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  • Fisheries
  • Cell & Developmental Biology
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • 2010-2014  (1,478)
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  • 1
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    North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES)
    Publication Date: 2017-09-28
    Description: 2013 PICES Science: A Note from the Science Board Chairman (pp. 1-5); 2013 PICES Awards (pp. 6-8); Workshop on “Comparison of Size-based and Species-based Ecosystem Models” (pp.9-11); Workshop on “Identifying Mechanisms Linking Physical Climate and Ecosystem Change” (pp. 12-14); Navigating Change: Well-being, Values and the Management of Marine Social-Ecological Systems (pp. 15-19); 8th International Conference on Marine Bioinvasions (pp. 20-21); Second Regional Climate Modeling Workshop (pp. 22-23); PICES Summer School on “Ocean Observing Systems and Ecosystem Monitoring” (pp. 24-27); NOWPAP–PICES Joint Training Course on “Remote Sensing Data Analysis” (pp. 28-29); 6th SOLAS Summer School (pp. 30-32); News of the Northeast Pacific Ocean (pp. 33-35); The Bering Sea: Current Status and Recent Trends (pp. 36-39); The State of the Western North Pacific in the First Half of 2013 (pp. 40-42); New Chairmen in PICES (pp. 43-48); News from the PICES Secretariat (pp. 49-52)
    Keywords: Conservation ; Ecology ; Environment ; Fisheries ; Oceanography
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-02-14
    Description: Long-term sustainable management of wild populations should be based on management actions that account for the genetic structure among populations. Knowledge of genetic structure and of the degree of demographic exchange between discreet [sic] populations allows managers to better define management units. However, adequate gene loci for population assessments are not always available. In this study, variable co-dominant DNA loci in the heavily exploited marine genus Brevoortia were developed with a microsatellite-enriched DNA library for the Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus). Microsatellite marker discovery was followed by genetic characterization of 4 endemic North American Brevoortia species, by using 14 novel loci as well as 5 previously described loci. Power analysis of these loci for use in species identification and genetic stock structure was used to assess their potential to improve the stock definition in the menhaden fishery of the Gulf of Mexico. These loci could be used to reliably identify menhaden species in the Gulf of Mexico with an estimated error rate of α=0.0001. Similarly, a power analysis completed on the basis of observed allele frequencies in Gulf Menhaden indicated that these markers can be used to detect very small levels of genetic divergence (Fst≈0.004) among simulated populations, with sample sizes as small as n=50 individuals. A cursory analysis of genetic structure among Gulf Menhaden sampled throughout the Gulf of Mexico indicated limited genetic structure among sampling locations, although the available sampling did not reach the target number (n=50) necessary to detect minimal values of significant structure.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-02-14
    Description: Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) is a pelagic, migratory species with a transoceanic distribution in tropical and subtropical waters. Recreational fishing pressure on Cobia in the United States has increased substantially during the last decade, especially in areas of its annual inshore aggregations, making this species potentially susceptible to overfishing. Although Cobia along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the southeastern United States are currently managed as a single fishery, the genetic composition of Cobias in these areas is unclear. On the basis of a robust microsatellite data set from collections along the U.S. Atlantic coast (2008–09), offshore groups were genetically homogenous. However, the 2 sampled inshore aggregations (South Carolina and Virginia) were genetically distinct from each other, as well as from the offshore group. The recapture of stocked fish within their release estuary 2 years after release indicates that some degree of estuarine fidelity occurs within these inshore aggregations and supports the detection of their unique genetic structure at the population level. These results complement the observed high site fidelity of Cobias in South Carolina and support a recent study that confirms that Cobia spawn in the inshore aggregations. Our increased understanding of Cobia life history will be beneficial for determining the appropriate scale of fishery management for Cobia.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-02-18
    Description: Atlantic Croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) production dynamics along the U.S. Atlantic coast are regulated by fishing and winter water temperature. Stakeholders for this resource have recommended investigating the effects of climate covariates in assessment models. This study used state-space biomass dynamic models without (model 1) and with (model 2) the minimum winter estuarine temperature (MWET) to examine MWET effects on Atlantic Croaker population dynamics during 1972–2008. In model 2, MWET was introduced into the intrinsic rate of population increase (r). For both models, a prior probability distribution (prior) was constructed for r or a scaling parameter (r0); imputs were the fishery removals, and fall biomass indices developed by using data from the Multispecies Bottom Trawl Survey of the Northeast Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Coastal Trawl Survey of the Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program. Model sensitivity runs incorporated a uniform (0.01,1.5) prior for r or r0 and bycatch data from the shrimp-trawl fishery. All model variants produced similar results and therefore supported the conclusion of low risk of overfishing for the Atlantic Croaker stock in the 2000s. However, the data statistically supported only model 1 and its configuration that included the shrimp-trawl fishery bycatch. The process errors of these models showed slightly positive and significant correlations with MWET, indicating that warmer winters would enhance Atlantic Croaker biomass production. Inconclusive, somewhat conflicting results indicate that biomass dynamic models should not integrate MWET, pending, perhaps, accumulation of longer time series of the variables controlling the production dynamics of Atlantic Croaker, preferably including winter-induced estimates of Atlantic Croaker kills.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-02-14
    Description: Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata) in the mid-Atlantic Bight undertake seasonal cross-shelf movements to occupy inshore rocky reefs and hardbottom habitats between spring and fall. Shelf-wide migrations of this stock are well documented, but movements and home ranges of fish during their inshore residency period have not been described. We tagged 122 Black Sea Bass with acoustic transmitters at a mid-Atlantic reef to estimate home-range size and factors that influence movements (〉400 m) at a 46.1-km2 study site between May and November 2003. Activity of Black Sea Bass was greatest and most consistent during summer but declined rapidly in September as water temperatures at the bottom of the seafloor increased on the inner shelf. Black Sea Bass maintained relatively large home ranges that were fish-size invariant but highly variable (13.7–736.4 ha), underscoring the importance of large sample sizes in examination of population-level characteristics of mobile species with complex social interactions. On the basis of observed variations in movement patterns and the size of home ranges, we postulate the existence of groups of conspecifics that exhibit similar space-use behaviors. The group of males released earlier in the tagging period used larger home ranges than the group of males released later in our study. In addition, mean activity levels and the probability of movement among acoustic stations varied among groups of fish in a complex manner that depended on sex. These differences in movement behaviors may increase the vulnerability of male fish to passive fishing gears, further exacerbating variation in exploitation rates for this species among reefs.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-02-14
    Description: Bycatch and resultant discard mortality are issues of global concern. The groundfish demersal trawl fishery on the west coast of the United States is a multispecies fishery with significant catch of target and nontarget species. These catches are of particular concern in regard to species that have previously been declared overfished and are currently rebuilding biomass back to target levels. To understand these interactions better, we used data from the West Coast Groundfish Observer Program in a series of cluster analyses to evaluate 3 questions: 1) Are there identifiable associations between species caught in the bottom trawl fishery; 2) Do species that are undergoing population rebuilding toward target biomass levels (“rebuilding species”) cluster with targeted species in a consistent way; 3) Are the relationships between rebuilding bycatch species and target species more resolved at particular spatial scales or are relationships spatially consistent across the whole data set? Two strong species clusters emerged—a deepwater slope cluster and a shelf cluster—neither of which included rebuilding species. The likelihood of encountering rebuilding rockfish species is relatively low. To evaluate whether weak clustering of rebuilding rockfish was attributable to their low rate of occurrence, we specified null models of species occurrence. Results indicated that the ability to predict occurrence of rebuilding rockfish when target species were caught was low. Cluster analyses performed at a variety of spatial scales indicated that the most reliable clustering of rebuilding species was at the spatial scale of individual fishing ports. This finding underscores the value of spatially resolved data for fishery management.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-02-26
