target="_blank"〉〈img src="http://bib.telegrafenberg.de/typo3temp/pics/f2f773b55e.png" border="0"〉〈/a〉
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-0417
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2009-10-01
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-0417
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2009-10-01
    Description: A reliable geochemical paleo-indicator for phosphorus remains elusive, despite the importance of understanding historical changes in the nutrient status of aquatic ecosystems. We assessed the potential of phytate (salts of myo -inositol hexakisphosphate) as a novel phosphorus-specific paleo-indicator by measuring its concentrations in dated sediments from an embayment in Helsinki, Finland, with a known 200-year history of trophic changes. Phytate was extracted in a solution containing sodium hydroxide and EDTA and detected by solution 31P NMR spectroscopy with spectral deconvolution. Concentrations varied markedly with sediment depth and paralleled previously determined changes in diatom assemblages and geochemical indicators linked to trophic status. In contrast, total sediment phosphorus did not reflect phosphorus inputs to the embayment, presumably due to the mobilization of inorganic phosphate under anoxic conditions during periods of high pollutant loading. Importantly, phytate appeared to be stable in these brackish sediments, in contrast to other organic and inorganic phosphates which declined abruptly with depth. We therefore conclude that phytate represents a potentially important indicator of historical changes in phosphorus inputs to water bodies, although additional studies are required to confirm its stability under conditions likely to be encountered in lakes and coastal ecosystems. ©2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2009-10-01
    Description: Ecosystem variability must be assessed over a range of timescales in order to fully understand natural ecosystem processes. Long-term climate change, at millennial and centennial scales, is a major driver of natural ecosystem variability, but identifying evidence of past climate change is frequently confounded by human-induced impacts on the ecosystem. Iceland is a location where it is possible to separate natural from anthropogenic change in environmental archives, as the date of settlement is accepted to be around AD 874, prior to which the island was free from proven human impacts. We used a lake sediment core from Breiðavatn, near Reykholt, a major farm of the Norse period in western Iceland, to examine landscape development. A change in pollen concentration in the sediments, especially the decline in Betula , indicated initial landscape degradation immediately post-settlement, whereas the chironomid fauna and reconstructed temperatures were relatively complacent during this period. The pollen evidence is corroborated by 14C analyses, which indicate an increase in older carbon entering the lake, inferred to have been caused by increased erosion following settlement. Further decreases in Betula pollen occurred around AD 1300, pre-dating a drop in chironomid-inferred temperatures (CI-T) of ~1°C over 100–200 years. The CI-T reconstruction also shows a significant cooling after ~AD 1800, likely indicative of the coldest phase of the Little Ice Age. The evidence suggests that the chironomid record was relatively unaffected by the increased landscape degradation and hence reveals a temperature reconstruction independent of human impact. ©2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2009-10-01
    Description: Prokaryotes were the first organisms to colonize Earth, but little evidence of their existence has been found in the fossil record. Recent studies of amber, a fossil resin from gymnosperms or angiosperms, have revealed a number of rarely fossilized microorganisms. Several amber-bearing localities of Mid-Cretaceous age in southwestern France (Charentes and Aude regions) led to the discovery of a rich and diverse biota of resin-preserved microorganisms. These amber microcoenoses are dominated by sheathed prokaryotic filaments similar to those of the cyanobacterium Palaeocolteronema cenomanensis Breton and Tostain ( 2005 ) and to those of the bacterium Leptotrichites resinatus Schmidt 2005. These sheathed filaments appear as peripheral cortexes around some pieces of amber from the Charentes outcrops and as peripheral dark areas on amber from the Aude locality. Macroscopic and microscopic features, as well as measurements of phycocyanin concentrations from the filaments, made it possible to identify two different taxa. The sheathed filaments from Charentes correspond to P. cenomanensis . They were growing in freshwater ponds when amber trapped them. Those of the Aude outcrop represent L. resinatus . The latter were probably trapped in less humid environments than were P. cenomanensis filaments. ©2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2009-10-01
