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  • 2015-2019  (4,200,701)
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  • 1
  • 2
    Call number: Z 06.0500
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1824-7741
    Former Title: Vorgänger Geologisch-paläontologische Mitteilungen, Innsbruck
    Language: German , English
    Note: Ersch. unregelmäßig , Beiträge teilweise in Englisch
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Leiden : Nijhoff ; 1.2009 -
    Call number: IASS 17.92082
    Type of Medium: Monograph non-lending collection
    ISSN: 1876-8814
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 4
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Leningrad : Gidrometeorolog. Izd.
    Call number: MOP 33767
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 663 S.
    Language: Russian
    Note: In kyrill. Schr., russ.
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 5
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Stuttgart : Schweizerbart Science Publishers ; Volume 1, number 1 (1978)-
    Call number: M 18.91571
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 134 Seiten
    ISSN: 2363-7196
    Series Statement: Global tectonics and metallogeny : special issue Vol. 10/2-4
    Classification:
    Tectonics
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Global tectonics and metallogeny
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 6
    Call number: AWI G6-19-92375
    In: Berichte / Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Geowissenschaften, Nr. 9
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 278 Seiten , Illustrationen
    ISSN: 0175-9302
    Series Statement: Berichte / Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Geowissenschaften 9
    Language: German
    Note: Zugleich: Dissertation, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 1999 , INHALTSVERZEICHNIS 1. Einleitung 1.1 Kenntnisstand und offene Fragen 1.2 Fragestellung und Ziele dieser Arbeit 2. Umweltbedingungen in den Arbeitsgebieten 2.1 Hydrographie, Eisverhältnisse und NAO 2.2 Zur Variation von Wassertiefe und Breite der Dänemarkstraße und zur Vereisung Islands während des letzten Glazials 3. Methoden 3.1 Auswahl der Kernstationen 3.2 Probennahme und Analysen (Übersicht) 3.3 Zur Rekonstruktion von Paläobedingungen im Oberflächenwasser Zur Aussage stabiler Isotopenverhältnisse in planktischen Foraminiferen Zur Messung stabiler Isotopenverhältnisse Zur Massenspektrometrie Zur Rekonstruktion von Oberflächentemperaturen Alkane und Alkohole als Maß für Staubeintrag Eistranspmtiertes Material und vulkanische Aschen 3.4 Zur Rekonstruktion von Paläobedingungen im Zwischen-/ Tiefenwasser Häufigkeit von Cibicides- und anderen benthischen Arten (inkl. Taxonomie) Stabile Isotopenverhältnisse in benthischen Foraminiferen 3.5 AMS 14C-Datierungen Probenreinigung 3. 6 Hauptelementanalysen von vulkanischen Asche-Leithorizonten 3. 7 Geomagnetische Meßgrößen und magnetische Suszeptibiltät 3.8 Techniken zur Spektralanalyse 4. Methodische Ergebnisse 4.1 Zum Einfluß der Probenreinigung auf δ18O-/ δ13C-Werte 4.2 Probleme bei der langfristigen Reproduzierbarkeit von δ18O-Zeitreihen 4.3 Einfluß der Korngröße und Artendefinition planktischer Foraminiferen auf SST-Rekonstruktionen in hohen Breiten 4.4 Vergleich der stabilen Isotopenwerte von Cibicides lobatulus und Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi 5. Stratigraphische Grundlagen und Tiefenprofile der Klimasignale 5.1 Stratigraphische Korrelation zwischen parallel-gekernten GKG- und SL-/KL-Profilen 5.2 Flanktische δ18O-/ δ13C-Kurven, 14C-Alter und biostratigraphische Fixpunkte Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Kern 23351 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.3 Benthische δ18O-/ δ13C-Werte in Kern PS2644 5.4 Siliziklastische Sedimentkomponenten: Eistransportiertes Material Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.5 Vulkanische Glasscherben in Kern PS2644: Wind- und Eiseintrag 5.6 Geochemie und Alter einzelner Tephralagen als Leithorizonte Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.7 Magnetische Suszeptibilität in den Kernen PS2644, PS2646 und PS2647 Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 und PS2647 5.8 Geomagnetische Feldintensität und Richtungsänderungen in Kern PS2644 5.9 Variation von Planktonfauna und -flora Westliches Islandbecken: Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 und PS2647 Vøring-Plateau: Kern 23071 und 23074 5.10 Benthische Foraminiferen in Kern PS2644 6. Entwicklung von Temperatur und Salzgehalt nördlich der Dänemark-Straße 6.1 Variation der Oberflächentemperatur nach Planktonforaminiferen 6.2 Variation der Oberflächentemperatur nach Uk37 6.3 Variation der Oberflächensalinität 7. Die Feinstratigraphie von Kern PS2644 als Basis für eine Eichung der 14C-Altersskala 22 - 55 ka 7.1 Korrelation zwischen den Klimasignalen in Kern PS2644 und der GISP2-Klimakurve zum Kalibrieren der 14C-Alter und Erstellen eines Altersmodells Tephrachronologische Marker Korrelationsparameter und -regeln Sonderfälle/ Probleme bei der Korrelation 7.2 Alters-stratigraphische Korrelation der Klimakurven von Kern 23071 und 23074 7.3 Variation der Altersanomalien zwischen 20 und 55 14C-ka 7.4 Variabilität des