    Description: Reef fish distributions are patchy in time and space with some coral reef habitats supporting higher densities (i.e., aggregations) of fish than others. Identifying and quantifying fish aggregations (particularly during spawning events) are often top priorities for coastal managers. However, the rapid mapping of these aggregations using conventional survey methods (e.g., non-technical SCUBA diving and remotely operated cameras) are limited by depth, visibility and time. Acoustic sensors (i.e., splitbeam and multibeam echosounders) are not constrained by these same limitations, and were used to concurrently map and quantify the location, density and size of reef fish along with seafloor structure in two, separate locations in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Reef fish aggregations were documented along the shelf edge, an ecologically important ecotone in the region. Fish were grouped into three classes according to body size, and relationships with the benthic seascape were modeled in one area using Boosted Regression Trees. These models were validated in a second area to test their predictive performance in locations where fish have not been mapped. Models predicting the density of large fish (≥29 cm) performed well (i.e., AUC = 0.77). Water depth and standard deviation of depth were the most influential predictors at two spatial scales (100 and 300 m). Models of small (≤11 cm) and medium (12–28 cm) fish performed poorly (i.e., AUC = 0.49 to 0.68) due to the high prevalence (45–79%) of smaller fish in both locations, and the unequal prevalence of smaller fish in the training and validation areas. Integrating acoustic sensors with spatial modeling offers a new and reliable approach to rapidly identify fish aggregations and to predict the density large fish in un-surveyed locations. This integrative approach will help coastal managers to prioritize sites, and focus their limited resources on areas that may be of higher conservation value.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Ecology ; Fisheries ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-12-05
    Keywords: Conservation ; Ecology ; Environment ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book Section , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-05-16
    Description: This is the first in a series of case studies undertaken by the International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF) to document the traditional knowledge of fishing communities dependent on marine and coastal resources in protected and conserved areas in different parts of the world. The study, done with the support of the Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem (BOBLME) project, documents the traditional knowledge of fishing communities in the Gulf of Mannar in the state of Tamil Nadu. It focuses on two fishing villages, Chinnapalam and Bharathi Nagar, whose communities have traditionally depended on Krusadai and Appa Islands for their livelihood. Traditional knowledge relating to oceanographic, meteorological, biological, ecological and navigational aspects of fisheries was documented. The study will be useful for researchers, students, scientists, policymakers, fishworker organizations, NGOs and anyone interested in the traditional knowledge of local fishing communities related to marine biodiversity and the customary use of fisheries resources and fishing practices.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-05-19
    Description: This monograph studies the progress achieved by conservation partners in South Africa on the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Programme Element Two components of governance, participation, equity and benefit sharing, from the perspective of small-scale fishing communities. It explores the strategies and mechanisms used by different authorities to create the conditions whereby local communities can benefit from marine protected areas (MPAs), of which South Africa has gazetted 24, highlighting examples of best practice. The monograph will be useful for researchers, scientists, fishworker organizations, environmentalists and anyone interested in the protection of marine biodiversity and the promotion of sustainable fisheries management.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 11
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    International Collective in Support of Fishworkers
    Publication Date: 2015-05-16
    Description: The fishing community of the Sundarbans are the human group most at home in the mud-slush-water-forest environment of this famous mangrove estuary. Their skills, knowledge, and technique have developed in response to a challenging environment. Yet, of the countless studies on the various aspects of this eco-region, there are exceedingly few that have studied the Sundarbans fisher in his/her ecological, historical and demographic context—as a key stakeholder in an environment under considerable stress. The present study seeks to reduce this lacuna a little. Its object is not merely to examine and analyse, but also to identify means, both tradition-based and innovative, which might contribute to protect the environment, improve economic conditions, and usher in people-based governance of resources.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2016-01-12
    Description: This report on the “Sub-regional Dialogue on Labour, Migration and Fisheries Management”, held at Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, from 11 to 13 December 2013, highlights the issue of migrant labour on board fishing vessels and the problems migrant workers face in their workaday lives. This report will be useful for students, researchers, activists and anyone else interested in matters related to fisheries and small-scale fishing communities.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2015-05-19
    Description: This publication is a report of the proceedings of the ICSF Pondy Workshop, which focused on the FAO’s Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SSF Guidelines). The workshop brought together 71 participants from 20 countries representing civil society organizations, governments, FAO, academia and fishworker organizations from both the marine and inland fisheries sectors. This report will be found useful for fishworker organizations, researchers, policymakers, members of civil society and anyone interested in small-scale fisheries, food security and poverty eradication.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 14
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    International Collective in Support of Fishworkers
    Publication Date: 2015-08-25
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2016-02-01
    Description: In the present study possibility of Malathion biomarker with Genotoxicity and Ecophysiological reactions were determined in Caspian Roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus). At fist LC50 value of Malathion, an organophosphate insecticide was determined. Then four groups of experimental fish (containing 30 fish in each group) were exposed to different concentrations of Malathion. e. 0, 0.01, 0.05 and 0/1 ppm respectively for 23 days and effects of Malathion on Hematological (RBC, WBC, Hb and Hct) and biochemical parameters (Glucose, triglyceride, urea, total protein and Albumin), some enzymes (SGPT, SGOT and ALP), Cortisol level, plasma cations (Na+ and K+) , histological changes (gill and liver) and finally DNA destruction were examined. Sampling was done in 3rd, 13th, 23rd days during exposure and also 30 days after recovery. Data analysis was done by SPSS (Ver.13) and graphs were drawn by Excel 2007. Results showed that WBC, RBC, Hb, Hct, some biochemical parameters and K+ of Mallation treatments were decreased significantly in compare to control group (P〈0.05). Changes in enzyme were many different. No significant changes were observed in Na+ and cortisol levels (except in groups treated with 0.01 Mallation) (P〉0.05). LC50 value of Malathion in Caspian Roach was 6.5 ppm. Histological examinations showed that Mallation cause tissue damages and there were more damages in longer times and in higher concentrations. Apoptotic cell and comet were observed as DNA destruction and they were more in treatments with higher Mallation concentrations for longer times.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries ; Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: This report describes the process and details of developing an interactive online database portal for the BOBLME region.The MPA (Marine Protected Area) Atlas website, created by WorldFish was designed to provide public access to the latest information relevant to marine scientists, managers and conservationists. The main features include; BOBLME MPA database;interactive geospatial maps;and information about important habitats such as coral reefs,BOBLME boundaries and bathymetry.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Fisheries ; Information Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: Nile perch (Lates niloticus), tilapia (Oreochromis spp), dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea, silver cyprinid), and haplochromines (Tribe Haplochromini) form the backbone of the commercial fishery on Lake Victoria. These fish stocks account for about 70% of the total catch in the three riparian states Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. The lake fisheries have been poorly managed, in part due to inadequate scientific analysis and management advice. The overall objective of this project was to model the stocks of the commercial fisheries of Lake Victoria with the view of determining reference points and current stock status. The Schaefer biomass model was fitted to available data for each stock (starting in the 1960s or later) in the form of landings, catch per unit effort, acoustic survey indices, and trawl survey indices. In most cases, the Schaefer model did not fit all data components very well, but attempts were made to find the best model for each stock. When the model was fitted to the Nile perch data starting from 1996, the estimated current biomass is 654 kt (95% CI 466–763); below the optimum of 692 kt and current harvest rate is 38% (33–73%), close to the optimum of 35%. At best, these can be used as tentative guidelines for the management of these fisheries. The results indicate that there have been strong multispecies interactions in the lake ecosystem. The findings from our study can be used as a baseline reference for future studies using more complex models, which could take these multispecies interactions into account.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2015-05-20
    Description: Small-scale and artisanal fisheries contribute about two-thirds of the global fish production destined for direct human consumption. They also accommodate over 90 per cent of those who make their living from fisheries. Women comprise at least half the workforce in small-scale fisheries. Despite the important contributions made by small-scale fisheries to poverty eradication and food security, small-scale fishers and fishworkers continue to be marginalized at different levels. It is in this context that the Committee on Fisheries (COFI) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has developed the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SSF Guidelines).
