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  • 2010-2014  (2,184,620)
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  • 1
    Call number: IASS 15.89494
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: Losebl.-Ausg.
    Edition: Stand: Oktober 2010
    ISBN: 9783768501828
    Language: German
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Garmisch-Partenkirchen : Institut für atmosphärische Umweltforschung der Fraunhofer- Gesellschaft
    Call number: MOP 44829 / Mitte
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 25 S. , graph. Darst.
    Language: English
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Leningrad : Gidrometeorolog. Izd.
    Call number: MOP 33767
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 663 S.
    Language: Russian
    Note: In kyrill. Schr., russ.
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 4
    Call number: M 18.91571
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 134 Seiten
    ISSN: 2363-7196
    Series Statement: Global tectonics and metallogeny : special issue Vol. 10/2-4
    detail.hit.classification_display:
    A.3.4.
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Global tectonics and metallogeny
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 5
  • 6
    Call number: MOP 19538/1d-6d
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 111 S.
    ISSN: 0486-2287
    Language: Russian
    Note: In kyrill. Schr.
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 7
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Leiden : Nijhoff ; 1.2009 -
    Call number: IASS 17.92082
    Type of Medium: Monograph non-lending collection
    ISSN: 1876-8814
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 8
    Call number: Z 06.0500
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1824-7741
    Former Title: Vorgänger Geologisch-paläontologische Mitteilungen, Innsbruck
    Language: German , English
    Note: Ersch. unregelmäßig , Beiträge teilweise in Englisch
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 9
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    [Edgecumbe, N.Z.] : A. Muller
    Call number: M 15.89146
    Description / Table of Contents: An account of the results of the 2 March 1987 earthquake in the eastern Bay of Plenty and the aftermath's effects on the people and places on the Rangitaiki Plains
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 223 S., , Ill.
    Language: English
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 10
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Madrid : Secc
    Call number: PIK N 456-17-90913
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 536 Seiten
    Series Statement: Ministerio de Transportes Turismo Y Comunicaciones : Publicación Serie A 114
    Parallel Title: 1,1=6; 2,1=13 von Publicaciones / D / Ministerio del Aire, Subsecretaria de Aviación Civil, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional
    Language: Spanish
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 11
    Unknown
    London : Penguin Books
    ISBN: 9780141985206
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 12
    Call number: (DE-599)GBV03709842X
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Language: German
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 13
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Bonn : Helmholtz Association ; 2006-
    Associated volumes
    Call number: 3/S 07.0034(2016)
    In: Annual report
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 51 Seiten
    ISSN: 1865-6439 , 1865-6447
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Annual report ... / Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
    Language: English
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  • 14
    Call number: AWI G6-19-92375
    In: Berichte / Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Geowissenschaften, Nr. 9
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 278 Seiten , Illustrationen
    ISSN: 0175-9302
    Series Statement: Berichte / Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Geowissenschaften 9
    Language: German
    Note: Zugleich: Dissertation, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 1999 , INHALTSVERZEICHNIS 1. Einleitung 1.1 Kenntnisstand und offene Fragen 1.2 Fragestellung und Ziele dieser Arbeit 2. Umweltbedingungen in den Arbeitsgebieten 2.1 Hydrographie, Eisverhältnisse und NAO 2.2 Zur Variation von Wassertiefe und Breite der Dänemarkstraße und zur Vereisung Islands während des letzten Glazials 3. Methoden 3.1 Auswahl der Kernstationen 3.2 Probennahme und Analysen (Übersicht) 3.3 Zur Rekonstruktion von Paläobedingungen im Oberflächenwasser Zur Aussage stabiler Isotopenverhältnisse in planktischen Foraminiferen Zur Messung stabiler Isotopenverhältnisse Zur Massenspektrometrie Zur Rekonstruktion von Oberflächentemperaturen Alkane und Alkohole als Maß für Staubeintrag Eistranspmtiertes Material und vulkanische Aschen 3.4 Zur Rekonstruktion von Paläobedingungen im Zwischen-/ Tiefenwasser Häufigkeit von Cibicides- und anderen benthischen Arten (inkl. Taxonomie) Stabile Isotopenverhältnisse in benthischen Foraminiferen 3.5 AMS 14C-Datierungen Probenreinigung 3. 6 Hauptelementanalysen von vulkanischen Asche-Leithorizonten 3. 7 Geomagnetische Meßgrößen und magnetische Suszeptibiltät 3.8 Techniken zur Spektralanalyse 4. Methodische Ergebnisse 4.1 Zum Einfluß der Probenreinigung auf δ18O-/ δ13C-Werte 4.2 Probleme bei der langfristigen Reproduzierbarkeit von δ18O-Zeitreihen 4.3 Einfluß der Korngröße und Artendefinition planktischer Foraminiferen auf SST-Rekonstruktionen in hohen Breiten 4.4 Vergleich der stabilen Isotopenwerte von Cibicides lobatulus und Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi 5. Stratigraphische Grundlagen und Tiefenprofile der Klimasignale 5.1 Stratigraphische Korrelation zwischen parallel-gekernten GKG- und SL-/KL-Profilen 5.2 Flanktische δ18O-/ δ13C-Kurven, 14C-Alter und biostratigraphische Fixpunkte Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Kern 23351 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.3 Benthische δ18O-/ δ13C-Werte in Kern PS2644 5.4 Siliziklastische Sedimentkomponenten: Eistransportiertes Material Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.5 Vulkanische Glasscherben in Kern PS2644: Wind- und Eiseintrag 5.6 Geochemie und Alter einzelner Tephralagen als Leithorizonte Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.7 Magnetische Suszeptibilität in den Kernen PS2644, PS2646 und PS2647 Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 und PS2647 5.8 Geomagnetische Feldintensität und Richtungsänderungen in Kern PS2644 5.9 Variation von Planktonfauna und -flora Westliches Islandbecken: Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 und PS2647 Vøring-Plateau: Kern 23071 und 23074 5.10 Benthische Foraminiferen in Kern PS2644 6. Entwicklung von Temperatur und Salzgehalt nördlich der Dänemark-Straße 6.1 Variation der Oberflächentemperatur nach Planktonforaminiferen 6.2 Variation der Oberflächentemperatur nach Uk37 6.3 Variation der Oberflächensalinität 7. Die Feinstratigraphie von Kern PS2644 als Basis für eine Eichung der 14C-Altersskala 22 - 55 ka 7.1 Korrelation zwischen den Klimasignalen in Kern PS2644 und der GISP2-Klimakurve zum Kalibrieren der 14C-Alter und Erstellen eines Altersmodells Tephrachronologische Marker Korrelationsparameter und -regeln Sonderfälle/ Probleme bei der Korrelation 7.2 Alters-stratigraphische Korrelation der Klimakurven von Kern 23071 und 23074 7.3 Variation der Altersanomalien zwischen 20 und 55 14C-ka 7.4 Variabilität des planktischen 14C-Reservoiralters in Schmelzwasserbeeinflußten Seegebieten Variation der planktischen 14C-Alter unmittelbar an der Basis von Heinrich-Ereignis 4 Unterschiede zwischen planktischen und benthischen 14C-Altern in der westlichen Islandsee. Zur Erklärung der inversen Altersdifferenzen 7.5 Differenz zwischen 14C- und Kalenderalter: Zeitliche Variation unter Einfluß des Erdmagnetfeldes - Modell und Befund 7.6 Sedimentationsraten der Kerne 23071, 23074 und PS2644 nach dem GISP2-Altersmodell Vøring-Plateau: Kerne 23071 und 23074 Südwest-Islandsee: Kern PS2644 8. Klimaoszillationen im Europäischen Nordmeer in der Zeit und Frequenzdomäne 8.1 "Der Einzelzyklus" in den Klimakurven von Kern PS2644 8.2 Zur Veränderlichkeit der Warm- und Kaltextreme sowie Zyklenlänge Besonderheiten in der Zyklenlänge Variation der Kalt-(Stadiale) Variation der Interstadiale 8.3 Periodizitäten der Klimasignale im Frequenzband der D.-Oe.-Zyklen. Der D.-Oe.-Zyklus von 1470 J., seine Multiplen und harmonischen Schwingungen Weitere Frequenzen: 1000-1150 Jahre- und 490- 510 Jahre-Zyklizitäten Höhere Frequenzen im Bereich von Jahrhunderten und Dekaden 8.4 Phasenbeziehungen und (örtliche) Steuemngsmechanismen der Dansgaard-Oeschger-Zyklen 9. Schlußfolgerungen Danksagung Literaturverzeichnis Anhang
