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  • 2010 - 2014  (892,699)
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  • 1
    Keywords: climate change ; gravity change ; isostasy ; tectonics ; volcanism ; deformation ; geodynamic process
    Description / Table of Contents: During the last decades, the monitoring and modelling of various geodynamic processes have gained ever increasing importance. In particular, temporal variations of the deformation and gravity fields recorded by new types of geodetic measuring techniques and reflecting isostatic, tectonic or volcanic processes in the earth's interior as well as climatologically induced changes on its surface have opened new avenues. The present volume succeeds a similar topical volume published in 2007 and reflects the most recent developments in these fields of research. Part of the papers in this book were presented at the second workshop on 'Deformation and Gravity Change: Indicators of Isostasy, Tectonics, Volcanism and Climate Change' that took place at the Casa de los Volcanes on Lanzarote, Spain, during March 27-30, 2007. It was jointly organized and supported by the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, the Spanish Council for Scientific Research and the Cabildo Insular de Lanzarote. The workshop also served as the second meeting of the members of the IAG Working Group ICCT2 on 'Dynamic Theories of Deformation and Gravity Fields'.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (373 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783034601474
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    Bonn : Galileo Press
    Keywords: Windows Server 2008 R2 ; Hyper-V ; Active Directory ; Remotedesktopdienste ; Webserver IIS ; Netzwerkprotokolle ; Kerberos-Authentifizierung
    Description / Table of Contents: Das lösungsorientierte und praktische Handbuch zum Windows Server 2008 R2 mit zahlreichen fundierten Hintergrundinformationen! Der Autor Ulrich B. Boddenberg greift bei der Beschreibung des Servers auf seine praktischen Erfahrungen in zahlreichen Projekten bei mittleren und großen Kunden zurück. Denn ein modernes Betriebssystem wie Windows Server 2008 R2 bietet weit mehr als nur die Möglichkeit, Programme auszuführen. Er beschreibt alle zentralen Technologien, wie die Virtualisierung mit Hyper-V, Active Directory, Terminaldienste und den Webserver IIS. Neben diesen konkreten Technologien geht es auch um Grundlagen wie Netzwerkprotokolle, Kerberos-Authentifizierung oder die eingesetzte Hardware. Zentrale Aspekte wie Performance, Verfügbarkeit und Sicherheit ziehen sich durch das gesamte Buch.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (1410 Seiten)
    Edition: 3., akt. und erw. Aufl.
    ISBN: 9783836215282
    Language: German
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  • 3
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    Bonn : Galileo Press
    Keywords: Java ; Java Standard Edition Version 7 ; JSE 7
    Description / Table of Contents: Diese 10. Auflage des Java-Kultbuches wurde gründlich überarbeitet zur Java-Version 7. Besonders Java-Einsteiger, Studenten und Umsteiger profitieren von diesem umfassenden Standardwerk. Die Einführung in die Sprache Java ist anschaulich und konsequent praxisorientiert. Die »Insel« lässt auch in dieser Auflage keine Wünsche offen: Neben der Behandlung der Sprache Java gibt es kompakte Einführungen in Spezialthemen.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (1308 Seiten)
    Edition: 10., akt. Aufl.
    ISBN: 9783836218023
    Language: German
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  • 4
    Keywords: nuclear explosion monitoring ; nuclear test ban ; seismology ; acoustics
    Description / Table of Contents: This topical volume focuses on the most recent advances that have been achieved in relevant fields of research of nuclear test ban monitoring, including seismology, infrasound- and hydro-acoustics, as well as nuclear physics and atmospheric backtracking. This research has been presented during the special sessions on "Research and Development in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring" convened during the 2007 and 2008 General Assemblies of the European Geosciences Union (EGU). The special sessions were introduced after the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO Prepcom) had convened a scientific symposium in 2006 on "CTBT: Synergies with Science 1996-2006 and beyond" marking the tenth anniversary of the United Nations General Assembly’s adoption of the CTBT Treaty. With regard to the seismo-acoustic fields several papers provide important updates on advances made in these fields since publication of ‘Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty’ (see PAGEOPH topical volumes 158-159, 2001-2002). Moreover, this topical volume expands on these publications by including radionuclide and noble gas monitoring, as well as atmospheric transport modeling. In these two areas, significant progress has been made in recent years. Two papers studying the 2006 North Korean nuclear test elucidate how progress made in the relevant fields has allowed for a good understanding on the characteristics of this underground nuclear test.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (246 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783034603706
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Basel, Boston, Berlin : Birkhäuser
    Keywords: engineering ; geophysics ; mining ; monitoring technology ; seismic monitoring ; seismic tomography ; seismology ; stress re-distribution
    Description / Table of Contents: Stress re-distribution as a result of exploitation of mineral, hydrocarbon, geothermal, and water resources cannot be eliminated. The effort must be directed to a better understanding of the underlying processes for the management of the hazard and risk associated with these operations. The study of induced seismicity has continually evolved over the past couple of decades, as underlined by both the number and complexity of applied studies required to satisfy the increased economic demands, assure the safety of the workforce and equipment, and protect the environment. A considerable effort has been put into the development of passive monitoring technology, specialized products and services being available for a wide range of applications. The recording of substantial high quality seismic data has stimulated the work on theoretical and practical aspects related to these applications, involving not only seismological knowledge, but also elements of rock mechanics, and an understanding of mining, geotechnical, and petroleum engineering. Pure and Applied Geophysics has largely contributed to raising the profile of induced seismicity research and its credibility. The range of specific analyses included in the present collection of studies expresses how powerful and resourceful passive seismic monitoring has become to so many applications. Seismic data are routinely evaluated for a series of development activities specific to each application. Engineering practice is continually improved based on trials and analyses of the ground response and stress levels, confirmed through the monitoring of seismicity. We are better equipped than ever to provide management decisions based on formalized, quantitative, and thus objective assessment.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (213 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783034603058
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Washington, D. C. : The World Bank
    Keywords: alternative energy ; sustainable forest management ; carbon finance ; carbon ; forests ; climate change ; biodiversity conservation ; emissions ; oceans ; silver ; colors ; carbon sinks ; carbon offsets ; climate ; ecosystem ; emissions from deforestation ; coral reefs ; carbon stores ; forest ; sustainable forest
    Description / Table of Contents: Global warming and changes in climate will have severe and lasting impacts on national efforts to alleviate poverty and promote sustainable development. Some of the world s poorest countries and communities are the most vulnerable and are already suffering the consequences. Yet often these countries are rich in natural capital, ecosystems, and biodiversity that can contribute to solutions as they can to climate change. Biodiversity is the foundation and mainstay of agriculture, forests, and fisheries. Biological resources provide the raw materials for livelihoods, agriculture, medicines, trade, tourism, and industry. Forests, grasslands, freshwater, and marine and other natural ecosystems provide a range of services, often not recognized in national economic accounts but vital to human welfare: regulating water flows and water quality, flood control, pollination, decontamination, carbon sequestration, soil conservation, and nutrient and hydrological cycling. Current efforts to address climate change focus mainly on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly through cleaner energy strategies, and on attempting to reduce vulnerability of the communities at risk by improving infrastructure to meet new energy and water needs. This book book sets out a compelling argument for including ecosystem-based approaches to mitigation and adaptation as a third essential pillar in national strategies to address climate change. Such ecosystem-based strategies can offer cost-effective, proven and sustainable solutions contributing to, and complementing, other national and regional adaptation strategies.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XII, 114 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780821381274
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Washington, D. C. : The World Bank
    Keywords: climate change mitigation ; emission reductions ; electricity ; energy efficiency ; energy policy ; emission ; climate change ; drought ; climate ; forests ; carbon dioxide ; low-carbon ; global greenhouse gas emissions ; emissions ; colors ; deforestation ; transport sector ; global greenhouse gas ; carbon dioxide mitigation
    Description / Table of Contents: Governments and civil society in Latin America and the Caribbean should be well informed about the potential costs and benefits of combating climate change, their policy options over the next decades, and the global context for these policy decisions. At the same time, the global community needs to be better informed about the unique perspective of the Latin American and Caribbean region: problems the region will face, its potential contributions toward combating global warming, and how to maximize this potential while continuing to maintain growth and reduce poverty. This book, a companion volume to Low Carbon, High Growth: Latin American Responses to Climate Change, seeks to help fill both these needs.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XIV, 200 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780821380819