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 19
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    International Collective in Support of Fishworkers
    Publication Date: 2015-09-24
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-02-01
    Description: Phylogenetic relationships among all described species (total of 12 taxa) of the decapoda, were examined with nucleotide sequence data from portions of mitochondrial gene and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). The previous works on phylogeny proved that the mitochondrial COI gene in crustacean is a good discriminative marker at both inter- and intra-specific levels. We provide COI barcode sequences of commertial decapoda of Oman Sea, Persian Gulf, Iran. Industrial activities, ecologic considerations, and goals of the decapoda Barcode of Life campaign make it crucial that species of the south costal be identified. The reconstruction of evolut phylogeny of these species are crucial for revealing stock identity that can be used for the management of fisheries industries in Iran. Mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Penaeus species of marine shrimp. For this purpose, DNA was extracted using phenol- chloroform well as CTAB method. The evolutionary relationships among 12 species of the decapoda were examined using 610 bp of mitochondrial (mt) DNA from the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Finally the cladograms were compared and the resulted phylogenetic trees confirmed that the Iran's species origin is Indo-west pacific species. Iran's species, which were not grouped with the other decapoda taxa seem to always form a sister clade with Indo-west pacific species with strong bootstrap support 100%. The result completely agrees with the previously defined species using morphological characters.However, we still lack any comprehensive and clear understanding of phylogenetic relationships in this group.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2016-02-01
    Description: This study was done in Shahid Kiani Marine Aquaculture Development Center, Choebde, Abadan in order to evaluate the effects of Pediiococcus acidilactici, Lactococcus lactis and vitamin C on growth performance, survival, enzymatic activities and immune responses of L. vannamei during three months. Treatments were included control group, Pediiococcus and Lactococcus treatments which fed with diet containing 1×10P9P cfu gP_1P bacteria and vitamin C. At the end of the experiment, the growth factors, immune parameters, digestive enzymes, intestinal, histology of intestine, carcasses and microbial flora (bacterial total count and lactic acid count) were evaluated. The results indicated that administration of lactobacillus had significant effects on the growth factors as the highest weight, increase specific growth rate, relative growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency in the shrimps received pediococcus and then Lactococcus (P〈0.05). The best immune function was also observed in the shrimps fed by probiotics, so that proteins and hemoglobin̛ hemolymph, phenoloxidase activity and challenged with V. parahaemolyticus showed a statistical difference comparing to the control group and the group received vitamin C (P〈0.05). Some digestive enzymes, in pediococcus treatment showed a significant increase when compared to other treatments (P〈0.05). Significant changes in bacterial intestinal flora were observed in probiotic groups compared with control and vitamin C groups (P 〈 0.05). Histological results showed the positive effects of probiotics in the gut (P 〈 0.05). While these supplements cannot caused to significant impacts on the shrimp carcass composition (P ˃ 0.05). As a result pediococcus group had the best performance among treatments.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2015-12-10
    Description: Black mouth croaker (Atrobucca nibe) is considered as a new valuable fish stock in the Oman Sea. In this study, surimi was manufactured from nonmarket size of the fish, manually and different cryoprotectant agents were added to the surimi. Finally changes in physiochemical, microbiological and sensory quality, characteristics of the surimi and kamaboko gel samples were assessed during 6 months at freezing storage (-18ºC). Surimi samples with the addition of Iranian tragacanth gum (TG), xanthan gum (XG), chitosan (CS) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) at 1% (w/w) were prepared to evaluate their impacts as a cryoprotectant on the surimi, individually. The results showed that the whiteness and lightness indexes in all surimi samples were gradually decreased during frozen storage. This trend of decreasing was more intensity in the control sample from 61.08±0.131 to 54.21±0.067 was recorded (p〈0.05). Water holding capacity (WHC) in all treatments was decreased during 6 months. The lowest WHC (g/g) was obtained in the surimi without cryoprotectants and maximum WHC was measured in Tcs and Twpc samples, respectively (p〈0.05). The lowest breaking force was calculated in Txg (166.00±22.627 g) and Tc (271.50±263.16 g) during 6 months at frozen storage, respectively (p〈0.05), while Twpc treatment with slight variations showed the highest breaking force (p〈0.05). Also, the lowest gel strength was obtained in Txg (68.22±6.740 g.cm) after 6 month of frozen storage (p〈0.05). All Kamaboko surimi gels texture profile analysis parameters decreaced with increasing shelf life. This decreasing trend in the control sample was more severe. Floding results were reduced in all samples during storage (p〈0.05). The best protective results probably were obtained in WPC, chitosan and commercial cryoprotectant agents, respectively due to protein stabilization of myofibrillar proteins and the protein-protein network structure, leading to the formation of surimi gel with strong textural properties during frozen conditions. The average number of surimi polygonal structures were significantly decreased (number per mm2) and their area were significantly increased (μm2) in all treatments (p〈0.05). With increasing storage time, moisture, protein contents and pH were decreaced. Maximun TVB-N index was calculated in Tc (7.93±0.400 mg/100g) and Txg (7.88±0.477), respectively (p〈0.05). TBRAs index was increased in all treatments during frozen storage, while this trend was reached in maximum value in Tc (p〈0.05). Sensory evaluation of the fish finger quality characteristics (color, odor, texture and overall acceptability) preapare from frozen black mouth croaker surimi was decreaced during 6 month frozen storage. After the period of frozen storage the highest quality scores were measured in Twpc, Tcs and Tcc samples, respectively (p〈0.05). In this study, coliform bacteria were not found in all treatments during frozen storage. The surimi sample containing chitosan showed lower mesophilic and psychrotropic bacteria (log cfu/g) than other treatments during frozen storage (p〈0.05). Salt-soluble proteins extractions of all treatments were decreased during frozen storage. This decreacing trend was highest in Tcs (45.74±0.176%) and lowest in Tc treatments after 6 month of frozen storage (29.92±0.224%) (p〈0.05). Although commercial cryoprotectant agents were successful in limiting the denaturation of proteins but sugar contents were not accepted for diabetics or those who disagree with the sweet taste and high calorie food. Hence, commercial cryoprotectant agents can be replaced with whey protein concentrate and chitosan at 1% level (w/w) consider that they were showed proper protection of the surimi myofibrillar proteins during storage.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 23
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    Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem Project (BOBLME)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: The Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI) sampled length frequency data, reviewed historical catch and effort data and sampled water quality to asses the status of hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) resources. BFRI conducted a training course for BOBLME members. They also prepared awareness building materials for use in workshops for hilsa fishers.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: Participants were exposed to concepts and information about EAFM using a structured, participatory method of delivery. The learning strategy involved specifically designed exercises, using real examples, to consolidate learning. Daily monitoring and reviews were conducted together with pre-and post-course assessment.
    Keywords: Education ; Fisheries ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: The objectives of the workshop were to review and update Marine Protected Area (MPA) data, finalise policy briefs for each country and recommend future actions and policies for sustainable management of MPAs.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Fisheries ; Management ; Policies
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-05-21
    Description: Intensification of aquaculture production in Uganda is likely to result into disease out-breaks leading to economic losses to commercial fish farms and associated natural aquatic ecosystems. This survey assessed health profiles of selected commercial fish farms and adjacent natural aquatic ecosystemsto identify fish diseases and parasites affecting Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in aquaculture systems in Uganda. Fish farms encounter disease out-breaks that cause low survival rates (0 - 30%), especially catfish hatcheries. Health management issues are not well understood by fish farmers, with some unable to detect diseased fish. Current control strategies to control aquatic pathogens include use of chemotherapeutants and antibiotics. Bacterial pathogens isolated included Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas sp., Edwardsiella sp., Psuedomonus sp., Steptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Proteus sp., and Vibrio sp. A high occurrence of Flavobacterium columnare exists in both asymptomatic and symptomatic fish was observed. Parasites included protozoans (Ichthyopthirius multiphilis, Trichodina sp. and Icthyobodo sp.) and trematodes (Cleidodiscus sp. and Gyrodactylus sp.). Diagnosis and control of diseases and parasites in aquaculture production systems requires adoption of a regional comprehensive biosecurity strategy: the East African (EAC) region unto which this study directly contributes.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Fisheries
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: Since 2005, harmonized catch assessment surveys (CASs) have been implemented on Lake Victoria in the three riparian countries Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania to monitor the commercial fish stocks and provide their management advice. The regionally harmonized standard operating procedures for CASs have not been wholly followed due to logistical difficulties. Yet the new approaches adopted have not been documented. This study investigated the alternative approaches used to estimate fish catches on the lake with the aim of determining the most reliable one for providing management advice and also the effect of current sampling routine on the precision of catch estimates provided. The study found the currently used lake-wide approach less reliable and more biased in providing catch estimates compared to the district based approach. Noticeable differences were detected in catch estimates between different months of the year. The study recommends future analyses of CAS data collected on the lake to follow the district based approach. Future CASs should also consider seasonal variations in the sampling design by providing for replication of sampling. The SOPs need updating to document the procedures that deviate from the original sampling design.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2017-11-07
    Description: Background: Emergence of antimicrobial resistance toward a number of conventional antibiotics has triggered the search for antimicrobial agents from a variety of sources including the marine environment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Holothuria leucospilota from Qeshm and Kharg Islands against some selected bacteria and fungi. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, sea cucumbers from two coastal cities of Persian Gulf were collected in March and May 2011 and identified by the scale method according to the food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. Antibacterial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of the body wall, cuvierian organs and coelomic fluid, methanol, chloroform, and n-hexane extracts of the body wall were evaluated by the spot test. In addition, their antifungal activity was assessed by the broth dilution method. Results: The displayed effect was microbiostatic at concentrations of 1000 and 2000 µg/mL rather than microbicidal. The highest activity of hydroalcoholic extracts was exhibited by body wall, cuvierian organs and coelomic fluid against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. brasilensis. However, none of the methanol, chloroform and n-haxane extracts showed appreciable effects against Shigella dysenteriae, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, S. epidermidis and Candida albicans. Moreover, cuvierian organs did not possess any antifungal potential.Conclusions: Our data indicated that water-methanol extracts from the body wall of H. leucospilota possess antibacterial and antifungal activity. However, additional and in-depth studies are required to isolate and identify the active component(s).