    Description: Fish introduction and eutrophication are important disturbances to aquatic ecosystems, especially to oligotrophic plateau lakes that are generally considered to be very vulnerable ecosystems. Planktivorous fish Neosalanx taihuensis were introduced to Lake Fuxian, an oligotrophic (TP 17 μg/l) deep (average depth 89.7 m) plateau lake in southwest China, in the middle of the 1980s. After the introduction, N. taihuensis became the dominant fish species, and the total fish yield increased about threefold. Although the lake is still oligotrophic, the trophic state of Lake Fuxian has started to shift with increasing nutrient supply (eutrophication) due to an increase in human activities in the drainage basin. This study investigated the effects of N. taihuensis introduction and eutrophication on the cladoceran community of Lake Fuxian by examining changes in cladoceran assemblages and abundance, as well as the morphological features of Bosmina microfossils in the lake sediment. Absolute abundance of total Bosmina increased substantially after the middle of the 1980s. In addition, dominance of Bosmina with straight antennules was replaced by Bosmina with hooked antennules. The morphological variables (length of carapace, antennule and mucro) of Bosmina all decreased when planktivorous fish N. taihuensis achieved relatively large numbers. Eutrophication was the most important process determining cladoceran abundance, while fish introduction played an important role in structuring the cladoceran community in this oligotrophic, deep plateau lake. ©2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2009-10-01
    Description: A moderate-size earthquake (Mw = 6.2) occurred on 3 February 2002 (07:11:28 GMT) in the Sultandağı-Çay region of southwest Turkey. The mainshock was followed by a strong aftershock of Mw = 6.0 just 2 h after the mainshock, at 09:26:49 GMT. A temporary seismic network of 27 vertical component seismometers was installed to monitor aftershock activity. One thousand sixty nine aftershocks (0.2 〈 ML 〈 3.3) were recorded during the period from 5 to 10 February 2002. We analyzed the P and S arrival times and P wave first motion data to obtain high-quality hypocenters and focal mechanisms, which revealed fine details of the fault zone. We infer that the mainshock has ruptured a segment of the Sultandağ Fault Zone that is approximately 37 km long and 7 km wide at depth. The average slip over the rupture plane during the mainshock is estimated to be 32 cm. The linear distribution of the aftershocks and the location of the mainshock epicenter suggest that rupture has initiated in the eastern bending of the fault and propagated unilaterally to the west. The majority of fault plane solutions indicate E–W to ESE–WNW striking oblique–normal faulting mechanisms with an average dip angle of 62° N ± 10° . The high-resolution aftershock seismicity image also shows that faulting involved a complex array of synthetic and possibly antithetic structures during the evolution of the aftershock sequence. The steady increase of the b value towards the west implies that the highest moment release of the mainshock occurred to the west of the epicenter. The study clearly shows the activation of the WNW–ESE-trending Sultandağ Fault Zone along the southern margin of the Akşehir-Afyon Graben (AAG). The westernmost end of the aftershock activity corresponds to a structurally complex zone distinct from the main rupture. It is characterized by both ENE–WSW- and NNE–SSW-trending oblique-slip normal faulting mechanisms, the latter being associated with the NNE–SSW-trending Karamık Graben. The intersection of these two grabens, AAG and Karamık Graben, provides abundant faults available for failure in this region. The occurrence pattern of large events in recent years indicates a possible migration of earthquakes from east to west. Thus, we conclude that this has an important implication for earthquake hazard for the city of Afyon, which lies along the same fault line and only 20 km west of the termination point of the aftershock zone. ©2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2009-08-25
    Description: We develop new approaches to calculating 30-year probabilities for occurrence of moderate-to-large earthquakes in Italy. Geodetic techniques and finite-element modelling, aimed to reproduce a large amount of neotectonic data using thin-shell finite element, are used to separately calculate the expected seismicity rates inside seismogenic areas (polygons containing mapped faults and/or suspected or modelled faults). Thirty-year earthquake probabilities obtained from the two approaches show similarities in most of Italy: the largest probabilities are found in the southern Apennines, where they reach values between 10% and 20% for earthquakes of M W ≥ 6.0, and lower than 10% for events with an M W ≥ 6.5. ©2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
    Print ISSN: 1383-4649
