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  • Articles  (7,121)
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  • 2010-2014  (7,121)
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  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-09-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pourquie, Olivier -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Sep 26;345(6204):1565-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1260025.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School and Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS (UMR 7104), Inserm U964, Universite de Strasbourg, Illkirch, F-64700, France. pourquie@genetics.med.harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25258067" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Body Patterning ; *Cell Differentiation ; Neural Tube/*embryology ; Spinal Cord/*embryology ; Stem Cells/*cytology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-03-22
    Description: 〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4282744/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4282744/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Jianke -- Chan, Francis Ka-Ming -- P30 CA056036/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI083497/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Mar 21;343(6177):1322-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1252526.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24653026" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Apoptosis ; *Necrosis ; Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-08-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Purnell, Beverly A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Aug 15;345(6198):742-3. doi: 10.1126/science.345.6198.742.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25124422" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Humans ; *Parenting
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-07-06
    Description: Integration of evidence over the past decade has revised understandings about the major adaptations underlying the origin and early evolution of the genus Homo. Many features associated with Homo sapiens, including our large linear bodies, elongated hind limbs, large energy-expensive brains, reduced sexual dimorphism, increased carnivory, and unique life history traits, were once thought to have evolved near the origin of the genus in response to heightened aridity and open habitats in Africa. However, recent analyses of fossil, archaeological, and environmental data indicate that such traits did not arise as a single package. Instead, some arose substantially earlier and some later than previously thought. From ~2.5 to 1.5 million years ago, three lineages of early Homo evolved in a context of habitat instability and fragmentation on seasonal, intergenerational, and evolutionary time scales. These contexts gave a selective advantage to traits, such as dietary flexibility and larger body size, that facilitated survival in shifting environments.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Anton, Susan C -- Potts, Richard -- Aiello, Leslie C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jul 4;345(6192):1236828. doi: 10.1126/science.1236828.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for the Study of Human Origins, Department of Anthropology, New York University, Rufus D. Smith Hall, 25 Waverly Place, New York, NY 10003, USA. E-mail: susan.anton@nyu.edu. ; Human Origins Program, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Post Office Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA. E-mail: pottsr@si.edu. ; Wenner-Gren Foundation, 470 Park Avenue South, 8th Floor, New York, NY 10016, USA. E-mail: laiello@wennergren.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24994657" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Adaptation, Biological ; Animals ; Behavior ; *Biological Evolution ; Body Size ; Brain/anatomy & histology/growth & development ; Climate Change ; Cognition ; Diet ; Ecology ; *Hominidae/anatomy & histology/genetics/growth & development ; Humans ; Organ Size ; Skull/anatomy & histology ; Tooth/anatomy & histology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-05-09
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kaiser, Jocelyn -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 May 9;344(6184):570-1. doi: 10.1126/science.344.6184.570.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24812376" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*blood/*drug effects ; Animals ; Blood Transfusion ; Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/*administration & dosage/*blood/physiology ; Growth Differentiation Factors/*administration & dosage/*blood/physiology ; Memory/drug effects ; Mice ; Parabiosis ; Plasma/chemistry/physiology ; *Rejuvenation ; Smell/drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-02-08
    Description: Despite our understanding of actomyosin function in individual migrating cells, we know little about the mechanisms by which actomyosin drives collective cell movement in vertebrate embryos. The collective movements of convergent extension drive both global reorganization of the early embryo and local remodeling during organogenesis. We report here that planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins control convergent extension by exploiting an evolutionarily ancient function of the septin cytoskeleton. By directing septin-mediated compartmentalization of cortical actomyosin, PCP proteins coordinate the specific shortening of mesenchymal cell-cell contacts, which in turn powers cell interdigitation. These data illuminate the interface between developmental signaling systems and the fundamental machinery of cell behavior and should provide insights into the etiology of human birth defects, such as spina bifida and congenital kidney cysts.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4167615/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4167615/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shindo, Asako -- Wallingford, John B -- R01 GM074104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Feb 7;343(6171):649-52. doi: 10.1126/science.1243126.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute and University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24503851" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Actomyosin/*metabolism ; Animals ; *Cell Movement ; *Cell Polarity ; Embryo, Nonmammalian/cytology/metabolism ; Female ; Gastrula/cytology/metabolism ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Humans ; Mesoderm/cytology/metabolism ; Organogenesis ; Phosphorylation ; Septins/genetics/*metabolism ; Xenopus Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Xenopus laevis
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-02-15
    Description: Evolutionary changes in traits involved in both ecological divergence and mate choice may produce reproductive isolation and speciation. However, there are few examples of such dual traits, and the genetic and molecular bases of their evolution have not been identified. We show that methyl-branched cuticular hydrocarbons (mbCHCs) are a dual trait that affects both desiccation resistance and mate choice in Drosophila serrata. We identify a fatty acid synthase mFAS (CG3524) responsible for mbCHC production in Drosophila and find that expression of mFAS is undetectable in oenocytes (cells that produce CHCs) of a closely related, desiccation-sensitive species, D. birchii, due in part to multiple changes in cis-regulatory sequences of mFAS. We suggest that ecologically influenced changes in the production of mbCHCs have contributed to reproductive isolation between the two species.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chung, Henry -- Loehlin, David W -- Dufour, Heloise D -- Vaccarro, Kathy -- Millar, Jocelyn G -- Carroll, Sean B -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Mar 7;343(6175):1148-51. doi: 10.1126/science.1249998. Epub 2014 Feb 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Laboratory of Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24526311" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Desiccation ; Drosophila/*genetics/physiology ; Ecosystem ; Evolution, Molecular ; Fatty Acid Synthases/*genetics/physiology ; *Genes, Insect ; *Genetic Variation ; Hydrocarbons/*metabolism ; *Mating Preference, Animal ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Reproductive Isolation