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2017-11-30
    Description: Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus is a native, commercially important and highly steemed fish species in the Caspian Sea. In this study, effects of Nodularin (NODLN), a cyclic pentapeptide hepatotoxin, on liver and gill tissues of A. persicus were studied. Nodularin was produced in high amounts by Nodularia spumigena, a cyanobacterium species during the algal bloom in the Caspian Sea and was accumulated in biota of the Sea. Persian sturgeon were exposed directly to NODLN as prolonged immersion containing N. spumigena in two different doses (1×104 and 1× 108 cells.ml-1) for 24, 48 and 96 hours to examine its histopathological effects on fish liver and gill. Histopathological examinations revealed loss of liver architecture, degeneration of hepatocytes, nuclear pyknosis, karyolysis and finally necrosis of the cells over the time. Observation of gill tissues following immersion in algal cells treatments showed hypertrophy, fusion of secondary lamellae due to proliferation (hyperplasia) of branchial epithelium in low dose and vacuolization of epithelial and pilar cells, tellangiectasis, fusion of secondary and primary lamellae, complete necrosis and sloughing of secondary lamellar epithelium in high dose.
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry ; Environment ; Fisheries ; Pollution
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2017-11-28
    Description: In sturgeon aquaculture, where the main purpose is caviar production, a reliable method is needed to separate fish according to gender. Currently, due to the lack of external sexual dimorphism, the fish are sexed by an invasive surgical examination of the gonads. Development of a non-invasive procedure for sexing fish based on genetic markers is of special interest. In the present study we employed Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA) methodology to search for DNA markers associated with the sex of the beluga sturgeon (Huso huso). DNA bulks (male and female) were created by combining equal amounts of genomic DNA from 10 fish of both sexes. A total of 101 decamer primers associated with the sex-specific sequences in non-sturgeon species was used for targeted screening of the bulks, resulting in 2846 bands that all of them were present in both sexes. Our results showed that sex chromosomes are weakly differentiated in the sturgeon genome and comprised sequences not complementary to the sex-specific primers in non-sturgeon species.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2018-01-21
    Description: The fish larvae identification survey was carried out in Iranian waters of Oman Sea from Hormuz strait to Gwader Bay in 2009 at pre and post monsoon periods. Sampling was done by plankton net with 300 μ mesh size. Totally, 168 specimens were collected that belong to the three genera; Benthosema، Diaphus and Lampadena. Two species named Benthosema pterotum, B.fibulatum were identified. B.pterotum has pigment on the tip of the lower jaw and snout whereas B .fibulatum lacks these discriminative characters. Two genera Diaphus and Lampadena have a row of melanophores in post-anal region ventrally which discriminate them from Benthosema. Diaphus is separated from Lampadena with a small melanophore at the hypural.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-01-21
    Description: The survey of fish larvae assemblage variation was done in 2013 seasonally at the coastal areas of Southeastern side of Chabahar Bay. Sampling was done in 3 stations at day and night periods by a Bongo-Net with 300µ of mesh size. 29 families were identified. Clupeidae, Gobiidae and Blenniidae were dominant with more than 50% relative abundance. The PCA result was shown there were two separated groups among day and night fish larval assemblages. Blenniidae ،Scombridae and Clupeidae in day times, Clupeidae ،Gobiidae and Sparidae in night times were more dominant among different families. Station 1 had more fish larvae abundance in autumn in nights and days (54.77 and 79.67 larvae per 10 meter). The average of Shannon index was (0.54 ±0.88 and 0.63± 0.97) in days and nights respectively.Significant increase of larval abundance at station 3 in nights could be due to reduced vessel traffic.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Description: The speciemns of red algae “Gracilaria corticata” were collected from the rocky intertidal shores in Bostaneh Port in the Persian Gulf and Lipar in Oman Sea in May, June and August 2013. Anatomical, morphological structures, thallus of vegetative and reproductive samples were studied. Carpogonial and tetrasporangium stages were determined based on histological and morphological methods. The female thallus, the Cystocarp with hemispherical structure through out thallus were observed. The Spermatangial conceptacle was located deeper as the oval shape in male thallus. The tetrasporophytic stage of diploid samples was determined by the presence of tetrasporangium oval shape.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2018-01-21
    Description: Caspian Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum, Kamensky 1901) is among the main commercial species in the Caspian Sea. The present study aimed to determine the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of Kutum in depth ranges of 10 to 100 m by bottom trawl net in Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea during 2008 to 2010. The results showed that the maximum catch and CPUE were 2903 kg and 57.08 kg/0.5 h in winter 2009. The minimum catch and CPUE were 79 kg and 1.41 kg/0.5 h in spring 2010. During the warm seasons (spring and summer) most Kutums occurred in depths less than 20 m. While, during cold seasons they occurred at all depths. The average (±SE) CPUE was 94.0 ± 78.53 kg/0.5 h in depths 20-50 m in autumn and 128.3 ± 77.64 kg/0.5 h in depths 〉50 m in winter.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-01-21
    Description: The goal of this study was to analyse the population genetic structure of the Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) between South Caspian Sea and Sefidrud River with mtDNA control region (Dloop gene) and DNA sequencing method during 2010 – 2012 sturgeon stock assessment project. Fish speciemns were collected by bottom trawl net. Extraction of DNA, PCR and DNA sequencing were carried out. Diversity index, the gamma distribution shape parameter for the rate heterogeneity among sites and nucleotide sequence, Fst index, exact test, the historical demographic pattern using neutrality tests and mismatch distribution analysis (D test of Tajima and Fs test of Fu) were analysed. Thirteen haplotypes were obtained, average (±SD) for haplotype diversity was 0.961 ± 0.101, nucleotide diversity was 0.038 ± 0.015, the gamma distribution shape parameter was 0.19, Fst index revealed little genetic structure between populations and the significant Fst value was seen by 10000 permutation only between Sefidrud River and Other Areas (P≤ 0.05) and was confirmed by exact test of population differentiation. Mismatch distribution for Acipenser persicus appeared to be unimodal, which closely matched the expected distributions under the sudden expansion model and supported by the low Harpending’s Raggedness index (0.061). Tajima’s D and Fu’s Fs statistics were -0.84 and - 0.220, respectively, and was not significant. The results of this study showed that the population of Acipenser persicus in Sefidrud River were genetically differentiated from South Caspian Sea and three other areas represented a single panmictic populations. Therefore, fisheries managements of this valuable species should be directed towards conservation of gene pools and increasing different populations.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: In this study, sperm characteristics (motility parameters and ionic composition of seminal plasma) and effect of ions on motility (duration of motility of sperm and percentage of motile spermatozoa) and fertilization capacity (fertilization rate, hatching rate, survival rate and larvae length) were investigated in Ctenopharyngdon idella. The longest duration of motility obtained in solution containing 104 mM NaCl. The highest fertilization capacity was observed in solution containing 112 mML NaCl. Solutions containing different concentrations of KCl caused a decrease on the percentage of motile spermatozoa fertilization rate and hatching rate, but duration of sperm motility and survival rate were significantly higher in solution containing 440 and 320 mM KCl, respectively. There was a decreasing trend on motility when spermatozoa incubated in solutions containing MgCl2 compared to the control. Similarly, higher motility parameters in terms of percentage of motile spermatozoa and duration of sperm motility were observed in distilled water. The sperm motility just after activation was suppressed by concentrations of CaCl2 of 32 mg/dL or more. The maximum hatching rate, survival rate and larvae length were observed in 32 mg/dL CaCl2. Understanding the effects of these ions is helpful to the aquaculture industry as it allows for the development of optimal artificial reproduction methods and contributes towards the knowledge base of better short-term fish semen preservation conditions.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: Current microbial methodologies to determine fish quality are laborious and have long time required to obtain results. The impediometric technique as a rapid sensitive method was used to determine the correlation between impedance detection times (IDTs) and conventional reference psychrophilic and mesophilic plate counts of fish in order to develop models for predicting the microbial quality and determining fish shelf-life. The changes in sensorial factors, psychrophilic and mesophilic bacterial loads of ice stored fresh silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) were measured by two different methods including conventional reference plating techniques and also impediometric monitoring method at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24 and 27 days of storage. The primary psychrophilic (3.44 ± 0.69 logCFU/g) and mesophilic (3.64 ± 1.08 logCFU/g) bacterial loads increased to more than acceptable limit (6 logCFU/g) on days 12 and 21, respectively. The calibration curves for the two methods and their equations were designed with linear regression models. IDTs were highly correlated with psychrophilic (r=-0.9614) and mesophilic (r=-0.9547) bacterial loads. This study suggests that impediometric technique can be used as a rapid and reliable method to accurate estimation of silver pomfret bacterial loads and determine its shelf-life as seafood. According to results, the sensorial data were correlated with psychrophic bacterial load. The shelf-life of ice stored silver pomfret determined 9-12 days based on sensorial data and psychrophic bacterial load.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogen that causes high mortality in shrimp culture in the whole world. Sequence analysis of WSSV has shown similarity of WSSV isolates in different countries with exception of a few variable genomic loci. This study investigated the sequence variation of some Iranian WSSV isolates and previously identified isolates. Samples were collected during target surveillance and were feed, broodstock, post-larvae, artemia, crabs, and wild and cultured shrimp of northern Persian Gulf (Boushehr and Khuzestan provinces). The open reading frame (ORF) 94 sequence of different Iranian WSSV isolates were amplified using specific primers from positive samples. The ORFs 94 sequence of positive samples were sequenced and registered in the Gene Bank and then compared to other WSSV isolates. The number of repeat units in ORF94 showed that WSSV isolates were varied in number. There are SNPs (G and T) in position 48 of RUs that varies in different Boushehr and Khuzestan isolates. Also these sequences were compared to Gene Bank WSSV isolates and showed a high similarity (〉90%) to Southeast Asian countries. To our knowledge this is the first report of sequence analysis in Iranian WSSV isolates applications.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: Food costs in rainbow trout farms are about 50% of production costs (Barrows et al., 2007). Because of inattention of most aquaculturists in exact calculation of FCR and not using qualified food, sometimes food costs will rise a lot and won't be economical. The newest method for fish food production is production during the process of extrusion. Extrusion process is processing materials with high temperature in a short time (HTST) and is done by combined operation of humidity, heat, mechanical energy and pressure (Watanabe and Pongmaneerat, 1993).
