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  • 1
    Unknown
    Bonn : Galileo Press
    Keywords: LINUX ; UNIX ; SHELL ; Systemprogrammierung
    Description / Table of Contents: Dieses umfassende Handbuch bietet Ihnen nahezu vollständiges Linux-Wissen. Es erklärt, wie man Linux als leistungsstarke Workstation nutzen kann und widmet sich ausführlich professionelleren Themen wie Administration des Systems, Shell, Netzwerkkonfiguration und Sicherheit. Das Buch ist geeignet für Nutzer aller gängigen Linux-Distributionen. Die beiliegenden Multiboot-DVDs enthalten eine große Auswahl an Linux-Systemen. Das Buch ist konsequent praxisnah geschrieben, immer verständlich und sehr gründlich in der Behandlung aller Themen. Diese 5. Auflage wurde umfassend aktualisiert und verbessert. Sowohl Einsteiger als auch Profis werden von diesem kompetenten Handbuch profitieren.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (1282 Seiten)
    Edition: 5., akt. Aufl.
    ISBN: 9783836218221
    Language: German
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  • 2
    Keywords: nuclear explosion monitoring ; nuclear test ban ; seismology ; acoustics
    Description / Table of Contents: This topical volume focuses on the most recent advances that have been achieved in relevant fields of research of nuclear test ban monitoring, including seismology, infrasound- and hydro-acoustics, as well as nuclear physics and atmospheric backtracking. This research has been presented during the special sessions on "Research and Development in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring" convened during the 2007 and 2008 General Assemblies of the European Geosciences Union (EGU). The special sessions were introduced after the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO Prepcom) had convened a scientific symposium in 2006 on "CTBT: Synergies with Science 1996-2006 and beyond" marking the tenth anniversary of the United Nations General Assembly’s adoption of the CTBT Treaty. With regard to the seismo-acoustic fields several papers provide important updates on advances made in these fields since publication of ‘Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty’ (see PAGEOPH topical volumes 158-159, 2001-2002). Moreover, this topical volume expands on these publications by including radionuclide and noble gas monitoring, as well as atmospheric transport modeling. In these two areas, significant progress has been made in recent years. Two papers studying the 2006 North Korean nuclear test elucidate how progress made in the relevant fields has allowed for a good understanding on the characteristics of this underground nuclear test.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (246 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783034603706
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Unknown
    Basel, Boston, Berlin : Birkhäuser
    Keywords: engineering ; geophysics ; mining ; monitoring technology ; seismic monitoring ; seismic tomography ; seismology ; stress re-distribution
    Description / Table of Contents: Stress re-distribution as a result of exploitation of mineral, hydrocarbon, geothermal, and water resources cannot be eliminated. The effort must be directed to a better understanding of the underlying processes for the management of the hazard and risk associated with these operations. The study of induced seismicity has continually evolved over the past couple of decades, as underlined by both the number and complexity of applied studies required to satisfy the increased economic demands, assure the safety of the workforce and equipment, and protect the environment. A considerable effort has been put into the development of passive monitoring technology, specialized products and services being available for a wide range of applications. The recording of substantial high quality seismic data has stimulated the work on theoretical and practical aspects related to these applications, involving not only seismological knowledge, but also elements of rock mechanics, and an understanding of mining, geotechnical, and petroleum engineering. Pure and Applied Geophysics has largely contributed to raising the profile of induced seismicity research and its credibility. The range of specific analyses included in the present collection of studies expresses how powerful and resourceful passive seismic monitoring has become to so many applications. Seismic data are routinely evaluated for a series of development activities specific to each application. Engineering practice is continually improved based on trials and analyses of the ground response and stress levels, confirmed through the monitoring of seismicity. We are better equipped than ever to provide management decisions based on formalized, quantitative, and thus objective assessment.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (213 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783034603058
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Keywords: oil spill ; valuation ; environmental degradation ; deforestation ; demolition and military waste ; air pollution ; middle east and north africa ; water degradation ; forest degradation ; land degradation
    Description / Table of Contents: How much is a cleaner environment worth? For policy makers, that question goes largely unanswered. It's not that the environment is seen as unimportant. It's simply much easier to compare the costs and benefits of tangible projects such as airports and electrical grids, than it is to weigh the merits of a landfill cleanup. Over the past decades, the World Bank has undertaken a systematic effort to put a monetary value on environmental degradation, which results sparked policy changes. This book brings together the best case studies of the Cost of Environmental Degradation undertaken in the Middle East and North Africa region and summarizes the major policy impacts at the national and regional levels. The case studies evaluate in monetary terms the annual damages caused by economic activities to natural resources and environment – water, forests, agricultural land, air quality, waste and coastal zone – and reflects the estimates as percentages of the countries’ gross domestic product. It then captures the estimated values in a holistic picture and illuminates their concrete implications on policy, investments, and institutions for the selected countries and for the region as a whole. In addition to being a multi-nation effort, the book stands out by applying updated methods and techniques to estimate natural resource damages both in times of peace and of conflict. This is particularly relevant for the Middle East and North Africa, a region located at the crossroads of different cultures, continents, and religions. This book is primarily targeted at policy makers at the regional, national and local levels and to decision makers in government agencies, NGOs, and natural resource development institutions. It is suitable for use in training courses of decision makers working in environment, forests and water related fields. The book should also be of interest to advanced undergraduates, master’s level students and undergraduates.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XVIII, 168 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780821383964
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Description / Table of Contents: The discovery of dinosaurs and other large extinct ‘saurians’ - a term under which the Victorians commonly lumped ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, pterosaurs and their kin - makes exciting reading and has caught the attention of palaeontologists, historians of science and the general public alike. The papers in this collection go beyond the familiar tales about famous ‘fossil hunters’ and focus on relatively little-known episodes in the discovery and interpretation (from both a scientific and an artistic point of view) of dinosaurs and other inhabitants of the Mesozoic world. They cover a long time span, from the beginnings of ‘modern’ scientific palaeontology in the 1700s to the present, and deal with many parts of the world, from the Yorkshire coast to Central India, from Bavaria to the Sahara. The characters in these stories include professional palaeontologists and geologists (some of them well-known, others quite obscure), explorers, amateur fossil collectors, and artists, linked together by their interest in Mesozoic creatures.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (394 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862393110
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Description / Table of Contents: This volume honours the career of Brian F. Windley, who has been hugely influential in helping to achieve our current understanding of the evolution of the continental crust, and who has inspired many students and scientists to pursue studies on the evolution of the continents. Brian has studied processes of continental formation and evolution on most continents and of all ages, and has educated and inspired two generations of geologists to undertake careers in studies of continental evolution. The volume is organized into six sections, including: oceanic and island arc systems and continental growth; tectonics of accretionary orogens and continental growth; growth and stabilization of continental crust; collisions and intraplate processes; Precambrian tectonics and the birth of continents; and active tectonics and geomorphology of continental collision and growth zones.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VIII, 414 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862393035
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Description / Table of Contents: Our understanding of calcium carbonate precipitation within freshwater carbonate systems is being revolutionized by new quantitative approaches at both field and laboratory scale. These systems cover a diverse range of topical research areas including tufas, speleothems, stromatolites and microbial processes. Progress by various international research groups has been impressive, with major contributions to such areas as climate change, absolute dating, carbon sequestration, and biofilm construction and precipitation. A diverse sample of interrelated research is presented that provides a tantalizing glimpse of the interplay between microbial, geochemical and physical processes that control the development of tufas and speleothems. This volume will provide a cross-disciplinary platform that will stimulate further exchanges about new concepts, methodologies and interpretations associated with freshwater carbonates. In particular, it will help reinforce the importance of cross-discipline research: the driving force behind the new field of Geobiology.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VI, 362 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862393011