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2009-10-01
    Description: A new ground-motion prediction equation for 5%-damped horizontal spectral acceleration applicable to Iran is presented. On the basis of analysis of variance (ANOVA), selected West-Eurasian records are added to an existing dataset of Iranian accelerometric data to yield a ground-motion prediction equation applicable at wider ranges of magnitude and distance. The advantages of using this model rather than those proposed previously for Iran are discussed by considering the distribution of residuals against the explanatory variables, magnitude and distance. The applicability of the proposed model, as well as those of several other models developed for shallow crustal environments, is also investigated by means of statistical tools. The results reveal the overall suitability of the new model as well as the validity of models developed using mainly Eurasian strong-motion records. ©2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2009-07-01
    Description: A large devastating earthquake with a magnitude of 7.6 struck in Kashmir on Oct. 8, 2005. The largest city influenced by the earthquake was Muzaffarabad. Balakot town was the nearest settlement to the epicenter, and it was the most heavily damaged. The earthquake caused extensive damage to housing and structures founded on loose deposits or weathered/sheared rock masses. Furthermore, extensive slope failures occurred along Neelum and Jhelum valleys, which obstructed both river flow and roadways. In this article, failures of natural and cut slopes as well as other ground failures induced by the earthquake and their geotechnical evaluation are presented, and their implications on civil infrastructures and site selection for reconstruction and rehabilitation are discussed. It is suggested that if housing and constructions on soil slopes containing boulders as observed in Balakot and Muzaffarabad are allowed, there should be a safety zone between the slope crest and allowable construction boundary. ©2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2009-07-01
    Description: This paper deals with the data obtained from local networks in northern Pakistan for 251 earthquakes of magnitude ≥4.0 for October 8, 2005 to December 31, 2006 period. The study presents focal mechanism solutions (FMS) of 12 pre- (1904–2005) and 17 post- (October 8, 2005–December, 2005) Muzaffarabad Earthquake, their detailed tectonic interpretation, and correlation with surface evidence of co-seismic rupture with published synthetic aperture radar data. Distribution of landslides obtained from National Engineering Services of Pakistan and the earthquake damages are also discussed. Aftershock distribution, which is more prominent in the crystalline zone (northwest of Muzaffarabad), defines a 50-km-wide NW–SE trending zone that extends for 200 km from the main mantle thrust to the center of the Hazara–Kashmir Syntaxis. The FMS of the main shock and 16 aftershocks having magnitude ≥4.0 indicate thrusting to be the dominant mechanism with rupture planes having NW–SE trend and NE dip. In addition, 12 FMS of pre-Muzaffarabad Earthquake (1904–2004) from the same area have been determined and results are compared. This leads to the conclusion that the wedge-shaped NW–SE trending blind zone, referred to by earlier workers as the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone (IKSZ), has been activated during the Muzaffarabad earthquake. The right-lateral component in all FMS, supported by the surface evidences, suggests the involvement of Balakot–Bagh Fault (BBF). We propose that the IKSZ is the source of the October 8, 2005 Muzaffarabad earthquake that reactivated the BBF. Furthermore, the IKSZ does not end at the nose of the syntaxis but extends further southeast of it. Tectonic complexity seems to be due to a variety of factors. Also, thrust and reverse solutions near the northern collisional boundary (main mantle thrust) have mostly NE/SW-directed P-axis orientations. From the detailed FMS analysis, three conclusions have been drawn: (1) Shallow events (depth ≤10 km) with prominent strike slip solutions (earlier earthquakes) are associated with the surface strike slip faults (e.g., Muzaffarabad Fault) and/or the Besham domal structure; (2) moderate depth events (depth 10–25 km) with thrust/reverse solutions but having minor right-lateral strike slip component (all Muzaffarabad earthquakes and two earlier) are associated with the IKSZ; (3) deeper earthquakes (depth below IKSZ) with pure thrust/reverse solutions may be related to the under-thrusting of the Indian plate beneath the IKSZ, which represents a major thrust zone. Imbricate thrusting and breaking and thickening of the crust are considered to be caused by steep bending of the under-thrusting plate at the collisional boundary. ©2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2009-07-01