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Fisheries
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: Acipenser stellatus is one of the most invaluable species of Sturgeon fishes in the world. The purpose of this study was to identify the resident microbial community from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of Acipenser stellatus. One hundred and twenty three fungi were isolated from the GIT of 7 Acipenser stellatus samples including Aspergillus spp (45.5%), Trichoderma spp (8.9%) and Cladophialophora spp (8.1%). Among different Aspergillus isolates, A. niger was the predominant species. Although, fungi were predominantly isolated from stomach (36.6%), but with respect to frequency of fungal isolates there were no significant differences between stomach and other parts of GI. In general, the bacterial isolates recovered were mostly gram negative and related to Enterobacteriaceae family such as Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Salmonella species. The most bacterial species were isolated from intestine and pre stomach region (88.2%). It is concluded that A. niger and Aeromonas species were predominant fugal and bacterial microbes isolated from understudy fish GIT, respectively.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: Monthly samples of six fish farms from January 2010 to December 2010 in the northern Iran, Haraz River, were used to determine relationship between chemical parameters of main water, inlet and outlet and their effects on fish growth and production. Results revealed that concentration of nutrients in outlet was more than that of inlet of farms, and statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences between stations (p〈0.05). The amount of phosphate in upstream farms was lower than that of downstream. There was statistically significant difference between nitrite nitrates, concentrations in different months. Total sulphide, phosphate and ammonium in inlets were 0.002±0.009 (mg/l), 0.215±0.113 (mg/l) and 0.022±0.018 (mg/l) respectively. In outlets there was 0.003±0.009 mg/l sulphide, 0.302±0.193 mg/l phosphate and 0.037±0.026 mg/l ammonium. Ammonium concentration, showed no significant difference (p〉0.05) in different months. Correlation between daily growth, SGR, FCR, production and chemical parameters of water were analyzed by Pearson correlation. The results revealed negative correlation (α= 0.01) between nitrite and daily growth (P=0.004, Pearson correlation=-0.24), ammonium and SGR (P=0.0001, Pearson correlation=-0.272), although there were no correlation for FCR, and nutritional parameters (p〉0.05).
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Fisheries
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: Three different varieties of cottonseed meal (CSM) were evaluated to measure the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of the nutrients using chromic oxide (Cr2O3) as an indigestible marker. Five experimental diets were prepared and mixed with 1% of Cr2O3, 2% of mineral and vitamin each of which were premixed. Diet 1 was used as the control diet. Diets 2, 3, 4 and 5 were formulated using 70% of the control diet together with 30% of each of the cottonseed meal Pak (CSMP), cottonseed meal Sahel (CSMS), cottonseed meal Akra (CSMA), and soya bean meal (SBM), respectively, in three replications. The ADC of the three CSM varieties was measured to be 53.8-62.7%, 60.2-66.6% and 75.6-82.4% for dry matter, fat and crude protein, respectively. Survival rate for all fishes used in this study was more than 98%. Fishes fed with the CSM diets were not significantly different compared with those fed with the SBM diet in terms of survival rate (p〉0.05). Apparent protein digestibility of CSMP and CSMS showed no significant difference with SBM (p〉0.05). Therefore, it could be concluded that two kinds of CSM could be used as a replacement for SBM in rainbow trout as a protein source.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: This study focuses on Anguilliformes specimens revising which collected during 2006-08 in some Iranian museums. For this study, all museum samples from Iranian coastal waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea were investigated. The results indicated that species diversity in the Iranian waters can be classified into six families of Anguilliformes (eels and morays fishes). A total of 11 species - consisting of six families have been identified, of these the highest species diversity belongs to the Muraenidae with five genus and eight species. Also, there were two endemic species Muraenesox cinereus (Muraenesocidae) and Gymnothorax undulatus (Muraenidae). More than ten rare species were the first report and record from Iranian territorial waters. There are Ichthyapus acuticeps, Synaphobranchus affinis, Strophidon sathete, Rhinomuraena quaesita, Gymnothorax johnsoni, G. kidako, Muraenesox bagio, Pseudoxenomystax albescens, Muraenesox talabonoides, and Conger cinereus cinereus.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-05-19
    Description: This study investigated the effects of mate switching on the reproductive performance of the severum cichlid, Heros severus, by advancing the egg and larval production in hatcheries. Two reproductive tactic treatments of “monogamous pair” and “mate switching” were used for evaluating 4 reproductive traits of egg production, hatching rate, spawning intervals, and starvation tolerance of the larvae in 6 spawning activities. The number of eggs was not significantly different between the two reproductive tactic treatments in the 6 spawning activities, but the spawning intervals, hatching rate, and survival activity index were all significantly different. Daily average egg and larval production in the mate switching treatment were estimated to be 87.3 eggs and 43.1 larvae per pair of fish, respectively, which was 2.89 times and 1.99 times of those in the monogamous pair treatment, who produced about 30.2 eggs and 21.6 larvae per pair. Our results clearly showed that the reproductive tactic of mate switching is a suitable method for increasing the egg and larval production rate of the severum cichlid.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Description: Stock assessment of sardine and anchovy fishes in Persian Gulf and Oman Sea (Hormuzgan province) using fish population dynamics parameters and stock assessments models were carried out to estimate maximum sustainable yield (MSY) from 2010-2012. Results of 16 years (1996-2012) fisheries data analysis showed the mean of CPUE (catch/shooting) were calculated for Gill nets, Beach siene and Purse siene as 134, 988 and 2338 kg/shooting respectively. Relationships of catch and effort were determined for Qeshm area (R2=0.94) , Bandar Lengeh area (R2=0.51) and Jask area (R2=0.73) as a polynominal increasing model. Population dynamics parameters using monthly length frequency of 10540 sardine and 8232 anchovy by FiSAT II from Persian Gulf (Qeshm-Bandar Lengeh) and Oman Sea (Jask) fishing areas. Growth parameters K and L_∞ of sadine (Sardinell sindensis) were estimated 1.18 y^-1 and 19.1 cm in Persian Gulf and 1.11 y^-1 and 19.1 cm in Oman Sea, and also for anchovy (Encrasicholina punctifer) were estimated 1.20 y^-1 and 9.2 cm in Persian Gulf and 1.18 y^-1 and 9.3 cm in Oman Sea. Anually, 5 cohorts for sardine and 2 cohorts for anchovy were estimated using Bhattacharya method in Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. Natural mortality (M) and fishing mortality (F) were estimated for this species, and exploitation rate of sardine were calculated as 0.58 and 0.44, and exploitation rate of anchovy were 0.54 and 0.34 in Persian Gulf and Oman Sea respectively. Length of catch (LC) were calculated 11 cm and 12 cm, and for anchovy 6.8 cm and 6.6 cm in Persian Gulf and Oman Sea respectively. Length–weight relationships of sardine and anchovy were calculated as isometric growth. Results of this study showed that populations of sardine and anchovy in Qeshm and Bandar Lengeh area are a single-unite stock, no enough evidence for discrimination of sardine and anchovy populations in Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. The mean anuall biomass of sardine and anchovy were estimated using Thompson and Bell model 190000 tones in Hormuzgan province. Maximum sustainable (MSY) of sardine and anchovy were estimated between 59721 and 98309 tones in this area. MSY of sardine were calculated 15222 and 3182 ton and MSY of anchovy were 36237 ton and 5080 ton, for minimum of estimated MSY in Persian Gulf (Bandar Lenghe-Qeshm) and Oman Sea (Jask) respectively. Using yield per recruit of Beverton and Holt model , F0.1 were estimated averagely 1.75 for sardine and anchovy in Hormuzgan province and its showed the underfishing condition. Survey of catch and efforts trend in sardine and anchovy, defined development phase of small pelagic fisheries in Hormuzgan province.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2016-08-17
    Description: The fermented product from small rock oyster (Sacosstrea sp.) locally known, 'Sisi' is an essential source of livelihood in Zumarraga, Samar. Key informant interviews, ocular observation and focus group discussion (FGD) were conducted to find out the traditional practices used in producing 'Sisi'. Salient findings showed that non-standardized processing of Sisi was practiced, thus limiting the revenues derived from this marginalized industry. Furthermore, 'Sisi' has high ash content with high microbial count which indicates that there are some colonies that grow in the mixture. Hence, there is a need to standardize the methods applied in producing fermented small rock oyster 'Sisi'.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Fisheries ; Sociology
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2017-11-28
    Description: The big eye kilka, Clupeonella grimmi, is a marine fish living in depth of 20 to 200 meter of the Caspian Sea. Its eye and retina were processed for histological and SEM studies. Paraffin embedded retina was cut radially and tangentially in 5 µm thickness and stained with hematoxylin and eosin method. The unstained sections were manipulated for SEM image observations. Tangential retinal sections showed irregular arrangement of cones. Five morphologically different types of photoreceptors were distinguished as rods, short single cones, long single cones, twin cones and double cones. The cones were counted in each quadrant of the retina and cone density was determined. The cones showed increment in diameter but reduction in number at anti-clockwise direction without any specific arrangement. Presence of four types of cone cells and their pattern of distribution revealed assistance in near surface color vision and more light capture in dim light of deeper waters as an adaptation to planktivorous feeding habit and deep water living habitat.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2017-11-28
    Description: The research was accomplished in order to study behavioral and histopathological effects of Copper on Rutilus rutilus caspicus under experimental condition. The study was performed using Water Static Method during 96 hours. 15 fish with averaged weight 2±0.5 g in weight were encountered to different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 mg/l) of Copper. A group of fish was considered as control. Under stable condition and aeration, the lethal concentration was 0.4 mg/l. Results indicated that there was significant differences between treatments when copper concentration increased (p〈0.05). It was found that in the high concentration of Copper nominal signs of toxicity such as convulsion, air gulping and flared operculum were observed. Histopathological sings were hyperplasia, edema, hyperemia, hemorrhage, expansion of Bowman’s capsule and hepatocytes necrosis. In control group no lesion was observed.