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Washington, D. C. : The World Bank
    Description / Table of Contents: There is an increasing consensus in the scientific community that climate change is a real and present threat. Despite the large uncertainty on the timing, magnitude and even the direction of some of the physical and economic effects of this phenomenon, it is widely accepted that these effects will be regionally differentiated and that developing countries and lower income populations will tend to suffer the most. In this context, it is critical that Latin American and Caribbean countries develop their own strategies for adapting to the various impacts of climate change and for contributing to global efforts aimed at mitigation.\'Low Carbon, High Growth\' contributes to these efforts by addressing a number of questions related to the causes and consequences of climate change in Latin America. What are the likely impacts of climate change in the region? Which countries and regions will be most affected? What can governments do to tackle the challenges associated with adapting to climate change? What role can Latin America and the Caribbean play in the area of climate change mitigation? How can the international community best help the region respond? While the study does not attempt to provide definitive answers to these questions, its goal is to contribute new information and analysis to help inform the public policy debate on this important issue.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XXI, 180 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780821381328
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Keywords: oil spill ; valuation ; environmental degradation ; deforestation ; demolition and military waste ; air pollution ; middle east and north africa ; water degradation ; forest degradation ; land degradation
    Description / Table of Contents: How much is a cleaner environment worth? For policy makers, that question goes largely unanswered. It's not that the environment is seen as unimportant. It's simply much easier to compare the costs and benefits of tangible projects such as airports and electrical grids, than it is to weigh the merits of a landfill cleanup. Over the past decades, the World Bank has undertaken a systematic effort to put a monetary value on environmental degradation, which results sparked policy changes. This book brings together the best case studies of the Cost of Environmental Degradation undertaken in the Middle East and North Africa region and summarizes the major policy impacts at the national and regional levels. The case studies evaluate in monetary terms the annual damages caused by economic activities to natural resources and environment – water, forests, agricultural land, air quality, waste and coastal zone – and reflects the estimates as percentages of the countries’ gross domestic product. It then captures the estimated values in a holistic picture and illuminates their concrete implications on policy, investments, and institutions for the selected countries and for the region as a whole. In addition to being a multi-nation effort, the book stands out by applying updated methods and techniques to estimate natural resource damages both in times of peace and of conflict. This is particularly relevant for the Middle East and North Africa, a region located at the crossroads of different cultures, continents, and religions. This book is primarily targeted at policy makers at the regional, national and local levels and to decision makers in government agencies, NGOs, and natural resource development institutions. It is suitable for use in training courses of decision makers working in environment, forests and water related fields. The book should also be of interest to advanced undergraduates, master’s level students and undergraduates.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XVIII, 168 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780821383964
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Washington, D.C. : The World Bank
    Keywords: emission scenarios ; colors ; vegetative cover ; oceans ; energy efficiency ; greenhouse gas ; temperature anomalies ; temperature ; emission ; greenhouse gas emissions ; carbon ; low-carbon ; climate change ; carbon cycle ; ecosystem ; ipcc ; greenhouse ; climate ; carbon dioxide ; chlorophyll concentration
    Description / Table of Contents: Today's enormous development challenges are complicated by the reality of climate change�the two are inextricably linked and together demand immediate attention. Climate change threatens all countries, but particularly developing ones. Understanding what climate change means for development policy is the central aim of the World Development Report 2010. It explores how public policy can change to better help people cope with new or worsened risks, how land and water management must adapt to better protect a threatened natural environment while feeding an expanding and more prosperous population, and how energy systems will need to be transformed.The report is an urgent call for action, both for developing countries who are striving to ensure policies are adapted to the realities and dangers of a hotter planet, and for high-income countries who need to undertake ambitious mitigation while supporting developing countries efforts. A climate-smart world is within reach if we act now to tackle the substantial inertia in the climate, in infrastructure, and in behaviors and institutions; if we act together to reconcile needed growth with prudent and affordable development choices; and if we act differently by investing in the needed energy revolution and taking the steps required to adapt to a rapidly changing planet.In the crowded field of climate change reports, WDR 2010 uniquely: -- emphasizes development -- takes an integrated look at adaptation and mitigation -- highlights opportunities in the changing competitive landscape and how to seize them -- proposes policy solutions grounded in analytic work and in the context of the political economy of reform
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XXI, 417 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780821379882
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    Washington, D. C. : The World Bank
    Keywords: poverty reduction ; governance ; social justice ; energy efficiency ; social protection ; vulnerability ; climate ; climate change ; global warming ; emissions ; carbon ; equity ; renewable energy ; forest
    Description / Table of Contents: Climate change is arguably the most profound challenge facing the international community in the 21st century. It is as much a challenge for poverty reduction, growth, and development as it is a global environmental issue. Climate change could undermine or reverse progress in reducing poverty and attaining the Millennium Development Goals, thereby unraveling many of the development gains of recent decades. It already threatens the livelihoods, health, and well-being of millions of people worldwide, particularly the poorest, most vulnerable groups. This book focuses attention on these previously neglected and poorly understood social dimensions of climate change. It highlights equity and vulnerability as central organizing themes and illustrates the multiple ways that pro-poor climate policy and action should be integrated into existing approaches to poverty reduction and development—from the local to the global levels. This integration is needed both in terms of pro-poor approaches to climate change adaptation and in terms of better managing the social risks and potential benefits associated with measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XXIII, 319 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780821381427
    Language: English
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  • 12
    Description / Table of Contents: Climate change is likely to have significant impacts on the agricultural sector to which farmers will have to adapt. While agriculture is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, it is also a source of carbon storage in soils. This report examines the economic and policy issues related to the impacts of climate change on agriculture and adaptation responses and to the mitigation of greenhouse gases from agriculture. It outlines research undertaken and underway in other national and international research agencies. It also highlights some of the knowledge gaps on the impacts of climate change on food production and the uncertainties of those impacts in a global context that warrant further research efforts. In particular, the report analyzes marginal abatement cost curves, which show the relative costs of achieving reductions in greenhouse gas emission through the implementation of different actions in the agricultural sector. The aim of the report is to help guide policy makers in the design of policies to address climate change issues in agriculture.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (135 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789264086876
    Language: English
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  • 13
    Description / Table of Contents: How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Cancún, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the Highlights version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: - estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2008 - selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh - CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information These estimates have been calculated using the IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (121 Seiten)
    Language: English
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  • 14
    Description / Table of Contents: Human impact on our environment is not a new phenomenon. For millennia, humans have been coping with – or provoking – environmental change. We have exploited, extracted, over-used, but also in many cases nurtured, the resources that the geosphere offers. Geoarchaeology studies the traces of human interactions with the geosphere and provides the key to recognizing landscape and environmental change, human impacts and the effects of environmental change on human societies. This collection of papers from around the world includes case studies and broader reviews covering the time period since before modern human beings came into existence up until the present day. To understand ourselves, we need to understand that our world is constantly changing, and that change is dynamic and complex. Geoarchaeology provides an inclusive and long-term view of human–geosphere interactions and serves as a valuable aid to those who try to determine sustainable policies for the future.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VII, 200 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862393257