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Description / Table of Contents: The world's mountain ranges are the clearest manifestations of long-term deformation of the continental crust. As such they have attracted geological investigations for centuries. Throughout this long history of research a few keynote publications stand out. One of the most important is the Geological Survey's 1907 Memoir on The Geological Structure of the North-West Highlands of Scotland. The Memoir summarized some of the Geological Survey's finest work, and outlined many of the principles of field-based structural and tectonic analysis that have subsequently guided generations of geologists working in other mountain belts, both ancient and modern. The thematic set of 32 papers in this Special Publication celebrate the 100th anniversary of the 1907 Memoir by placing the original findings in both historical and modern contexts, and juxtaposing them against present-day studies of deformation processes operating not only in the NW Highlands, but also in other mountain belts.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VII, 872 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862393004
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Keywords: licensing of petroleum exploration, development and production rights ; petroleum licensing rounds ; petroleum exploration ; allocation of petroleum exploration, development and production rights ; maximization of petroleum rent ; fiscal systems for hydrocarbons ; design of petroleum allocation systems ; petroleum policy ; petroleum depletion policy ; auctions of petroleum rights
    Description / Table of Contents: Governments often pursue a variety of economic, social and political objectives through their allocation policies that go beyond the maximization of the net present value of the economic rent. The optimal allocation policy depends on a range of country specific and exogenous factors. Despite the variety of factors influencing optimal design, most countries use similar solutions. In particular, when auctions or administrative procedures are used, most governments opt for simple simultaneous multi-object sealed-bid rounds. While this may appear to be paradoxical, there is a practical explanation. It is true that more complex bidding forms might increase rent capture at bidding. However, the potential marginal gain is often limited, owing to most E&P projects’ high level of uncertainty and risk. In addition market mechanisms, such as joint bidding and secondary markets, and the fiscal regime are widely used in the petroleum sector to correct inefficiency at the time of allocation.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XIV, 106 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780821381687
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Unknown
    London : The Geological Society
    Description / Table of Contents: The Mesozoic Era begins with the approximately 50-million-year-long Triassic Period, a major juncture in Earth history when the vast Pangaean supercontinent completed its assembly and began its fragmentation, and the global biota diversified and modernized after the end-Permian mass extinction, the most extensive biotic decimation of the Phanerozoic. The temporal ordering of geological and biotic events during Triassic time thus is critical to the interpretation of some unique and pivotal events in Earth history. This temporal ordering is mostly based on the Triassic timescale, which has been developed and refined for nearly two centuries. This book reviews the state of the art of the Triassic timescale and includes comprehensive analyses of Triassic radio-isotopic ages, magnetostratigraphy, isotope-based and cyclostratigraphic correlations and timescale -relevant marine and non-marine biostratigraphy.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (514 Seiten) , Illustrationen, Diagramme, Karten
    ISBN: 9781862392960
    Language: English
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  • 11
    Keywords: geological processes; tectonics; numerical models
    Description / Table of Contents: Disequilibrium textures versus equilibrium modelling: geochronology at the crossroads / Igor M. Villa / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 332, 1-15, 1 January 2010, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP332.1 --- Argon enters the retentive zone: reassessment of diffusion parameters for K-feldspar in the South Cyclades Shear Zone, Ios, Greece / M. A. Forster and G. S. Lister / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 332, 17-34, 1 January 2010, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP332.2 --- Serrated quartz grain boundaries, temperature and strain rate: testing fractal techniques in a syntectonic granite / Manish A. Mamtani and R. O. Greiling / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 332, 35-48, 1 January 2010, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP332.3 --- Microstructure and elastic anisotropy of naturally deformed leucogneiss from a shear zone in Montalto (southern Calabria, Italy) / Rosolino Cirrincione, Eugenio Fazio, Renée Heilbronner, Hartmut Kern, Kurt Mengel, Gaetano Ortolano, Antonino Pezzino and Rosalda Punturo / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 332, 49-68, 1 January 2010, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP332.4 --- Geometry of intercrystalline brine in plastically deforming halite rocks: inference from electrical resistivity / Tohru Watanabe / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 332, 69-78, 1 January 2010, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP332.5 --- Brittle plus plastic deformation of gypsum aggregates experimentally deformed in torsion to high strains: quantitative microstructural and texture analysis from optical and diffraction data / M. Zucali, V. Barberini, D. Chateigner, B. Ouladdiaf and L. Lutterotti / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 332, 79-98, 1 January 2010, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP332.6 --- Numerical modelling of spontaneous slab breakoff dynamics during continental collision / Cyrill Baumann, Taras V. Gerya and James A. D. Connolly / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 332, 99-114, 1 January 2010, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP332.7 --- Present-day vertical isostatic readjustment of the Western Alps revealed by numerical modelling and geodetic and seismotectonic data / Annalisa Gardi, Stéphane Baize and Oona Scotti / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 332, 115-128, 1 January 2010, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP332.8 --- Block model versus thermomechanical model: new insights on the present-day regional deformation in the surroundings of the Calabrian Arc / Raffaele Splendore, Anna Maria Marotta, Riccardo Barzaghi, Alessandra Borghi and Letizia Cannizzaro / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 332, 129-147, 1 January 2010, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP332.9 --- The role of mantle hydration in continental crust recycling in the wedge region / Marco Meda, Anna Maria Marotta and Maria Iole Spalla / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 332, 149-172, 1 January 2010, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP332.10 --- Three-dimensional evaluation of fabric evolution and metamorphic reaction progress in polycyclic and polymetamorphic terrains: a case from the Central Italian Alps / Francesca Salvi, Maria Iole Spalla, Michele Zucali and Guido Gosso / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 332, 173-187, 1 January 2010, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP332.11 --- The interaction of deformation and metamorphic reactions / Bruce E. Hobbs, Alison Ord, Maria Iole Spalla, Guido Gosso and Michele Zucali / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 332, 189-223, 1 January 2010, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP332.12
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VII, 230 Seiten) , Illustrationen, Diagramme, Karten
    ISBN: 9781862395800
    Language: English
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  • 12
    Description / Table of Contents: Climate change is likely to have significant impacts on the agricultural sector to which farmers will have to adapt. While agriculture is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, it is also a source of carbon storage in soils. This report examines the economic and policy issues related to the impacts of climate change on agriculture and adaptation responses and to the mitigation of greenhouse gases from agriculture. It outlines research undertaken and underway in other national and international research agencies. It also highlights some of the knowledge gaps on the impacts of climate change on food production and the uncertainties of those impacts in a global context that warrant further research efforts. In particular, the report analyzes marginal abatement cost curves, which show the relative costs of achieving reductions in greenhouse gas emission through the implementation of different actions in the agricultural sector. The aim of the report is to help guide policy makers in the design of policies to address climate change issues in agriculture.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (135 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789264086876
    Language: English
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  • 13
    Keywords: greenhouse gas emission reduction ; energy consumption ; bus ; greenhouse gas emission ; rapid transit ; pedestrian ; pedestrian pathway ; climate change ; transportation network ; road pricing ; emission ; urban transportation ; travel demand ; rebates ; greenhouse gas ; road ; transport ; transport sector ; transit ; travel demand management
    Description / Table of Contents: The Eco2 Cities approach is a point of departure for cities that would like to reap the many benefits of ecological and economic sustainability. It provides an analytical and operational framework that offers strategic guidance to cities on sustainable and integrated urban development. At the same time case studies are used throughout the book to provide a matter-of-fact and ground-level perspective. The Eco2 framework is flexible and easily customized to the context of each country or city. Based on the particular circumstances and the development priorities of a city - the application of the framework can contribute to the development of a unique action plan or roadmap in each case. This action plan can be triggered through catalyst projects.To support this framework, the book also begins to introduce some powerful and practical methods and tools that can further enable sustainable and integrated city planning and decision making. These include 1) operational and process methods that can strengthen collaborative decision making and cross-sector synergies in a city; 2) analytical methods ranging from diagnostics, simulation, design and scenario-generation; and 3) accounting and benchmarking methods which can help clarify, define and measure what it means to truly invest in sustainability and resilience.As additional reference reading, the book also features a series of case studies from best practice cities around the world, each demonstrating a very different dimension of the Eco2 approach. It also features a series of infrastructure sector notes (on spatial development, transport, energy, water and waste management), each of which explore sector specific issues as they pertain to urban development, and the many opportunities for coordination and integration across sectors.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XXVIII, 358 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780821381441