    Description: In this paper, the investigations on seismotectonic and intensity evaluations of epicentral and meizoseismal regions in Muzaffarabad earthquake—8 Oct. 2005, Mw 7.6—are summarized using The European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98). The observations are compiled based on the field investigations and isoseismal map. The results show that the isoseismals are elongated parallel to the reactivated Muzaffarabad fault, and the attenuation is high in the direction normal to the fault compared with the direction parallel to it. The geotechnical investigations in Muzaffarabad Valley have helped the authors to assign intensity values in the localities where some huge landslides are observed. Finally, the empirical laws, previously developed for intensity attenuation in Iran in EMS-98 scale, are compared with the intensity observations here. The results are roughly consistent with the general form of attenuation laws. However, it is found that the intensity attenuations are different in the directions normal and parallel to the fault. ©2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2009-01-01
    Description: The attenuation of coda waves, Q c , has been estimated in Zarand, Jiroft, and Bam regions of east central Iran using a single back-scattering model of S-coda envelopes. For this purpose, the recordings of 97 earthquakes by three seismic networks and a local strong ground motion network have been used. In this research, the frequency-dependent Q c values are estimated at central frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 8, 12, 16, and 24 Hz using different lapse time windows from 20 to 60 s. The frequency-dependent relationships obtained are $Qc =left( {102pm 8} ight)f{left( {0.89pm 0.05} ight)}$ for Zarand, $Qc =left( {113pm 6} ight)f{left( {0.91pm 0.06} ight)}$ for Jiroft, and $Qc =left( {79pm 5} ight)f{left( {1.01pm 0.04} ight)}$ for Bam region. From the strong ground motion data, we obtain the relation $Qc =left( {{104}pm {8}} ight)f{left( {{0.90}pm {0.1}} ight)}$ . The Q c frequency-dependent relationship for the entire region of east central Iran from all data (both seismograms and accelerograms) is $Qc =left( {{101}pm {6}} ight)f{left( {{0.94}pm {0.11}} ight)}$ . The average Q c values estimated and their frequency dependent relationships correlate well with a highly heterogeneous and highly tectonically active region. Results also show that the attenuation is higher in Bam region compared to Zarand and Jiroft regions. ©2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  • 64
  • 65
    Publication Date: 2009-10-01
    Description: We study the surface deformation associated with the 22 December 1999 earthquake, a moderate sized but damaging event at Ain Temouchent (northwestern Algeria) using Interferometric Satellite Aperture Radar images (InSAR). The mainshock focal mechanism solution indicates reverse faulting with a NE–SW trending rupture comparable to other major seismic events of this section of the Africa–Eurasia plate boundary. Previously, the earthquake fault parameters were, however, poorly known because no aftershocks were precisely determined and no coseismic surface ruptures were observed in the field. Using a pair of ERS data with small baseline and short temporal separation in the ascending orbit we obtained an interferogram that shows the coseismic surface displacement field despite poor coherence. The interferogram measures four fringes and displays an ellipse-shaped lobe with ∼11 cm peak line-of-sight displacement. The elastic modeling using a boundary element method (Poly3Dinv) indicate coseismic slip reaching up to 1 m at 5 km depth on the N 57° E trending, dipping 32° NW Tafna thrust fault. The geodetic estimate of seismic moment is 4.7 × 1017 N m. (Mw 5.7) in is good agreement with seismological results. The elliptical shape of the surface displacement field coincides with the NE–SW trending Berdani fault-related fold. The consistency between the geological observations and InSAR solution shed light on the precise earthquake location and related Tafna fault parameters. ©2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2009-10-01
    Description: Background, aim and scopeThe combined pollution of bensulfuron-methyl (BSM) and heavy metal Pb has been a common problem in agro-ecological environment in southern China. As an important natural clay mineral, the kaolinite structure possesses great advantages in many processes due to its high chemical stability and low expansion coefficient. The adsorption of BSM on kaolinite was therefore investigated at varying Pb2+ concentrations (0, 100, 500 and 1,000 mg kg−1) and different pH levels (3, 4 and 5) using the batch equilibration experiment.Materials and methodsBSM was purchased from Aldrich Chemical Co. (purity, 98%), used as the model compound in this study. The experimental kaolinite was sampled from Yuhang in Zhejiang Province. The metal salts used in the study are Pb(NO3)2. The kaolinite samples were spiked with Pb at a rate of 100, 500 and 1,000 