    Language: English
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  • 15
    Keywords: carbon ; energy ; climate change ; coal emissions ; energy efficiency
    Description / Table of Contents: This study from the Independent Evaluation Group draws lessons for development and climate change mitigation from the World Bank Group’s far-reaching portfolio of projects in energy, forestry, transport, coal power, and technology transfer. Reviewing what has worked, what hasn’t, and why, the evaluation’s key findings include: Energy efficiency can offer countries direct economic returns that dwarf those of most other development projects, while also reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Tropical forest protected areas, on average, significantly reduce tropical deforestation, preserving carbon and biodiversity. Deforestation rates are lower in areas that allowed sustainable use by local populations than in strictly protected areas. Deforestation rates were lowest of all in indigenous forest areas. For renewable energy projects, long-duration loans have been important in making projects financially viable.. But at prevailing carbon prices, carbon offset sales had little impact on most renewable energy projects’ rate of returns, and did not address investors’ need for up-front capital. Technology transfer – broadly understood to include diffusion of technical and financial innovations related to low-carbon development – has worked well when the logic of piloting and demonstration is well thought out, and when grants are used to mitigate the risk of pioneering efforts.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XXXIX, 128 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780821386545
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    Washington, D. C. : The World Bank
    Keywords: adaptation ; climate change ; climate projections
    Description / Table of Contents: While the energy sector is a primary target of efforts to arrest and reverse the growth of greenhouse gas emissions and lower the carbon footprint of development, it is also expected to be increasingly affected by unavoidable climate consequences from the damage already induced in the biosphere. Energy services and resources, as well as seasonal demand, will be increasingly affected by changing trends, increasing variability, greater extremes and large inter-annual variations in climate parameters in some regions. All evidence suggests that adaptation is not an optional add-on but an essential reckoning on par with other business risks. Existing energy infrastructure, new infrastructure and future planning need to consider emerging climate conditions and impacts on design, construction, operation, and maintenance. Integrated risk-based planning processes will be critical to address the climate change impacts and harmonize actions within and across sectors. Also, awareness, knowledge, and capacity impede mainstreaming of climate adaptation into the energy sector. However, the formal knowledge base is still nascent—information needs are complex and to a certain extent regionally and sector specific. This report provides an up-to-date compendium of what is known about weather variability and projected climate trends and their impacts on energy service provision and demand. It discusses emerging practices and tools for managing these impacts and integrating climate considerations into planning processes and operational practices in an environment of uncertainty. It focuses on energy sector adaptation, rather than mitigation which is not discussed in this report. This report draws largely on available scientific and peer-reviewed literature in the public domain and takes the perspective of the developing world to the extent possible.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XXXIX, 178 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780821386989
    Language: English
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  • 17
    Keywords: geofluids
    Description / Table of Contents: Frontiers in Geofluids is a collection of invited papers chosen to highlight recent developments in our understanding of geological fluids in different parts of the Earth, and published to mark the first ten years of publication of the journal Geofluids. The scope of the volume ranges from the fundamental properties of fluids and the phase relationships of fluids encountered in nature, to case studies of the role of fluids in natural processes. New developments in analytical and theoretical approaches to understanding fluid compositions, fluid properties, and geological fluid dynamics across a wide range of environments are included. A recurrent theme of research published in Geofluids is the way in which similar approaches can be applied to geological fluids in very different settings and this is reflected in the diverse range of applications of fluid studies that are included here. They include deep groundwater flow, hydrocarbons in faulted sedimentary basins, hydrothermal ores, and multiphase flow in mid-ocean ridge systems. Other topics covered are geothermal waters, crustal metamorphism, and fluids in magmatic systems. The book will be of great interest to researchers and students interested in crustal and mantle fluids of all sorts.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XIII, 318 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781444333305
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Washington, D. C. : The World Bank
    Keywords: low-carbon growth ; emission ; greenhouse gas ; carbon ; Poland ; Europe
    Description / Table of Contents: This study on Poland is part of the World Bank's series of low-carbon growth studies. It poses the question of how Poland, an EU member state, an industrialized 'Annex I' country for the purposes of international climate discussions,1 and an OECD member, can transition to a low emissions economy as successfully as it underwent transition to a market economy in the early 1990s. With a broad consensus that global coordinated action is needed to prevent dangerous climate change estimated to cost about 1 percent of global GDP) and with EU policies on climate change already in place, Poland faces immediate policy challenges. Could the country commit to more ambitious overall greenhouse gas mitigation targets for the longer term - to 2030 and beyond? What technological options are available, and how expensive are they compared with existing technologies? Would there be high costs in lost growth and employment? Over a shorter horizon, to 2020, what are the implications for Poland of implementing EU policies on climate change? The report addresses these questions while advancing the approach of the Bank's low carbon studies by integrating 'bottom-up' engineering analysis with 'top-down' economy-wide modeling.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (193 Seiten)
    Language: English
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  • 19
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    Paris : OECD
    Keywords: carbon emission ; low-carbon economy ; greenhouse gas ; CO2
    Description / Table of Contents: Companies are increasingly aware of the need to address climate change. However, while many companies are taking action to address climate change, many others are still lagging behind. This report surveys responsible business practices addressing climate change and driving the shift to a low-carbon economy. It summarises policies, regulations and other instruments in support of a low-carbon economy in OECD countries and emerging economies, and analyses corporate responses to these drivers. Using the principles of responsible business conduct identified in the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, this report reviews three key areas of corporate action: accounting for greenhouse gas emissions; achieving emissions reductions; and engaging suppliers, consumers and other stakeholders.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (113 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789264090231
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: climate change
    Description / Table of Contents: This book shows some of the socio-economic impacts of climate change according to different estimates of the current or estimated global warming. A series of scientific and experimental research projects explore the impacts of climate change and browse the techniques to evaluate the related impacts. These 23 chapters provide a good overview of the different changes impacts that already have been detected in several regions of the world. They are part of an introduction to the researches being done around the globe in connection with this topic. However, climate change is not just an academic issue important only to scientists and environmentalists; it also has direct implications on various ecosystems and technologies.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (454 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533074115
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: climate change ; global warming
    Description / Table of Contents: This book is intended to introduce the reader to examples of the range of practical problems posed by "Global Warming". It includes 11 chapters split into 5 sections. Section 1 outlines the recent changes in the Indian Monsoon, the importance of greenhouse gases to life, and the relative importance of changes in solar radiation in causing the changes. Section 2 discusses the changes to natural hazards such as floods, retreating glaciers and potential sea level changes. Section 3 examines planning cities and transportation systems in the light of the changes, while section 4 looks at alternative energy sources. Section 5 estimates the changes to the carbon pool in the alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The 11 authors come from 9 different countries, so the examples are taken from a truly international set of problems.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (250 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533071497
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: geology ; geophysics