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry ; Fisheries
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2017-11-28
    Description: The genetic structure of the genus Alburnus is not well known and the phylogenetic relationships among its species are uncertain. In the present study, simple sequence repeats (SSRs or microsatellites) were used to evaluate genetic diversity and genetic differentiation between Alburnus mossulensis Heckel, 1843 from Kashgan River in Lorestan province and A. caeruleus Heckel, 1843 from Gamasiab River in Kermanshah province. Thirty specimens from each species were collected and their genomic DNA was extracted. Polymerase chain reaction was performed using four pairs of SSR markers, including CypG24, BL1-2b, BL1-98 and Rser10, from which a total of 480 bands were amplified. The average observed and expected heterozygosities for both species were similar. In both species, except for Rser10 locus, all loci deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P 〈0.05). Average genetic distance and Fst values between the two species were 0.361 and 0.04, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed more interspecific (94%) than intraspecific (4%) genetic variation. Although four sets of SSR markers developed for other cyprinids showed high level of polymorphisms in the Iranian bleaks, they showed low genetic differentiation between them. Study on the possibility of genetic differentiation of the examined species by more microsatellite loci or other molecular markers such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) are recommended.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2017-11-30
    Description: Toxicity tests are commonly used as a tool to determine the standards of water quality for chemicals and to discover appropriate organisms as bioindicators in toxicological studies, and also could be used as an essential tool for evaluation of the pollutant effects in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity of two Caspian fish species, Caspian trout as an endangered species and Caspian Kutum using the static acute toxicity in response to nonylphenol, which is widely discharged into the Caspian Sea environment. The fish were exposed to various concentrations of nonylphenol for 96 hours to determine the LC50. The experimental nonylphenol concentrations were consisted of five exposure groups for each species: 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 µg/l for Caspian trout; 400, 800, 1200, 1600 and 2000 µg/l for Caspian Kutum, with a control group for each of them. Using probit analysis, the 96 h LC50 of nonylphenol to Caspian trout and Caspian Kutumwas determined to be 204.78 and 1262.36 µg/l, respectively. In addition, Caspian trout was approximately 6 times more sensitive than Caspian Kutum. Nonylphenol was reflected to be "highly toxic" to Caspian trout and "moderately toxic" to Caspian Kutum. The results could be considered in preparing plans for conservation and restocking management of Caspian Kutum and the endangered Caspian trout.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2017-11-28
    Description: This study was conducted in order to investigate genetic diversity and population structure of pike perch in the Northern part of Iran. For this purpose, 207 adult pike-perches from four regions of the Caspian Sea watershed (Talesh Coasts, Anzali Wetland, Chaboksar Coasts and Aras Dam) were collected. DNA was extracted and by using 15 pairs of microsatellite primers, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was conducted. DNA bands were analyzed using Biocapt and GenAlex 6 software package. Out of 15 microsatellite primers, 11 loci were produced, of those, 6 loci were polymorphic and 5 were monomorphic. Analysis revealed that the average number of alleles per locus and observed heterozygosities were not statistically significant (P〉0.05) for all four populations. Data indicated an appreciable genetic differentiation, in spite of a low genetic variation, and agreed with the low level of genetic polymorphism already observed for this species in Iran. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was obvious in most cases, mostly due to the deficiency of heterozygosities. The highest genetic distance was between Anzali Wetland and Aras Dam populations. This investigation represents the first approach to the knowledge of the genetic variability of Iranian populations using microsatellite markers, and reported results could be of interest for future management and conservation programs of this species in Iran.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2017-11-30
    Description: In this study, the effect of short-terms starvation (0, 2, 4 and 8 days) on plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levels and also hepatosomatic index in Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii, was investigated. After acclimation to experimental conditions for 10 days using formulated diet, 180 juvenile Siberian sturgeons (mean weight ± S.E.=19.3±0.4, n=15) were randomly distributed among twelve circular, 500l, fiber glass holding tanks with a flow-through system. In this study, control fish (C) were fed with formulated diet to apparent satiation four times daily throughout the experiment. The other three groups were deprived from feed for 2 (T1), 4 (T2) and 8 (T3) days, respectively. Blood samples were taken at the end of the starvation periods for biochemical analyses. Plasma cortisol, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were not significantly different between control and starved fish at the end of the food deprivation periods, but plasma glucose levels were significantly lower in the starved groups, compared to the control fish. HSI index significantly decreased in all starvation groups, except T1, in comparison to the control. The results suggest that energy reserves mobilization during starvation in Siberian sturgeon may be achieved without the involvement of cortisol. Moreover, in this species there are clear indications of metabolic adjustment ability to short periods of food deprivation.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: The widespread uses of antibiotics have been resulted in resistant strains of microorganisms and increasing of worldwide antibiotic resistance. Thus the investigations on new natural antibacterial agents as new drugs are important. According to the previous researches, some multicellular marine algae have significant antibacterial properties. In the present study, antibacterial effects of organic and aqueous extracts of Sargassum glaucescens (collected from Chabahar’s coast, Oman Sea, Iran) were tested on three strains of Gram-negative bacteria: E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, Vibrio cholerae and two strains of Gram-positive bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Extractions were obtained by immersion method after 48 hours. Antibacterial effects were investigated by the disk diffusion method and serial dilutions in tube to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The ethanolic extract showed the largest impact on the L. monocytogenes with significant difference than that by the neomycin. Yet, the aqueous extract showed no effects. Ethanolic extract of algae had no effects on the Proteus vulgaris. The results of present study demonstrated that Ethanolic extract of S. glaucescens had reliable antibacterial effects against L. monocytogenes, Vibrio cholerae, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV), a negative sense single stranded RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae, is the causative agent of a highly contagious SVC disease that primarily affects the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), an economically important fresh water fish species with world-wide distribution.SVCV has also been reported to cause disease in other fishes such as Poeciliidae, Esocida , Centrarchidae , Siluridae and salmonidae . There are several diagnostic tests for the detection of SVC virus,however, the tests have not been validated. The reverse transcriptase – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques have been developed and validated representing a powerful tool for detection of RNA. One of the most important aspects isolating RNA is to prevent degradation of the RNA during the isolation procedure. In this study, we explored the efficiency of protocols for RNA isolation from the SVCV strain 56/70. For RNA isolation, we compared four protocols, two guanidine isotiocyanate phenol – chloroform based protocols (RNX – Plus Iran, Iq2000 kit Taiwan) and two column based protocols (Cinnapure RNA Iran, high pure viral RNA kit, Roche Germany) that were commercially available. The results showed that the column based protocols, Roche method and Cinapure performed better than other methods with the yields of 31.76 ng/µl, 16/21 ng/µl, respectively. Each protocol yielded good quality of total RNA bands (480 bp) being observed in agarose gel electrophoreses but was not observed in IQ2000 kit. Amount of total RNA isolated was lower for IQ2000 kit Protocol. Further, the RNA being extracted from SVC by column based protocol method were resulted in successful amplified using RT-PCR method.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: This study investigated the effect of parasite infection with Posthodiplostomum cuticola on fish growth rate in Zaringol Stream in Golestan Province. A total number of 447 fish specimens (173 Capoeta capoeta gracilis, 111 Alburnoides eichwaldii, 131 Paracobitis malapterura, 32 Neogobius fluviatilis) were captured by electrofishing during December 2009 to September 2010. Total number of parasite on fish body was counted by investigating internal organ and surface of skin and branch. Results showed that slope of regression curves and condition factor were significantly lower in infected C. c. gracilis. N. fluviatilis was the most abundant infected fish in Zarringol Stream. It seems that it's feeding dependence on benthos makes this fish more susceptible to infection by parasite.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: The proximate composition of brown seaweed Sargassum lentifollium was investigated in this study along with analysis of some physicochemical parameters of Chabahar Bay water. The relationship between the nutritive components of this species and environmental parameters was established. Crude protein content varied from 8.05±1.15% of dry weight to 12.29±1.10%, carbohydrate from 31.11±2.03% to 25.11±2.13%, humidity from 15.21±1.00% to 19.22±1.11% with differences significantly before and after monsoon seasons, respectively while ash content varied from 26.11±2.43% to 24.11±1.40%, total fat from 2.11±0.43 % to 1.80±0.40% , total fiber from 10.34±2.21% to 11.84±0.33% and astaxantin content (ppm) from 104.11±1.00 to 97.20±1.18 before and after monsoon season respectively without any significant differences(P〉0.05). Regarding to physicochemical parameters of sea water, the result showed there are differences between salinity, dissolved oxygen, water temperature, nitrate, phosphate, chlorophyll a and c before and after monsoon season significantly while there are not in pH, silicate and chlorophyll b. Statistical analysis computed among the environmental and biochemical parameters suggested the potential role played by the abiotic parameters on biosynthetic pathways of seaweed.