planktischen 14C-Reservoiralters in Schmelzwasserbeeinflußten Seegebieten Variation der planktischen 14C-Alter unmittelbar an der Basis von Heinrich-Ereignis 4 Unterschiede zwischen planktischen und benthischen 14C-Altern in der westlichen Islandsee. Zur Erklärung der inversen Altersdifferenzen 7.5 Differenz zwischen 14C- und Kalenderalter: Zeitliche Variation unter Einfluß des Erdmagnetfeldes - Modell und Befund 7.6 Sedimentationsraten der Kerne 23071, 23074 und PS2644 nach dem GISP2-Altersmodell Vøring-Plateau: Kerne 23071 und 23074 Südwest-Islandsee: Kern PS2644 8. Klimaoszillationen im Europäischen Nordmeer in der Zeit und Frequenzdomäne 8.1 "Der Einzelzyklus" in den Klimakurven von Kern PS2644 8.2 Zur Veränderlichkeit der Warm- und Kaltextreme sowie Zyklenlänge Besonderheiten in der Zyklenlänge Variation der Kalt-(Stadiale) Variation der Interstadiale 8.3 Periodizitäten der Klimasignale im Frequenzband der D.-Oe.-Zyklen. Der D.-Oe.-Zyklus von 1470 J., seine Multiplen und harmonischen Schwingungen Weitere Frequenzen: 1000-1150 Jahre- und 490- 510 Jahre-Zyklizitäten Höhere Frequenzen im Bereich von Jahrhunderten und Dekaden 8.4 Phasenbeziehungen und (örtliche) Steuemngsmechanismen der Dansgaard-Oeschger-Zyklen 9. Schlußfolgerungen Danksagung Literaturverzeichnis Anhang
    Location: AWI Reading room
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  • 7
    Journal available for loan
    Journal available for loan
    München : Altop Verlag ; 2007 -
    Call number: Z 19.92410
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1865-4266
    Former Title: Vorg. Nachhaltiges Wirtschaften in Deutschland
    Language: German
    Note: Ungezählte Beil. ab 2010: Special , Ersch. jährl. 4x
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 8
    Unknown
    London : Penguin Books
    ISBN: 9780141985206
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 9
    Call number: 3/S 07.0034(2016)
    In: Annual report
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 51 Seiten
    ISSN: 1865-6439 , 1865-6447
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Annual report ... / Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Call number: S 90.0066(162,1)
    In: Geologisches Jahrbuch / A
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 261 Seiten , Ill., 1 DVD-ROM (12 cm) und 1 Tafel-Beil. ([2] S.)
    ISBN: 9783510968534
    Series Statement: Geologisches Jahrbuch 162
    Classification:
    Engineering Geophysics
    Language: German
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 11
    Call number: (DE-599)GBV03709842X
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Language: German
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 12
    Call number: AWI A3-20-93434
    In: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin, Band XXXII, Heft 1
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 121 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin 32,1
    Language: German
    Note: Zugleich: Dissertation, Freie Unversität Berlin, [ca. 1963] , INHALTSVERZEICHNIS PROBLEMSTELLUNG UND ZIELSETZUNG 1. BEMERKUNGEN ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSGELÄNDE UND ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSMATERIAL 1.1 Das Beobachtungsgelände 1.2 Das Beobachtungsmaterial 2. HOMOGENITÄTSBETRACHTUNGEN 2.1 Temperatur 2.2 Niederschlag 2.3 Wind 2.4 Sonnenschein und Bewölkung 3. TEMPERATURVERHÄLTNISSE 3.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 3.2 Tageswerte 3.3 Pentadenwerte 3.4 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 3.5 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 3.6 Der tägliche Gang 3.7 Vorkommen bestimmter Schwellenwerte 3.71 Frost- und Eistage 3.72 Sommer- und Tropentage 4. DER WASSERGEHALT DER LUFT 4.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 4.2 Tageswerte 4.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 4.4 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 4.5 Der tägliche Gang 5. BEWÖLKUNGSVERHÄLTNISSE 5.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 5.2 Tageswerte 5.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 5.4 Der tägliche Gang 5.5 Heitere und trübe Tage 5.6 Nebel 6. SONNENSCHEIN 6.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 6.2 Tageswerte 6.3 Der tägliche Gang 7. NIEDERSCHLAGSVERHÄLTNISSE 7.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 7.2 Niederschlagsbereitschaft 7.3 Tageswerte 7.4 Der tägliche Gang 7.5 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 7.6 Niederschlags- und Trockenperioden 7.7 Niederschlag und Wind· 7.8 Schneeverhältnisse 7.81 Schneefall und Schneedecke 7.82 Schneehöhe 7.9 Gewitter 8. WINDVERHÄLTNISSE 8.1 Windrichtung 8.2 Windgeschwindigkeit 8.21 Der jährliche Gang 8.22 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 8.23 Sturmtage und Windstillen 8.24 Der tägliche Gang 9.ZUSAMMENFASSUNG VERZEICHNIS DER TEXTTABELLEN VERZEICHNIS DER ABBILDUNGEN LITERATURVERZEICHNIS TABELLENANHANG
    Location: AWI Reading room
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 13
    Call number: AWI A3-20-93434-2
    In: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin, Band XXXII, Heft 2
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 218 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin 32,2