    Description / Table of Contents: Ocean closure involves a variety of converging tectonic processes that reshape shrinking basins, their adjacent margins and the entire earth underneath. Following continental breakup, margin formation and sediment accumulation, tectonics normally relaxes and the margins become passive for millions of years. However, when final convergence is at the gate, the passive days of any ocean and its margins are over or soon will be. The fate of the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf is seemingly known beforehand, as they are nestled in the midst of Africa-Arabia plate convergence with Eurasia. Over millions of years through the Cenozoic era they progressively shriveled, leaving only a glimpse of the Tethys Ocean. Eventually, the basins will adhere to the Alpine-Himalaya orogen and dissipate. This book focuses on a unique stage in the ocean closure process, when significant convergence already induced major deformations, yet the inter-plate basins and margins still record the geological history.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (352 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533075945
    Language: English
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  • 23
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: oceanography ; atmospheric sciences ; air pollution ; air quality
    Description / Table of Contents: Air pollution has been a major transboundary problem and a matter of global concern for decades. High concentrations of different air pollutants are particularly harmful to large cities residents, where numerous anthropogenic activities strongly influence the quality of air. Although there are many books on the subject, the one in front of you will hopefully fulfill some of the gaps in the area of air quality monitoring and modeling, and be of help to graduate students, professionals and researchers. The book is divided in five sections, dealing with mathematical models and computing techniques used in air pollution monitoring and forecasting; air pollution models and application; measuring methodologies in air pollution monitoring and control; experimental data on urban air pollution in China, Egypt, Northeastern U.S, Brazil and Romania; and finally, the health effects due to exposure to benzene, and on the influence of air pollutants on the acute respiratory diseases in children in Mexico.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (364 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533073071
    Language: English
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  • 24
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: oceanography ; atmospheric sciences ; air pollution ; air quality ; environmental engineering
    Description / Table of Contents: Air pollution is about five decades or so old field and continues to be a global concern. Therefore, the governments around the world are involved in managing air quality in their countries for the welfare of their citizens. The management of air pollution involves understanding air pollution sources, monitoring of contaminants, modeling air quality, performing laboratory experiments, the use of satellite images for quantifying air quality levels, indoor air pollution, and elimination of contaminants through control. Research activities are being performed on every aspect of air pollution throughout the world, in order to respond to public concerns. The book is grouped in five different sections. Some topics are more detailed than others. The readers should be aware that multi-authored books have difficulty maintaining consistency. A reader will find, however, that each chapter is intellectually stimulating. Our goal was to provide current information and present a reasonable analysis of air quality data compiled by knowledgeable professionals in the field of air pollution.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (382 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533071312
    Language: English
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  • 25
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: oceanography ; atmospheric sciences ; environmental engineering ; geodesy ; remote sensing
    Pages: Online-Ressource (170 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789537619602
    Language: English
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  • 26
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: geology ; geophysics ; tectonics ; seismology
    Description / Table of Contents: Chapter 1: Plates Amalgamation and Plate Destruction, the Western Gondwana History by Ngako Vincent and Njonfang Emmanuel --- Chapter 2: Lithospheric Structure and Tectonics of the Eastern Alps – Evidence from New Seismic Data by Ewald Brückl --- Chapter 3: Structure and Plate Tectonic Evolution of the Northern Outer Carpathians by Jan Golonka, Kaja Pietsch and Paweł Marzec --- Chapter 4: Tectonic Model of the Sinai Peninsula Based on Geophysical Investigations by Taha Rabeh --- Chapter 5: Siberia - From Rodinia to Eurasia by Dmitry V. Metelkin, Valery A. Vernikovsky and Alexey Yu. Kazansky --- Chapter 6: Proto-Basin Types of North China Craton (NCC) in Late Triassic and Its Implication for Regional Tectonics of Initial Craton Destruction by Yang Minghui, Liu Chiyang, Zeng Peng, Bai Hua and Zhou Jin --- Chapter 7: Tectonic Implications of Stratigraphy Architecture in Distal Part of Foreland Basin, Southwestern Taiwan by Jong-Chang Wu, Kenn-Ming Yang, Yi-Ru Chen and Wen-Rong Chi --- Chapter 8: Seismic Hazard in Tien Shan: Basement Structure Control Over the Deformation Induced by Indo-Eurasia Collision by Buslov, Mikhail M. and De Grave, Johan --- Chapter 9: Lithosphere as a Nonlinear System: Geodynamic Consequences by E. G. Mirlin --- Chapter 10: Layer-Block Tectonics, a New Concept of Plate Tectonics - An Example from Nansha Micro-Plate, Southern South China Sea by Hai-ling Liu, Hong-bo Zheng, Yan-Lin Wang, Chao-Hua Wu, Mei-Song Zhao and Yun-Kong Du --- Chapter 11: The Role of Geoelectrical DC Methods in Determining the Subsurface Tectonics Features. Case Studies from Syria by Jamal Asfahani --- Chapter 12: Salt Tectonics of the Lisan Diapir Revealed by Synthetic Aperture Radar Images by Damien Closson, Najib Abou Karaki, Nada Milisavljević, Frédéric Hallot, and Marc Acheroy --- Chapter 13: Mantle-like Trace Element Composition of Petroleum – Contributions from Serpentinizing Peridotites by Peter Szatmari, Teresa Cristina O. da Fonseca and Norbert F. Miekeley
    Pages: Online-Ressource (358 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533075457
    Language: English
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  • 27
    Keywords: environmental engineering ; climate change ; global warming
    Description / Table of Contents: The failure of the UN climate change summit in Copenhagen in December 2009 to effectively reach a global agreement on emission reduction targets, led many within the developing world to view this as a reversal of the Kyoto Protocol and an attempt by the developed nations to shirk out of their responsibility for climate change. The issue of global warming has been at the top of the political agenda for a number of years and has become even more pressing with the rapid industrialization taking place in China and India. This book looks at the effects of climate change throughout different regions of the world and discusses to what extent cleantech and environmental initiatives such as the destruction of fluorinated greenhouse gases, biofuels, and the role of plant breeding and biotechnology. The book concludes with an insight into the socio-religious impact that global warming has, citing Christianity and Islam.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (646 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077338
    Language: English
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  • 28
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    Open Humanities Press
    Keywords: open science ; open knowledge ; open data ; digitization ; visualization ; searching
    Description / Table of Contents: One of the aims of the Living Books About Life series is to provide a 'bridge' or point of connection, translation, even interrogation and contestation, between the humanities and the sciences. Accordingly, this introduction to Digitize Me, Visualize Me, Search Me takes as its starting point the so-called ‘computational turn’ to data-intensive scholarship in the humanities. The phrase ‘the computational turn’ has been adopted to refer to the process whereby techniques and methodologies drawn from (in this case) computer science and related fields – including science visualization, interactive information visualization, image processing, network analysis, statistical data analysis, and the management, manipulation and mining of data – are being used to produce new ways of approaching and understanding texts in the humanities; what is sometimes thought of as ‘the digital humanities’. The concern in the main has been with either digitizing ‘born analog’ humanities texts and artifacts (e.g. making annotated editions of the art and writing of William Blake available to scholars and researchers online), or gathering together ‘born digital’ humanities texts and artifacts (videos, websites, games, photography, sound recordings, 3D data), and then taking complex and often extremely large-scale data analysis techniques from computing science and related fields and applying them to these humanities texts and artifacts - to this ‘big data’, as it has been called. Witness Lev Manovich and the Software Studies Initiative’s use of ‘digital image analysis and new visualization techniques’ to study ‘20,000 pages of Science and Popular Science magazines… published between 1872-1922, 780 paintings by van Gogh, 4535 covers of Time magazine (1923-2009) and one million manga pages’ (Manovich, 2011), or Dan Cohen and Fred Gibbs’s text mining of ‘the 1,681,161 books that were published in English in the UK in the long nineteenth century’ (Cohen, 2010). What Digitize Me, Visualize Me, Search Me endeavours to show is that such data-focused transformations in research can be seen as part of a major alteration in the status and nature of knowledge. It is an alteration that, according to the philosopher Jean-François Lyotard, has been taking place since at least the 1950s, and involves nothing less than a shift away from a concern with questions of what is right and just, and toward a concern with legitimating power by optimizing the social system’s performance in instrumental, functional terms. This shift has significant consequences for our idea of knowledge.