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  • 15
    Journal available for loan
    Journal available for loan
    München : Altop-Verlag ; 2007 -
    Call number: Z 19.92410
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1865-4266
    Former Title: Vorg. Nachhaltiges Wirtschaften in Deutschland
    Language: German
    Note: Ungezählte Beil. ab 2010: Special , Erscheint jährlich 4x
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 16
    Call number: AWI A3-20-93434
    In: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin, Band XXXII, Heft 1
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 121 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin 32,1
    Language: German
    Note: Zugleich: Dissertation, Freie Unversität Berlin, [ca. 1963] , INHALTSVERZEICHNIS PROBLEMSTELLUNG UND ZIELSETZUNG 1. BEMERKUNGEN ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSGELÄNDE UND ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSMATERIAL 1.1 Das Beobachtungsgelände 1.2 Das Beobachtungsmaterial 2. HOMOGENITÄTSBETRACHTUNGEN 2.1 Temperatur 2.2 Niederschlag 2.3 Wind 2.4 Sonnenschein und Bewölkung 3. TEMPERATURVERHÄLTNISSE 3.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 3.2 Tageswerte 3.3 Pentadenwerte 3.4 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 3.5 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 3.6 Der tägliche Gang 3.7 Vorkommen bestimmter Schwellenwerte 3.71 Frost- und Eistage 3.72 Sommer- und Tropentage 4. DER WASSERGEHALT DER LUFT 4.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 4.2 Tageswerte 4.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 4.4 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 4.5 Der tägliche Gang 5. BEWÖLKUNGSVERHÄLTNISSE 5.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 5.2 Tageswerte 5.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 5.4 Der tägliche Gang 5.5 Heitere und trübe Tage 5.6 Nebel 6. SONNENSCHEIN 6.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 6.2 Tageswerte 6.3 Der tägliche Gang 7. NIEDERSCHLAGSVERHÄLTNISSE 7.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 7.2 Niederschlagsbereitschaft 7.3 Tageswerte 7.4 Der tägliche Gang 7.5 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 7.6 Niederschlags- und Trockenperioden 7.7 Niederschlag und Wind· 7.8 Schneeverhältnisse 7.81 Schneefall und Schneedecke 7.82 Schneehöhe 7.9 Gewitter 8. WINDVERHÄLTNISSE 8.1 Windrichtung 8.2 Windgeschwindigkeit 8.21 Der jährliche Gang 8.22 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 8.23 Sturmtage und Windstillen 8.24 Der tägliche Gang 9.ZUSAMMENFASSUNG VERZEICHNIS DER TEXTTABELLEN VERZEICHNIS DER ABBILDUNGEN LITERATURVERZEICHNIS TABELLENANHANG
    Location: AWI Reading room
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  • 17
    Call number: AWI A3-20-93434-2
    In: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin, Band XXXII, Heft 2
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 218 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin 32,2
    Language: German
    Note: Zugleich: Dissertation, Freie Unversität Berlin, [ca. 1963] , INHALTSVERZEICHNIS PROBLEMSTELLUNG UND ZIELSETZUNG 1. BEMERKUNGEN ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSGELÄNDE UND ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSMATERIAL 1.1 Das Beobachtungsgelände 1.2 Das Beobachtungsmaterial 2. HOMOGENITÄTSBETRACHTUNGEN 2.1 Temperatur 2.2 Niederschlag 2.3 Wind 2.4 Sonnenschein und Bewölkung 3. TEMPERATURVERHÄLTNISSE 3.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 3.2 Tageswerte 3.3 Pentadenwerte 3.4 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 3.5 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 3.6 Der tägliche Gang 3.7 Vorkommen bestimmter Schwellenwerte 3.71 Frost- und Eistage 3.72 Sommer- und Tropentage 4. DER WASSERGEHALT DER LUFT 4.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 4.2 Tageswerte 4.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 4.4 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 4.5 Der tägliche Gang 5. BEWÖLKUNGSVERHÄLTNISSE 5.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 5.2 Tageswerte 5.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 5.4 Der tägliche Gang 5.5 Heitere und trübe Tage 5.6 Nebel 6. SONNENSCHEIN 6.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 6.2 Tageswerte 6.3 Der tägliche Gang 7. NIEDERSCHLAGSVERHÄLTNISSE 7.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 7.2 Niederschlagsbereitschaft 7.3 Tageswerte 7.4 Der tägliche Gang 7.5 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 7.6 Niederschlags- und Trockenperioden 7.7 Niederschlag und Wind· 7.8 Schneeverhältnisse 7.81 Schneefall und Schneedecke 7.82 Schneehöhe 7.9 Gewitter 8. WINDVERHÄLTNISSE 8.1 Windrichtung 8.2 Windgeschwindigkeit 8.21 Der jährliche Gang 8.22 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 8.23 Sturmtage und Windstillen 8.24 Der tägliche Gang 9.ZUSAMMENFASSUNG VERZEICHNIS DER TEXTTABELLEN VERZEICHNIS DER ABBILDUNGEN LITERATURVERZEICHNIS TABELLENANHANG
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-03-08
    Description: Brackish coastal groundwater is enriched in Ra, which is transported to surface waters via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). The Ra activity of the SGD end-member is influenced by a variety of environmental factors including salinity, pH, and isotope half-life. In the York River estuary (YRE), 223Ra, 224Ra, and 226Ra were measured in surface water and shallow groundwater across a range of salinities and additional Ra sources quantified (desorption and diffusion from sediments, input from tidal marshes). The Ra budget of the estuary indicated a major source of Ra that could only be satisfied by SGD. The apparent Ra flux was combined with groundwater Ra end-member activity to estimate SGD volume fluxes of 5–178 L m− 2 d− 1. Each isotope exhibited a different seasonal pattern, with significantly higher 224Ra flux during summer than winter, lower 226Ra SGD flux during summer than winter, and no seasonal differences in 223Ra SGD flux. However, the SGD 224Ra end-member activity varied with seasonal pore water salinity fluctuations, indicating end-member control on seasonal 224Ra flux. Each Ra isotope suggested a different SGD volume flux, indicating that different nuclide regeneration rates may respond to and reflect different flow mechanisms in the subterranean estuary. This work indicates that volume fluxes estimated using geochemical tracers are sensitive to SGD end-member variations and end-member variability must be well-characterized for reliable SGD flux estimates.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 21
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    Springer
    In:  In: The Prokaryotes. Springer, Berlin, pp. 439-512. ISBN 978-3-642-30196-4
    Publication Date: 2017-11-07
    Description: The family Rhodobacteraceae can be considered a paradigm of modern taxonomy of prokaryotes. Taking into account the number of species and genera that conforms the family, together with the knowledge about their abundance and vast global distribution, it surprises that most of them have been described relatively recent to our days. Two notable exceptions are Rhodonostoc capsulatum (Molisch, Die purpurbakterien nach neuen untersuchungen, vols i–vii. G. Fischer, Jena, pp 1–95, 1907) and Micrococcus denitrificans Beijerinck and Minkman (Zentbl Bakteriol, Parasitenkd, Infektionskr Hyg. Abt II 25:30–63, 1910), early basonyms of Rhodobacter capsulatus and Paracoccus denitrificans, respectively. The fact that so many descriptions within this family are recent means that some studies have been concomitant and pose a challenge not only for pure taxonomic studies but also for interpreting other studies in which a rapidly evolving nomenclature had to be used anyway. The metabolic and ecological diversity of the group adds further complexity. In spite of all these difficulties, the picture is far from being a chaos and it can be considered an exciting and important bacterial group to study. Rhodobacteraceae are, fundamentally, aquatic bacteria that frequently thrive in marine environments. They comprise mainly aerobic photo- and chemoheterotrophs but also purple non-sulfur bacteria which perform photosynthesis in anaerobic environments. They are deeply involved in sulfur and carbon biogeochemical cycling and symbiosis with aquatic micro- and macroorganisms. One hundred genera are currently recognized as members of the family although the Stappia group, Ahrensia, Agaricicola, and Rhodothalassium do not belong, phylogenetically, to the family. The 90 other genera are distributed in 5 phylogenetic groups (the Rhodobacter, the Paracoccus, the Rhodovulum, the Amaricoccus, and the Roseobacter clades) that might be considered a family on its own.