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-12-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Armitage, Andrew E -- Drakesmith, Hal -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Dec 12;346(6215):1299-300. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa2468.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK. ; MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK. alexander.drakesmith@ndm.ox.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25504706" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Haemophilus influenzae/*metabolism ; Haplorhini/*genetics/*metabolism ; Humans ; Neisseria/*metabolism ; Transferrin/*genetics/*metabolism ; Transferrin-Binding Protein A/*genetics/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-01-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Churchill, Gary A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 24;343(6169):370. doi: 10.1126/science.343.6169.370-a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24458625" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Experimentation/*standards/*statistics & numerical data ; Animals ; Humans
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-05-31
    Description: Synaptic vesicle recycling has long served as a model for the general mechanisms of cellular trafficking. We used an integrative approach, combining quantitative immunoblotting and mass spectrometry to determine protein numbers; electron microscopy to measure organelle numbers, sizes, and positions; and super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to localize the proteins. Using these data, we generated a three-dimensional model of an "average" synapse, displaying 300,000 proteins in atomic detail. The copy numbers of proteins involved in the same step of synaptic vesicle recycling correlated closely. In contrast, copy numbers varied over more than three orders of magnitude between steps, from about 150 copies for the endosomal fusion proteins to more than 20,000 for the exocytotic ones.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wilhelm, Benjamin G -- Mandad, Sunit -- Truckenbrodt, Sven -- Krohnert, Katharina -- Schafer, Christina -- Rammner, Burkhard -- Koo, Seong Joo -- Classen, Gala A -- Krauss, Michael -- Haucke, Volker -- Urlaub, Henning -- Rizzoli, Silvio O -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 May 30;344(6187):1023-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1252884.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, University of Gottingen Medical Center, European Neuroscience Institute, Cluster of Excellence Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Gottingen, Germany. International Max Planck Research School Neurosciences, 37077 Gottingen, Germany. ; Bioanalytical Mass Spectrometry Group, Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Gottingen, Germany. ; Department of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, University of Gottingen Medical Center, European Neuroscience Institute, Cluster of Excellence Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Gottingen, Germany. International Max Planck Research School Molecular Biology, 37077 Gottingen, Germany. ; Department of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, University of Gottingen Medical Center, European Neuroscience Institute, Cluster of Excellence Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Gottingen, Germany. ; Leibniz Institut fur Molekulare Pharmakologie, Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Cell Biology, Robert-Rossle-Strasse 10, 13125 Berlin, Germany. ; Bioanalytical Mass Spectrometry Group, Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Gottingen, Germany. Bioanalytics, Department of Clinical Chemistry, University Medical Center Gottingen, 37075 Gottingen, Germany. ; Department of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, University of Gottingen Medical Center, European Neuroscience Institute, Cluster of Excellence Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Gottingen, Germany. srizzol@gwdg.de.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24876496" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Exocytosis ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional ; Immunoblotting/methods ; Mass Spectrometry/methods ; Microscopy, Electron/methods ; Models, Neurological ; Presynaptic Terminals/chemistry/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Protein Transport ; Rats ; Rats, Wistar ; Synaptic Vesicles/chemistry/*metabolism ; Synaptosomes/chemistry/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Vesicular Transport Proteins/analysis/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2014-03-22
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Artelle, Kyle A -- Reynolds, John D -- Paquet, Paul C -- Darimont, Chris T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Mar 21;343(6177):1311. doi: 10.1126/science.343.6177.1311-a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Earth to Ocean Research Group (Biological Sciences), Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24653018" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Animals, Wild ; Canada ; Population Control ; *Public Policy
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-08-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wine, Jeffrey J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Aug 15;345(6198):730-1. doi: 10.1126/science.1258493.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CF Research Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2130, USA. wine@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25124411" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cystic Fibrosis/*physiopathology ; Exocrine Glands/*secretion ; *Mucociliary Clearance ; Mucus/*secretion ; Respiratory Mucosa/*physiopathology ; Respiratory System/*physiopathology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Nov 7;346(6210):687. doi: 10.1126/science.346.6210.687.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25378602" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacteria/isolation & purification ; Body Weight/genetics ; Gastrointestinal Tract/*microbiology ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; *Microbiota ; Obesity/genetics/microbiology/therapy ; Probiotics ; Thinness/*genetics/*microbiology ; *Twin Studies as Topic
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 14
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-12-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wood, Chelsea L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Dec 5;346(6214):1192. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa1810.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Michigan Society of Fellows and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. chelwood@umich.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25477450" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biodiversity ; Communicable Diseases/*epidemiology ; Conservation of Natural Resources ; *Ecology ; Humans ; Zoonoses/*epidemiology
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2014-04-20
    Description: Most animals sleep more early in life than in adulthood, but the function of early sleep is not known. Using Drosophila, we found that increased sleep in young flies was associated with an elevated arousal threshold and resistance to sleep deprivation. Excess sleep results from decreased inhibition of a sleep-promoting region by a specific dopaminergic circuit. Experimental hyperactivation of this circuit in young flies results in sleep loss and lasting deficits in adult courtship behaviors. These deficits are accompanied by impaired development of a single olfactory glomerulus, VA1v, which normally displays extensive sleep-dependent growth after eclosion. Our results demonstrate that sleep promotes normal brain development that gives rise to an adult behavior critical for species propagation and suggest that rapidly growing regions of the brain are most susceptible to sleep perturbations early in life.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4479292/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4479292/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kayser, Matthew S -- Yue, Zhifeng -- Sehgal, Amita -- R25MH060490/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007713/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32HL07713/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Apr 18;344(6181):269-74. doi: 10.1126/science.1250553.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24744368" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arousal ; Brain/growth & development/physiology ; Courtship ; Dopamine/metabolism ; Dopaminergic Neurons/*physiology ; Drosophila/genetics/growth & development/*physiology ; Female ; Male ; Models, Animal ; Neural Pathways/physiology ; Olfactory Bulb/growth & development/physiology ; Sexual Behavior, Animal ; Signal Transduction ; *Sleep ; Sleep Deprivation ; Temperature