    Language: English
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  • 29
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    Open Humanities Press
    Keywords: astrobiology ; Mars ; life
    Description / Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS LIFE? I’m not going to answer this question. In fact, I doubt if it will ever be possible to give a full answer. (Haldane, 1949: 58) What Is Life? J. B. S. Haldane (1949) and Erwin Schrödinger (1944), two of the twentieth century’s most influential scientists, posed the direct question, ‘what is life?’ and declared that it was a question unlikely to find an answer. Life, they suggested, might exceed the ability of science to represent it and even though the sciences of biology, physics and chemistry might usefully describe life’s structures, systems and processes, those sciences should not seek to reduce it to the sum of its parts. While Schrödinger drew attention to the physical structure of living matter, including especially the cell, Haldane asserted that ‘what is common to life is the chemical events’ (1949: 59) and so therefore life might be defined, though not reduced, to ‘a pattern of chemical processes’ (62) involving the use of oxygen, enzymes and so on. Following Schrödinger and Haldane, Chris McKay’s article, published in 2004 and included in this collection, asks again ‘What is Life – and How Do We Search For It in Other Worlds?’. For him, the still open and unresolved question of life is intrinsically linked to the problem of how to find it (here, or elsewhere) since, he queries, how can we search for something that we cannot adequately define? It should be noted that this dilemma did not deter the founders of Artificial Life, a project that succeeded Artificial Intelligence and that sought to both simulate ‘life-as-we-know-it’ and synthesise ‘life-as-it-could-be’ by reducing life to the informational and therefore computational criteria of self-organisation, self-replication, evolution, autonomy and emergence (Langton, 1996: 40; Kember, 2003). McKay concedes that certain characteristics of life, such as metabolism and motion, can occur without biology, but rather than pursuing contestable (re)definitions of life that could not, for him, constitute the basis for a search, he prefers to ask a more pragmatic question: ‘what does life need?’. The elements that support life – energy, carbon, liquid water, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus – are not contested and, barring only liquid water, they are abundant in the Solar System. It seems logical then, McKay argues, to search for life indirectly, by looking at where the water is. The case for liquid water on Mars has, as we will see, a long and argumentative history. In as far as the current case is, as McKay maintains, ‘tight’, then there is justification for his upbeat assessment that, with the correct instruments, it should be possible to find life-as-we-know-it – and even life-as-it-could-be. He writes: ‘while it could be similar at the top (ecological) and bottom (chemical) levels, life on Mars could be quite alien in the middle, in the realm of biochemistry’ (2004: 1261).
    Language: English
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  • 30
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    Washington, D.C. : The World Bank
    Keywords: adaptation ; caribbean ; climate change ; community ; indigenous peoples ; latin america ; livelihoods ; poverty ; rural development ; vulnerability
    Description / Table of Contents: This book addresses the implications of climate change on indigenous peoples and communities living in the highlands, lowlands, and coastal areas of Latin America and the Caribbean. Across the region, indigenous people already experience the negative effects of climate change and variability. Their livelihoods are threatened by insecure food supplies and poor health. In addition, their cultural integrity is challenged: Indigenous peoples often blame themselves for the changes they observe in nature, despite their limited emission of greenhouse gasses. This book shows the complexity of how indigenous communities are affected by climate change, explores options for improving resilience, and provides guidance in the design of effective and sustainable adaptations. 'Changing climates of the world create new challenges not only for mainstream societies, but for indigenous and subsistence societies as well. The marginalized populations of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have long paid a price for their isolation from the colonial societies, but now the natural foundations of their marginal, traditional habitats and cultural spaces are being changed in ways that are yet to be fathomed. Kronik and Verner systematically and fairly thoroughly substantiate the effects of changing climate on the flora and fauna and patterns of life among indigenous populations in four regions of LAC: the Amazon, Andean and sub-Andean South America, and the Caribbean. Examinations of the vulnerabilities, adjustments, and potential adaptations of an assortment of peoples in each region illuminate the complexities of understanding what the world is up against with climate change, and can help to inform thinking about how the future will unfold. An extraordinary report of rigorous research that ought to be replicated everywhere.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XVI, 185 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780821383810
    Language: English
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  • 31
    Keywords: energy engineering
    Description / Table of Contents: Nowadays, the increasing use of power electronics equipment origins important distortions. The perfect AC power systems are a pure sinusoidal wave, both voltage and current, but the ever-increasing existence of non-linear loads modify the characteristics of voltage and current from the ideal sinusoidal wave. This deviation from the ideal wave is reflected by the harmonics and, although its effects vary depending on the type of load, it affects the efficiency of an electrical system and can cause considerable damage to the systems and infrastructures. Ensuring optimal power quality after a good design and devices means productivity, efficiency, competitiveness and profitability. Nevertheless, nobody can assure the optimal power quality when there is a good design if the correct testing and working process from the obtained data is not properly assured at every instant; this entails processing the real data correctly. In this book the reader will be introduced to the harmonics analysis from the real measurement data and to the study of different industrial environments and electronic devices.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (278 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533073354
    Language: English
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  • 32
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: globalization ; business ; management ; economics
    Description / Table of Contents: To better understand the contemporary world, the world of innovation and technology, science should try to synthesize and assimilate social science in the development of our civilization. Does the new era require new knowledge? Does the age of globalization demand new education, new human attitudes? This books tries to clarify these questions. The book New Knowledge in a New Era of Globalization consists of 16 chapters divided into three sections: Globalization and Education; Globalization and Human Being; Globalization and Space. The Authors of respective chapters represent a great diversity of disciplines and methodological approaches as well as a variety of academic culture. This book is a valuable contribution and it will certainly be appreciated by a global community of scholars.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (354 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533075013
    Language: English
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  • 33
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: globalization ; business ; management ; economics
    Description / Table of Contents: This is a collective volume on present-day globalisation with nine chapters from authors of several academic disciplines. It covers wide aspects, ranging from the nature, impact, challenges and implications of globalisation to responses from a country or community when facing globalisation today or tomorrow. Policy suggestions are also made. This book will hence help the reader to understand the currently debated issues.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (160 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533071923
    Language: English
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  • 34
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: econometrics ; business ; management ; economics
    Description / Table of Contents: Econometrics is becoming a highly developed and highly mathematicized array of its own sub disciplines, as it should be, as economies are becoming increasingly complex, and scientific economic analyses require progressively thorough knowledge of solid quantitative methods. This book thus provides recent insight on some key issues in econometric theory and applications. The volume first focuses on three recent advances in econometric theory: non-parametric estimation, instrument generating functions, and seasonal volatility models. Additionally, three recent econometric applications are presented: continuous time duration analysis, panel data analysis dealing with endogeneity and selectivity biases, and seemingly unrelated regression analysis. Intended as an electronic edition, providing immediate "open access" to its content, the book is easy to follow and will be of interest to professionals involved in econometrics.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (116 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533075037
    Language: English
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  • 35
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: crop ; agricultural and biological sciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Crop production depends on the successful implementation of the soil, water, and nutrient management technologies. Food production by the year 2020 needs to be increased by 50 percent more than the present levels to satisfy the needs of around 8 billion people. Much of the increase would have to come from intensification of agricultural production. Importance of wise usage of water, nutrient management, and tillage in the agricultural sector for sustaining agricultural growth and slowing down environmental degradation calls for urgent attention of researchers, planners, and policy makers. Crop models enable researchers to promptly speculate on the long-term consequences of changes in agricultural practices. In addition, cropping systems, under different conditions, are making it possible to identify the adaptations required to respond to changes. This book adopts an interdisciplinary approach and contributes to this new vision. Leading authors analyze topics related to crop production technologies. The efforts have been made to keep the language as simple as possible, keeping in mind the readers of different language origins. The emphasis has been on general descriptions and principles of each topic, technical details, original research work, and modeling aspects. However, the comprehensive journal references in each area should enable the reader to pursue further studies of special interest. The subject has been presented through fifteen chapters to clearly specify different topics for convenience of the readers.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (276 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077871