    Language: English
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  • 14
    Keywords: markets ; growth ; development strategy ; public expenditures ; inequality ; government ; developing countries ; poverty ; economic policy ; competitiveness
    Description / Table of Contents: The global financial crisis of 2008–09 did not just change the global economic order. It also changed the way we think about that order. Principles and practices that were once accepted wisdom are now in doubt or discredited. New, fundamental questions opened. And the search for answers has barely begun. For the developing world, that conceptual uncertainty is particularly uncomfortable—through a mix of good policies and good luck, they had begun to achieve real progress. Will all that now be derailed? What does the new horizon bring to them? Can they find new policy ideas that will turn the shock of the crisis into a final run toward "developed" status? How does the future look when seen from various geographic regions? Those are the kind of questions that we asked, in the summer of 2010, to some 40 development professionals working at the World Bank. This book is an unfiltered collection of their views. As seasoned practitioners in the leading development institution, they have a unique perspective from which to visualize, we would dare say "to sense", what may be coming. Some of them look at the big picture of the role that the developing world is about to play, and how it will play it. Others walk us through the conceptual links around specific issues that will affect that world—say, the likely evolution of macro-financial regulation. And others take us to continents and countries, teach us about their realities, and tell us how things will differ in the coming years. Put together, they paint a picture of reasoned optimism.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XX, 443 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780821385463
    Language: English
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  • 15
    Unknown
    Washington, D. C. : The World Bank
    Keywords: alternative energy ; sustainable forest management ; carbon finance ; carbon ; forests ; climate change ; biodiversity conservation ; emissions ; oceans ; silver ; colors ; carbon sinks ; carbon offsets ; climate ; ecosystem ; emissions from deforestation ; coral reefs ; carbon stores ; forest ; sustainable forest
    Description / Table of Contents: Global warming and changes in climate will have severe and lasting impacts on national efforts to alleviate poverty and promote sustainable development. Some of the world s poorest countries and communities are the most vulnerable and are already suffering the consequences. Yet often these countries are rich in natural capital, ecosystems, and biodiversity that can contribute to solutions as they can to climate change. Biodiversity is the foundation and mainstay of agriculture, forests, and fisheries. Biological resources provide the raw materials for livelihoods, agriculture, medicines, trade, tourism, and industry. Forests, grasslands, freshwater, and marine and other natural ecosystems provide a range of services, often not recognized in national economic accounts but vital to human welfare: regulating water flows and water quality, flood control, pollination, decontamination, carbon sequestration, soil conservation, and nutrient and hydrological cycling. Current efforts to address climate change focus mainly on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly through cleaner energy strategies, and on attempting to reduce vulnerability of the communities at risk by improving infrastructure to meet new energy and water needs. This book book sets out a compelling argument for including ecosystem-based approaches to mitigation and adaptation as a third essential pillar in national strategies to address climate change. Such ecosystem-based strategies can offer cost-effective, proven and sustainable solutions contributing to, and complementing, other national and regional adaptation strategies.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XII, 114 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780821381274
    Language: English
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  • 16
    Description / Table of Contents: Für alle Regionen, die auf den Tourismus als ökonomisches Standbein setzen, ist ein marktfähiges Alleinstellungsmerkmal wichtig. Die Kulturlandschaft in ihrer jeweils besonderen Eigenart bietet hierfür ein endogenes Potenzial, das es zu erschließen, aber gleichermaßen auch zu schützen gilt. Doch viele kulturlandschaftliche Charakteristika und Besonderheiten eröffnen sich nicht unmittelbar, sondern müssen erst herausgearbeitet und „interpretiert“ werden. Darin liegt die grundlegende Herausforderung. Der vorliegende Band beinhaltet zum einen theoretische Auseinandersetzungen mit dem Thema Kulturlandschaftsforschung aus der Perspektive verschiedener wissenschaftlicher Fachrichtungen, zum anderen praxisbezogene Fallbeispiele, die aufzeigen, wie die Forschungsergebnisse einem Freizeitpublikum auf interessante Art und Weise vermittelt werden können. Denn die Kulturlandschaft ist beides – wissenschaftliches Forschungsobjekt und Vermittlungsraum im Kontext touristischer Freizeitgestaltung.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (179 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783941875333
    Language: German
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  • 17
    Description / Table of Contents: Fold-and-thrust belts occur worldwide, have formed in all eras of geological time, and are widely recognized as the most common mode in which the crust accommodates shortening. Much current research on the structure of fold-and-thrust belts is focused on structural studies of regions or individual structures and on the geometry and evolution of these regions employing kinematic, mechanical and experimental modelling. In keeping with the main trends of current research, this title is devoted to the kinematic evolution and structural styles of a number of fold-and-thrust belts formed from Palaeozoic to Recent times. The papers included in this book cover a broad range of different topics, from modelling approaches to predict internal deformation of single structures, 3D reconstructions to decipher the structural evolution of groups of structures, palaeomagnetic studies of portions of fold-and-thrust belts, geometrical and kinematical aspects of Coulomb thrust wedges and structural analyses of fold-and-thrust belts to unravel their sequence of deformations.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VI, 255 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862393202
    Language: English
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  • 18
    Unknown
    Hamburg : Maribus
    Description / Table of Contents: Der „World Ocean Review“ erscheint 2010 das erste Mal und soll in Zukunft in regelmäßigen Abständen herausgegeben werden. Entstanden ist ein umfassender und profunder Bericht, der den Zustand der Weltmeere und die Wirkungszusammenhänge zwischen dem Ozean und ökologischen, ökonomischen und gesellschaftspolitischen Bedingungen aufzeigt. Die wissenschaftlich gesicherten Erkenntnisse sollen all denen dienen, die sich aktiv und fundiert an den aktuellen Diskussionen im Umfeld der Meeresforschung beteiligen möchten.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (240 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783866480001
    Language: German
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  • 19
    Description / Table of Contents: Despite agreement on first-order features and mechanisms, critical aspects of the origin and evolution of the Tibetan Plateau, such as the exact timing and nature of collision, the initiation of plateau uplift, and the evolution of its height and width, are disputed, untested or unknown. This book gathers papers dealing with the growth and collapse of the Tibetan Plateau. The timing, the underlying mechanisms, their interactions and the induced surface shaping, contributing to the Tibetan Plateau evolution are tightly linked via coupled and feedback processes. We present interdisciplinary contributions allowing insight into the complex interactions between lithospheric dynamics, topography building, erosion, hydrological processes and atmospheric coupling. The book is structured in four parts: early processes in the plateau formation; recent growth of the Tibetan Plateau; mechanisms of plateau growth; and plateau uplift, surface processes and the monsoon.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (255 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862393264
    Language: English
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  • 20
    Keywords: geofluids
    Description / Table of Contents: Frontiers in Geofluids is a collection of invited papers chosen to highlight recent developments in our understanding of geological fluids in different parts of the Earth, and published to mark the first ten years of publication of the journal Geofluids. The scope of the volume ranges from the fundamental properties of fluids and the phase relationships of fluids encountered in nature, to case studies of the role of fluids in natural processes. New developments in analytical and theoretical approaches to understanding fluid compositions, fluid properties, and geological fluid dynamics across a wide range of environments are included. A recurrent theme of research published in Geofluids is the way in which similar approaches can be applied to geological fluids in very different settings and this is reflected in the diverse range of applications of fluid studies that are included here. They include deep groundwater flow, hydrocarbons in faulted sedimentary basins, hydrothermal ores, and multiphase flow in mid-ocean ridge systems. Other topics covered are geothermal waters, crustal metamorphism, and fluids in magmatic systems. The book will be of great interest to researchers and students interested in crustal and mantle fluids of all sorts.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XIII, 318 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781444333305
    Language: English
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  • 21
    Unknown
    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: environmental remote sensing ; biomass