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  • 22
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    DFG-Senatskommission für Ozeanographie
    In:  METEOR-Berichte, M96 . DFG-Senatskommission für Ozeanographie, Bremen, Germany, 59 pp.
    Publication Date: 2017-10-25
    Description: April 28 – May 22, 2013 Pointe-a-Pitre (Guadeloupe) – Mindelo (Cape Verde)
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/book
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2017-11-03
    Description: Two discontinuous tephra layers were discovered at Burney Spring Mountain, northern California. Stratigraphic relationships suggest that they are two distinct primary fall tephras. The geochemistries of these tephras from electron probe microanalysis were compared with those of known layers found in the area to test for potential correlations, using clustering analysis on geochemistry. In most cases, geochemical data from a tephra layer can be assigned to a single cluster, but in some cases the analyses are spread over several clusters. This spreading is a direct result of mixing and reworking of several tephra layers. The mixing, in turn, appears to be related to the influence of wind in a marshy environment.
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2017-11-24
    Description: Three new compounds, trichoderiol C (1), citrinoviric acid (4), and penicillenol D (5), together with seven known compounds, trichoderiol A (2), lignoren (3), penicillenol B1 (6), penicillenol B2 (7), cyclo-(Leu-Pro) (8), cyclo-(Ile-Pro) (9), and cyclo-(Phe-Pro) (10), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectrometric analyses. Among these compounds, 4 and 5 showed moderate cytotoxic effects on the A-375 cell line, with IC50 values of 85.7 and 32.6 μM, respectively.
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  • 25
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    DKN Future Earth
    In:  DKN Future Earth, Stuttgart / Kiel, 31 pp. ISBN 978-3-9813068-3-5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Description: Als Teil des nationalen Themenfindungsprozesses setzte sich das erste German Future Earth Summit zum Ziel, die deutsche akademische Community zu stärken und in einem interdisziplinären Umfeld innovative Themenschwerpunkte zu diskutieren. Mit 75 Themenvorschlägen zu den "Future Earth" Schwerpunkten "Dynamic Planet", "Global Development" und "Transformation Towards Sustainability" und mehr als 260 Teilnehmern übertraf die Konferenz alle Erwartungen Meinungen und Ideen zu möglichen "Future Earth"-Themenschwerpunkten, der inter- und transdisziplinären Forschung wurden austauscht und gesammelt, und dienen als Grundlage für weitere Aktivitäten des DKN Future Earth. Der Bericht fasst die Ergebnisse der Konferenz zusammen, die als Basis für die weiteren Diskussionen dienen.
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 26
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    DKN Future Earth
    In:  DKN Future Earth, Stuttgart / Kiel, 158 pp.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 27
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    In:  [Talk] In: AGU Fall Meeting 2014, 15.-19.12.2014, San Francisco, USA .
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019-01-08
    Description: We describe the recent occurrence of a region of diminished sea ice cover or “notch” offshore of the Kangerdlugssuaq Fiord, the site of the largest tidewater glacier along Greenland's southeast coast. The notch's location is consistent with a topographically forced flux of warm water toward the fiord, and the decrease of the sea ice cover is shown to be associated with a regional warming of the upper ocean that began in the mid‐1990s. Sea ice in the vicinity of the notch also exhibits interannual variability that is shown to be associated with a seesaw in surface temperature and sea ice between southeast and northeast Greenland that is not describable solely in terms of the North Atlantic Oscillation. We therefore argue that other modes of atmospheric variability, including the Lofoten Low, are required to fully document the changes to the climate that are occurring along Greenland's east coast.
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  • 29
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    Elsevier
    In:  In: Treatise on Geochemistry. , ed. by Holland, H. D. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 259-280. 2nd edition
    Publication Date: 2019-02-07
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 30
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    Elsevier
    In:  Current Biology, 24 (8). R315-R317.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: Protists (unicellular eukaryotes) play important roles in marine ecosystems but are tremendously diverse and many remain uncharacterized. Deep-sequencing of a universal marker gene has helped resolve community composition patterns among rare and abundant protistan sequence groups in coastal European waters.
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla , a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (〈2 μm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core lightinput and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence of phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. Expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photo-synthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: To test the pore density in benthic foraminifera as a potential proxy for bottom-water oxygenation, pore density analyses were carried out on tests of living (rose Bengal-stained) specimens of the deep-infaunal and anoxia-tolerant foraminiferal species Globobulimina turgida. Three stations within and two stations below the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Namibia were investigated and compared to in situ-measured bottom-water oxygen content (BW-O2). Pore density was first conventionally assessed by rather time-consuming manual pore counting on SEM photographs and measurement of the analyzed test areas. To significantly shorten the measurement time we tested and evaluated an automation of the pore density measurement using the image analysis software package analySIS (version 5.0, Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions). Pore density data from automated analyses are compared to manually acquired data from G. turgida. Our study shows almost identical results for both manually and automatically acquired data. Consequently, we assume that the new technique provides an alternative and more rapid method to analyze the pore density of foraminifera. For both methods, our results show a distinct negative linear correlation (automatically analyzed pore density: τ = −0.50, p 〈 0.001; manually analyzed pore density: τ = −0.49, p 〈 0.001) between pore density and BW-O2, suggesting that G. turgida increases its pore density in response to decreasing oxygen. Thus, we suggest that, similar to other recently described low-oxygen-tolerant benthic foraminiferal species, G. turgida may improve its O2 uptake by increasing pore density to survive in low-oxic environments. This morphological adaption might be useful for future studies to establish an independent proxy for BW-O2. In addition, pore density has been compared to in situ-measured bottom-water nitrate concentration (BW-NO3−). Our investigation of the pore density-to-BW-NO3− relationship for G. turgida suggests that nitrate seems to be a minor factor influencing pore density in this species compared to BW-O2. Add to CiteULike
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: The knowledge regarding the distribution of seabed environments in the North Sea is still fragmentary. Hydroacoustic devices can provide rapid and reliable information on the acoustic characteristics of the seafloor. Data of a typical, exclusively sandy and shallow investigation area located in the German Wadden Sea are here presented. The study area includes shallow sublittoral areas and deep channels. The acoustic ground discrimination system RoxAnn was used to measures backscatter intensities, which indicate roughness and hardness parameters of seafloor. Sidescan-sonar data provide acoustic images that are instrumental in seafloor characterization. For ground truthing, surface-sediment samples were collected. The results reveal surficial sediments that range from fine to coarse sand. Finer material is rather restricted to the shallow patches, while coarser sediments characterize the deeper tidal channels. The determined roughness and hardness parameters also strongly increase within these inlets following the change in grain size. The sidescan-sonar imagery shows flow-transverse subaqueous dunes of different sizes. Both ebb- and flood-dominated structures are present. RoxAnn reflects these zones of subaqueous dunes basically through the formation of distinct clusters of data points in hardness vs. roughness scatter plots. Further, the results show that areas characterized by similar grain-size spectra and sonar imagery occasionally reveal completely different roughness and hardness properties. This is caused by varying amounts of shell fragments on the seafloor. Both in situ and hydroacoustic methods are suitable for identifying seafloor properties, but the combination of methods yields more information at higher precision, especially about shell content and grain-size distribution.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2016-12-09
    Description: The δ13C value measured on benthic foraminiferal tests is widely used by palaeoceanographers to reconstruct the distribution of past water masses. The biogeochemical processes involved in forming the benthic foraminiferal δ13C signal (δ13Cforam), however, are not fully understood and a sound mechanistic description is still lacking. We use a reaction–diffusion model for calcification developed by Wolf-Gladrow et al. (1999) and Zeebe et al. (1999) in order to quantify the effects of different physical, chemical, and biological processes on δ13Cforam of an idealised benthic foraminiferal shell. Changes in the δ13C value of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) cause equal changes in δ13Cforam in the model. The results further indicate that temperature, respiration rate, and pH have a significant impact on δ13Cforam. In contrast, salinity, pressure, the δ13C value of particulate organic carbon (δ13CPOC), total alkalinity, and calcification rate show only a limited influence. In sensitivity experiments we assess how combining these effects can influence δ13Cforam. We can potentially explain 33 to 47% of the interglacial-to-glacial decrease in δ13Cforam by changes in temperature and pH, without invoking changes in δ13CDIC. Furthermore, about a quarter of the − 0.4‰ change in δ13Cforam observed in phytodetritus layers can be accounted for by an increase in respiration rate and a reduction in pH.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2017-10-17