mg kg−1 air-dried soil, respectively. The adsorption of BSM on kaolinite was investigated using the batch equilibration experiment. The BSM concentration of the filtrate was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography.Results and discussionThe adsorption of BSM on kaolinite could be described by the Freundlich isotherm equation, with the R 2 values greater than 0.959 in all experimental treatment. The presence of Pb2+ in kaolinite promoted the adsorption of BSM, and the higher Pb would generally lead to the stronger sorption of BSM by kaolinite based on the observed K f values. The adsorption of BSM on kaolinite declined with the increase of pH, and the spiked Pb2+ aggravated the reduction of adsorption of BSM. The exclusion between BSM and kaolinite was strengthened with the increase of pH, which partially elucidated the adsorption of BSM decreasing with increasing pH of the solution. Some adsorption of Pb2+ took place along the outer hydroxyl plane, therefore releasing H+ ions located there. The spiked Pb2+ would promote the adsorption of BSM onto kaolinite by increasing the hydrogen (H+) ions concentration in solution. The interactions of the heavy metal cations with the kaolinite could affect the structure and other properties such as swelling capacity, compaction capability and the double-layer behaviour of kaolinite. In addition, the substitution of H+ ions for metal ions could change the Van der Wals force within the kaolinite structure. All these might lead to the increased sorption of BSM onto kaolinite at the presence of Pb2+.ConclusionsThe addition of Pb2+ and the reduction of pH in solution would enhance the retention of BSM and thus effectively retard BSM from entering the aqueous phase. The mechanisms involved in the promotion effects of the spiked Pb2+ on adsorption might be primarily attributed to the increased hydrogen (H+) ions as a consequence of the addition of Pb2+.Recommendations and perspectivesFurther investigation would be required to give insight into the specific mechanism controlling the adsorption of BSM on kaolinite. ©2009 Springer-Verlag
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geosciences
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2009-10-01
    Description: Background, aim, and scopeThe cause for this position paper is the impression that risk assessors consider primarily the concentration of free metal ions dissolved in solution controlling metal bioavailability in aquatic systems. Aiming at a more realistic risk assessment of metals, bioavailability has to be discussed under the scope of main uptake routes of metals to organisms.Materials and methodsOn the basis of a review on the literature relating to bioavailability approaches, this work discusses the incorporation of metal bioavailability into the risk assessment of metals in the context of metal exposure.ResultsThe biotic ligand model (BLM) and the concept of sulfide bound metals described by the ratio of simultaneously extracted metals and acid volatile sulfide concept (AVS) have been developed to consider the bioavailability of metals. Both approaches assume that the free ion concentration is the most relevant exposure pathway. However, apart from geochemical conditions, which control free metal concentration, bioavailability is additionally a result of contaminant/particle interaction and of organisms' activity. Asking for the relevant exposure pathways for inorganic metals to organisms, the compartments' water and sediment have been evaluated and also the importance of contaminated food.DiscussionWe present a conceptual model of the main processes and sources for uptake of trace metals at a biological membrane. On the basis of this model, we have to consider free metal ions, metal complexes, and particle-bound metals. The BLM approach has been proposed for use in European Union risk assessments. However, the BLM provides a means to predict ecotoxicological effect of metals in the environment, but at present assumes that total significant uptake is from the dissolved phase. It is apparent that dietary accumulation of metals is at least as important as metal uptake from the aqueous phase and in many cases dominates metal accumulation.ConclusionsWe found evidence in literature that uptake occurs via the dissolved phase, metal complexes, dietary, and particle-bound metals. In this regard, the AVS model, which considers only sedimentary metals in anoxic sediments, was more effective in predicting metal concentrations in pore waters than sediment toxicity in general.Recommendations and perspectivesModels will be improved by incorporating chronic metal effects rather than the binding to ligands. The most important for a risk assessment is a broad understanding of the relative importance of different uptake routes and the differential toxicity of metals accumulated by organisms with diverse feeding behavior. ©2009 Springer-Verlag
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