    Description / Table of Contents: Biomass has been an intimate companion of humans from the dawn of civilization to the present. Its use as food, energy source, body cover and as construction material established the key areas of biomass usage that extend to this day. Given the complexities of biomass as a source of multiple end products, this volume sheds new light to the whole spectrum of biomass related topics by highlighting the new and reviewing the existing methods of its detection, production and usage. We hope that the readers will find valuable information and exciting new material in its chapters.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (496 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533074924
    Language: English
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  • 22
    Description / Table of Contents: Reisen als kulturelle Praxis ist Spiegelbild gesellschaftlicher Verhältnisse. Wandelt sich eine Gesellschaft, so wandelt sich auch ihr Reiseverhalten. Vor diesem Hintergrund war das erste Jahrzehnt des 21. Jahrhunderts durch zahlreiche Entwicklungen gekennzeichnet, die Touristik und Tourismusforschung gleichermaßen vor große Herausforderungen stellen. Im vorliegenden Band werden ausgewählte touristische Trends und ihre räumlichen Implikationen nachgezeichnet, mit angebots- und nachfrageseitigen Analysen die Motive, Erfahrungen und Handlungsoptionen beleuchtet sowie künftige Perspektiven ausgelotet. Die Beiträge verdeutlichen, dass sich „etablierte“ Destinationen und Freizeitangebote aufgrund von Veränderungen in der touristischen Nachfrage einem enormen Innovationsdruck ausgesetzt sehen, für aufstrebende Zielgebiete bieten sie hingegen die Chance, sich am Markt zu positionieren.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (203 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783941875982
    Language: German
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  • 23
    Description / Table of Contents: The African continent preserves a long geological record that covers almost 75% of Earth's history. The Pan-Africanorogeny (c.600–500 Ma) brought together old continental kernels (West Africa, Congo, Kalahari and Tanzania) to form Gondwana and subsequently the supercontinent Pangaea by the late Palaeozoic. The break-up of Pangaea since the Jurassic and Cretaceous, primarily through opening of the Central Atlantic, Indian, and South Atlantic oceans, in combination with the complicated subduction history to the north, gradually shaped the African continent. This volume contains 18 contributions that discuss the geology of Africa from the Archaean to the present day. It celebrates African geology in two ways: first, it highlights multidisciplinary Earth science research by viewing the formation and evolution of Africa from 18 different angles; second, it celebrates the work of Kevin Burke and Lewis Ashwal and portrays the wide range of interests and research angles that have characterized these two scientists throughout their careers, working in Africa, and studying African geology.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VI, 378 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862393356
    Language: English
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  • 24
    Keywords: energy engineering ; renewable resources
    Description / Table of Contents: The book "Biodiesel: Feedstocks and Processing Technologies" is intended to provide a professional look on the recent achievements and emerging trends in biodiesel production. It includes 22 chapters, organized in two sections. The first book section: "Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production" covers issues associated with the utilization of cost effective non-edible raw materials and wastes, and the development of biomass feedstock with physical and chemical properties that facilitate it processing to biodiesel. These include Brassicaceae spp., cooking oils, animal fat wastes, oleaginous fungi, and algae. The second book section: "Biodiesel Production Methods" is devoted to the advanced techniques for biodiesel synthesis: supercritical transesterification, microwaves, radio frequency and ultrasound techniques, reactive distillation, and optimized transesterification processes making use of solid catalysts and immobilized enzymes. The adequate and up-to-date information provided in this book should be of interest for research scientist, students, and technologists, involved in biodiesel production.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (458 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077130
    Language: English
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  • 25
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: energy engineering ; renewable resources
    Description / Table of Contents: The second book of the four-volume edition of "Solar cells" is devoted to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which are considered to be extremely promising because they are made of low-cost materials with simple inexpensive manufacturing procedures and can be engineered into flexible sheets. DSSCs are emerged as a truly new class of energy conversion devices, which are representatives of the third generation solar technology. Mechanism of conversion of solar energy into electricity in these devices is quite peculiar. The achieved energy conversion efficiency in DSSCs is low, however, it has improved quickly in the last years. It is believed that DSSCs are still at the start of their development stage and will take a worthy place in the large-scale production for the future.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (492 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077352
    Language: English
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  • 26
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: energy engineering ; renewable resources
    Description / Table of Contents: The fourth book of the four-volume edition of 'Solar cells' consists chapters that are general in nature and not related specifically to the so-called photovoltaic generations, novel scientific ideas and technical solutions, which has not properly approved. General issues of the efficiency of solar cell and through hydrogen production in photoelectrochemical solar cell are discussed. Considerable attention is paid to the quantum-size effects in solar cells both in general and on specific examples of super-lattices, quantum dots, etc. New materials, such as cuprous oxide as an active material for solar cells, AlSb for use as an absorber layer in p-i-n junction solar cells, InGaAsN as a promising material for multi-junction tandem solar cells, InP in solar cells with MIS structures are discussed. Several chapters are devoted to the analysis of both status and perspective of organic photovoltaics such as polymer/fullerene solar cells, poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) derivatives, photovoltaic textiles, photovoltaic fibers, etc.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (512 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077611
    Language: English
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  • 27
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: energy engineering
    Description / Table of Contents: The civilization of present age is predominantly dependent on energy resources and their utilization. Almost every human activity in today's life needs one or other form of energy. As world's energy resources are not unlimited, it is extremely important to use energy efficiently. Both energy related technological issues and policy and planning paradigms are highly needed to effectively exploit and utilize energy resources. This book covers topics, ranging from technology to policy, relevant to efficient energy utilization. Those academic and practitioners who have background knowledge of energy issues can take benefit from this book.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (228 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077420
    Language: English
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  • 28
    Description / Table of Contents: The past decade has witnessed a major revival in attempts to separate biodiversity signals from biases imposed by sampling and the architecture of the rock record. How large a problem this poses to our understanding of biodiversity patterns remains debatable, and new approaches are being developed to investigate this question. Here palaeobiologists with widely differing approaches and interests explore the problems of extracting reliable information on biodiversity change from an imperfect geological record. Topics covered range from the application of information-theoretic approaches that identify directional causal relationships to an in-depth study of how geological biases could influence our understanding of dinosaur evolution. A wide range of new insights into the links between the land, shallow-marine and deep-sea rock and fossil records are presented, making this volume invaluable to anyone in the Earth or life sciences who wishes to remain abreast of this dynamic and rapidly evolving research area.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (247 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862393363
    Language: English
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  • 29
    Keywords: oceanography ; atmospheric sciences ; hurricane research ; meteorology
    Description / Table of Contents: This book represents recent research on tropical cyclones and their impact, and a wide range of topics are covered. An updated global climatology is presented, including the global occurrence of tropical cyclones and the terrestrial factors that may contribute to the variability and long-term trends in their occurrence. Research also examines long term trends in tropical cyclone occurrences and intensity as related to solar activity, while other research discusses the impact climate change may have on these storms. The dynamics and structure of tropical cyclones are studied, with traditional diagnostics employed to examine these as well as more modern approaches in examining their thermodynamics. The book aptly demonstrates how new research into short-range forecasting of tropical cyclone tracks and intensities using satellite information has led to significant improvements. In looking at societal and ecological risks, and damage assessment, authors investigate the use of technology for anticipating, and later evaluating, the amount of damage that is done to human society, watersheds, and forests by land-falling storms. The economic and ecological vulnerability of coastal regions are also studied and are supported by case studies which examine the potential hazards related to the evacuation of populated areas, including medical facilities. These studies provide decision makers with a potential basis for developing improved evacuation techniques.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (616 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533072388
    Language: English
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  • 30
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: climate change