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  • 16
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Azim, Eiman -- K99 NS088193/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 31;346(6209):554-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1260778.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departments of Neuroscience and Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Kavli Institute for Brain Science, Mortimer B. Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25359954" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Feedback, Physiological ; Forelimb/*physiology ; Humans ; Locomotion/*physiology ; Mice ; Motor Neurons/*physiology ; Motor Skills/*physiology ; Muscle Contraction ; Spinal Cord/cytology/physiology
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  • 17
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-05-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 May 23;344(6186):824-5. doi: 10.1126/science.344.6186.824.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24855252" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Botswana ; *Hierarchy, Social/history ; History, Ancient ; Hominidae/growth & development ; Humans ; *Life Style/ethnology/history ; Male ; *Social Behavior/history ; Socioeconomic Factors/history
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2014-11-02
    Description: Emerging infectious diseases are reducing biodiversity on a global scale. Recently, the emergence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans resulted in rapid declines in populations of European fire salamanders. Here, we screened more than 5000 amphibians from across four continents and combined experimental assessment of pathogenicity with phylogenetic methods to estimate the threat that this infection poses to amphibian diversity. Results show that B. salamandrivorans is restricted to, but highly pathogenic for, salamanders and newts (Urodela). The pathogen likely originated and remained in coexistence with a clade of salamander hosts for millions of years in Asia. As a result of globalization and lack of biosecurity, it has recently been introduced into naive European amphibian populations, where it is currently causing biodiversity loss.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Martel, A -- Blooi, M -- Adriaensen, C -- Van Rooij, P -- Beukema, W -- Fisher, M C -- Farrer, R A -- Schmidt, B R -- Tobler, U -- Goka, K -- Lips, K R -- Muletz, C -- Zamudio, K R -- Bosch, J -- Lotters, S -- Wombwell, E -- Garner, T W J -- Cunningham, A A -- Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A -- Salvidio, S -- Ducatelle, R -- Nishikawa, K -- Nguyen, T T -- Kolby, J E -- Van Bocxlaer, I -- Bossuyt, F -- Pasmans, F -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 31;346(6209):630-1. doi: 10.1126/science.1258268.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium. an.martel@ugent.be. ; Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium. Centre for Research and Conservation, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp, Koningin Astridplein 26, Antwerp, Belgium. ; Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium. ; CIBIO/InBIO, Centro de Investigacao em Biodiversidade e Recursos Geneticos da Universidade do Porto, Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias de Vairao, Rua Padre Armando Quintas, Vairao, Portugal. ; Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK. ; Genome Sequencing and Analysis Program, The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Koordinationsstelle fur amphibien- und reptilienschutz in der Schweiz (KARCH), Passage Maximilien-de-Meuron 6, 2000 Neuchatel, Switzerland. Institut fur Evolutionsbiologie und Umweltwissenschaften, Universitat Zurich. Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Invasive Alien Species Research Team, National Institute for Environment Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan. ; Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. ; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. ; Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones cientificas (CSIC), Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain. ; Biogeography Department, Trier University, 54286 Trier, Germany. ; Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, University of Kent, Kent CT2 7NR, UK. Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, London NW1 4RY, UK. ; Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, London NW1 4RY, UK. ; Reptile, Amphibian and Fish Conservation the Netherlands (RAVON), Post Office Box 1413, 6501 BK Nijmegen, Netherlands. ; Department of Earth Science, Environmental and Life (Di.S.T.A.V.), University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, I-16132 Genova, Italy. ; Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Yoshida Nihonmatsu-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan. ; Vietnam National Museum of Nature, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam. ; James Cook University, One Health Research Group, School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. ; Amphibian Evolution Lab, Biology Department, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25359973" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biodiversity ; *Chytridiomycota ; Communicable Diseases, Emerging/microbiology/*veterinary ; *Endangered Species ; Mycoses/microbiology/*veterinary ; Phylogeny ; Urodela/classification/*microbiology
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2014-02-18
    Description: The human neocortex has numerous specialized functional areas whose formation is poorly understood. Here, we describe a 15-base pair deletion mutation in a regulatory element of GPR56 that selectively disrupts human cortex surrounding the Sylvian fissure bilaterally including "Broca's area," the primary language area, by disrupting regional GPR56 expression and blocking RFX transcription factor binding. GPR56 encodes a heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor required for normal cortical development and is expressed in cortical progenitor cells. GPR56 expression levels regulate progenitor proliferation. GPR56 splice forms are highly variable between mice and humans, and the regulatory element of gyrencephalic mammals directs restricted lateral cortical expression. Our data reveal a mechanism by which control of GPR56 expression pattern by multiple alternative promoters can influence stem cell proliferation, gyral patterning, and, potentially, neocortex evolution.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4480613/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4480613/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bae, Byoung-Il -- Tietjen, Ian -- Atabay, Kutay D -- Evrony, Gilad D -- Johnson, Matthew B -- Asare, Ebenezer -- Wang, Peter P -- Murayama, Ayako Y -- Im, Kiho -- Lisgo, Steven N -- Overman, Lynne -- Sestan, Nenad -- Chang, Bernard S -- Barkovich, A James -- Grant, P Ellen -- Topcu, Meral -- Politsky, Jeffrey -- Okano, Hideyuki -- Piao, Xianhua -- Walsh, Christopher A -- 2R01NS035129/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- G0700089/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- GR082557/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- HHSN275200900011C/PHS HHS/ -- N01-HD-9-0011/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS035129/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH081896/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01MH081896/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Feb 14;343(6172):764-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1244392.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Genetics and Genomics, Manton Center for Orphan Disease, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston Children's Hospital, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, and Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24531968" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Alternative Splicing ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Biological Evolution ; Body Patterning/*genetics ; Cats ; Cell Proliferation ; Cerebral Cortex/anatomy & histology/cytology/*embryology ; Codon, Nonsense ; Frontal Lobe/anatomy & histology/cytology/embryology ; Genetic Variation ; Haplotypes ; Humans ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neural Stem Cells/cytology/*physiology ; Pedigree ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/*genetics ; Sequence Deletion