    Keywords: Biology ; Environment ; Fisheries
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: In This study Growth rate and biochemical components including carbohydrate, chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids of microalgae, Tetraselmis chuii, was studied in different concentration of salinities. Three levels of salinities (10, 27 and 40) with three replicates were used. The results of the treatments indicated that maximum of growth rate was observed in 10psu salinity with 2.8×106 ±0.38×105 cell per milliliters and minimum in 40psu with 1.6×106 ±0.48×105 cell per milliliters (P〈 0.05). The carbohydrate, chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid pigments were lower and significantly difference in 27psu and 40psu of salinities (P〈0.05). Obtained results of cell concentration with 2.2×106 ± 0.45×105 per milliliters and biochemical components showed that the best salinity was 27psu for culture of microalgae, Tetraselmis chuii.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: In the present study, effects of sub-lethal concentrations of Euphorbia turcomanica extract with ranging from 0.00, 0.0055 (5% of LC50), 0.011 (10% of LC50) and 0.022 (20% of LC50) g/lit were investigated over 30 days on biochemical parameters of Zebra Aphanius (Aphanius dispar). The average (±SE) 24, 48, 72 and 96 LC50 rates of E. turcomanica on fish were 0.28±0.14, 0.19±0.06, 0.14±0.03 and 0.11±0.02 g/lit, respectively. The biochemical parameters including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CK), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the liver tissue were measured after 15 and 30 days. Significant changes in AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and CK activities were observed in fish exposed to different concentrations of E. turcomanica extract when compared with control group. The significant increase was determined in AST, LDH and ALP while in ALT and CK, significant decrease was revealed. Also in liver total protein, a significant descending trend related to exposure time was demonstrated. In conclusion, the findings from this study provide basic information about toxicity of E. turcomanica extract on Zabra Aphanius, as well as developing guidelines for evaluating the effects of administration of E. turcomanica derivatives in water.
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2018-01-21
    Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of osmoregulation by mitochondria-rich cells in grouper fish with high tolerance of salinity variation levels. For this purpose, groupers were transferred from salt water with an average salinity of 40 ppt to the waters with 10 ppt, 20 ppt and 60 ppt rates of salinity. Changes in the number and area of chloride cells in the different treatments were observed during two months adjustment period. Experiment was carried out by sampling three fish from each tank within 8 phases at the moment of the transition, 12 hours, day 1, day 3, day 7, day 14, day 30 and day 60. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical observations were done after fixing in Bouin's solution for 24 hours. Samples were dehydrated with increasing series of ethanol, followed by paraffin, and cleared by xylene. Paraffin blocks were cut at 5 microns and stained by hematoxylin – eosin. Changes in the number and area of chloride cells in 5% level were very different at high and brackish salinity. So in the early hours of the transfer, number and area of chloride cells were low in the brackish water than to that in high salinity. From second week towards the end of period, number of chloride cells in 60 ppt was more than that in control treatment from seventh days towards the end of period, the area of chloride cells was more than that in control group. The high ability and adaptability of this species in response to different environmental salinities might be associated with changes in gill histological evaluation and model osmoregulation mechanisms at different salinities.
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2018-01-22
    Description: Atrazine is one of the most important and effective pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The largest sugar cane farms of Middle East is located in Khouzestan Province, Iran in which large amounts of Atrezine are being used in farming. The aim of this study was to investigate acute toxicity (LC50 96 h) of atrazine on barbus grypus and the effects of chronic toxicity with sub-lethal concentration of atrazine on bioaccumulation of atrazine in fish fillet. LC50 96 h of atrazine on barbus grypus was measured according to the OECD standard method, 180 barbus grypus were divided into 4 equal groups (in triplicates). Groups 1, 2 and 3 were exposed to 3.25 mg l-1 (5%), 6.5 mg l-1 (10%) and 13 mg l-1 (20%) of LC50 96 h concentrations, respectively. Group 4 exposed to toxin free water as a control group. Experimental exposures did last for 21 days, muscles samples of the large dorsal muscle were taken on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of experiment. Bioaccumulation of Atrazine was measured in the muscle at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 in all groups. Results indicated that atrazine was toxic for barbus grypus and its toxicity increased not only with increase in atrazine but also with increase in the exposure time. The bioaccumulation of atrazine in fish muscles was increased significantly in groups 2 and 3 in all sampling periods and in groups 1 only in day 21. The results of present study showed that placing barbus grypus in the presence of chronic and sub lethal concentrations of the herbicide Atrazine for three weeks may lead to accumulation of toxins in the fish fillets.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries ; Pollution
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: The effect of soy bean concentrate (SPH) was evaluated on growth index and body composition of Siberian Sturgeon (A. baerii) for 8 weeks. A total of 120 Acipenser baerii juveniles (initial body weight 186.44 ±31.3gr mean ±SD) (4 treatment) were reared in 12 fiberglass tanks and fed to the saturation with four experimental diets in which fish meal was replaced by SPH at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% namely SPH0 ,SPH10, SPH20 and SPH30, respectively. Biometry was carried out monthly. At the end of experiment, 30% of total fish killed and transported to laboratory for determination of body composition. Result showed no significant differences in final weight (FW), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed efficiency ratio (FCR) of fish fed SPH20 and SPH30 compared to control diet. In addition, body protein and lipid were increased by increasing of soy bean concentrate in diets. The highest body protein and lipid were recorded in fish fed SPH20. Result of this investigation showed that soy bean concentrate was potentially suitable for fish meal replacement in diets of Acipenser baerii.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: Effects of replacement of irradiated and non-irradiated pea powder with fish meal as an alternative protein source in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diet were investigated on growth parameters and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) levels. For this purpose, 245 rainbow trouts with an average 60 ±4 g weight of were randomly divided into seven treatments. Dietary treatments included 20, 30 and 40% replacement of fish meal with peas without irradiation, 20, 30 and 40% replacement of fish meal with pea-irradiated (to reduce antinutritional factors) and no manual feed peas (control treatment), respectively. To eliminate anti-nutritional compounds peas, the electron beams were used. Fish rearing was done in 300 l fish tank for 8 weeks. Bioassays were conducted on days zero and 56. Bioassay tests were conducted at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Also on day 56, the blood samples of the fish were undertaken to determine the amount of thyroid hormone. Results showed that irradiated and non-irradiated pea replacement up to 40% in the diet of Rainbow trout had no negative impact on fish growth parameters compared with the control diet. Furthermore, the use of irradiated and non-irradiated peas up to 40% had no negative impact on thyroid hormone secretion. The results showed that pea powder as a vegetable protein is a good substitute for fish meal in Rainbow trout diet.