    Description / Table of Contents: Climate change is emerging as one of the most important issues of our time, with the potential to cause profound cascading effects on ecosystems and society. However, these effects are poorly understood and our projections for climate change trends and effects have thus far proven to be inaccurate. In this collection of 24 chapters, we present a cross-section of some of the most challenging issues related to oceans, lakes, forests, and agricultural systems under a changing climate. The authors present evidence for changes and variability in climatic and atmospheric conditions, investigate some the impacts that climate change is having on the Earth's ecological and social systems, and provide novel ideas, advances and applications for mitigation and adaptation of our socio-ecological systems to climate change. Difficult questions are asked. What have been some of the impacts of climate change on our natural and managed ecosystems? How do we manage for resilient socio-ecological systems? How do we predict the future? What are relevant climatic change and management scenarios? How can we shape management regimes to increase our adaptive capacity to climate change? These themes are visited across broad spatial and temporal scales, touch on important and relevant ecological patterns and processes, and represent broad geographic regions, from the tropics, to temperate and boreal regions, to the Arctic.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (486 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533071442
    Language: English
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  • 31
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: geology ; geophysics ; tectonics ; seismology
    Description / Table of Contents: Chapter 1: Plates Amalgamation and Plate Destruction, the Western Gondwana History by Ngako Vincent and Njonfang Emmanuel --- Chapter 2: Lithospheric Structure and Tectonics of the Eastern Alps – Evidence from New Seismic Data by Ewald Brückl --- Chapter 3: Structure and Plate Tectonic Evolution of the Northern Outer Carpathians by Jan Golonka, Kaja Pietsch and Paweł Marzec --- Chapter 4: Tectonic Model of the Sinai Peninsula Based on Geophysical Investigations by Taha Rabeh --- Chapter 5: Siberia - From Rodinia to Eurasia by Dmitry V. Metelkin, Valery A. Vernikovsky and Alexey Yu. Kazansky --- Chapter 6: Proto-Basin Types of North China Craton (NCC) in Late Triassic and Its Implication for Regional Tectonics of Initial Craton Destruction by Yang Minghui, Liu Chiyang, Zeng Peng, Bai Hua and Zhou Jin --- Chapter 7: Tectonic Implications of Stratigraphy Architecture in Distal Part of Foreland Basin, Southwestern Taiwan by Jong-Chang Wu, Kenn-Ming Yang, Yi-Ru Chen and Wen-Rong Chi --- Chapter 8: Seismic Hazard in Tien Shan: Basement Structure Control Over the Deformation Induced by Indo-Eurasia Collision by Buslov, Mikhail M. and De Grave, Johan --- Chapter 9: Lithosphere as a Nonlinear System: Geodynamic Consequences by E. G. Mirlin --- Chapter 10: Layer-Block Tectonics, a New Concept of Plate Tectonics - An Example from Nansha Micro-Plate, Southern South China Sea by Hai-ling Liu, Hong-bo Zheng, Yan-Lin Wang, Chao-Hua Wu, Mei-Song Zhao and Yun-Kong Du --- Chapter 11: The Role of Geoelectrical DC Methods in Determining the Subsurface Tectonics Features. Case Studies from Syria by Jamal Asfahani --- Chapter 12: Salt Tectonics of the Lisan Diapir Revealed by Synthetic Aperture Radar Images by Damien Closson, Najib Abou Karaki, Nada Milisavljević, Frédéric Hallot, and Marc Acheroy --- Chapter 13: Mantle-like Trace Element Composition of Petroleum – Contributions from Serpentinizing Peridotites by Peter Szatmari, Teresa Cristina O. da Fonseca and Norbert F. Miekeley
    Pages: Online-Ressource (358 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533075457
    Language: English
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  • 32
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: econometrics ; business ; management ; economics
    Description / Table of Contents: Econometrics is becoming a highly developed and highly mathematicized array of its own sub disciplines, as it should be, as economies are becoming increasingly complex, and scientific economic analyses require progressively thorough knowledge of solid quantitative methods. This book thus provides recent insight on some key issues in econometric theory and applications. The volume first focuses on three recent advances in econometric theory: non-parametric estimation, instrument generating functions, and seasonal volatility models. Additionally, three recent econometric applications are presented: continuous time duration analysis, panel data analysis dealing with endogeneity and selectivity biases, and seemingly unrelated regression analysis. Intended as an electronic edition, providing immediate "open access" to its content, the book is easy to follow and will be of interest to professionals involved in econometrics.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (116 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533075037
    Language: English
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  • 33
    Keywords: global change ; environmental change ; environmental sciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Over the years, environmental change has sharpened significant dynamic evolution and knowledge in organizational structures of organisms, from cellular/molecular to macro-organism level including our society. Changes in social and ecological systems due to environmental change will hopefully result in a shift towards sustainability, with legislative and government entities responding to diverse policy and management issues concerning the building, management and restoration of social-ecological systems on a regional and global scale. Solutions are particularly needed at the regional level, where physical features of the landscape, biological systems and human institutions interact. The purpose of this book is to disseminate both theoretical and applied studies on interactions between human and natural systems from multidisciplinary research perspectives on global environmental change. It combines interdisciplinary approaches, long-term research and a practical solution to the increasing intensity of problems related to environmental change, and is intended for a broad target audience ranging from students to specialists.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (154 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077093
    Language: English
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  • 34
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: agricultural and biological sciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Aquaculture is the art, science and business of cultivating aquatic animals and plants in fresh or marine waters. It is the extension of fishing, resulted from the fact that harvests of wild sources of fish and other aquatic species cannot keep up with the increased demand of a growing human population. Expansion of aquaculture can result with less care for the environment. The first pre-requisite to sustainable aquaculture is clean wate, but bad management of aquatic species production can alter or even destroy existing wild habitat, increase local pollution levels or negatively impact local species. Aquatic managers are aware of this and together with scientists are looking for modern and more effective solutions to many issues regarding fish farming. This book presents recent research results on the interaction between aquaculture and environment, and includes several case studies all over the world with the aim of improving and performing sustainable aquaculture.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (246 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077499
    Language: English
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  • 35
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: biodiversity ; ecosystems ; environmental sciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Ecosystems can be considered as dynamic and interactive clusters made up of plants, animals and micro-organism communities. Inevitably, mankind is an integral part of each ecosystem and as such enjoys all its provided benefits. Driven by the increasing necessity to preserve the ecosystem productivity, several ecological studies have been conducted in the last few years, highlighting the current state in which our planet is, and focusing on future perspectives. This book contains comprehensive overviews and original studies focused on hazard analysis and evaluation of ecological variables affecting species diversity, richness and distribution, in order to identify the best management strategies to face and solve the conservation problems.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (464 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533074177
    Language: English
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  • 36
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: tsunami ; environmental sciences
    Description / Table of Contents: The objective of this multi-disciplinary book is to provide a collection of expert writing on different aspects of pre- and post- tsunami developments and management techniques. It is intended to be distributed within the scientific community and among the decision makers for tsunami risk reduction. The presented chapters have been thoroughly reviewed and accepted for publication. It presents advanced methods for tsunami measurement using Ocean-bottom pressure sensor, kinematic GPS buoy, satellite altimetry, Paleotsunami, Ionospheric sounding, early warning system, and scenario based numerical modeling. It continues to present case studies from the Northern Caribbean, Makran region and Tamil Nadu coast in India. Furthermore, classifying tsunamis into local, regional and global, their possible impact on the region and its immediate vicinity is highlighted. It also includes the effects of tsunami hazard on the coastal environment and infrastructure (structures, lifelines, water resources, bridges, dykes, etc.); and finally the need for emergency medical response preparedness and the prevention of psychological consequences of the affected survivors has been discussed.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (232 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533074313
    Language: English
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  • 37
    Keywords: biodiversity ; environmental sciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Driven by the increasing necessity to define the biological diversity frame of widespread, endemic and threatened species, as well as by the stimulating chance to describe new species, the study of the evolutive and spatial dynamics is in constant execution. Systematic overviews, biogeographic and phylogenic backgrounds, species composition and distribution in restricted areas are focal topics of the 15 interesting independent chapters collected in this book, chosen to offer to the reader an overall view of the present condition in which our planet is.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (366 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077727