    Language: German
    Note: Zugleich: Dissertation, Freie Unversität Berlin, [ca. 1963] , INHALTSVERZEICHNIS PROBLEMSTELLUNG UND ZIELSETZUNG 1. BEMERKUNGEN ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSGELÄNDE UND ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSMATERIAL 1.1 Das Beobachtungsgelände 1.2 Das Beobachtungsmaterial 2. HOMOGENITÄTSBETRACHTUNGEN 2.1 Temperatur 2.2 Niederschlag 2.3 Wind 2.4 Sonnenschein und Bewölkung 3. TEMPERATURVERHÄLTNISSE 3.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 3.2 Tageswerte 3.3 Pentadenwerte 3.4 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 3.5 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 3.6 Der tägliche Gang 3.7 Vorkommen bestimmter Schwellenwerte 3.71 Frost- und Eistage 3.72 Sommer- und Tropentage 4. DER WASSERGEHALT DER LUFT 4.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 4.2 Tageswerte 4.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 4.4 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 4.5 Der tägliche Gang 5. BEWÖLKUNGSVERHÄLTNISSE 5.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 5.2 Tageswerte 5.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 5.4 Der tägliche Gang 5.5 Heitere und trübe Tage 5.6 Nebel 6. SONNENSCHEIN 6.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 6.2 Tageswerte 6.3 Der tägliche Gang 7. NIEDERSCHLAGSVERHÄLTNISSE 7.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 7.2 Niederschlagsbereitschaft 7.3 Tageswerte 7.4 Der tägliche Gang 7.5 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 7.6 Niederschlags- und Trockenperioden 7.7 Niederschlag und Wind· 7.8 Schneeverhältnisse 7.81 Schneefall und Schneedecke 7.82 Schneehöhe 7.9 Gewitter 8. WINDVERHÄLTNISSE 8.1 Windrichtung 8.2 Windgeschwindigkeit 8.21 Der jährliche Gang 8.22 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 8.23 Sturmtage und Windstillen 8.24 Der tägliche Gang 9.ZUSAMMENFASSUNG VERZEICHNIS DER TEXTTABELLEN VERZEICHNIS DER ABBILDUNGEN LITERATURVERZEICHNIS TABELLENANHANG
    Location: AWI Reading room
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 14
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Madrid : Secc
    Call number: PIK N 456-17-90913
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 536 Seiten
    Series Statement: Ministerio de Transportes Turismo Y Comunicaciones : Publicación Serie A 114
    Parallel Title: 1,1=6; 2,1=13 von Publicaciones / D / Ministerio del Aire, Subsecretaria de Aviación Civil, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional
    Language: Spanish
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 15
    Call number: PIK N 453-17-91096
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 50 Seiten , Illustrationen, Diagramme
    Language: German
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 16
    Call number: IASS 15.89494
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: Losebl.-Ausg.
    Edition: Stand: Oktober 2010
    ISBN: 9783768501828
    Language: German
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 17
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    [Edgecumbe, N.Z.] : A. Muller
    Call number: M 15.89146
    Description / Table of Contents: An account of the results of the 2 March 1987 earthquake in the eastern Bay of Plenty and the aftermath's effects on the people and places on the Rangitaiki Plains
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 223 S., , Ill.
    Language: English
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 18
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Garmisch-Partenkirchen : Institut für atmosphärische Umweltforschung der Fraunhofer- Gesellschaft
    Call number: MOP 44829 / Mitte
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 25 S. , graph. Darst.
    Language: English
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 19
    Call number: MOP 19538/1d-6d
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 111 S.
    ISSN: 0486-2287
    Language: Russian
    Note: In kyrill. Schr.
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2020-10-15
    Description: Assessment of the ongoing activity of volcanoes is one of the key factors to reduce volcanic risks. In this paper, two Machine Learning (ML) approaches are presented to classify volcanic activity using multivariate geophysical data, namely the Decision Tree (DT) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN). The models were implemented using a data set recorded at Mount Etna (Italy), in the period 01 January 2011 – 31 December 2015, encompassing lava fountain events and intense Strombolian activity. Here a data set consisting of five geophysical features, namely the root-mean-square of seismic tremor (RMS) and its source depth, counts of clustered infrasonic events, radar RMS backscattering power and tilt derivative, was considered. Model performances were assessed by using a set of statistical indices commonly considered for classification approaches. Results show that between the investigated approaches the DT model is the most appropriate for classification of volcano activity and is suitable for early warning systems applications. Furthermore, the comparison with a different classifier approach, reported in literature, based on Bayesian Network (BN), is performed.