    Description: The ice shield of Antarctica, which measures several kilometers in thickness, presents a challenge when attempting to unravel the subglacial geology. Here, we report about systematic airborne magnetic surveys conducted over the last decade, which investigated a significant part of Dronning Maud Land (DML), imaging for the first time the crustal architecture of the interior of this sector of East Antarctica. High-resolution data reveal parallel, elongated magnetic anomalies in southeastern DML. These NW–SE trending anomalies can be traced farther east into sparser Russian magnetic data sets. Several high amplitude magnetic anomalies with values above 400 nT have been observed in southwesternDML and Coats Land. They differ clearly inwavelength and amplitudes fromthe magnetic pattern found in the east and do not show any evidence of a Pan-African orogenic belt or suture zone connecting the Shackleton Range with easternDML, as hypothesized in several studies. This leads to the assumption of the existence of a hitherto unrecognized large tectonic province in southeastern DML.Whereas an over 100 km long magnetic lineament in the interior of the DronningMaud Landmay reflect a major shear zone akin to the Pan-African age Heimefrontfjella shear zone. Both findings bring new evidences to the still open question about the amalgation of East and West Gondwana. In addition, the magnetic data allow mapping the eastern extent of the presumable cratonic province of Coats Land, a region considered as a key piercing point for reconstructions of Rodinia. Furthermore, the Beattie Magnetic Anomaly in southern Africa is assumed to continue into East Antarctica. Two magnetic highs in western DML are identified as possible eastward continuation of this prominent anomaly.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2014-10-07
    Description: In this paper we provide an overview of new knowledge on oxygen depletion (hypoxia) and related phenomena in aquatic systems resulting from the EU-FP7 project HYPOX (“In situ monitoring of oxygen depletion in hypoxic ecosystems of coastal and open seas, and landlocked water bodies”, www.hypox.net). In view of the anticipated oxygen loss in aquatic systems due to eutrophication and climate change, HYPOX was set up to improve capacities to monitor hypoxia as well as to understand its causes and consequences. Temporal dynamics and spatial patterns of hypoxia were analyzed in field studies in various aquatic environments, including the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, Scottish and Scandinavian fjords, Ionian Sea lagoons and embayments, and Swiss lakes. Examples of episodic and rapid (hours) occurrences of hypoxia, as well as seasonal changes in bottom-water oxygenation in stratified systems, are discussed. Geologically driven hypoxia caused by gas seepage is demonstrated. Using novel technologies, temporal and spatial patterns of watercolumn oxygenation, from basin-scale seasonal patterns to meter-scale sub-micromolar oxygen distributions, were resolved. Existing multidecadal monitoring data were used to demonstrate the imprint of climate change and eutrophication on long-term oxygen distributions. Organic and inorganic proxies were used to extend investigations on past oxygen conditions to centennial and even longer timescales that cannot be resolved by monitoring. The effects of hypoxia on faunal communities and biogeochemical processes were also addressed in the project. An investigation of benthic fauna is presented as an example of hypoxia-devastated benthic communities that slowly recover upon a reduction in eutrophication in a system where naturally occurring hypoxia overlaps with anthropogenic hypoxia. Biogeochemical investigations reveal that oxygen intrusions have a strong effect on the microbially mediated redox cycling of elements. Observations and modeling studies of the sediments demonstrate the effect of seasonally changing oxygen conditions on benthic mineralization pathways and fluxes. Data quality and access are crucial in hypoxia research. Technical issues are therefore also addressed, including the availability of suitable sensor technology to resolve the gradual changes in bottom-water oxygen in marine systems that can be expected as a result of climate change. Using cabled observatories as examples, we show how the benefit of continuous oxygen monitoring can be maximized by adopting proper quality control. Finally, we discuss strategies for state-of-the-art data archiving and dissemination in compliance with global standards, and how ocean observations can contribute to global earth observation attempts.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2014-10-10
    Description: In multibeam echosounder and sub-bottom profiler data acquired during RV Polarstern cruise ARK-VII/3a from the Hovgaard Ridge (Fram Strait), we found evidence for very deep (〉1200 m) iceberg scouring. Five elongated seafloor features have been detected that are interpreted to be iceberg scours. The scours are oriented in north-south/south-north direction and are about 15 m deep, 300 m wide, and 4 km long crossing the entire width of the ridge. They are attributed to multiple giant palaeo-icebergs that most probably left the Arctic Ocean southward through Fram Strait. The huge keel-depths are indicative of ice sheets extending into the Arctic Ocean being at least 1200 m thick at the calving front during glacial maxima. The deep St Anna Trough or grounded ice observed at the East Siberian Continental Margin are likely source regions of these icebergs that delivered freshwater to the Nordic Seas.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2014-06-02
    Description: Sediment core MSM5/5-712 from the West Spitsbergen continental margin has been investigated at high resolution for its seawater-derived neodymium (Nd) and lead (Pb) isotope compositions stored in ferromanganese oxyhydroxide coatings of the sediment particles to reconstruct Holocene changes in the sources and mixing of bottom waters passing the site. The radiogenic isotope data are used in combination with a multitude of proxy indicators for the climatic and oceanographic development of the eastern Fram Strait during the past 8500 years. To calibrate the downcore data, seawater and core top samples from the area were analysed for their radiogenic isotope compositions. Core top leachates reveal relatively high (more radiogenic) Nd isotope compositions between εNd −9.7 and −9.1, which are higher than present-day seawater εNd in eastern Fram Strait (−12.6 to −10.5) and indicate that the seawater values have only been established very recently. The core top data agree well with the downcore signatures within the uppermost 40 cm of the sediment core (εNd −9.1 to −8.8) indicating a reduced inflow of waters from the Nordic Seas, concurrent with cool conditions and a south-eastward shift of the marginal ice zone after ca 2.8 cal ka BP (Late Holocene). High sea-ice abundances in eastern Fram Strait are coeval with the well-known Neoglacial trend in the northern North Atlantic region. In contrast, warmer conditions of the late Early to Mid-Holocene were accompanied by lower (less radiogenic) εNd signatures of the bottom waters indicating an increased admixture from the Nordic Seas (−10.6 to −10.1). A shift to significantly more radiogenic εNd signatures of the detrital material also occurred at 3 cal ka BP and was accompanied by a marked increase in supply of fine-grained ice-rafted material (IRF) from the Arctic Ocean to the core site. The most likely source areas for this radiogenic material are the shallow Arctic shelves, in particular the Kara Sea shelf. The evolution of the Pb isotope compositions of past seawater was dominated by local signatures characterized by high 208, 207, 206Pb/204Pb values during the warm Early and Mid-Holocene periods related to enhanced chemical weathering on Svalbard and high glacial and riverine input derived from young granitic (more radiogenic) material to the West Spitsbergen margin. At 3 cal ka BP both detrital and seawater Pb isotope data changed towards more Kara Sea-like signatures.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2017-09-13
    Description: The Arctic continental shelf seas hold a globally significant source of freshwater that impacts Arctic Ocean stratification, circulation, and climate. This freshwater can be injected below the surface mixed layer by intense turbulent kinetic energy dissipation events, as resolved by Laptev Sea microstructure observations. The tides provide a major source of energy that can be dissipated and hence drive diapycnal mixing in the Laptev Sea. Multiyear ADCP mooring records from locations across the shelf reveal that semidiurnal tides are dominated by theM2 and S2 constituents, with the largest amplitudes on the outer shelf. Throughout most of the shelf, tides are clockwise polarized and sheared by stratification, as characteristic near theM2 critical latitude. Interannual variations of the tidal and shear structures on the inner shelf aremainly determined by the stratification-setting Lena River freshwater plume. In all locations,M2 tides are enhanced under sea ice, and therefore changes in the seasonal ice cover may lead to changes in tides and water column structure. The main conclusions of this study are that (i) tides play a comparatively greater role year-round on the outer shelf relative to the inner shelf; (ii) a sea ice reduction will overall decrease the predictability of the currents, especially on the inner shelf; and (iii) the freshwater distribution directly impacts diapycnal mixing by setting the vertical tidal structure. These combined effects imply that future sea ice loss will increase the variability and vertical mixing of freshwater, particularly on the inner shelf, where the Lena River first enters the Laptev Sea.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2017-10-17
    Description: We present results of a~multi-methodological approach to characterize the flow regime of West Ragnhild Glacier, the widest glacier in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. A new airborne radar survey points to substantially thicker ice (〉 2000 m) than previously thought. According to the new data, West Ragnhild Glacier discharges 13–14 Gt yr−1. Therefore, it is one of the three major outlet glaciers in Dronning Maud Land. Glacier-bed topography is distinct between the upstream and downstream section. In the downstream section (〈 65 km upstream of the grounding line), the glacier overlies a wide and flat basin well below the sea level while the upstream region is more mountainous. Spectrum analysis of the bed topography reveals a clear contrast between these two regions, suggesting that the downstream area is sediment covered. The bed returned power varies by 30 dB within 20 km near the bed flatness transition, which suggests that water content at bed/ice interface increases over a short distance downstream, hence pointing to water-rich sediment. Ice flow speed observed in the downstream part of the glacier (~ 250 m yr−1) can only be explained if basal motion accounts for ~ 60% of the surface motion. All above lines of evidence (sediment bed, wetness and basal motion) and the relative flat grounding zone give the potential for West Ragnhild Glacier to be more sensitive to external forcing compared to other major outlet glaciers in this region which are more stable due to their bed geometry (e.g. Shirase Glacier).