    Language: English
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  • 38
    Keywords: biodiversity ; environmental sciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Biological Diversity and Sustainable Resources Use is a very interesting volume, including attractive overviews and original case studies mainly focused on socio-economical effects of the right management of the ecosystems biodiversity, as well as on the useful integration between human activities and environmental responses. Ecological, medical and historical aspects of the sustainable development are also discussed in this book which consists of articles written by international experts, offering the reader a clear and extensive view of the present condition in which our planet is.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (158 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077062
    Language: English
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  • 39
    Keywords: biodiversity ; environmental sciences
    Description / Table of Contents: As everybody knows, the dynamic interactions between biotic and abiotic factors, as well as the anthropic ones, considerably affect global climate changes and consequently biology, ecology and distribution of life forms of our planet. These important natural events affect all ecosystems, causing important changes on biodiversity. Systematic and phylogenetic studies, biogeographic distribution analysis and evaluations of diversity richness are focal topics of this book written by international experts, some even considering economical effects and future perspectives on the managing and conservation plans.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (392 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077963
    Language: English
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  • 40
    Keywords: hydrodynamics ; hydrology ; mechanical engineering
    Description / Table of Contents: The phenomena related to the flow of fluids are generally complex, and difficult to quantify. New approaches, considering points of view still not explored, may introduce useful tools in the study of Hydrodynamics and the related transport phenomena. The details of the flows and the properties of the fluids must be considered on a very small scale perspective. Consequently, new concepts and tools are generated to better describe the fluids and their properties. This volume presents conclusions about advanced topics of calculated and observed flows. It contains twenty chapters, organized in five sections: 1) Mathematical Models in Fluid Mechanics 2) Biological Applications and Biohydrodynamics 3) Detailed Experimental Analyses of Fluids and Flows 4) Radiation-, Electro-, Magnetohydrodynamics, and Magnetorheology 5) Special Topics on Simulations and Experimental Data. These chapters present new points of view about methods and tools used in Hydrodynamics.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (286 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533078939
    Language: English
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  • 41
    Keywords: hydrodynamics ; hydrology ; mechanical engineering
    Description / Table of Contents: The phenomena related to the flow of fluids are generally complex, and difficult to quantify. New approaches - considering points of view still not explored - may introduce useful tools in the study of Hydrodynamics and the related transport phenomena. The details of the flows and the properties of the fluids must be considered on a very small scale perspective. Consequently, new concepts and tools are generated to better describe the fluids and their properties. This volume presents conclusions about advanced topics of calculated and observed flows. It contains eighteen chapters, organized in five sections: 1) Mathematical Models in Fluid Mechanics, 2) Biological Applications and Biohydrodynamics, 3) Detailed Experimental Analyses of Fluids and Flows, 4) Radiation-, Electro-, Magnetohydrodynamics, and Magnetorheology, 5) Special Topics on Simulations and Experimental Data. These chapters present new points of view about methods and tools used in Hydrodynamics.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (442 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533075969
    Language: English
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  • 42
    Keywords: soil science
    Description / Table of Contents: Our dependence on soil, and our curiosity about it, is leading to the investigation of changes within soil processes. Furthermore, the diversity and dynamics of soil are enabling new discoveries and insights, which help us to understand the variations in soil processes. Consequently, this permits us to take the necessary measures for soil protection, thus promoting soil health. This book aims to provide an up-to-date account of the current state of knowledge in recent practices and assessments in soil science. Moreover, it presents a comprehensive evaluation of the effect of residue/waste application on soil properties and, further, on the mechanism of plant adaptation and plant growth. Interesting examples of simulation using various models dealing with carbon sequestration, ecosystem respiration, and soil landscape, etc. are demonstrated. The book also includes chapters on the analysis of areal data and geostatistics using different assessment methods. More recent developments in analytical techniques used to obtain answers to the various physical mechanisms, chemical, and biological processes in soil are also present.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (394 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077406
    Language: English
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  • 43
    Keywords: geology ; geophysics
    Description / Table of Contents: With growing attention on global environmental and climate change, geoscience has experienced rapid change and development in the last three decades. Many new data, methods and modeling techniques have been developed and applied in various aspects of geoscience. The chapters collected in this book present an excellent profile of the current state of various data, analysis methods and modeling techniques, and demonstrate their applications from hydrology, geology and paleogeomorphology, to geophysics, environmental and climate change. The wide range methods and techniques covered in the book include information systems and technology, global position system (GPS), digital sediment core image analysis, fuzzy set theory for hydrology, spatial interpolation, spectral analysis of geophysical data, GIS-based hydrological models, high resolution geological models, 3D sedimentology, change detection from remote sensing, etc. Besides two comprehensive review articles, most chapters focus on in-depth studies of a particular method or technique.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (336 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077376
    Language: English
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  • 44
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: mineralogy ; physical sciences ; engineering ; technology
    Description / Table of Contents: An Introduction to the Study of Mineralogy is a collection of papers that can be easily understood by a wide variety of readers, whether they wish to use it in their work, or simply to extend their knowledge. It is unique in that it presents a broad view of the mineralogy field. The book is intended for chemists, physicists, engineers, and the students of geology, geophysics, and soil science, but it will also be invaluable to the more advanced students of mineralogy who are looking for a concise revision guide.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (154 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533078960
    Language: English
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  • 45
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: waste ; environmental engineering
    Description / Table of Contents: This book reports research on the utilization of organic waste through composting and vermicomposting, biogas production, recovery of waste materials, and the chemistry involved in the processing of organic waste under various processing aspects. A few chapters on collection systems and disposal of wastes have also been included.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (198 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533079257
    Language: English
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  • 46
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  • 47
    Keywords: hydrology
    Description / Table of Contents: This book represents an overview of the direct measurement techniques of evapotranspiration with related applications to the water use optimization in the agricultural practice and to the ecosystems study. Different measuring techniques at leaf level (porometry), plant-level (sap-flow, lysimetry) and agro-ecosystem level (Surface Renewal, Eddy Covariance, Multi layer BREB), are presented with detailed explanations and examples. For the optimization of the water use in agriculture, detailed measurements on transpiration demands of crops and different cultivars, as well as results of different irrigation schemes and techniques (i.e. subsurface drip) in semi-arid areas for open-field, greenhouse and potted grown plants are presented. Aspects on ET of crops in saline environments, effects of ET on groundwater quality in xeric environments as well as the application of ET to climatic classification are also depicted. The book provides an excellent overview for both, researchers and student,s who intend to address these issues.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (410 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533075129
    Language: English
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  • 48
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: climate change
    Description / Table of Contents: This book shows some of the socio-economic impacts of climate change according to different estimates of the current or estimated global warming. A series of scientific and experimental research projects explore the impacts of climate change and browse the techniques to evaluate the related impacts. These 23 chapters provide a good overview of the different changes impacts that already have been detected in several regions of the world. They are part of an introduction to the researches being done around the globe in connection with this topic. However, climate change is not just an academic issue important only to scientists and environmentalists; it also has direct implications on various ecosystems and technologies.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (454 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533074115
