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  • Springer Nature  (29,883)
  • 2010-2014  (29,883)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-02-28
    Description: Nanostructured metals achieve extraordinary strength but suffer from low thermal stability, both a consequence of a high fraction of interfaces. Overcoming this tradeoff relies on making the interfaces themselves thermally stable. Here we show that the atomic structures of bi-metal interfaces in macroscale nanomaterials suitable for engineering structures can be significantly altered via changing the severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing pathway. Two types of interfaces are formed, both exhibiting a regular atomic structure and providing for excellent thermal stability, up to more than half the melting temperature of one of the constituents. Most importantly, the thermal stability of one is found to be significantly better than the other, indicating the exciting potential to control and optimize macroscale robustness via atomic-scale bimetal interface tuning. Taken together, these results demonstrate an innovative way to engineer pristine bimetal interfaces for a new class of simultaneously strong and thermally stable materials. Scientific Reports 4 doi: 10.1038/srep04226
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-02-28
    Description: We provide the first analyses of infant mortality rates by indigenous ethnic group in Finland, a country that has one of the lowest relative numbers of infant deaths in the world. Using files from the Finnish population register, we identified both of the parents of children born in the period from 1975–2003 according to ethnic affiliation, socioeconomic profile, and demographic position. The infant mortality rate in homogamous Finnish unions is similar to that in homogamous Swedish unions, which reflects a lack of social disparities between the two groups. Surprisingly, infants from ethnically mixed unions have markedly lower mortality rates, with an adjusted rate ratio of 0.81 relative to homogamous Swedish unions (95% CI: 0.67–0.98). Although not empirically verified, we argue that the lower infant mortality rate in ethnically mixed unions may be due to lower levels of inbreeding, and hence related to historically low intermarriage rates between the two ethnic groups, remote consanguinities, and restricted inter-community gene flow. Scientific Reports 4 doi: 10.1038/srep04214
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-02-28
    Description: Heating in nanoscale systems driven out of equilibrium is of fundamental importance, has ramifications for technological applications, and is a challenge to characterize experimentally. Prior experiments using nanoscale junctions have largely focused on heating of ionic degrees of freedom, while heating of the electrons has been mostly neglected. We report measurements in atomic-scale Au break junctions, in which the bias-driven component of the current noise is used as a probe of the electronic distribution. At low biases (〈150 mV) the noise is consistent with expectations of shot noise at a fixed electronic temperature. At higher biases, a nonlinear dependence of the noise power is observed. We consider candidate mechanisms for this increase, including flicker noise (due to ionic motion), heating of the bulk electrodes, nonequilibrium electron-phonon effects, and local heating of the electronic distribution impinging on the ballistic junction. We find that flicker noise and bulk heating are quantitatively unlikely to explain the observations. We discuss the implications of these observations for other nanoscale systems, and experimental tests to distinguish vibrational and electron interaction mechanisms for the enhanced noise. Scientific Reports 4 doi: 10.1038/srep04221
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-02-28
    Description: Mutations of p53 cause not only loss of wild-type function but also gain of novel oncogenic functions (GOF). Accumulating evidence suggest that p53 hotspot mutations may confer different types and magnitudes of GOF. Here we add support to the heterogeneity of mutant p53 GOF by showing their unequal association with early tumor onset and spectrum of tumor types. We stratified Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) patients according to carried p53 mutations using data from the updated p53 germline mutation database. When compared to loss-of-function nonsense mutations, the R282 GOF mutation associated with significantly earlier onset, while the G245 mutation displayed later onset. The R175, Y220, R248, R282 and nonsense mutations showed preferential distribution in certain cancer types, which varied in the age of onset. Multivariate COX regression model adjusting for cancer types and patient sex suggested that nonsense and G245 mutations had lower risk than R248 for early onset, suggesting unequal strengths of mutant GOF effects. Our results suggest that Li-Fraumeni syndrome can be subdivided into subtypes linking to unequal GOF effects of p53 mutations. These findings have potential implications in the prevention, early detection and targeted treatment of LFS tumors. Scientific Reports 4 doi: 10.1038/srep04223