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2014-08-31
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: PANGAEA Documentation , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: Marine and terrestrial geological and marine geophysical data that constrain deglaciation since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) of the sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) draining into the Amundsen Sea and Bellingshausen Sea have been collated and used as the basis for a set of time-slice reconstructions. The drainage basins in these sectors constitute a little more than one-quarter of the area of the WAIS, but account for about one-third of its surface accumulation. Their mass balance is becoming increasingly negative, and therefore they account for an even larger fraction of current WAIS discharge. If all of the ice in these sectors of the WAIS was discharged to the ocean, global sea level would rise by ca. 2 m. There is compelling evidence that grounding lines of palaeo-ice streams were at, or close to, the continental shelf edge along the Amundsen Sea and Bellingshausen Sea margins during the last glacial period. However, the few cosmogenic surface exposure ages and ice core data available from the interior of West Antarctica indicate that ice surface elevations there have changed little since the LGM. In the few areas from which cosmogenic surface exposure ages have been determined near the margin of the ice sheet, they generally suggest that there has been a gradual decrease in ice surface elevation since pre-Holocene times. Radiocarbon dates from glacimarine and the earliest seasonally open marine sediments in continental shelf cores that have been interpreted as providing approximate ages for post-LGM grounding-line retreat indicate different trajectories of palaeo-ice stream recession in the Amundsen Sea and Bellingshausen Sea embayments. The areas were probably subject to similar oceanic, atmospheric and eustatic forcing, in which case the differences are probably largely a consequence of how topographic and geological factors have affected ice flow, and of topographic influences on snow accumulation and warm water inflow across the continental shelf. Pauses in ice retreat are recorded where there are “bottle necks” in cross-shelf troughs in both embayments. The highest retreat rates presently constrained by radiocarbon dates from sediment cores are found where the grounding line retreated across deep basins on the inner shelf in the Amundsen Sea, which is consistent with the marine ice-sheet instability hypothesis. Deglacial ages from the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) and Eltanin Bay (southern Bellingshausen Sea) indicate that the ice sheet had already retreated close to its modern limits by early Holocene time, which suggests that the rapid ice thinning, flow acceleration, and grounding line retreat observed in this sector over recent decades are unusual in the context of the past 10,000 years.
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2014-05-20
    Description: Most of the short-lived biogenic and anthropogenic chemical species that are emitted into the atmosphere break down efficiently by reaction with OH and do not reach the stratosphere. Here we show the existence of a pronounced minimum in the tropospheric column of ozone over the West Pacific, the main source region for stratospheric air, and suggest a corresponding minimum of the tropospheric column of OH. This has the potential to amplify the impact of surface emissions on the stratospheric composition compared to the impact when assuming globally uniform OH conditions. Specifically, the role of emissions of biogenic halogenated species for the stratospheric halogen budget and the role of increasing emissions of SO2 in Southeast Asia or from minor volcanic eruptions for the increasing stratospheric aerosol loading need to be reassessed in light of these findings. This is also important since climate change will further modify OH abundances and emissions of halogenated species. Our study is based on ozone sonde measurements carried out during the TransBrom cruise with the RV Sonne roughly along 140–150 E in October 2009 and corroborating ozone and OH measurements from satellites, aircraft campaigns and FTIR instruments. Model calculations with the GEOS-Chem Chemistry and Transport Model (CTM) and the ATLAS CTM are used to simulate the tropospheric OH distribution over the West Pacific and the transport pathways to the stratosphere. The potential effect of the OH minimum on species transported into the stratosphere is shown via modeling the transport and chemistry of CH2Br2 and SO2.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2014-07-04
    Description: An extremely fast model to estimate the degree of stratospheric ozone depletion during polar winters is described. It is based on a set of coupled differential equations that simulate the seasonal evolution of vortex-averaged hydrogen chloride (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3), chlorine nitrate (ClONO2), active forms of chlorine (ClOx = Cl + ClO + 2 ClOOCl) and ozone (O3) on isentropic levels within the polar vortices. Terms in these equations account for the chemical and physical processes driving the time rate of change of these species. Eight empirical fit coefficients associated with these terms are derived by iteratively fitting the equations to vortex-averaged satellite-based measurements of HCl, HNO3 and ClONO2 and observationally derived ozone loss rates. The system of differential equations is not stiff and can be solved with a time step of one day, allowing many years to be processed per second on a standard PC. The inputs required are the daily fractions of the vortex area covered by polar stratospheric clouds and the fractions of the vortex area exposed to sunlight. The resultant model, SWIFT (Semi-empirical Weighted Iterative Fit Technique), provides a fast yet accurate method to simulate ozone loss rates in polar regions. SWIFT's capabilities are demonstrated by comparing measured and modeled total ozone loss outside of the training period.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2014-07-11
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2017-01-27
    Description: Stratospheric ozone depletion and emission of greenhouse gases lead to a trend of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) towards its high-index polarity. The positive phase of the SAM is characterised by stronger than usual westerly winds that induce changes in the physical carbon transport. Changes in the natural carbon budget of the upper 100 m of the Southern Ocean in response to a positive SAM phase are explored with a coupled ecosystem-general circulation model and regression analysis. Previously overlooked processes that are important for the upper ocean carbon budget during a positive SAM period are identified, namely export production and downward transport of carbon north of the Polar Front (PF) as large as the upwelling in the south. The limiting micronutrient iron is brought into the surface layer by upwelling and stimulates phytoplankton growth and export production, but only in summer. This leads to a drawdown of carbon and less summertime outgassing (or more uptake) of natural CO2. In winter, biological mechanisms are inactive and the surface ocean equilibrates with the atmosphere by releasing CO2. In the annual mean, the upper ocean region south of the PF loses more carbon by additional export production than by the release of CO2 into the atmosphere, highlighting the role of the biological carbon pump in response to a positive SAM event.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2017-02-01
    Description: The Fram Strait is the main gateway for water, heat and sea-ice exchanges between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. The complex physical environment results in a highly variable primary production in space and time. Previous regional studies have defined key bottom-up (ice cover and stratification from melt water controlling the light availability, and wind mixing and water transport affecting the supply of nutrients) and top-down processes (heterotrophic grazing). In this study, in situ field data, remote sensing and modeling techniques were combined to investigate in detail the influence of melting sea-ice and ocean properties on the development of phytoplankton blooms in the Fram Strait region for the years 1998–2009. Satellite-retrieved chlorophyll-a concentrations from temporarily ice-free zones were validated with contextual field data. These were then integrated per month on a grid size of 20 × 20 km, resulting in 10 grids/fields. Factors tested for their influence on spatial and temporal variation of chlorophyll-a were: sea-ice concentration from satellite and sea-ice thickness, ocean stratification, water temperature and salinity time-series simulated by the ice-ocean model NAOSIM. The time series analysis for those ten ice-free fields showed a regional separation according to different physical processes affecting phytoplankton distribution. At the marginal ice zone the melting sea-ice was promoting phytoplankton growth by stratifying the water column and potentially seeding phytoplankton communities. In this zone, the highest mean chlorophyll concentration averaged for the productive season (April–August) of 0.8 mgC/m3 was observed. In the open ocean the phytoplankton variability was correlated highest to stratification formed by solar heating of the upper ocean layers. Coastal zone around Svalbard showed processes associated with the presence of coastal ice were rather suppressing than promoting the phytoplankton growth. During the twelve years of observations, chlorophyll concentrations significantly increased in the southern part of the Fram Strait, associated with an increase in sea surface temperature and a decrease in Svalbard coastal ice.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2014-04-15