    Language: English
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  • 49
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: sedimentology
    Description / Table of Contents: The purpose of this book is to put together recent developments on sediment transport and morphological processes. There are twelve chapters in this book contributed by different authors who are currently involved in relevant research. First three chapters provide information on basic and advanced flow mechanisms including turbulence and movement of particles in water. Examples of computational procedures for sediment transport and morphological changes are given in the next five chapters. These include empirical predictions and numerical computations. Chapters nine and ten present some insights on environmental concerns with sediment transport. Last two contributions deal with two large-scale case studies related to changes in the transport and provenance of glacial marine sediments, and processes involving land slides.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (250 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533073743
    Language: English
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  • 50
    Keywords: environmental chemistry
    Description / Table of Contents: The book offers a professional look on the recent achievements and emerging trends in pesticides analysis, including pesticides identification and characterization. The 20 chapters are organized in three sections. The first book section addresses issues associated with pesticides classification, pesticides properties and environmental risks, and pesticides safe management, and provides a general overview on the advanced chromatographic and sensors- and biosensors-based methods for pesticides determination. The second book section is specially devoted to the chromatographic pesticides quantification, including sample preparation. The basic principles of the modern extraction techniques, such as: accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave assisted extraction, solid phase extraction, solid phase microextraction, matrix solid phase dispersion extraction, cloud point extraction, and QuEChERS are comprehensively described and critically evaluated. The third book section describes some alternative analytical approaches to the conventional methods of pesticides determination. These include voltammetric techniques making use of electrochemical sensors and biosensors, and solid-phase spectrometry combined with flow-injection analysis applying flow-based optosensors.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (514 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533074375
    Language: English
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  • 51
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: environmental impact assessment ; biofuel
    Description / Table of Contents: This book aspires to be a comprehensive summary of current biofuels issues and thereby contribute to the understanding of this important topic. Readers will find themes including biofuels development efforts, their implications for the food industry, current and future biofuels crops, the successful Brazilian ethanol program, insights of the first, second, third and fourth biofuel generations, advanced biofuel production techniques, related waste treatment, emissions and environmental impacts, water consumption, produced allergens and toxins. Additionally, the biofuel policy discussion is expected to be continuing in the foreseeable future and the reading of the biofuels features dealt with in this book, are recommended for anyone interested in understanding this diverse and developing theme.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (270 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533074795
    Language: English
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  • 52
    Description / Table of Contents: This collection of papers presents recent advances in the study of deformation mechanisms and rheology and their applications to tectonics. Many of the contributions exploit new petrofabric techniques, particularly electron backscatter diffraction, to help understand evolution of rock microstructure and mechanical properties. Papers in the first section (lattice preferred orientations and anisotropy) show a growing emphasis on the determination of elastic properties from petrofabrics, from which acoustic properties can be computed for comparison with in-situ seismic measurements. Such research will underpin geodynamic interpretation of large-scale active tectonics. Contributions in the second section (microstructures, mechanisms and rheology) study the relations between microstructural evolution during deformation and mechanical properties. Many of the papers explore how different mechanisms compete and interact to control the evolution of grain size and petrofabrics. Contributors make use of combinations of laboratory experiments, field studies and computational methods, and several relate microstructural and mechanical evolution to large-scale tectonic processes observed in nature.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XII, 342 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862393387
    Language: English
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  • 53
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: oceanography ; atmospheric sciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Leading air quality professionals describe different aspects of air pollution. The book presents information on four broad areas of interest in the air pollution field; the air pollution monitoring; air quality modeling; the GIS techniques to manage air quality; the new approaches to manage air quality. This book fulfills the need on the latest concepts of air pollution science and provides comprehensive information on all relevant components relating to air pollution issues in urban areas and industries. The book is suitable for a variety of scientists who wish to follow application of the theory in practice in air pollution. Known for its broad case studies, the book emphasizes an insightful of the connection between sources and control of air pollution, rather than being a simple manual on the subject.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (584 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533075112
    Language: English
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  • 54
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    Dordrecht : Springer
    Keywords: astrobiology ; biogeochemistry ; biogeoscience ; geobiology ; geology ; microbiology ; origin of life
    Description / Table of Contents: The interplay between Geology and Biology has shaped the Earth from the early Precambrian, 4 billion years ago. Moving beyond the borders of the classical core disciplines, Geobiology strives to identify cause-and-effect chains and synergisms between the geo- and the biospheres that have been driving evolution of life in modern and ancient environments. Combining modern methods, geobiological information can be extracted not only from visible remains of organisms, but also from organic molecules, rock fabrics, minerals, isotopes and other tracers. Exploring these processes and their signatures also creates enormous applied potentials with respect to issues of environment protection, public health, energy and resource management. The Encyclopedia of Geobiology is designed as a key reference for students, researchers, teachers, and the informed public to provide basic, but comprehensible knowledge on this rapidly expanding discipline at the interface between modern geo- and biosciences.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XXXVIII, 927 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781402092121
    Language: English
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  • 55
    Keywords: energy ; lowcarbon city ; solid waste management ; sustainable development ; urban development ; urban transport
    Description / Table of Contents: The continuing rapid growth and development of China’s cities brings many complex challenges. Tasked with supporting strong economic development that provides jobs and a good quality of life for its growing number of residents, China’s cities also must ensure sustainable development in line with national efforts to transition to a less carbon-intensive economy, as outlined in China’s 12th Five-Year Plan. Sustainable Low-Carbon City Development in China summarizes, through the specific lens of low-carbon development, the lessons of the World Bank’s activities related to sustainable urban development in China. The various chapters present overall approaches and achievements in low-carbon city developments and highlight specific experiences across all urban sectors, including energy, transport, solid waste, water, and waste water. The book also explores cities’ role in climate adaptation and opportunities presented by carbon finance and other global mechanisms to finance low-carbon city development. The World Bank project data and experience combined with the national and international experience presented in this edited book deliver both a broad picture and actionable steps for China’s urban development. The chapters argue that China’s cities not only need to, but also have an opportunity and the ability to integrate sustainable low-carbon development in their urban development. Low-carbon efforts align closely with the sustainable urbanization agenda and the book points to multiple benefits, such as improved air quality and urban livability, that can be derived from implementing this urgent agenda. The intended audience of this edited book is government officials of municipalities, cities, and townships in China who will be defining policies and programs to achieve the targets of economic growth and carbon emission reductions emerging from the 12th Five-Year Plan. The lessons presented may also be of interest to other countries and development partners supporting low-carbon urban programs.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (LXVII, 516 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780821389881
    Language: English
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  • 56
    Unknown
    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: mathematics ; polymer chemistry ; materials chemistry ; industrial chemistry
    Description / Table of Contents: The enchanting and worthy world of PU beckoned to bring forth the book titled "Polyurethane". The book is divided into three sections: structures, properties and characterization of PU, applications of PU and a separate section on Biobased PU, covering the research and development in these areas. Each contributed chapter handles new and interesting topics introducing the reader to the wider known and unknown applications of PU such as PU for grouting technologies, fuel binder, extraction of metals, treatment of industry wastewater, alkanolamide PU coatings and foams, and others. The book aims to cater a larger audience comprising of readers from polymer chemistry, materials chemistry, and industrial chemistry.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (470 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535107262