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  • 20
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-07-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Balter, Michael -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jul 11;345(6193):129. doi: 10.1126/science.345.6193.129.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25013041" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Brain/anatomy & histology ; *Fossils ; Hominidae/*classification ; Humans ; Paleontology/*trends ; Skull/anatomy & histology
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2014-09-13
    Description: Fucosylation of intestinal epithelial cells, catalyzed by fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2), is a major glycosylation mechanism of host-microbiota symbiosis. Commensal bacteria induce epithelial fucosylation, and epithelial fucose is used as a dietary carbohydrate by many of these bacteria. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the induction of epithelial fucosylation are unknown. Here, we show that type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) induced intestinal epithelial Fut2 expression and fucosylation in mice. This induction required the cytokines interleukin-22 and lymphotoxin in a commensal bacteria-dependent and -independent manner, respectively. Disruption of intestinal fucosylation led to increased susceptibility to infection by Salmonella typhimurium. Our data reveal a role for ILC3 in shaping the gut microenvironment through the regulation of epithelial glycosylation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4774895/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4774895/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goto, Yoshiyuki -- Obata, Takashi -- Kunisawa, Jun -- Sato, Shintaro -- Ivanov, Ivaylo I -- Lamichhane, Aayam -- Takeyama, Natsumi -- Kamioka, Mariko -- Sakamoto, Mitsuo -- Matsuki, Takahiro -- Setoyama, Hiromi -- Imaoka, Akemi -- Uematsu, Satoshi -- Akira, Shizuo -- Domino, Steven E -- Kulig, Paulina -- Becher, Burkhard -- Renauld, Jean-Christophe -- Sasakawa, Chihiro -- Umesaki, Yoshinori -- Benno, Yoshimi -- Kiyono, Hiroshi -- 1R01DK098378/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK098378/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Sep 12;345(6202):1254009. doi: 10.1126/science.1254009. Epub 2014 Aug 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. Microbe Division/Japan Collection of Microorganisms, RIKEN BioResource Center, Tsukuba 305-0074, Japan. ; Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Microbe Division/Japan Collection of Microorganisms, RIKEN BioResource Center, Tsukuba 305-0074, Japan. ; Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Laboratory of Vaccine Materials, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Osaka 567-0085, Japan. Division of Mucosal Immunology, International Research and Development Center for Mucosal Vaccines, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. ; Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA. ; Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. ; Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Nippon Institute for Biological Science, Tokyo 198-0024, Japan. ; Microbe Division/Japan Collection of Microorganisms, RIKEN BioResource Center, Tsukuba 305-0074, Japan. ; Yakult Central Institute, Tokyo 186-8650, Japan. ; Division of Innate Immune Regulation, International Research and Development Center for Mucosal Vaccines, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Department of Mucosal Immunology, School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan. ; Laboratory of Host Defense, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cellular and Molecular Biology Program, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5617, USA. ; Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Zurich CH-8057, Switzerland. ; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels B-1200, Belgium. ; Nippon Institute for Biological Science, Tokyo 198-0024, Japan. Division of Bacterial Infection, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8673, Japan. ; Benno Laboratory, Innovation Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan. ; Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. Division of Mucosal Immunology, International Research and Development Center for Mucosal Vaccines, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25214634" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Disease Models, Animal ; Fucose/*metabolism ; Fucosyltransferases/genetics/metabolism ; Germ-Free Life ; Glycosylation ; Goblet Cells/enzymology/immunology/microbiology ; Ileum/enzymology/immunology/microbiology ; *Immunity, Innate ; Interleukins/immunology ; Intestinal Mucosa/enzymology/*immunology/microbiology ; Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Microbiota/*immunology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Paneth Cells/enzymology/immunology/microbiology ; Salmonella Infections/*immunology/microbiology ; *Salmonella typhimurium
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2014-04-12
    Description: Many neurologic and psychiatric disorders are marked by imbalances between neural excitation and inhibition. In the cerebral cortex, inhibition is mediated largely by GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid-secreting) interneurons, a cell type that originates in the embryonic ventral telencephalon and populates the cortex through long-distance tangential migration. Remarkably, when transplanted from embryos or in vitro culture preparations, immature interneurons disperse and integrate into host brain circuits, both in the cerebral cortex and in other regions of the central nervous system. These features make interneuron transplantation a powerful tool for the study of neurodevelopmental processes such as cell specification, cell death, and cortical plasticity. Moreover, interneuron transplantation provides a novel strategy for modifying neural circuits in rodent models of epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, mood disorders, and chronic pain.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4056344/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4056344/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Southwell, Derek G -- Nicholas, Cory R -- Basbaum, Allan I -- Stryker, Michael P -- Kriegstein, Arnold R -- Rubenstein, John L -- Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo -- HD032116/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- MH049428/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- NS14627/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS28478/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS78326/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY002874/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH049428/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS014627/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS028478/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS078326/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01-EY02874/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R37 HD032116/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008568/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Apr 11;344(6180):1240622. doi: 10.1126/science.1240622.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24723614" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Count ; Cell Separation ; *Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy ; Cerebral Cortex/cytology/growth & development/physiology ; *Embryonic Development ; Humans ; Interneurons/*physiology/*transplantation ; Mental Disorders/*therapy ; Mice ; Nervous System Diseases/*therapy
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2014-02-01