    Description: Interactions between Antarctic ice shelf regions and the ocean and their contribution to oceanic water mass formation: Ice shelves represent the main areas of ice discharge from the Antarctic Ice Sheet into the Southern Ocean. At the transition between ice and ocean, ice shelves affect both, the mass balance and dynamics of the ice sheet and the water mass formation in the Southern Ocean by ice shelf melting and calving at the shelf front, respectively. Under constant boundary conditions (mass flux from the ice sheet, ice accumulation and melting) a balance between mass gain and mass loss exists, and the ice shelves, except for recurring calving events, establish an almost invariant shape. In addition, ice shelves exert a buttressing force on the ice sheet and, therefore, are a regulating factor of ice discharge. Under changing climatic conditions, manifested for example in a changing oceanic circulation and temperature, this equilibrium state might be disturbed. In a model study with a coupled ocean - ice shelf - ice sheet model, the influence of changing climate boundary conditions on the mass loss in the Atlantic sector of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, the water mass formation in the Weddell Sea, and the sea level is investigated. Starting from scenario runs of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report IV (AR4), which describe the climate development to the year 2100, the dynamic coupling of ocean circulation and ice sheet dynamics predict a significant mass loss for the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf and in particular a retreat of its southern grounding line. This mass loss is equivalent to a doubling of today’s observed losses of glaciers and ice caps and sets the previously assumed stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet to climate change into question.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2017-10-17
    Description: Dropsondes are launched from research aircraft to measure vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, pressure and wind in the atmosphere while falling to the ground. Onboard the aircraft Polar 5 of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), they are deployed on arctic and antarctic campaigns. Here we compare temperature and humidity data from Vaisala RD94 dropsondes with data from the permanently installed sensors of the aircraft. Dropsonde profiles are combined with profiles measured during ascent or descent by the aircraft nearby. The aerosol lidar AMALi is used to identify the presence and altitude of clouds. Furthermore the time constants of the dropsonde temperature and humidity sensors are deduced from atmospheric data. The overall agreement between aircraft and dropsonde data is good, but for high humidities as in clouds the dropsonde shows a systematic dry bias of almost 10 %. Data suggest a temperature dependency of this bias. The combination of dry bias and time lag of the sensors can make cloud detection from dropsondes alone difficult in cold environments.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2016-12-09
    Description: The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) is the first coordinated climate model comparison for a warmer palaeoclimate with atmospheric CO2 significantly higher than pre-industrial concentrations. The simulations of the mid-Pliocene warm period show global warming of between 1.8 and 3.6 °C above pre-industrial surface air temperatures, with significant polar amplification. Here we perform energy balance calculations on all eight of the coupled ocean–atmosphere simulations within PlioMIP Experiment 2 to evaluate the causes of the increased temperatures and differences between the models. In the tropics simulated warming is dominated by greenhouse gas increases, with the cloud component of planetary albedo enhancing the warming in most of the models, but by widely varying amounts. The responses to mid-Pliocene climate forcing in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes are substantially different between the climate models, with the only consistent response being a warming due to increased greenhouse gases. In the high latitudes all the energy balance components become important, but the dominant warming influence comes from the clear sky albedo, only partially offset by the increases in the cooling impact of cloud albedo. This demonstrates the importance of specified ice sheet and high latitude vegetation boundary conditions and simulated sea ice and snow albedo feedbacks. The largest components in the overall uncertainty are associated with clouds in the tropics and polar clear sky albedo, particularly in sea ice regions. These simulations show that albedo feedbacks, particularly those of sea ice and ice sheets, provide the most significant enhancements to high latitude warming in the Pliocene.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2014-04-15
    Description: The Arctic research base AWIPEV is located at the western coast of Spitsbergen, on the rim of the Arctic Ocean. It is in operation year-round. The mild climate here is due to the warm West-Spitsbergen current and is in contrast to the harsh climate on Greenland or the ice covered ocean of the same latitude. The dedicated Atmospheric Observatory collects continuously meteorological parameters, and incoming and outgoing radiation at the surface. Vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind are measured by balloon-borne sondes on a daily basis up to stratospheric heights of 30 km. This includes weekly ozone measurements (see Rex et al. this issue). Remote sensing techniques are employed to observe aerosols and trace gases using spectrometers, microwave-radiometers, and lidar. This paper presents the main findings of 20 years of observations.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2014-10-07
    Description: Pteropods are an important component of the zooplankton community and hence of the food web in the Fram Strait. They have a calcareous (aragonite) shell and are thus sensitive in particular to the effects of the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and the associated changes of pH and temperature in the ocean. In the eastern Fram Strait, two species of thecosome pteropods occur, the cold water-adapted Limacina helicina and the subarctic boreal species Limacina retroversa. Both species were regularly observed in year-round moored sediment traps at ~ 200–300 m depth in the deep-sea long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN (79°N, 4°E). The flux of all pteropods found in the trap samples varied from 〈 20 to ~ 870 specimen m− 2 d− 1 in the years 2000–2009, being lower during the period 2000–2006. At the beginning of the time series, pteropods were dominated by the cold-water-adapted L. helicina, whereas the subarctic boreal L. retroversa was only occasionally found in large quantities (〉 50 m− 2 d− 1). This picture completely changed after 2005/6 when L. retroversa became dominant and total pteropod numbers in the trap samples increased significantly. Concomitant to this shift in species composition, a warming event occurred in 2005/6 and persisted until the end of the study in 2009, despite a slight cooling in the upper water layer after 2007/8. Sedimentation of pteropods showed a strong seasonality, with elevated fluxes of L. helicina from August to November. Numbers of L. retroversa usually increased later, during September/October, with a maximum at the end of the season during December/January. In terms of carbonate export, aragonite shells of pteropods contributed with 11–77% to the annual total CaCO3 flux in Fram Strait. The highest share was found in the period 2007 to 2009, predominantly during sedimentation events at the end of the year. Results obtained by sediment traps occasionally installed on a benthic lander revealed that pteropods also arrive at the seafloor (~ 2550 m) almost simultaneous with their occurrence in the shallower traps. This indicates a rapid downward transport of calcareous shells, which provides food particles for the deep-sea benthos during winter when other production in the upper water column is shut down. The results of our study highlight the great importance of pteropods for the biological carbon pump as well as for the carbonate system in Fram Strait at present, and indicate modifications within the zooplankton community. The results further emphasize the importance of long-term investigation to disclose such changes.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2016-06-30
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2016-12-09
    Description: The large-scale boreal winter climatic patterns associated with interannual variability in a coral oxygen isotope (δ18O) record from the southern Red Sea (Klein et al. [1997]) covering most of the last century are investigated. From the early 1930’s to the early 1960’s, the winter coral δ18O record, reflecting temperature and salinity variations in southern Red Sea surface waters, is associated with global (or large scale) sea surface temperature (SST) and 850mb geopotential height (Z850) anomalies which project on the corresponding patterns associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In contrast, since the early 1960’s the winter coral δ18O record is related to a Z850 pattern that reflects the ENSO-independent part of the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM), which includes the Siberian High, the East Asian through and the East Asian upper-tropospheric Jet. Our results indicate a weakening of the ENSO control on interannual temperature/salinity variations in southern Red Sea surface waters in the early 1960’s, due to the warming of the Indian Ocean, and suggest that information about the non-stationarity in the relationship between ENSO and two distinct modes of EAWM can be documented in southern Red Sea coral δ18O records.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2014-04-23
    Description: Methyl iodide (CH3I), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), which are produced naturally in the oceans, take part in ozone chemistry both in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The significance of oceanic upwelling regions for emissions of these trace gases in the global context is still uncertain although they have been identified as important source regions. To better quantify the role of upwelling areas in current and future climate, this paper analyzes major factors that influenced halocarbon emissions from the tropical North East Atlantic including the Mauritanian upwelling during the DRIVE expedition. Diel and regional variability of oceanic and atmospheric CH3I, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 was determined along with biological and physical parameters at six 24 h-stations. Low oceanic concentrations of CH3I from 0.1–5.4 pmol L−1 were equally distributed throughout the investigation area. CHBr3 and CH2Br2 from 1.0 to 42.4 pmol L−1 and to 9.4 pmol L−1, respectively were measured with maximum concentrations close to the Mauritanian coast. Atmospheric CH3I, CHBr3, and CH2Br2 of up to 3.3, 8.9, and 3.1 ppt, respectively were detected above the upwelling, as well as up to 1.8, 12.8, and 2.2 ppt at the Cape Verdean coast. While diel variability in CH3I emissions could be mainly ascribed to oceanic non-biological production, no main driver was identified for its emissions over the entire study region. In contrast, biological parameters showed the greatest influence on the regional distribution of sea-to-air fluxes of bromocarbons. The diel impact of wind speed on bromocarbon emissions increased with decreasing distance to the coast. The height of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) influenced halocarbon emissions via its influence on atmospheric mixing ratios. Oceanic and atmospheric halocarbons correlated well in the study region, and in combination with high oceanic CH3I, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 concentrations, local hot spots of atmospheric halocarbons could solely be explained by marine sources. This conclusion is in contrast to previous studies that hypothesized elevated atmospheric halocarbons above the eastern tropical Atlantic to be mainly originated from the West-African continent.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2014-06-25