    Language: English
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  • 57
    Keywords: informatics ; computer science
    Description / Table of Contents: The book on emerging informatics brings together the new concepts and applications that will help define and outline problem solving methods and features in designing business and human systems. It covers international aspects of information systems design in which many relevant technologies are introduced for the welfare of human and business systems. This initiative can be viewed as an emergent area of informatics that helps better conceptualise and design new world-class solutions. The book provides four flexible sections that accommodate total of fourteen chapters. The section specifies learning contexts in emerging fields. Each chapter presents a clear basis through the problem conception and its applicable technological solutions. I hope this will help further exploration of knowledge in the informatics discipline.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (274 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535105145
    Language: English
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  • 58
    Unknown
    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: energy ; carbon
    Description / Table of Contents: Energy efficiency is finally a common sense term. Nowadays almost everyone knows that using energy more efficiently saves money, reduces the emissions of greenhouse gasses and lowers dependence on imported fossil fuels. We are living in a fossil age at the peak of its strength. Competition for securing resources for fuelling economic development is increasing, price of fuels will increase while availability of would gradually decline. Small nations will be first to suffer if caught unprepared in the midst of the struggle for resources among the large players. Here it is where energy efficiency has a potential to lead toward the natural next step - transition away from imported fossil fuels! Someone said that the only thing more harmful then fossil fuel is fossilized thinking. It is our sincere hope that some of chapters in this book will influence you to take a fresh look at the transition to low carbon economy and the role that energy efficiency can play in that process.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (344 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535103400
    Language: English
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  • 59
    Unknown
    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: geology ; geophysics ; tectonics ; seismology
    Description / Table of Contents: Chapter 1: Cyclic Development of Axial Parts of Slow-Spreading Ridges: Evidence from Sierra Leone Area, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 5-7°N by E.V. Sharkov --- Chapter 2: Features of Caucasian Segment of the Alpine-Himalayan Convergence Zone: Geological, Volcanological, Neotectonical, and Geophysical Data by E.V. Sharkov, V.A. Lebedev, A.G. Rodnikov, A.V. Chugaev, N.A. Sergeeva and L.P. Zabarinskaya --- Chapter 3: 3D Modelling and Basement Tectonics of the Niger Delta Basin from Aeromagnetic Data by A.A. Okiwelu and I.A. Ude --- Chapter 4: Seismic Paleo-Geomorphic System of the Extensional Province of the Niger Delta: An Example of the Okari Field by Muslim B. Aminu and Moses O. Olorunniwo --- Chapter 5: Geodynamic and Tectonostratigrafic Study of a Continental Rift: The Triassic Cuyana Basin, Argentina by Silvia Patricia Barredo --- Chapter 6: Role of the NE-SW Hercynian Master Fault Systems and Associated Lineaments on the Structuring and Evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Basins of the Alpine Margin, Northern Tunisia by Fetheddine Melki, Taher Zouaghi, Mohamed Ben Chelbi, Mourad Bédir and Fouad Zargouni --- Chapter 7: An Assessment of the Earthquakes of Ancient Troy, NW Anatolia, Turkey by Akın Kürçer, Alexandros Chatzipetros, Salih Zeki Tutkun, Spyros Pavlides, Süha Özden, George Syrides, Kostas Vouvalidis, Emin Ulugergerli, Özkan Ateş and Yunus Levent Ekinci --- Chapter 8: Paleoseismological Three Dimensional Virtual Photography Method; A Case Study: Bağlarkayası-2010 Trench, Tuz Gölü Fault Zone, Central Anatolia, Turkey by Akın Kürçer and Yaşar Ergun Gökten --- Chapter 9: Structural Geological Analysis of the High Atlas (Morocco): Evidences of a Transpressional Fold-Thrust Belt by Alessandro Ellero, Giuseppe Ottria, Marco G. Malusà and Hassan Ouanaimi --- Chapter 10: Plate Tectonic Evolution of the Southern Margin of Laurussia in the Paleozoic by Jan Golonka and Aleksandra Gawęda --- Chapter 11: Was the Precambrian Basement of Western Troms and Lofoten-Vesterålen in Northern Norway Linked to the Lewisian of Scotland? A Comparison of Crustal Components, Tectonic Evolution and Amalgamation History" by Steffen G. Bergh, Fernando Corfu, Per Inge Myhre, Kåre Kullerud, Paul E.B. Armitage, Klaas B. Zwaan, Erling K. Ravna, Robert E. Holdsworth and Anupam Chattopadhya
    Pages: Online-Ressource (330 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535106753
    Language: English
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  • 60
    Unknown
    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: digital library
    Description / Table of Contents: Digital library is commonly seen as a type of information retrieval system which stores and accesses digital content remotely via computer networks. However, the vision of digital libraries is not limited to technology or management, but user experience. This book is an attempt to share the practical experiences of solutions to the operation of digital libraries. To indicate interdisciplinary routes towards successful applications, the chapters in this book explore the implication of digital libraries from the perspectives of design, operation, and promotion. Without common agreement on a broadly accepted model of digital libraries, authors from diverse fields seek to develop theories and empirical investigations that to advance our understanding of digital libraries.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (220 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533072036
    Language: English
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  • 61
    Unknown
    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: photogrammetry ; surveying
    Description / Table of Contents: Photogrammetry is widely accepted as one of the best surveying methods to acquire tridimensional data without direct contact with the object, but its high operational costs in equipment and personnel somewhat limit its application in mapping. However, with the development of digital photogrammetry in the 1990's, it was possible to introduce automated processes and reduce the personnel costs. In the following years, the cost of computer hardware, digital cameras and positioning sensors has been lowering, making photogrammetry more accessible to other engineering fields, such as architecture, archeology and health fields. This book shows the results of the work of researchers from different professional backgrounds, which evaluate the uses of photogrammetry, including issues of the data, processing, as well as the solutions developed for some surveying types that can be extended to many applications.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (136 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535105480
    Language: English
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  • 62
    Unknown
    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: knowledge management ; Web 2.0 ; knowledge transfer ; knowledge storage ; retrieval
    Description / Table of Contents: Due to the development of mobile and Web 2.0 technology, knowledge transfer, storage and retrieval have become much more rapid. In recent years, there have been more and more new and interesting findings in the research field of knowledge management. This book aims to introduce readers to the recent research topics, it is titled "New Research on Knowledge Management Models and Methods" and includes 19 chapters. Its focus is on the exploration of methods and models, covering the innovations of all knowledge management models and methods as well as deeper discussion. It is expected that this book provides relevant information about new research trends in comprehensive and novel knowledge management studies, and that it serves as an important resource for researchers, teachers and students, and for the development of practices in the knowledge management field.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (426 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535101901
    Language: English
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  • 63
    Keywords: access to knowledge ; A2K ; electronic resources ; Open Access
    Description / Table of Contents: This book is a must for librarians with international interest in access to knowledge. It includes a collection of 15 chapters written by authors from all over the world and covers different approaches to the vital role of libraries driving access to knowledge. There are chapters that offer solutions and ideas to enable libraries to become the knowledge engine in society. Other chapters discuss the conceptual part of the subject and related services. The book was compiled as part of the presidential theme of Ellen Tise, IFLA President 2009-2011, with the aim of offering the reader a good portrait of the opportunities and challenges that libraries have in driving access to knowledge.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (IV, 408 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783110263121
    Language: English
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  • 64
    Keywords: air quality ; air pollution ; environmental sciences
    Description / Table of Contents: This book contains 15 chapters reporting air pollution of interest to experts in academia and industrial plants dealing with the environmental issues. These chapters emphasize the problems of air pollution involving the human sector as an essential part in the control of air pollutants. The book contains an analysis of various geographic regions and evaluation of different activities related to these areas. Descriptive analyzes present the generation of air pollution and its effect on society and materials evaluations. The major sources of emission of pollutants and the damage that they originate in the towns and industrial plants are reported. This volume provides methods and tools for assessment according to each location. Other important aspects are the activities of governmental authorities, the academic and sectors for solving the environment problem.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (326 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535106746
    Language: English
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