    Description: Published
    Description: VO231
    Description: 1V. Storia eruttiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2020-10-27
    Description: Recent Global Positioning System observations of major earthquakes such as the 2014 Chile megathrust show a slow preslip phase releasing a significant portion of the total moment (Ruiz et al., 2014, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1256074). Despite advances from theoretical stability analysis (Rubin & Ampuero, 2005, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JB003686; Ruina, 1983, https://doi.org/10.1029/jb088ib12p10359) and modeling (Kaneko et al., 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL071569), it is not fully understood what controls the prevalence and the amount of slip in the nucleation process. Here we present laboratory observations of slow slip preceding dynamic rupture, where we observe a dependence of nucleation size and position on the loading rate (laboratory equivalent of tectonic loading rate). The setup is composed of two polycarbonate plates under direct shear with a 30‐cm long slip interface. The results of our laboratory experiments are in agreement with the preslip model outlined by Ellsworth and Beroza (1995, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.268.5212.851) and observed in laboratory experiments (Latour et al., 2013, https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50974; Nielsen et al., 2010, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246x.2009.04444.x; Ohnaka & Kuwahara, 1990, https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(90)90138-X), which show a slow slip followed by an acceleration up to dynamic rupture velocity. However, further complexity arises from the effect of (1) rate of shear loading and (2) inhomogeneities on the fault surface. In particular, we show that when the loading rate is increased from 10−2 to 6 MPa/s, the nucleation length can shrink by a factor of 3, and the rupture nucleates consistently on higher shear stress areas. The nucleation lengths measured fall within the range of the theoretical limits Lb and urn:x-wiley:jgrb:media:jgrb53198:jgrb53198-math-0001 derived by Rubin and Ampuero (2005, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JB003686) for rate‐and‐state friction laws.
    Description: Published
    Description: 689-708
    Description: 2T. Sorgente Sismica
    Description: 2IT. Laboratori analitici e sperimentali
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 04.01. Earth Interior
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2020-10-26
    Description: This work investigates physical mechanisms triggering phase scintillations on L-band signals under strong stormy conditions. Thanks to selected ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers, located both in Antarctica and in the Arctic, an interhemispheric comparison between high latitude ionospheric observations in response to the peculiar solar wind conditions occurred on June 22, 2015 is here shown. To trace back the observed phase scintillations to the physical mechanisms driving it, we combine measurements from GNSS receivers with in-situ and ground-based observations. Our study highlights the ionospheric scenario in which irregularities causing scintillation form and move, leveraging on a multi-observation approach. Such approach allows deducing that scintillations are caused by the presence of fast-moving electron density gradients originated by particle precipitation induced by solar wind variations. In addition, we show how the numerous and fast oscillations of the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field (Bz,IMF) result to be less effective in producing moderate/intense scintillation events than during period of long lasting negative values. Finally, we also demonstrate how the in-situ electron density data can be used to reconstruct the evolution of the ionospheric dynamics, both locally and globally.
    Description: Published
    Description: GM454
    Description: 2A. Fisica dell'alta atmosfera
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2020-10-07
    Description: In the first months of 2018, a parametric table (flatfile) related to the Engineering Strong Motion (ESM) database was released and disseminated through a website (http:// esm.mi.ingv.it/flatfile-2018). The flatfile contains intensity measures of engineering interest and associated metadata of three-components manually processed waveforms. The uniform collection of strong motion data and the compiling of quality-checked metadata allow the users among practitioners and seismologists, to test and calibrate Ground Motion Models (GMMs) for hazard assessment purposes or for the analysis of the seismic structural response. In 2013, a database used for similar purposes was constructed in the framework of the NGA-West2 project, whose main objective is to update and improve the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) models for active tectonic regions, such as California. In this framework, a flatfile containing several parameters, such as peak parameters and ordinates of the pseudo-acceleration elastic response spectra, along with metadata of events and stations was released. The scope of this paper is to highlight the main differences between the two tables in terms of structure, data statistics and qualification of metadata.
    Description: Published
    Description: 343-356
    Description: 5T. Sismologia, geofisica e geologia per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: 6T. Studi di pericolosità sismica e da maremoto
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2020-11-19
    Description: We study ionospheric scintillation on GNSS signals at equatorial latitudes to draw a climatological picture of the low latitude ionosphere in the Brazilian sector during the ascending phase of the upcoming 2013 solar maximum. Such data have been acquired during the early stage of the CIGALA project (http://cigala. galileoic.org/), funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Program and the outcome of this work is part of the scientific achievements of the project itself. The considered network is based on the novel PolaRxS receivers, developed and deployed specifically to comply with the aims of the FP7 project. The PolaRxS is able to monitor ionospheric scintillation for all operational and upcoming GNSS constellations (GPS, GLONASS, Compass, GALILEO) and corresponding frequencies in the L-band. The ionosphere over the Brazilian territory, being close to the southern crest of the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly (EIA), is heavily affected by intense scintillation conditions. The sector under investigation is also very peculiar with respect to other low latitude regions, because of its proximity to the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA). The application of the Ground Based Scintillation Climatology (GBSC) technique, for the first time simultaneously on GPS and GLONASS data and on both L1 and L2 frequencies, highlights the joint effect of the EIA and of the SAMA in producing the irregularities leading to scintillation.