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2018-01-21
    Description: In this study, surface water samples were collected monthly from five stations inclduing Nayband Bay, Assaloye, Dayer, Kabgan and Bushehr from December 2012 to June 2013. Sampling stations were chosen according to data being collected during algal bloom caused by Cochlodinium polykrikoides in 2008. A total of 45 genera of phytoplankton belongs to four classes were totally identified accounting for 53 species of Bacilariophyceae, 32 species of Dinophyceae, one genus of Euglenophyceae, and one genus of Cyanophyceae. Bacilariophyceae with 89.5% was the most abundant family followed by Dinophyceae with 9.03%, Cyanophyceae with 1.25 % and Euglenophyceae with 0.22 %, respectively. The highest phytoplankton abundance was observed in Bushehr and Nayband Bay stations. In addition to statistical tests, Shannon (Shanon-Winner) and dominance indices were investigated. The lowest variability for Shannon index (1.90) was recorded in Bushehr Station in comparison with other stations. The highest Shanon index was in Dayer station (2.90) with the increase of diversity in Dinophyceae. Evidence of coastal pollution in Dayer along with nutrient inputs from land might be effective in increasing the Shannon index. At 80-90% simmilarity, the results of Cluster analysis separated Dayer station from other stations. It seems that a part of uniformity in phytoplankton abundance is affected by the mild conditions of ambient temperature. The total diversity of phytoplankton in the study area was low. The relative moderation of temperature seems to have contributed to the dominance of diatoms. Yet, the increased volume dust (as emerged by the increased dusty days per year) and the introduction of its accumulation in the Persian Gulf waters, along with other pollutants on phytoplankton communities might be underlaying factors for the dominace of diatoms in the study area.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2018-01-22
    Description: Fish freshness by using QIM and according to scoring to all of parts variable (positive and negative) was by sensory method and finally become the parameters of quantitative and qualitative with statistical analysis is based, tables used in volatility score of 0 to 23, with a score of 0 to 3 respectively, for their excellent quality, 3 to 7good, from 7 to 10 and from 10 to above average evaluation is unacceptable. In this study to measure the freshness of fish species Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), black and red in 4 treatments, whole fish and empty stomach is considered and the objective of this study was to calculate the survival rate of fish in ice cover practically immediately after harvest to measure qualitative factors (sensory evaluation, chemical and microbiological).For this study 50 pieces of red and 50 pieces black Tilapia after weighed, washed and then selection 25 pieces for each treatment in unlit, ratio of 3 to 1 (ice - fish) was covered .The mean (± SD) change in temperature the fish flesh during study were between 0.2 ±0.07 a to 0.3 ±0.1a degrees Celsius, that need to raise the quality temperature is maintained at 0 degrees Celsius in unlit center. Fish covered with ice keep at ambient temperature, and after measuring the change free nitrogen, pH and microbial tests, the results showed maximum shelf life of whole fish in ice cover 9 and for empty stomach fish was7 days .And also statistical analysis (Duncan test) of data between treatments (Whole and empty fish covered in ice ) was significant (P〈0.05).
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: As pearling has been banned in Iran since 2006, stocks of pearl oysters has not been investigated during these years; therefore, condition of natural habitats for Pinctada radiata in its old habitats was surveyed in present research. Shallow waters around Hendorabi Island were searched with diving and two habitats namely “Sooleh” and “Sahel-e-sheni”, were considered for study. The pearl oysters had most distribution in these habitats in depth ranges of 7 to 12 m and 8 to 11 m, respectively. Total stock in Sooleh and Sahel-e-sheni was surveyed near 35700 and 12563 Pinctada radiata, respectively, of which 22% and 67% were catchable, respectively. Catch Per Unit of Area (CPUA) in Sooleh and Sahel-e-sheni habitats was estimated equal to 0.3 N/m2 in both habitats, and Catch Per Unit of Effort (CPUE) in these habitats was calculated equal to 59.5 N/hr and 50.3 N/hr, respectively. Results of this study demonstrated that area, stocks and CPUA for studied habitats were less than previous years. Despite of interdict of pearling in this region since 7 years ago, stock revival has done slowly.
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: In this research, morphological and histomorphometrical structure of testis of 20 silver male carp fish were studied in two classes or groups. Group1 was composed of 10 fish with average (±SD) weight of 1.247+0.656kg and average(±SD) length of 43.675+1.414cm with about 2 years age, Group2 was composed of 10 fish with average(±SD) weight of 5.716+0.519kg and average(±SD) length of 81.5+1.643cm. Average (±SD) weight of testis were 2.34+1.47gr and 83.33+25.81gr with average (±SD) GSI of 0.187+0.224 and 1.457+4.974 in groups 1 and 2 respectively. Samples from testis were taken by maximum thickness of 0.5cm and after fixation in bouin , s fixative and 5-6µm thickness section were made routine paraffin embedding method and stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin and PAS staining. The microscopic results showed that the silver carp testis was lobular and cystic type in two groups. In group 1, there was no spermatozoon activity and PGCs were only germ cells in the cysts. But in group2, the numbers of PGCs were decreased significantly and spermatogenic cells were seen in different phases including spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocysts, early and late spermatid, and spermatozoa which each one was located in a separated cyst. There was no significant difference in nucleus diameter of PGCs in testis of group1 (6.97+0.438µ) and group (6.13+0.438µ). In group2, the nucleolus diameter of spermatogonia was 2.97+0.112µm, primary spermatocyt 3.59+0.107µ, early spermatid 1.59+0.761µ, late spermatid 1.24+0.132µ, spermatozoa 1.16+0.054µ, and the length of spermatozoia 17.412+1.946µ. The interesting finding was immature testis in fish of group 1 with average weigh (1.247+0.656kg) and average length (43.675+1.414cm) in about 2 years age and mature testis in fish of group 2 with average weight of (5.716+0.519kg) and average length of (81.5+1.643cm) with about 4 years age in Khuzestan climate conditions.
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2018-01-22
    Description: The effect of antibacterial and antioxidant of nicin z in two forms (free and encapsulated) was investigated on Total Viable Count (TVC) , Psychrotrophic Counts (PTC) , Peroxide Value (PV) , Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and Total volatile nitrogen (TVN) in zero, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days of storage.Two concentrations (700IU/gr ,1000IU/gr) of free and encapsulated nicin in liposome (by spray-dried method) were added as spray on surimi of kilka and one treatment was selected as a control. The results showed that change of chemical and bacterial parameters in treatment of encapsulated nicin was lower than free nicin and control treatments. Concentration of 1000IU/gr of nicin was better than results of other treatments. The shelf life of surimi of kilka in control, free and encapsulated nicin treatments for bacterial results were 9,12 , 15 days, respectively, and for TBA , TVN and PV were 6 , 15 and at least 15 days, respectively. The conclusion was that encapsulated nicin in liposome improved shelf life of surimi of kilka.
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: In this study, the effects of different dietary levels of Azolla meal were investigated on growth performance and digestibility of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings during 60 days. Five experimental diets approximately iso-protein (30%) and isolipidic (10%), were formulated with different levels of Azolla meal consisting of 0, 15, 25, 35 and 45%, respectively. In each experimental treatment, triplicate groups of common Carp fingerlings (16.5± 0.2 g) were used in a completely randomized design. Twenty fish were assigned to each experimental unit and stocked in 300 L tank. The results showed that the use of Azolla meal up to 15% had no negative effect on growth performance. The growth of fish was reduced significantly with increasing Azolla meal level of more than 15% of diet. Based on results, the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter decreased with increasing Azolla meal in diets. The highest ADC of protein was observed in control treatment. However, no significant difference was observed between the treatment 2 (diet with 15% Azolla meal) and control (without Azolla meal) for ADC of protein. In general, results of the present study showed that Azolla meal can be used up to 15% in Cyprinus carpio diet.
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: The effect of dietary containing of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis in three groups including commercial, commercial-indigenous and indigenous was investigated on the immune parameters (glucose, albumin, total protein, lysozyme, cortisol, immunoglobulin M (IgM)) and the intestinal flora of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) post larvae. The shrimp were fed for 60 days with four different diets: control (without probiotics), diet T1 supplemented with 1.5×106 CFU g-1 commercial probiotic, diet T2 with 1.5×106 CFU g-1 commercial-indigenous probiotic, diet T3 with 1.5×106 CFU g-1 indigenous probiotic. At the end of experimental period, the levels of biochemical parameters (glucose, total protein, lysozyme, cortisol, IgM) of shrimp fed probiotic diets were significantly higher than in those shrimps fed the control diet for 60 days. However, albumin concentrations showed no significant difference between the experimental treatments and the control, but increased by 1.19, 1.15 and 1.14 after 60 days of feeding with diets T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Likewise, population density of Bacillus bacteria counted in digestive tract of shrimps treated with probiotic were significantly higher than the control group. Results of this study indicated that the addition of probiotic bacilli can improve immune parameters and modulates intestinal microbiota of shrimp (L. vannamei) post larvae.
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    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
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