    Description: Circadian clocks attune the physiology of virtually all living organisms to the diurnal cycles of their environments. In metazoan animals, multiple sensory input pathways have been linked to clock synchronization with the environmental cycle (entrainment). Extrinsic entrainment cues include light and temperature. We show that (12-hour:12-hour) cycles of vibration and silence (VS) are sufficient to synchronize the daily locomotor activity of wild-type Drosophila melanogaster. Behavioral synchronization to VS cycles required a functional clock and functional chordotonal organs and was accompanied by phase-shifts of the daily oscillations of PERIOD protein concentrations in brain clock neurons. The feedback from mechanosensory-and particularly, proprioceptive-organs may help an animal to keep its circadian clock in sync with its own, stimulus-induced activities.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Simoni, Alekos -- Wolfgang, Werner -- Topping, Matthew P -- Kavlie, Ryan G -- Stanewsky, Ralf -- Albert, Joerg T -- BB/G004455/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/H001204/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 31;343(6170):525-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1245710.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Biological and Chemical Science, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24482478" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acoustic Stimulation ; Animals ; Behavior, Animal/*physiology ; Brain/cytology/metabolism ; *Circadian Clocks ; Cues ; Drosophila Proteins/metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/*physiology ; *Mechanotransduction, Cellular ; Motor Activity/*physiology ; Neurons/metabolism ; Period Circadian Proteins/metabolism ; *Proprioception ; Sound ; Vibration
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2014-10-25
    Description: Lingham-Soliar questions our interpretation of integumentary structures in the Middle-Late Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur Kulindadromeus as feather-like appendages and alternatively proposes that the compound structures observed around the humerus and femur of Kulindadromeus are support fibers associated with badly degraded scales. We consider this hypothesis highly unlikely because of the taphonomy and morphology of the preserved structures.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Godefroit, Pascal -- Sinitsa, Sofia M -- Dhouailly, Danielle -- Bolotsky, Yuri L -- Sizov, Alexander V -- McNamara, Maria E -- Benton, Michael J -- Spagna, Paul -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 24;346(6208):434. doi: 10.1126/science.1260146.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Directorate, Earth and History of Life, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Rue Vautier 29, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium. pascal.godefroit@naturalsciences.be. ; Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology, and Cryology, 26 Butin Street, 672 014 Chita, Russia. ; UJF-CNRS FRE 3405, AGIM, Universite Joseph Fourier, Site Sante, 38 706 La Tronche, France. ; Institute of Geology and Nature Management, FEB RAS, 1 Relochny Street 675 000, Blagoveschensk, Russia. ; Institute of the Earth Crust, SB RAS, 128 Lermontov Street, 664 033 Irkutsk, Russia. ; School of Biological, Earth, and Environmental Science, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK. ; School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK. ; Directorate, Earth and History of Life, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Rue Vautier 29, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25342796" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Dinosaurs/*anatomy & histology ; Epidermis/*anatomy & histology ; Feathers/*anatomy & histology
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  • 25
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-04-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Apr 18;344(6181):245-6. doi: 10.1126/science.344.6181.245.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24744352" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology ; DNA/*genetics ; *DNA Methylation ; *Epigenesis, Genetic ; Extinction, Biological ; Female ; *Fossils ; Gene Silencing ; *Genome ; *Genome, Human ; Humans ; Neanderthals/*genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: Daily rhythms in behavior emerge from networks of neurons that express molecular clocks. Drosophila's clock neuron network consists of a diversity of cell types, yet is modeled as two hierarchically organized groups, one of which serves as a master pacemaker. Here, we establish that the fly's clock neuron network consists of multiple units of independent neuronal oscillators, each unified by its neuropeptide transmitter and mode of coupling to other units. Our work reveals that the circadian clock neuron network is not orchestrated by a small group of master pacemakers but rather consists of multiple independent oscillators, each of which drives rhythms in activity.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4259399/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4259399/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yao, Z -- Shafer, O T -- R00NS062953/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS077933/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01NS077933/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Mar 28;343(6178):1516-20. doi: 10.1126/science.1251285.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24675961" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Circadian Clocks ; *Circadian Rhythm ; Drosophila melanogaster/cytology/*physiology ; *Nerve Net ; Neurons/*physiology ; Neuropeptides/physiology ; Synaptic Transmission
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2014-09-27
    Description: Development requires tissue growth as well as cell diversification. To address how these processes are coordinated, we analyzed the development of molecularly distinct domains of neural progenitors in the mouse and chick neural tube. We show that during development, these domains undergo changes in size that do not scale with changes in overall tissue size. Our data show that domain proportions are first established by opposing morphogen gradients and subsequently controlled by domain-specific regulation of differentiation rate but not differences in proliferation rate. Regulation of differentiation rate is key to maintaining domain proportions while accommodating both intra- and interspecies variations in size. Thus, the sequential control of progenitor specification and differentiation elaborates pattern without requiring that signaling gradients grow as tissues expand.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4228193/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4228193/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kicheva, Anna -- Bollenbach, Tobias -- Ribeiro, Ana -- Valle, Helena Perez -- Lovell-Badge, Robin -- Episkopou, Vasso -- Briscoe, James -- 098326/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- MC_U117560541/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U120074332/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MR/J013331/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01 EB016629/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- U117560541/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- WT098326MA/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Sep 26;345(6204):1254927. doi: 10.1126/science.1254927.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Medical Research Council (MRC), National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, NW71AA, UK. ; Institute of Science and Technology (IST) Austria, Am Campus 1, A - 3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria. ; Medical Research Council (MRC), National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, NW71AA, UK. Imperial College London, UK. ; Medical Research Council (MRC), National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, NW71AA, UK. Department of Biochemistry, The University of Hong Kong, 3/F Laboratory Block, Faculty of Medicine Building, 21 Sassoon Road, Hong Kong. Division of Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University College London, UK. ; Division of Brain Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK. ; Medical Research Council (MRC), National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, NW71AA, UK. jbrisco@nimr.mrc.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25258086" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Body Patterning ; *Cell Differentiation ; Chick Embryo ; Mice ; Models, Biological ; Neural Tube/cytology/*embryology ; Spinal Cord/*embryology ; Stem Cells/*cytology
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  • 28
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-03-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Mar 14;343(6176):1194-7. doi: 10.1126/science.343.6176.1194.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24626911" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacteria ; Beetles ; Cough/microbiology ; Humans ; Plant Leaves ; Rats ; Skin ; Sneezing ; Surface Tension ; Viruses ; Water/*chemistry ; *Wettability
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  • 29
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-01-11