    Description: Published
    Description: 199-206
    Description: 2A. Fisica dell'alta atmosfera
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2020-11-11
    Description: A new version of the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map, released last summer, gives greater insight into the structure and history of Earth's crust and upper mantle.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1A. Geomagnetismo e Paleomagnetismo
    Description: N/A or not JCR
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2020-11-19
    Description: The term “monsoon-desert mechanism” indicates the relationship between the diabatic heating associated with the South Asian summer monsoon rainfall and the remote response in the western sub-tropics where long Rossby waves anchor strong descent with high subsidence. In CMIP5 twenty-first century climate scenarios, the precipitation over South Asia is projected to increase. This study investigates how this change could affect the summer climate projections in the Mediterranean region. In a linear framework the monsoon-desert mechanism in the context of climate change would imply that the change in subsidence over the Mediterranean should be strongly linked with the changes in South Asian monsoon precipitation. The steady-state solution from a linear model forced with CMIP5 model projected precipitation change over South Asia shows a broad region of descent in the Mediterranean, while the results from CMIP5 projections differ having increased descent mostly in the western sector but also decreased descent in parts of the eastern sector. Local changes in circulation, particularly the meridional wind, promote cold air advection that anchors the descent but the barotropic Rossby wave nature of the wind anomalies consisting of alternating northerlies/southerlies favors alternating descent/ascent locations. In fact, the local mid-tropospheric meridional wind changes have the strongest correlation with the regions where the difference in subsidence is largest. There decreased rainfall is mostly balanced by changes in moisture, omega and in the horizontal advection of moisture.
    Description: Published
    Description: 2361–2371
    Description: 4A. Oceanografia e clima
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2020-11-26
    Description: Sirung is a frequently active volcano located in the remote parts of Western Timor (Indonesia). Sirung has a crater with several hydrothermal features including a crater lake. We present a timeseries of satellite images of the lake and chemical and isotope data from the hyperacid hydrothermal system. The fluids sampled in the crater present the typical features of hyperacidic systems with high TDS, low pH and d34SHSO4 –d34SS0 among the highest for such lakes. The cations concentrations are predominantly controlled by the precipitation of alunite, jarosite, silica phases, native sulfur and pyrite which dominate the shallow portions of the hydrothermal system. These minerals may control shallow sealing processes thought to trigger phreatic eruptions elsewhere. Sparse Mg/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios and lake parameters derived from satellite images suggest gradual increase in heat and gas flux, most likely SO2-rich, prior to the 2012 phreatic eruption. An acidic river was sampled 8 km far from the crater and is genetically linked with the fluids rising toward the active crater. This river would therefore be a relevant target for future remote monitoring purposes. Finally, several wells and springs largely exceeded the World Health Organization toxicity limits in total arsenic and fluoride.
    Description: Published
    Description: 186-199
    Description: 4V. Processi pre-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2020-11-19
    Description: Ionospheric scintillation can seriously impair the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receiver signal tracking performance, thus affecting the required levels of availability, accuracy and integrity of positioning that supports modern day GNSS based applications. We present results from the research work carried out under the Horizon 2020 European Commission (EC) funded Ionospheric Prediction Service (IPS) project. The statistical models developed to estimate the standard deviation of the receiver Phase Locked Loop (PLL) tracking jitter on the Global Positioning System (GPS) L1 frequency as a function of scintillation levels are presented. The models were developed following the statistical approach of generalized linear modelling on data recorded by networks in operation at high and low latitudes during the years of 2012–2015. The developed models were validated using data from different stations over varying latitudes, which yielded promising results. In the case of mid-latitudes, as the occurrence of strong scintillation is absent, an attempt to develop a dedicated model proved fruitless and, therefore, the models developed for the high and low latitudes were tested for two mid-latitude stations. The developed statistical models can be used to generate receiver tracking jitter maps over a region, providing users with the expected tracking conditions. The approach followed for the development of these models for the GPS L1 frequency can be used as a blueprint for the development of similar models for other GNSS frequencies, which will be the subject of follow on research.
    Description: Published
    Description: A51
    Description: 2A. Fisica dell'alta atmosfera
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2020-11-17
    Description: Lava flow modeling is important in many practical applications, such as the simulation of potential hazard scenarios and the planning of risk mitigation measures, as well as in scientific research to improve our understanding of the physical processes governing the dynamics of lava flow emplacement. Existing predictive models of lava flow behavior include various methods and solvers, each with its advantages and disadvantages. Codes differ in their physical implementations, numerical accuracy, and computational efficiency. In order to validate their efficiency and accuracy, several benchmark test cases for computational lava flow modeling have been established. Despite the popularity gained by the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), very few validations against lava flows have been successfully conducted. At the Tecnolab of INGVCatania we designed GPUSPH, an implementation of the weakly-compressible SPH method running fully on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). GPUSPH is a particle engine capable of modeling both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, solving the three-dimensional Navier– Stokes equations, using either a fully explicit integration scheme, or a semi-implicit scheme in the case of highly viscous fluids. Thanks to the full coupling with the thermal equation, and its support for radiation, convection and phase transition, GPUSPH can be used to faithfully simulate lava flows. Here we present the preliminary results obtained with GPUSPH for a benchmark series for computational lava-flow modeling, including analytical, semi-analytical and experimental problems. The results are reported in terms of correctness and performance, highlighting the benefits and the drawbacks deriving from the use of SPH to simulate lava flows.