    Description: Magnetic anomaly identifications underpin plate tectonic reconstructions and form the primary dataset from which age of the oceanic lithosphere and seafloor spreading regimes in the ocean basins can be determined. Although these identifications are an invaluable resource, their usefulness to the wider scientific community has been limited due to the lack of a central community infrastructure to organize, host and update these interpretations. We have developed an open-source, community-driven online infrastructure as a repository for quality-checked magnetic anomaly identifications from all ocean basins. We provide a global sample dataset that comprises 96,733 individually picked magnetic anomaly identifications organized by ocean basin and publication reference, and provide accompanying Hellinger-format files, where available. Our infrastructure is designed to facilitate research in plate tectonic reconstructions or research that relies on an assessment of plate reconstructions, for both experts and non-experts alike. To further enhance the existing repository and strengthen its value, we encourage others in the community to contribute to this effort.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2016-12-19
    Description: We present first results of high-resolution measurements of the crystal orientation fabric of an Alpine ice core. These are compared with other ice-core parameters, in particular climate proxies, to investigate the genesis of rapid fabric changes to environmental conditions.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2014-11-06
    Description: To predict effects of climate change and possible feedbacks, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms behind pCO2 responses of biogeochemically relevant phytoplankton species. Previous experiments on the abundant N2-fixer Trichodesmium demonstrated strong pCO2 responses, which were attributed to an energy reallocation between its carbon and nitrogen acquisition. Pursuing this hypothesis, we manipulated the cellular energy budget by growing Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 under different pCO2 levels (180, 380, 980 and 1400 µatm) and nitrogen sources (N2 and NO3–). Subsequently, biomass production and the main energy-generating processes (photosynthesis and respiration) and energy-consuming processes (N2-fixation and carbon acquisition) were measured. While oxygen fluxes and chlorophyll fluorescence indicated that energy generation and its diurnal cycle was neither affected by pCO2 nor nitrogen source, cells differed in production rates and composition. Elevated pCO2 increased N2-fixation and organic carbon and nitrogen contents. The degree of stimulation was higher for nitrogenase activity than for cell contents, indicating a pCO2 effect on the transfer efficiency from N2 to biomass. pCO2-dependent changes in the diurnal cycle of N2-fixation correlated well with carbon affinities, confirming the interactions between nitrogen and carbon acquisition. Regarding effects of the nitrogen source, production rates were enhanced in NO3– grown cells, which we attribute to the higher N retention and lower ATP demand compared to N2-fixation. pCO2 effects on carbon affinity were less pronounced in NO3– users than N2-fixers. Our study illustrates the necessity to understand energy budgets and fluxes under different environmental conditions for explaining indirect effects of rising pCO2.
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2017-06-26
    Description: Introduction: Many marine planktonic crustaceans such as copepods have been considered as widespread organisms. However, the growing evidence for cryptic and pseudo-cryptic speciation has emphasized the need of re-evaluating the status of copepod species complexes in molecular and morphological studies to get a clearer picture about pelagic marine species as evolutionary units and their distributions. This study analyses the molecular diversity of the ecologically important Paracalanus parvus species complex. Its seven currently recognized species are abundant and also often dominant in marine coastal regions worldwide from temperate to tropical oceans. Results: COI and Cytochrome b sequences of 160 specimens of the Paracalanus parvus complex from all oceans were obtained. Furthermore, 42 COI sequences from GenBank were added for the genetic analyses. Thirteen distinct molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) and two single sequences were revealed with cladistic analyses (Maximum Likelihood, Bayesian Inference), of which seven were identical with results from species delimitation methods (barcode gaps, ABDG, GMYC, Rosenberg’s P(AB)). In total, 10 to 12 putative species were detected and could be placed in three categories: (1) temperate geographically isolated, (2) warm-temperate to tropical wider spread and (3) circumglobal warm-water species. Conclusions: The present study provides evidence of cryptic or pseudocryptic speciation in the Paracalanus parvus complex. One major insight is that the species Paracalanus parvus s.s. is not panmictic, but may be restricted in its distribution to the northeastern Atlantic.
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2016-02-23
    Description: Effects of ocean acidification on Emiliania huxleyi strain RCC 1216 (calcifying, diploid life-cycle stage) and RCC 1217 (non-calcifying, haploid life-cycle stage) were investigated by measuring growth, elemental composition, and production rates under different pCO2 levels (380 and 950 μatm). In these differently acclimated cells, the photosynthetic carbon source was assessed by a 14C disequilibrium assay, conducted over a range of ecologically relevant pH values (7.9–8.7). In agreement with previous studies, we observed decreased calcification and stimulated biomass production in diploid cells under high pCO2, but no CO2-dependent changes in biomass production for haploid cells. In both life-cycle stages, the relative contributions of CO2 and HCO3 − uptake depended strongly on the assay pH. At pH values ≤ 8.1, cells preferentially used CO2 (≥ 90 % CO2), whereas at pH values ≥ 8.3, cells progressively increased the fraction of HCO3 − uptake (~45 % CO2 at pH 8.7 in diploid cells; ~55 % CO2 at pH 8.5 in haploid cells). In contrast to the short-term effect of the assay pH, the pCO2 acclimation history had no significant effect on the carbon uptake behavior. A numerical sensitivity study confirmed that the pH-modification in the 14C disequilibrium method yields reliable results, provided that model parameters (e.g., pH, temperature) are kept within typical measurement uncertainties. Our results demonstrate a high plasticity of E. huxleyi to rapidly adjust carbon acquisition to the external carbon supply and/or pH, and provide an explanation for the paradoxical observation of high CO2 sensitivity despite the apparently high HCO3 − usage seen in previous studies.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2017-01-10
    Description: The widespread distribution of pteropods, their role in ocean food webs and their sensitivity to ocean acidification and warming has renewed scientific interest in this group of zooplankton. Unfortunately, their fragile shell, sensitivity to handling, unknowns surrounding buoyancy regulation and poorly described feeding mechanisms make thecosome pteropods notoriously difficult to maintain in the laboratory. The resultant high mortality rates and unnatural behaviours may confound experimental findings. The high mortality rate also discourages the use of periods of acclimation to experimental conditions and precludes vital long-term studies. Here we summarize the current status of culture methodology to provide a comprehensive basis for future experimental work and culture system development.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2014-05-06
    Description: Polar ice sheets play a fundamental role in Earth's climate system, by interacting actively and passively with the environment. Active interactions include the creeping flow of ice and its effects on polar geomorphology, global sea level, ocean and atmospheric circulation, and so on. Passive interactions are mainly established by the formation of climate records within the ice, in form of air bubbles, dust particles, salt microinclusions and other derivatives of airborne impurities buried by recurrent snowfalls. For a half-century scientists have been drilling deep ice cores in Antarctica and Greenland for studying such records, which can go back to around a million years. Experience shows, however, that the ice-sheet flow generally disrupts the stratigraphy of the bottom part of deep ice cores, destroying the integrity of the oldest records. For all these reasons glaciologists have been studying the microstructure of polar ice cores for decades, in order to understand the genesis and fate of ice-core climate records, as well as to learn more about the physical properties of polar ice, aiming at better climate-record interpretations and ever more precise models of ice-sheet dynamics. In this Part I we review the main difficulties and advances in deep ice core drilling in Antarctica and Greenland, together with the major contributions of deep ice coring to the research on natural ice microstructures. In particular, we discuss in detail the microstructural findings from Camp Century, Byrd, Dye 3, GRIP, GISP2, NorthGRIP, Vostok, Dome C, EDML, and Dome Fuji, besides commenting also on the earlier results of some pioneering ventures, like the Jungfraujoch Expedition and the Norwegian–British–Swedish Antarctic Expedition, among others. In the companion Part II of this work ( Faria et al., 2014), the review proceeds with a survey of the state-of-the-art understanding of natural ice microstructures and some exciting prospects in this field of research.