    Language: English
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  • 36
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: agricultural and biological sciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Aquaculture is the art, science and business of cultivating aquatic animals and plants in fresh or marine waters. It is the extension of fishing, resulted from the fact that harvests of wild sources of fish and other aquatic species cannot keep up with the increased demand of a growing human population. Expansion of aquaculture can result with less care for the environment. The first pre-requisite to sustainable aquaculture is clean wate, but bad management of aquatic species production can alter or even destroy existing wild habitat, increase local pollution levels or negatively impact local species. Aquatic managers are aware of this and together with scientists are looking for modern and more effective solutions to many issues regarding fish farming. This book presents recent research results on the interaction between aquaculture and environment, and includes several case studies all over the world with the aim of improving and performing sustainable aquaculture.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (246 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077499
    Language: English
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  • 37
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    Dordrecht : Springer
    Keywords: distribution of snow, ice and glaciers ; glaciation ; ice ages ; glacier dynamics ; mass balance ; snowfall and snow cover
    Description / Table of Contents: The earth’s cryosphere, which includes snow, glaciers and ice caps, ice sheets, ice shelves, sea ice, river and lake ice, and frozen ground, contains about 75% of the earth’s fresh water. It exists at almost all latitudes, from the tropics to the poles, and plays a vital role in controlling the global climate system. It also provides direct visible evidence of the effect of climate change, and, therefore, requires proper understanding of the complex dynamics. This encyclopedia mainly focuses on the various aspects of snow, ice and glaciers, but also covers other cryospheric branches, and provides an up-to-date information and basic concepts on relevant topics. It includes alphabetically arranged and professionally written, comprehensive and authoritative academic articles by well-known international experts in individual fields. The encyclopedia contains a broad spectrum of topics, ranging from the atmospheric processes responsible for snow formation; transformation of snow to ice and changes in their properties; classification of ice and glaciers and their worldwide distribution; glaciation and ice ages; glacier dynamics; glacier surface and subsurface characteristics; geomorphic processes and landscape formation; hydrology and sedimentary systems; permafrost degradation; hazards caused by cryospheric changes; and trends of glacier retreat on the global scale along with the impact of climate change. This book can serve as a source of reference at the undergraduate and graduate level and help better understand snow, ice and glaciers. This will also be an indispensable tool containing specialized literature for geologists, geographers, climatologists, hydrologists, and water resources engineers; as well as to those who are engaged in the practice of agricultural and civil engineering, earth sciences, environmental sciences and engineering, ecosystem management, and other relevant subjects.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XLVI, 1253 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789048126422
    Language: English
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  • 38
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: renewable energy
    Description / Table of Contents: Increase in electricity demand and environmental issues resulted in fast development of energy production from renewable resources. In the long term, application of RES can guarantee the ecologically sustainable energy supply. This book indicates recent trends and developments of renewable energy resources that organized in 11 chapters. It can be a source of information and basis for discussion for readers with different backgrounds.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (250 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533079394
    Language: English
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  • 39
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: alkaline silicate rocks
    Description / Table of Contents: "Environmental Monitoring" is a book designed by InTech - Open Access Publisher in collaboration with scientists and researchers from all over the world. The book is designed to present recent research advances and developments in the field of environmental monitoring to a global audience of scientists, researchers, environmental educators, administrators, managers, technicians, students, environmental enthusiasts and the general public. The book consists of a series of sections and chapters addressing topics like the monitoring of heavy metal contaminants in varied environments, biolgical monitoring/ecotoxicological studies; and the use of wireless sensor networks/Geosensor webs in environmental monitoring.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (528 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077246
    Language: English
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  • 40
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: biodiversity ; environmental sciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Biological Diversity and Sustainable Resources Use is a very interesting volume, including attractive overviews and original case studies mainly focused on socio-economical effects of the right management of the ecosystems biodiversity, as well as on the useful integration between human activities and environmental responses. Ecological, medical and historical aspects of the sustainable development are also discussed in this book which consists of articles written by international experts, offering the reader a clear and extensive view of the present condition in which our planet is.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (158 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077062
    Language: English
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  • 41
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: biodiversity ; environmental sciences
    Description / Table of Contents: As everybody knows, the dynamic interactions between biotic and abiotic factors, as well as the anthropic ones, considerably affect global climate changes and consequently biology, ecology and distribution of life forms of our planet. These important natural events affect all ecosystems, causing important changes on biodiversity. Systematic and phylogenetic studies, biogeographic distribution analysis and evaluations of diversity richness are focal topics of this book written by international experts, some even considering economical effects and future perspectives on the managing and conservation plans.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (392 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077963
    Language: English
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  • 42
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: tsunami ; environmental sciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Submarine earthquakes, submarine slides and impacts may set large water volumes in motion characterized by very long wavelengths and a very high speed of lateral displacement, when reaching shallower water the wave breaks in over land – often with disastrous effects. This natural phenomenon is known as a tsunami event. By December 26, 2004, an event in the Indian Ocean, this word suddenly became known to the public. The effects were indeed disastrous and 227,898 people were killed. Tsunami events are a natural part of the Earth’s geophysical system. There have been numerous events in the past and they will continue to be a threat to humanity; even more so today, when the coastal zone is occupied by so much more human activity and many more people. Therefore, tsunamis pose a very serious threat to humanity. The only way for us to face this threat is by increased knowledge so that we can meet future events by efficient warning systems and aid organizations. This book offers extensive and new information on tsunamis; their origin, history, effects, monitoring, hazards assessment and proposed handling with respect to precaution. Only through knowledge do we know how to behave in a wise manner. This book should be a well of tsunami knowledge for a long time, we hope.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (714 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533075525
    Language: English
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  • 43
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    Amsterdam : Floss Manuals
    Description / Table of Contents: This manual was initially written at the first edition of the GNU/Linux conference LibrePlanet which was hosted at the Harvard Science Center, Cambridge, MA, on March 21-22, 2009. LibrePlanet conferences are part of the LibrePlanet project, started in 2006, whose mission is to help further the ideals surrounding the free software via a social movement for user freedom organized as a global network of local teams and project-based ones. The LibrePlanet conference 2009 was sponsored by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) and organized into three tracks, free software activism, freedom for network services, and high priority free software projects. The creation of this manual was part of the free software activism track, and a collaboration between FLOSS Manuals and the FSF.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (169 pages)
    Language: English
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  • 44
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: geology ; geophysics
    Description / Table of Contents: With growing attention on global environmental and climate change, geoscience has experienced rapid change and development in the last three decades. Many new data, methods and modeling techniques have been developed and applied in various aspects of geoscience. The chapters collected in this book present an excellent profile of the current state of various data, analysis methods and modeling techniques, and demonstrate their applications from hydrology, geology and paleogeomorphology, to geophysics, environmental and climate change. The wide range methods and techniques covered in the book include information systems and technology, global position system (GPS), digital sediment core image analysis, fuzzy set theory for hydrology, spatial interpolation, spectral analysis of geophysical data, GIS-based hydrological models, high resolution geological models, 3D sedimentology, change detection from remote sensing, etc. Besides two comprehensive review articles, most chapters focus on in-depth studies of a particular method or technique.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (336 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533077376