    Description: Published
    Description: VO224
    Description: 5V. Processi eruttivi e post-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2020-11-20
    Description: Rhyolite and felsite cuttings were collected at Krafla volcano during the perforation of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project Well 1 (IDDP-1). The perforation was stopped at a depth of 2100m due to intersection with a rhyolite magma that intruded the felsite host rock. Rhyolite cuttings are vitrophiric (glass ~95%, RHL) and exhibit a mineral assemblage made of plagioclase+augite+pigeonite+titanomagnetite. Felsite cuttings display evidences of partial melting, responding to variable degrees of quartz+plagioclase+alkali feldspar+augite+ titanomagnetite dissolution. The interstitial glass analyzed close to (i.e., FLS1) and far from (i.e., FLS2) the reaction surface of pyroxene from felsite cuttings shows continuous changes between the two end-members. FLS1 is compositionally similar to RHL, showing Na2O+K2O+REE depletions, counterbalanced by MgO+CaO enrichments. Conversely, FLS2 exhibits opposite chemical features. REE-exchange thermobarometric calculations reveal that plagioclase and augite cores from rhyolite and felsite formed under identical conditions, along a thermal path of 940–960 °C. However, in terms of major and trace element concentrations, plagioclase and augite crystal cores are not in equilibrium with the rhyolite magma, suggesting the incorporation of these minerals directly from the host felsite. To better understand the petrogenetic relationship between rhyolite and felsite, two sets of crystallization and partial melting experiments have been carried out at P=150 MPa and T=700–950 °C. Rhyolite crystallization experiments (RCE) reproduce the two-pyroxene assemblage of IDDP-1 rhyolite cuttings only at T≤800 °C, when the crystal content (≥19%) is higher than that observed in the natural rhyolite (~5%). Under such conditions, the RCE glass is much more differentiated (i.e., marked CaO depletion and Eu anomaly) than RHL. On the other hand, felsite partial melting (FPM) experiments show interstitial glass with a bimodal composition (i.e., FPM1 and FPM2) comparable to FLS1 (≈RHL) and to FLS2, only at T=950 °C. This effect has been quantified by fractional crystallization and batch melting modeling, denoting that FLS1 (≈RHL) and FLS2 reflect high (≥70%) and low (≤8%) degrees of felsite partialmelting, respectively. In contrast, modeling RHL by crystal fractionation requires the removal of an amount (~22%) of solid material that is inconsistent with the low crystal content of the natural IDDP-1 rhyolite. It is therefore concluded that natural rhyolite and felsite represent, respectively, the near-liquidus and sub-solidus states of a virtually identical silicic magma, either feeding aphyric to subaphiric rhyolitic eruptions, or solidifying at depth as phaneritic quartzofeldspathic rocks. Felsite lenses from the Krafla substrate may explore variable degrees of remelting and remobilization processes. The intrusion into felsite of a fresh silicic magma from depth may lead to low degrees of partial melting, whereas the persistent heat release from intense basaltic intrusive events at Krafla may be the source of high degrees of felsite partial melting and consequent rejuvenation of the previously solidified silicic magma.
    Description: Published
    Description: 603-618
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2020-11-25
    Description: Volcanic activity is often preceded or accompanied by different types of seismo-volcanic signals. Among these signals, the so-called tornillo (Spanish for "screw") events are considered to belong to a unique class of volcano-seismicity characterised by a long-duration coda, amplitude modulation and high-quality factor. These data constitute important evidence for the gas fraction inside magmatic fluids. However, the mechanism behind this unique signal remains not fully understood. Here we report new laboratory evidence showing that two different processes have either scale-invariant or scale-dependent effects in generating tornillo-like events. These processes are respectively the gas pressure gradient, which triggers the event and regulates the slow decaying coda, and the fluid resonance into small scale structures which, in turn, control the frequency content of the signal. Considering that the gas pressure gradient is proportional to the fluid flow, these new findings, as applied to volcanoes, provide new information to better quantify both gas rate and volume, and the dimension of the resonator.
    Description: Published
    Description: id 7338
    Description: 5V. Processi eruttivi e post-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2020-11-11
    Description: In this paper we present innovative methodologies for seismic monitoring of volcanic structures in space and time (4D) which can possibly evolve toward an unrest stage. They are based on repeated phase and amplitude measurements done on active and/or passive seismic data including shots, vibrations, earthquakes and ambient noise in order to characterize the structure of the volcano and track its evolution through time. The characterization of the medium properties is performed through the reconstruction of an image of the elastic and anelastic properties of the propagation mediumcrossed by seismicwaves. This study focuses on the application of specific tomographic inversion methods to obtain high quality tomographic images. The resolution of the tomographic models is influenced by the number and spatial distribution of data. The expected resolution thus guides the setup of, for example, active seismic surveys. To recognize andmonitor changes in the properties of the propagation medium without performing an active survey we identify a fast proxy based on the time evolution of the Vp/Vs ratio. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed through synthetic tests, resolution analysis and case studies in volcanic areas such as the Campi Flegrei (southern Italy) and The Geysers geothermal area (California).