    Description: Locomotion requires precise control of spinal networks. In tetrapods and bipeds, dynamic regulation of locomotion is simplified by the modular organization of spinal limb circuits, but it is not known whether their predecessors, fish axial circuits, are similarly organized. Here, we demonstrate that the larval zebrafish spinal cord contains distinct, parallel microcircuits for independent control of dorsal and ventral musculature on each side of the body. During normal swimming, dorsal and ventral microcircuits are equally active, but, during postural correction, fish differentially engage these microcircuits to generate torque for self-righting. These findings reveal greater complexity in the axial spinal networks responsible for swimming than previously recognized and suggest an early template of modular organization for more-complex locomotor circuits in later vertebrates.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4079086/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4079086/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bagnall, Martha W -- McLean, David L -- K99 DC012536/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS067299/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 10;343(6167):197-200. doi: 10.1126/science.1245629.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24408436" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Axons/physiology ; Larva/anatomy & histology/physiology ; Motor Neurons/physiology ; Muscle, Skeletal/innervation/physiology ; Nerve Net/anatomy & histology/*physiology ; Spinal Cord/*physiology ; Swimming/*physiology ; Zebrafish/anatomy & histology/*physiology
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  • 30
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-02-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 31;343(6170):476-7. doi: 10.1126/science.343.6170.476.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24482459" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Animals, Genetically Modified ; China ; *Disease Models, Animal ; Embryo, Mammalian ; Gene Deletion ; Gene Targeting/*methods ; Haplorhini/*genetics ; Humans
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  • 31
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-08-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cohen, Jon -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Aug 1;345(6196):495-6. doi: 10.1126/science.345.6196.495. Epub 2014 Jul 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25082673" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anti-Retroviral Agents/*therapeutic use ; Australia ; Bone Marrow Transplantation ; Child ; HIV/isolation & purification ; HIV Infections/blood/drug therapy/*therapy ; Haplorhini ; Humans ; RNA, Viral/blood ; Remission Induction ; Viral Load
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  • 32
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-02-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 31;343(6170):472-3. doi: 10.1126/science.343.6170.472.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24482456" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Ants ; Biomass ; Butterflies ; Carnivory ; *Ecosystem ; Male ; *Salts ; *Sodium Chloride ; Soil/*chemistry ; Trees
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2014-10-18
    Description: The conserved heat shock transcription factor-1 (HSF-1) is essential to cellular stress resistance and life-span determination. The canonical function of HSF-1 is to regulate a network of genes encoding molecular chaperones that protect proteins from damage caused by extrinsic environmental stress or intrinsic age-related deterioration. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we engineered a modified HSF-1 strain that increased stress resistance and longevity without enhanced chaperone induction. This health assurance acted through the regulation of the calcium-binding protein PAT-10. Loss of pat-10 caused a collapse of the actin cytoskeleton, stress resistance, and life span. Furthermore, overexpression of pat-10 increased actin filament stability, thermotolerance, and longevity, indicating that in addition to chaperone regulation, HSF-1 has a prominent role in cytoskeletal integrity, ensuring cellular function during stress and aging.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4403873/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4403873/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Baird, Nathan A -- Douglas, Peter M -- Simic, Milos S -- Grant, Ana R -- Moresco, James J -- Wolff, Suzanne C -- Yates, John R 3rd -- Manning, Gerard -- Dillin, Andrew -- 1K99AG042495-01A1/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- 5P41RR011823-17/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- 8 P41 GM103533-17/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG031097/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P40 OD010440/OD/NIH HHS/ -- P41 GM103533/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01AG027463-04/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 17;346(6207):360-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1253168.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. ; Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. dillin@berkeley.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25324391" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Actins/metabolism ; Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics/*physiology ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics/*pharmacology/*physiology ; Cytoskeleton/*physiology/ultrastructure ; Heat-Shock Response/genetics/*physiology ; Hot Temperature ; *Longevity ; RNA Interference ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*physiology ; Troponin C/genetics/*pharmacology
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2014-05-31
    Description: Netrins are secreted proteins that regulate axon guidance and neuronal migration. Deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) is a well-established netrin-1 receptor mediating attractive responses. We provide evidence that its close relative neogenin is also a functional netrin-1 receptor that acts with DCC to mediate guidance in vivo. We determined the structures of a functional netrin-1 region, alone and in complexes with neogenin or DCC. Netrin-1 has a rigid elongated structure containing two receptor-binding sites at opposite ends through which it brings together receptor molecules. The ligand/receptor complexes reveal two distinct architectures: a 2:2 heterotetramer and a continuous ligand/receptor assembly. The differences result from different lengths of the linker connecting receptor domains fibronectin type III domain 4 (FN4) and FN5, which differs among DCC and neogenin splice variants, providing a basis for diverse signaling outcomes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4369087/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4369087/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Xu, Kai -- Wu, Zhuhao -- Renier, Nicolas -- Antipenko, Alexander -- Tzvetkova-Robev, Dorothea -- Xu, Yan -- Minchenko, Maria -- Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo -- Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R -- Himanen, Juha -- Tessier-Lavigne, Marc -- Nikolov, Dimitar B -- P41 GM103403/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jun 13;344(6189):1275-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1255149. Epub 2014 May 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Structural Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Laboratory of Brain Development and Repair, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University and Northeastern Collaborative Access Team, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, IL 60439, USA. ; Laboratory of Brain Development and Repair, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. nikolovd@mskcc.org marctl@mail.rockefeller.edu. ; Structural Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. nikolovd@mskcc.org marctl@mail.rockefeller.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24876346" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Axons/*physiology ; Cell Movement ; Fibronectins/chemistry ; Ligands ; Membrane Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/ultrastructure ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Nerve Growth Factors/*chemistry/genetics/ultrastructure ; Neurons/physiology ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Receptors, Cell Surface/*chemistry/genetics/ultrastructure ; Tumor Suppressor Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/ultrastructure