    Language: English
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  • 45
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: mineralogy ; physical sciences ; engineering ; technology
    Description / Table of Contents: An Introduction to the Study of Mineralogy is a collection of papers that can be easily understood by a wide variety of readers, whether they wish to use it in their work, or simply to extend their knowledge. It is unique in that it presents a broad view of the mineralogy field. The book is intended for chemists, physicists, engineers, and the students of geology, geophysics, and soil science, but it will also be invaluable to the more advanced students of mineralogy who are looking for a concise revision guide.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (154 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533078960
    Language: English
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  • 46
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: waste ; environmental engineering
    Description / Table of Contents: This book reports research on the utilization of organic waste through composting and vermicomposting, biogas production, recovery of waste materials, and the chemistry involved in the processing of organic waste under various processing aspects. A few chapters on collection systems and disposal of wastes have also been included.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (198 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533079257
    Language: English
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  • 47
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: x-ray ; spectroscopy ; physical sciences ; engineering ; technology
    Description / Table of Contents: The x-ray is the only invention that became a regular diagnostic tool in hospitals within a week of its first observation by Roentgen in 1895. Even today, x-rays are a great characterization tool at the hands of scientists working in almost every field, such as medicine, physics, material science, space science, chemistry, archeology, and metallurgy. With vast existing applications of x-rays, it is even more surprising that every day people are finding new applications of x-rays or refining the existing techniques. This book consists of selected chapters on the recent applications of x-ray spectroscopy that are of great interest to the scientists and engineers working in the fields of material science, physics, chemistry, astrophysics, astrochemistry, instrumentation, and techniques of x-ray based characterization. The chapters have been grouped into two major sections based upon the techniques and applications. The book covers some basic principles of satellite x-rays as characterization tools for chemical properties and the physics of detectors and x-ray spectrometer. The techniques like EDXRF, WDXRF, EPMA, satellites, micro-beam analysis, particle induced XRF, and matrix effects are discussed. The characterization of thin films and ceramic materials using x-rays is also covered.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (280 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533079677
    Language: English
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  • 48
    Keywords: guide ; thin section microscopy
    Description / Table of Contents: Die polarisationsmikroskopische Untersuchung von Materialien (Minerale, Gesteine, Erze, Werkstoffe, Syntheseprodukte) im Durchlicht und Auflicht ist eine der klassischen und bis heute unverzichtbaren mineralogischen Untersuchungsmethoden. Sie ermöglicht es, die festen Substanzen (kristallin, amorph) zerstörungsfrei und mit relativ hoher Ortsauflösung in ihrem Aggregatverband meist sicher zu identifizieren, ihre Zusammensetzungen abzu-schätzenund darüber hinaus aus den Gefügemerkmalen des Materials (Struktur, Textur, Phasenbestand, Phasenbeziehungen, Reaktionstexturen etc.) wichtige Hinweise auf dessen Bildungsgeschichte abzuleiten. Polarisationsmikroskopie ist dadurch den integrierenden Analyseverfahren an Probenpulvern zur Bestimmung des Phasenbestandes (RDA) und der chemischen Zusammensetzung (RFA, AAS) deutlich überlegen. Polarisationsmikroskopie gelangt jedoch an die Grenzen, wenn z.B. die chemische Zusammensetzung komplexer Mischphasen genau bestimmt werden muss oder die Feinkörnigkeit des Materials eine Bestimmung der einzelnen Phasen nicht mehr zulässt. Eine moderne materialwissen-schaftlicheUntersuchung wird daher stets entsprechend der jeweiligen Problemstellung und Materialbeschaffenheit die polarisationsmikroskopische Bearbeitung mit zerstörungsfreier, hoch ortsauflösender Analytik (EMS, REM-EDX, TEM) verbinden. Die polarisationsmikroskopischen Bestimmungsmethoden der durchsichtigen amorphen und kristallinen Phasen (Gläser, Minerale, synthetische Substanzen) und die hierfür notwendigen kristalloptischen Zusammenhänge sind in zahlreichen deutsch-und englischsprachigen Lehrbüchern ausführlich behandelt (siehe Literaturauswahl). Die folgende Einführung in die Mineralbestimmung im Dünnschliff kann daher auf eine breite Darstellung des Stoffes verzichten. Für die praktische Arbeit am Polarisationsmikroskop genügt es, die erforder-lichenSachverhalte in einer prägnanten und auch dem mineralogisch wenig vorgebildeten Mikroskopierenden verständlichen Anleitung zusammenzufassen. Kristalloptische und kristallographische Grundlagen werden nur soweit behandelt, als sie für das Verständnis der beobachteten optischen Phänomene und morphologischen Merkmale notwendig erscheinen. Die polarisationsmikroskopische Bestimmung der Minerale erfolgt anhand ihrer optischen und morphologischen Kennzeichen. Umfangreiche Tabellenwerke stellen die hierfür benötigte Datenbasis für eine außerordentliche Vielzahl von natürlichen Mineralen und synthetischen Phasen bereit (siehe Literaturauswahl). Grundlage dieses Leitfadens bildet das in langjähriger Mikroskopiepraxis bewährte, seit einigen Jahren jedoch vergriffene Clausthaler Heft 14 „Methoden der Dünnschliffmikro-skopie“von G. Müller & M. Raith. Wir haben den Text weitgehend übernommen, das Bildmaterial jedoch graphisch modern überarbeitet, mit weiteren Abbildungen ergänzt sowie die vielfältigen Phänomene mit zahlreichen Mikrofotos veranschaulicht. Wir hoffen, dass dieser Leitfaden dem Studierenden das notwendige Rüstzeug für einen erfolgreichen Einstieg in die Polarisationsmikroskopie bereitstellt. Anregungen und Hinweise zur Darstellung sind jederzeit willkommen!
    Pages: Online-Ressource (IV, 125 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783000364204
    Language: German
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: remote sensing ; geology ; geophysics
    Description / Table of Contents: Monitoring of water and land objects enters a revolutionary age with the rise of ubiquitous remote sensing and public access. Earth monitoring satellites permit detailed, descriptive, quantitative, holistic, standardized, global evaluation of the state of the Earth skin in a manner that our actual Earthen civilization has never been able to before. The water monitoring topics covered in this book include the remote sensing of open water bodies, wetlands and small lakes, snow depth and underwater seagrass, along with a variety of remote sensing techniques, platforms, and sensors. The Earth monitoring topics include geomorphology, land cover in arid climate, and disaster assessment after a tsunami. Finally, advanced topics of remote sensing covers atmosphere analysis with GNSS signals, earthquake visual monitoring, and fundamental analyses of laser reflectometry in the atmosphere medium.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (240 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789533079196
    Language: English
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    Keywords: cities ; climate change ; distaster risk management ; environmental buffers ; flooding ; urban development
    Description / Table of Contents: Urban flooding is a significant challenge which today increasingly confronts the residents of the expanding cities and towns of developing countries, as well as policymakers and national, regional and local government officials. The Global Handbook presents the state-of-the art in urban flood risk management in a thorough and user-friendly way. It serves as a primer in integrated urban flood risk management for technical specialists, decision-makers and other concerned stakeholders in the private and community sectors. It covers the causes, probability and impacts of floods; the measures that can be used to manage flood risk, balancing structural and non-structural solutions in an integrated fashion; and the means by which these measures can be financed and implemented, and their progress monitored and evaluated. The Handbook provides an operational guide on how most effectively to manage the risk of floods in rapidly urbanizing settings – and within the context of a changing climate.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (631 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780821394779
    Language: English
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    Keywords: cities ; climate change ; distaster risk management ; environmental buffers ; flooding ; urban development
    Description / Table of Contents: Urban flooding is a significant challenge which today increasingly confronts the residents of the expanding cities and towns of developing countries, as well as policymakers and national, regional and local government officials. The Global Handbook presents the state-of-the art in urban flood risk management in a thorough and user-friendly way. It serves as a primer in integrated urban flood risk management for technical specialists, decision-makers and other concerned stakeholders in the private and community sectors. It covers the causes, probability and impacts of floods; the measures that can be used to manage flood risk, balancing structural and non-structural solutions in an integrated fashion; and the means by which these measures can be financed and implemented, and their progress monitored and evaluated.The Handbook provides an operational guide on how most effectively to manage the risk of floods in rapidly urbanizing settings – and within the context of a changing climate.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (631 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780821394779
    Language: English
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    Keywords: Ubuntu
    Description / Table of Contents: Umfassender geht es nicht! Hier erfahren Sie alles, was man mit Ubuntu anstellen kann, aktuell zur Version 10.04 LTS 'Lucid Lynx'. Von der Installation, der Paketverwaltung über Optimierung, Programmierung, Migration und Kernelkompilierung bis hin zur Virtualisierung und Netzwerktechnik finden Sie alle wichtigen Fragen zu Ubuntu Linux in diesem Buch beantwortet. Darüber hinaus profitieren Sie von mehr als 250 eigens gekennzeichneten Tipps und Tricks sowie von zahlreichen Praxisworkshops. Dieses Buch macht Sie zum Ubuntu-Profi!