    Description: Published
    Description: 16-30
    Description: 1T. Struttura della Terra
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2020-11-23
    Description: Ground deformations are among the main volcanic phenomena occurring within the caldera system and pres- ently recorded at different volcanoes worldwide including the Campi Flegrei active caldera (southern Italy). A new stratigraphic, sedimentological and paleontological survey carried out in the central sector of the Campi Flegrei caldera both along the already known La Starza succession and through a new excavated tunnel provided new insights into the ground movement episodes occurred in the last 15 kyr. This study, which has also benefited of unpublished boreholes stratigraphic data, shows that the most uplifted sector of the Campi Flegrei caldera, presently marked by the morphological structure of the La Starza cliff close to the Pozzuoli coastline, was charac- terized by a complex sedimentary evolution. It results from different phases of alternating marine transgressions and regressions, the latter marked by both continental volcanic and/or palustrine/lacustrine sediments. These al- ternations result from the interplay between (i) subsidence and uplift episodes of the caldera floor and (ii) sea level variations during the Holocene. A rest period of volcanism accompanied by a sea level rise determined a sig- nificant submersion phase in about 3000 years between 8.59 and 5.5 ka. This phase was defined by a sea level with a maximum water depth value of 60–80 m and a late stage recording significant episodes of ground move- ments. Subsequently, between 5.5 and 3.5 ka, a ground uplift of about 100 m occurred, with short subsidence around 4.5 ka following the Plinian Agnano-Monte Spina eruption. The net vertical displacement represents the recorded deformation linked with a volcanism period in which ~2.5 km3 of magma were erupted by different vents within the caldera. It is worth to note as the general trend of ground movement through the time indicates a similarity in the pattern, beyond its scale.
    Description: Published
    Description: 143-158
    Description: 1V. Storia eruttiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Ground deformation ; Campi Flegrei ; Paleoenvironment ; Coastal marine sediments ; Volcanism ; Unrest
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2020-11-23
    Description: The succession of the Late Quaternary La Starza terrace, located within the Campi Flegrei caldera, on the Tyrrhenian side of southern Italy, represents a wellknown example of deposition under the combined influence of bathymetric and physico- chemical variations due to volcanic activities. One hundred and seven samples collected in six outcrops and some tunnel excavation fronts, with an age between ~12 and ~4 k.y.a, comprise both barren and fossiliferous sediments. The latter contain siliceous and/or calcareous microfossil remains, including benthic foraminiferal and ostracod assemblages indicative of a marine paleodepth ranging from the upper infralittoral to the upper circalittoral zone, with phases of intense environmental stress typical of a hydrothermal system. A detailed reconstruction of the Holocene paleoenvironmental evolution of the succession is presented. The majority of foraminiferal and ostracod species is illustrated and brief taxonomic and ecological notes are given for each of them.
    Description: Published
    Description: 41A
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente e geologia medica
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2020-11-12
    Description: The purpose of this work is to study the subsoil structure (from shallow to deep layers) of the Campi Flegrei area using both spectral ratios and array techniques applied to seismic noise. The dataset consists of seismic noise recorded in the underground by the seismic Array “ARF” and the broadband stations of the mobile network. We estimated the dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves propagating through the array by applying the Frequency–Wavenumber (f-k) technique and the MSPAC method. The phase velocity dispersion curve of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves was obtained by plotting the inverse of slowness, as a function of frequency, and selecting the part of the curve bounded by the resolution limits defined through kmin and kmax. For the MSPAC method we divided the array in semi-circular sub arrays called Rings, which radius are defined by the sensor’s spacing, and we calculated the spatial autocorrelation coefficients for all the possible pairs of sensors. Further constrains on the dispersion curves are obtained from the estimate of the phase velocity of transient coherent signals recorded by the array. We used the DINVER computer code to perform a joint inversion of the autocorrelation coefficients, the dispersion curves, the single coherent noise values and the mean HVSR of the mobile network station to obtain a shallow shear wave velocity model for the first 200 m, which is in a good agreement with the stratigraphic information of the wells available in the area. The study of the velocity models is crucial to recognize anomalies due to the presence of fluids connected to the volcanic activity and a high quality characterization of the medium allows us to correctly identify, in the geophysical observables, the contribution of the volcanic source.