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2014-04-05
    Description: Development of vertebrate embryos involves tightly regulated molecular and cellular processes that progressively instruct proliferating embryonic cells about their identity and behavior. Whereas numerous gene activities have been found to be essential during early embryogenesis, little is known about the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the embryo. Here, we show that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Xu, Peng-Fei -- Houssin, Nathalie -- Ferri-Lagneau, Karine F -- Thisse, Bernard -- Thisse, Christine -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Apr 4;344(6179):87-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1248252.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24700857" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blastula/*physiology ; Body Patterning ; Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Embryo, Nonmammalian/*physiology ; *Embryonic Development ; Gastrula/physiology ; Gastrulation ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Morphogenesis ; Nodal Protein/genetics/*physiology ; RNA, Messenger/genetics ; Signal Transduction ; Zebrafish/*embryology/genetics ; Zebrafish Proteins/genetics/*physiology
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  • 36
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-09-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Balter, Michael -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Sep 12;345(6202):1232. doi: 10.1126/science.345.6202.1232.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25214585" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Dinosaurs/*anatomy & histology/*physiology ; Fossils ; Lakes ; Paleontology ; Rivers ; Skeleton ; *Swimming
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2014-09-13
    Description: This Perspective focuses on the future of the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework, which was initially established to promote the fair sharing of public health-related pandemic influenza samples between countries. We examine the changes that need to be made to address the growing likelihood that genetic sequence data might be shared instead of physical virus samples, as well as the need to expand the PIP framework's scope and to improve its fairness.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gostin, Lawrence O -- Phelan, Alexandra -- Stoto, Michael A -- Kraemer, John D -- Reddy, K Srinath -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Sep 12;345(6202):1295-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1257622.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, DC 20001, USA. ; Department of Health Systems Administration, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057, USA. ; O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, DC 20001, USA. Department of Health Systems Administration, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057, USA. ; President, Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi 110070, India.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25214618" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Disaster Planning ; *Global Health ; Health Services Accessibility ; Humans ; Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/*genetics ; Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/*genetics ; *Influenza Vaccines ; Influenza in Birds/epidemiology/prevention & control ; Influenza, Human/epidemiology/*prevention & control/virology ; Intellectual Property ; Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control/virology ; Pandemics/*prevention & control/veterinary ; Poultry ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Swine
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2014-05-17
    Description: Natural selection can drive the repeated evolution of reproductive isolation, but the genomic basis of parallel speciation remains poorly understood. We analyzed whole-genome divergence between replicate pairs of stick insect populations that are adapted to different host plants and undergoing parallel speciation. We found thousands of modest-sized genomic regions of accentuated divergence between populations, most of which are unique to individual population pairs. We also detected parallel genomic divergence across population pairs involving an excess of coding genes with specific molecular functions. Regions of parallel genomic divergence in nature exhibited exceptional allele frequency changes between hosts in a field transplant experiment. The results advance understanding of biological diversification by providing convergent observational and experimental evidence for selection's role in driving repeatable genomic divergence.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Soria-Carrasco, Victor -- Gompert, Zachariah -- Comeault, Aaron A -- Farkas, Timothy E -- Parchman, Thomas L -- Johnston, J Spencer -- Buerkle, C Alex -- Feder, Jeffrey L -- Bast, Jens -- Schwander, Tanja -- Egan, Scott P -- Crespi, Bernard J -- Nosil, Patrik -- 090532/Z/09/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G0900747 91070/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 May 16;344(6185):738-42. doi: 10.1126/science.1252136. Epub 2014 May 15.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK. ; Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA. ; Deparment of Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA. ; Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. ; Department of Botany, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA. ; Department of Biology, Notre Dame University, South Bend, IN 46556, USA. ; J. F. Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Gottingen, 37073 Gottingen, Germany. ; Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerland. ; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA. ; Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada. ; Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK. p.nosil@sheffield.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24833390" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Ceanothus ; Gene Frequency ; *Genetic Speciation ; Genetic Variation ; *Genome, Insect ; Herbivory ; Insects/classification/*genetics ; Phylogeny ; *Selection, Genetic
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  • 39
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-04-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McConnell, William J -- Kull, Christian A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Apr 25;344(6182):358. doi: 10.1126/science.344.6182.358-a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24763569" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Endangered Species ; *Extinction, Biological ; *Lemur ; Male
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2014-03-01
    Description: Epigenetic gene silencing is seen in several repeat-expansion diseases. In fragile X syndrome, the most common genetic form of mental retardation, a CGG trinucleotide-repeat expansion adjacent to the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene promoter results in its epigenetic silencing. Here, we show that FMR1 silencing is mediated by the FMR1 mRNA. The FMR1 mRNA contains the transcribed CGG-repeat tract as part of the 5' untranslated region, which hybridizes to the complementary CGG-repeat portion of the FMR1 gene to form an RNA.DNA duplex. Disrupting the interaction of the mRNA with the CGG-repeat portion of the FMR1 gene prevents promoter silencing. Thus, our data link trinucleotide-repeat expansion to a form of RNA-directed gene silencing mediated by direct interactions of the trinucleotide-repeat RNA and DNA.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4357282/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4357282/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Colak, Dilek -- Zaninovic, Nikica -- Cohen, Michael S -- Rosenwaks, Zev -- Yang, Wang-Yong -- Gerhardt, Jeannine -- Disney, Matthew D -- Jaffrey, Samie R -- R01 GM079235/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH80420/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Feb 28;343(6174):1002-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1245831.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24578575" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; DNA Methylation ; Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism ; Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/*genetics ; Fragile X Syndrome/*genetics ; *Gene Silencing ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred NOD ; Mice, SCID ; Neurons/metabolism ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; RNA, Messenger/*genetics ; RNA, Small Interfering/genetics ; Trinucleotide Repeats/*genetics