    Pages: Online-Ressource (1104 Seiten)
    Edition: 5., akt. und erw. Aufl.
    ISBN: 9783836216548
    Language: German
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    Bonn : Galileo Press
    Keywords: Visual Basic 2010 ; .NET
    Description / Table of Contents: Sie möchten Visual Basic oder ganz allgemein programmieren lernen? Dann führt Sie dieses Buch schnell und sicher zum Ziel. Angefangen bei den absoluten Grundlagen zu Variablen, Operatoren, Schleifen und Co. über objektorientierte Programmierung und Fehlerbehandlung bis hin zu Datenbankanwendungen mit ADO.NET und Internetanwendungen mit ASP.NET werden alle wichtigen Themen anhand anschaulicher Beispiele gut verständlich erläutert. Ausführliche Schritt-für-Schritt-Anleitungen und regelmäßige Zusammenfassungen sichern dabei Ihren Lernerfolg. Ihr neu gewonnenes Wissen können Sie zudem an einer Vielzahl von Übungsaufgaben unter Beweis stellen und an Musterlösungen überprüfen, so dass Sie schon bald in der Lage sein werden, selbstständig eigene Windows-Programme zu entwickeln.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (467 Seiten)
    Edition: 2., akt. und erw. Aufl.
    ISBN: 9783836215411
    Language: German
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    Keywords: seismology ; seismicity ; energy
    Description / Table of Contents: In the past several years, some energy technologies that inject or extract fluid from the Earth, such as oil and gas development and geothermal energy development, have been found or suspected to cause seismic events, drawing heightened public attention. Although only a very small fraction of injection and extraction activities among the hundreds of thousands of energy development sites in the United States have induced seismicity at levels noticeable to the public, understanding the potential for inducing felt seismic events and for limiting their occurrence and impacts is desirable for state and federal agencies, industry, and the public at large. To better understand, limit, and respond to induced seismic events, work is needed to build robust prediction models, to assess potential hazards, and to help relevant agencies coordinate to address them. Induced Seismicity Potential in Energy Technologies identifies gaps in knowledge and research needed to advance the understanding of induced seismicity; identify gaps in induced seismic hazard assessment methodologies and the research to close those gaps; and assess options for steps toward best practices with regard to energy development and induced seismicity potential.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XII, 225 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9780309253673
    Language: English
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    Berlin : Edition Open Access
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XI, 854 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783844222388
    Language: English
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    Berlin : Edition Open Access
    Pages: Online-Ressource (V, 320 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783869319629
    Language: English
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    Keywords: CO2-Speicherung ; Endlagerung ; Geothermie ; DESERTEC
    Description / Table of Contents: 1. Die Energiewende 2011 in Deutschland: Ein Vademecum für die Diskussion? / Robert Schlögl --- 2. Smarte Ideen für zukünftige Stromnetze / Christian Rehtanz --- 3. Energie aus der Tiefe: Geothermie / Rüdiger Schulz --- 4. Forschung zur sicheren Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfälle / Tilmann Rothfuchs, Thomas Brasser, Horst-Jürgen Herbert, Jörg Mönig, Ingo Müller-Lyda --- 5. Chancen und Risiken der CO2-Speicherung / Michael Kühn --- 6. Perspektiven für eine effiziente und nachhaltige Mobilität / Rolf Scharwächter --- 7. Strom aus der Wüste: Grundlagen des DESERTEC Konzepts / Franz Trieb, Hans Müller-Steinhagen --- 8. Energie ist Chemie – Katalyse als Schlüsseltechnik. Energie von Morgen: Eine Momentaufnahme / Malte Behrens, Robert Schlögl --- 9. Einleitung / Mittagssymposium: Dolmetscher der Kulturen Energie zwischen Natur- und Geisteswissenschaften Ein Streitgespräch / Gerhard Schaefer --- 10. Verschiedene Sprachkulturen rund um Energie / Gerhard Schaefer --- 11. Zitate zur Anregung der Diskussion / Gerhard Schaefer --- 12. Reaktionen der zwei Kontrahenten im Streitgespräch / Dietrich v. Engelhardt, Gunnar Berg --- 13. Fazit / Gerhard Schaefer
    Pages: Online-Ressource (IX, 207 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783844242829
    Language: German
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    Berlin : Edition Open Access
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VI, 269 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783869319612
    Language: English
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    Berlin : Edition Open Access
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VIII, 273 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783869319605
    Language: English
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    Pages: Online-Ressource (IX, 286 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783869319636
    Language: English
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    Description / Table of Contents: This study, the second volume of the series "Sources" of the "Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge," reviews a historical discussion about the question of whether a balance in equilibrium, after having been deflected, returns to its original position. This question captured the attention of philosophers and scientists for almost two millennia, from Greek antiquity to the sixteenth century when the "equilibrium controversy" became a central question among scholars. Two new sources related to this controversy are presented: an annotated copy of Jordanus de Nemore's "Liber de ponderibus" edited by Petrus Apianus in 1533 and an annotated copy of Giovanni Battista Benedetti's "Diversarum speculationum mathematicarum et physicarum liber" from 1585. Both works contain handwritten marginal notes by Guidobaldo del Monte, author of the most influential early modern text on mechanics. A detailed analysis of these sources, their prehistory, and their contexts shows that the "equilibrium controversy" only scratched the surface of a much deeper conceptual crisis of early modern mechanics that was triggered by the introduction of the medieval concept of "positional heaviness" into early modern discussions. This crisis helped to establish fundamental insights on which Galileo eventually built his theory of mechanics as well as his theory of motion.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (X, 376 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783869319599
    Language: English
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: earthquake ; seismology ; geology ; geophysics
    Description / Table of Contents: Recent major earthquakes around the world have shown the vulnerability of infrastructure and the need for research to better understand the nature of seismic events and their effects on structures. As a result, earthquake engineering research has been expanding as more and more data become available from a large array of seismic instruments, large scale experiments and numerical simulations. The first part of this book presents results from some of the current seismic research work including three-dimensional wave propagation in different soil media, seismic loss assessment, probabilistic hazard analysis, geotechnical problems including soil-structure interaction. The second part of the book focuses on the seismic behavior of structures including historical and monumental structures, bridge embankments, and different types of bridges and bearings.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (336 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535106944
    Language: English
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