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: Phytoplankton community analysis is important with respect to natural or humaninduced changes in the marine environment. Because of the efforts involved and the limitations of traditional methods, molecular sensing approaches are becoming more popular. Among others, microarray techniques targeting ribosomal 18S sequences have been successfully applied for phytoplankton investigation. In this contribution, we compared the results of two microarray methods targeting 18S rDNA and 18S rRNA with the results obtained from microscopy, HPLC and flow cytometry. On a qualitative basis, the microarrays showed similar or potentially better performance than the non-molecular methods. Quantitatively, our data suggest that microarray signals obtained from 18S rDNA provide relatively rough estimates of phytoplankton abundance. In contrast, when targeting 18S rRNA instead, a robust linear relationship (r2 ¼ 0.68) between molecular sensing signal and microscopic cell counts could be demonstrated using a probe specific to the genus Pseudo-nitzschia as an example. Thus, for both qualitative and quantitative purposes, microarray techniques can be valuable additions to traditional methods for phytoplankton analysis. Routine monitoring approaches in particular could benefit from advantages like reduced effort, higher taxonomic resolution and a potential for automation.
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2014-05-05
    Description: The flow behaviour of glaciers and ice sheet is influenced by a preferred orientation of the anisotropic ice crystals. Knowledge about crystal anisotropy is mainly provided by crystal orientation fabric (COF) data from ice cores. To gain a broader understanding about the distribution of crystal anisotropy in ice sheets and glaciers we use seismic measurements. Two effects are important: (i) sudden changes in crystal orientation fabric (COF) lead to englacial reflections and (ii) the anisotropic fabric induces an angle dependency on the seismic velocities and thus also recorded traveltimes. For comparisons of ice core data and seismic results we connect COF data with the elasticity tensor and, thus, determine seismic velocities and reflection coefficients for cone and girdle fabrics from ice-core data. In the Antarctic field season 2012 we carried out a vertical seismic profiling (VSP) survey within the borehole of the EDML ice core and a seismic wideangle survey close to Kohnen Station, Antarctica. From the VSP survey we derive interval velocities and compare these velocities to the theoretically calculated velocities from COF ice-core data. The overall velocity trend derived from the ice-core data is well reflected in the VSP velocities. It shows, that the choice of the monocrystal elasticity tensor for the calculation of velocities from ice-core data is important for a good fit with the VSP velocities. For comparison of seismic data with radar and ice-core data we use stacked traces of the wideangle survey. Thus, we are able to identify COF induced reflections in both the seismic and radar data sets.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: Explaining the coexistence of multiple species in the competition and predation theatre has proven a great challenge. Traditional intraguild predation (IGP) models have only relatively small regions of stable coexistence of all species. Here, we investigate potential additional mechanisms that extend these regions of stable coexistence. We used a 3-species Lotka–Volterra system to which we added an interaction term to model a unidirectional facilitative relationship between the two predators in the IGP. In this modelling study the IG predator was able to precondition a part of the common resource by an instantaneous manipulation, which resulted in the immobilization of the resource species. This mechanism of immobilization facilitated the resource uptake by the IG prey and thus increased its growth rates even in the presence of the common predator. The facilitative relationship of the IG prey by the IG predator produced a stable coexistence of both predators even though the IG prey was an inferior competitor for a common resource, which cannot be attained with the traditional IGP models. Furthermore, our model predicted a 3-species stable coexistence even at high enrichment where no coexistence was found in the basic IGP model. Thus, we showed that diversity of resource traits could significantly alter emergent community patterns via shifts in exploitative competition of IGP-related predators. The described mechanism could potentially lead to a higher efficiency in exploitation of common resources and thus promote higher diversity in a real community.
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2017-10-17
    Description: Aircraft borne optical in situ size distribution measurements were performed within Arctic boundary layer clouds with a special emphasis on the cloud top layer during the VERtical Distribution of Ice in Arctic clouds (VERDI) campaign in April and May 2012. An instrumented Basler BT-67 research aircraft operated out of Inuvik over the Mackenzie River delta and the Beaufort Sea in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Besides the cloud particle and hydrometeor size spectrometers the aircraft was equipped with instrumentation for aerosol, radiation and other parameters. Inside the cloud, droplet size distributions with monomodal shapes were observed for predominantly liquid-phase Arctic stratocumulus. With increasing altitude inside the cloud the droplet mean diameters grew from 10 to 20 μm. In the upper transition zone (i.e., adjacent to the cloud-free air aloft) changes from monomodal to bimodal droplet size distributions (Mode 1 with 20 μm and Mode 2 with 10 μm diameter) were observed. It is shown that droplets of both modes co-exist in the same (small) air volume and the bimodal shape of the measured size distributions cannot be explained as an observational artifact caused by accumulating data point populations from different air volumes. The formation of the second size mode can be explained by (a) entrainment and activation/condensation of fresh aerosol particles, or (b) by differential evaporation processes occurring with cloud droplets engulfed in different eddies. Activation of entrained particles seemed a viable possibility as a layer of dry Arctic enhanced background aerosol (which was detected directly above the stratus cloud) might form a second mode of small cloud droplets. However, theoretical considerations and model calculations (adopting direct numerical simulation, DNS) revealed that, instead, turbulent mixing and evaporation of larger droplets are the most likely reasons for the formation of the second droplet size mode in the uppermost region of the clouds.
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2015-03-19
    Description: The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT), an activity of the international marine carbon research community, provides access to synthesis and gridded fCO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) products for the surface oceans. Version 2 of SOCAT is an update of the previous release (version 1) with more data (increased from 6.3 million to 10.1 million surface water fCO2 values) and extended data coverage (from 1968–2007 to 1968–2011). The quality control criteria, while identical in both versions, have been applied more strictly in version 2 than in version 1. The SOCAT website (http://www.socat.info/) has links to quality control comments, metadata, individual data set files, and synthesis and gridded data products. Interactive online tools allow visitors to explore the richness of the data. Applications of SOCAT include process studies, quantification of the ocean carbon sink and its spatial, seasonal, year-to-year and longerterm variation, as well as initialisation or validation of ocean carbon models and coupled climate-carbon models.
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2014-04-23
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2018-09-12
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: "Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung" , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2017-02-03
    Description: The co-authors of this paper hereby state their intention to work together to launch the Genomic Observatories Network (GOs Network) for which this document will serve as its Founding Charter. We define a Genomic Observatory as an ecosystem and/or site subject to long-term scientific research, including (but not limited to) the sustained study of genomic biodiversity from single-celled microbes to multicellular organisms.An international group of 64 scientists first published the call for a global network of Genomic Observatories in January 2012. The vision for such a network was expanded in a subsequent paper and developed over a series of meetings in Bremen (Germany), Shenzhen (China), Moorea (French Polynesia), Oxford (UK), Pacific Grove (California, USA), Washington DC (USA), and London (UK). While this community-building process continues, here we express our mutual intent to establish the GOs Network formally, and to describe our shared vision for its future. The views expressed here are ours alone as individual scientists, and do not necessarily represent those of the institutions with which we are affiliated.
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