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 41
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Balter, Michael -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 3;343(6166):18-23. doi: 10.1126/science.343.6166.18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24385617" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/history ; Animals ; *Archaeology ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Islands ; Scotland ; Sculpture/*history
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2014-10-18
    Description: Myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (OLs) are formed continuously in the healthy adult brain. In this work, we study the function of these late-forming cells and the myelin they produce. Learning a new motor skill (such as juggling) alters the structure of the brain's white matter, which contains many OLs, suggesting that late-born OLs might contribute to motor learning. Consistent with this idea, we show that production of newly formed OLs is briefly accelerated in mice that learn a new skill (running on a "complex wheel" with irregularly spaced rungs). By genetically manipulating the transcription factor myelin regulatory factor in OL precursors, we blocked production of new OLs during adulthood without affecting preexisting OLs or myelin. This prevented the mice from mastering the complex wheel. Thus, generation of new OLs and myelin is important for learning motor skills.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McKenzie, Ian A -- Ohayon, David -- Li, Huiliang -- de Faria, Joana Paes -- Emery, Ben -- Tohyama, Koujiro -- Richardson, William D -- 100269/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G0800575/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 17;346(6207):318-22. doi: 10.1126/science.1254960.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience and the Florey Institute for Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia. ; The Center for Electron Microscopy and Bio-Imaging Research, Iwate Medical University, 19-1 Uchimuru, Morioka, Iwate 020-8505, Japan. ; The Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. w.richardson@ucl.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25324381" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*cytology/metabolism ; *Cell Proliferation ; Gene Deletion ; Humans ; *Learning ; Male ; Mental Recall ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Motor Skills/*physiology ; Myelin Sheath/genetics/*metabolism ; Oligodendroglia/cytology/metabolism/*physiology ; Synaptic Transmission ; Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2014-10-11
    Description: Tyzio et al. (Reports, 7 February 2014, p. 675) reported that bumetanide restored the impaired oxytocin-mediated gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) excitatory-inhibitory shift during delivery in animal models of autism, ameliorating some autistic-like characteristics in the offspring. However, standard practices in the study of these models, such as the use of sex-dimorphic or males-only analyses and implementation of tests measuring social behavior, are lacking to definitely associate their findings to autism.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bambini-Junior, Victorio -- Nunes, Gustavo Della Flora -- Schneider, Tomasz -- Gottfried, Carmem -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 10;346(6206):176. doi: 10.1126/science.1255679.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Research Group in Neuroglial Plasticity at the Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Health's Basic Science, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Translational Research Group in Autism Spectrum Disorders (GETTEA), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. victoriobambini@gmail.com. ; Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Research Group in Neuroglial Plasticity at the Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Health's Basic Science, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Translational Research Group in Autism Spectrum Disorders (GETTEA), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. ; School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health, TS17 6BH, Durham University, Durham, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25301610" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autistic Disorder/*chemically induced/*genetics ; *Cytoprotection ; Female ; Oxytocin/*metabolism ; Pregnancy ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/*metabolism
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2014-12-06
    Description: Immune and inflammatory responses require leukocytes to migrate within and through the vasculature, a process that is facilitated by their capacity to switch to a polarized morphology with an asymmetric distribution of receptors. We report that neutrophil polarization within activated venules served to organize a protruding domain that engaged activated platelets present in the bloodstream. The selectin ligand PSGL-1 transduced signals emanating from these interactions, resulting in the redistribution of receptors that drive neutrophil migration. Consequently, neutrophils unable to polarize or to transduce signals through PSGL-1 displayed aberrant crawling, and blockade of this domain protected mice against thromboinflammatory injury. These results reveal that recruited neutrophils scan for activated platelets, and they suggest that the neutrophils' bipolarity allows the integration of signals present at both the endothelium and the circulation before inflammation proceeds.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4280847/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4280847/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sreeramkumar, Vinatha -- Adrover, Jose M -- Ballesteros, Ivan -- Cuartero, Maria Isabel -- Rossaint, Jan -- Bilbao, Izaskun -- Nacher, Maria -- Pitaval, Christophe -- Radovanovic, Irena -- Fukui, Yoshinori -- McEver, Rodger P -- Filippi, Marie-Dominique -- Lizasoain, Ignacio -- Ruiz-Cabello, Jesus -- Zarbock, Alexander -- Moro, Maria A -- Hidalgo, Andres -- HL03463/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL085607/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL090676/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL085607/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL034363/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL090676/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Dec 5;346(6214):1234-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1256478. Epub 2014 Dec 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Atherothrombosis, Imaging and Epidemiology, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid, Spain. ; Unidad de Investigacion Neurovascular, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Complutense and Instituto de Investigacion Hospital 12 de Octubre (i+12), Madrid, Spain. ; Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, University of Munster and Max Planck Institute Munster, Munster, Germany. ; Department of Atherothrombosis, Imaging and Epidemiology, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid, Spain. Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Madrid, Spain. ; Department of Atherothrombosis, Imaging and Epidemiology, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid, Spain. Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. ; Division of Immunogenetics, Department of Immunobiology and Neuroscience, Kyushu University, Japan. ; Cardiovascular Biology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. ; Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children's Research Foundation, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA. ; Department of Atherothrombosis, Imaging and Epidemiology, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid, Spain. Institute for Cardiovascular Prevention, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany. ahidalgo@cnic.es.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25477463" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blood Circulation ; Blood Platelets/*immunology ; Cell Movement ; Cell Polarity ; Endothelium, Vascular/immunology ; Inflammation/blood/*immunology ; Male ; Membrane Glycoproteins ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Neutrophils/*immunology ; *Platelet Activation ; Signal Transduction ; Thrombosis/*immunology ; Venules/immunology
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