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-02-28
    Description: As one of the most important two-dimensional (2D) materials, BN nanosheets attracted intensive interest in the past decade. Although there are many methods suitable for the preparation of BN sheets, finding a cheap and nontoxic way for their mass and high-quality production is still a challenge. Here we provide a highly effective and cheap way to synthesize gram-scale-level well-structured BN nanosheets from many common graphite products as source materials. Single-crystalline multi-layered BN sheets have a mean lateral size of several hundred nanometers and a thickness ranging from 5 nm to 40 nm. Cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis shows that the structures exhibit a near band-edge emission and a broad emission band from 300 nm to 500 nm. Utilization of nanosheets for the reinforcement of polymers revealed that the Young's modulus of BN/PMMA composite had increased to 1.56 GPa when the BN's fraction was only 2 wt.%, thus demonstrating a 20% gain compared to a blank PMMA film. It suggests that the BN nanosheet is an ideal mechanical reinforcing material for polymers. In addition, this easy and nontoxic substitution method may provide a universal route towards high yields of other 2D materials. Scientific Reports 4 doi: 10.1038/srep04211
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-02-28
    Description: Strained-silicon/relaxed-silicon-germanium alloy (strained-Si/SiGe) heterostructures are the foundation of Group IV-element quantum electronics and quantum computation, but current materials quality limits the reliability and thus the achievable performance of devices. In comparison to conventional approaches, single-crystal SiGe nanomembranes are a promising alternative as substrates for the epitaxial growth of these heterostructures. Because the nanomembrane is truly a single crystal, in contrast to the conventional SiGe substrate made by compositionally grading SiGe grown on bulk Si, significant improvements in quantum electronic-device reliability may be expected with nanomembrane substrates. We compare lateral strain inhomogeneities and the local mosaic structure (crystalline tilt) in strained-Si/SiGe heterostructures that we grow on SiGe nanomembranes and on compositionally graded SiGe substrates, with micro-Raman mapping and nanodiffraction, respectively. Significant structural improvements are found using SiGe nanomembranes. Scientific Reports 4 doi: 10.1038/srep04218
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-02-28
    Description: Scientific Reports 4 doi: 10.1038/srep04148
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-02-28
    Description: Social media analytics is showing promise for the prediction of financial markets. However, the true value of such data for trading is unclear due to a lack of consensus on which instruments can be predicted and how. Current approaches are based on the evaluation of message volumes and are typically assessed via retrospective (ex-post facto) evaluation of trading strategy returns. In this paper, we present instead a sentiment analysis methodology to quantify and statistically validate which assets could qualify for trading from social media analytics in an ex-ante configuration. We use sentiment analysis techniques and Information Theory measures to demonstrate that social media message sentiment can contain statistically-significant ex-ante information on the future prices of the S&P500 index and a limited set of stocks, in excess of what is achievable using solely message volumes. Scientific Reports 4 doi: 10.1038/srep04213
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-02-28
    Description: The angiotensinogen (AGT) gene M235T polymorphism has been suggested to be linked to risk of heart failure (HF). However, association studies on the M235T polymorphism and HF risk have shown conflicting results. PubMed and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association. A total of 1,281 HF cases and 1,376 controls were included in the analysis. The pooled data showed that there was no significant associations between the AGT M235T polymorphism and HF risk for TT vs. MM (OR = 1.17, 95%CI = 0.62–2.19, P = 0.635), MT vs. MM (OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.77–1.22, P = 0.776), MT/TT vs. MM (OR = 1.07, 95%CI = 0.67–1.69, P = 0.781), and TT vs. MM/MT (OR = 1.23, 95%CI = 0.86–1.76, P = 0.259). In contrast, in the HF subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the AGT M235T polymorphism had a decreased risk of HF among Asians (MT vs. MM, OR = 0.39, 95%CI = 0.17–0.92, P = 0.032). Our results suggest that the AGT M235T polymorphism is a low-penetrant risk factor for the development of HF among Asians. Scientific Reports 4 doi: 10.1038/srep04207
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 10
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    Springer Nature
    Publication Date: 2014-03-01
    Description: Nature Physics 10, 183 (2014). doi:10.1038/nphys2915 Author: Abigail Klopper
    Print ISSN: 1745-2473
    Electronic ISSN: 1745-2481
    Topics: Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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