    Description: Published
    Description: Naples
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Keywords: Campi Flegrei ; velocity structure
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: Conference paper
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2020-12-03
    Description: A coupled aerosol‐atmosphere‐ocean‐sea ice climate model is used to explore the interaction between aerosols and the Indian summer monsoon precipitation on seasonal‐to‐interannual time scales. Results show that when increased aerosol loading is found on the Himalayas slopes in the premonsoon period (April–May), intensification of early monsoon rainfall over India and increased low‐level westerly flow follow, in agreement with the elevated‐heat‐pump mechanism. The increase in rainfall during the early monsoon season has a cooling effect on the land surface. In the same period, enhanced surface cooling may also be amplified through solar dimming by more cloudiness and aerosol loading, via increased dust transported by low‐level westerly flow. The surface cooling causes subsequent reduction in monsoon rainfall in July–August over India. The time‐lagged nature of the reasonably realistic response of the model to aerosol forcing suggests that absorbing aerosols, besides their potential key roles in impacting monsoon water cycle and climate, may influence the seasonal variability of the Indian summer monsoon.
    Description: Published
    Description: 8712-8723
    Description: 4A. Oceanografia e clima
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2020-12-02
    Description: We present a new surface-atmospheric dataset for driving ocean–sea-ice models based on Japanese 55-year atmospheric reanalysis (JRA-55), referred to here as JRA55-do. The JRA55-do dataset aims to replace the CORE interannual forcing version 2 (hereafter called the CORE dataset), which is currently used in the framework of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (COREs) and the Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP). A major improvement in JRA55-do is the refined horizontal grid spacing (∼ 55 km) and temporal interval (3 hr). The data production method for JRA55-do essentially follows that of the CORE dataset, whereby the surface fields from an atmospheric reanalysis are adjusted relative to reference datasets. To improve the adjustment method, we use high-quality products derived from satellites and from several other atmospheric reanalysis projects, as well as feedback on the CORE dataset from the ocean modelling community. Notably, the surface air temperature and specific humidity are adjusted using multi-reanalysis ensemble means. In JRA55-do, the downwelling radiative fluxes and precipitation, which are affected by an ambiguous cloud parameterisation employed in the atmospheric model used for the reanalysis, are based on the reanalysis products. This approach represents a notable change from the CORE dataset, which imported independent observational products. Consequently, the JRA55-do dataset is more self-contained than the CORE dataset, and thus can be continually updated in near real-time. The JRA55-do dataset extends from 1958 to the present, with updates expected at least annually. This paper details the adjustments to the original JRA-55 fields, the scientific rationale for these adjustments, and the evaluation of JRA55-do. The adjustments successfully corrected the biases in the original JRA-55 fields. The globally averaged features are similar between the JRA55-do and CORE datasets, implying that JRA55-do can suitably replace the CORE dataset for use in driving global ocean–sea-ice models.
    Description: Published
    Description: 79-139
    Description: 4A. Oceanografia e clima
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2020-12-09
    Description: A GIS-based procedure for mapping pluvial flood risk in urban areas is proposed; risk is expressed through an index calculated as the sum of susceptibility and potential impact, combined in a matrix. The susceptibility is defined as the probability of a flooding to occur, because of the ground morphology and the spatial probability density of historical floodings. The potential impact was evaluated by considering the consequences of damages on human health, environment, cultural heritages and economic activities, and accounts for the potential cost of damage. Both the susceptibility and the potential impact are calculated by elaborations of base-data in GIS environment. Despite many limitations, the methodology furnishes a tool for a preliminary screening of areas potentially subjected to pluvial flood, useful for a municipal scale mapping. It permits comparative analysis for detecting areas higher at risk, helping prioritizing the emergency management and the planning of mitigation actions.
    Description: Published
    Description: 64-84
    Description: 7A. Geofisica per il monitoraggio ambientale
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2020-12-17
    Description: This paper presents how the magnetosphere-plasmasphere-ionosphere system was affected as a whole during the geomagnetic storm peaking on 27 May 2017. The interplanetary conditions, the magnetospheric response in terms of the magnetopause motion, and the ionospheric current flow pattern were investigated using data, respectively, from the WIND spacecraft, from GOES15, GOES13, THEMIS E, THEMIS D and THEMIS A satellites and from the INTERMAGNET magnetometer array. The main objective of the work is to investigate the plasmaspheric dynamics under disturbed conditions and its possible relation to the ionospheric one; to reach this goal, the equatorial plasma mass densities derived from geomagnetic field line resonance observations at the European quasi-Meridional Magnetometer Array (EMMA) and total electron content values obtained through three GPS receivers close to EMMA were jointly considered. Despite the complexity of physical mechanisms behind them, we found a similarity between the ionospheric and plasmaspheric characteristic recovery times. Specifically, the ionospheric characteristic time turned out to be ~ 1.5 days, ~ 2 days and ~ 3.1 days, respectively, at L ~ 3, L ~ 4 and L ~ 5, while the plasmaspheric one, for similar L values, ranged from ~ 1 day to more than 4 days.
    Description: Published
    Description: ID 77
    Description: 1A. Geomagnetismo e Paleomagnetismo
    Description: 2A. Fisica dell'alta atmosfera
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2020-12-07
    Description: The main aim of this work is to recognize the occurrence of seismic VT activity and its discrimination among other active and persistent natural and/or artificial sources, such as meteo-marine and anthropogenic noise. This task is of interest because it would support the routine practices of the observatories, considering that on the hourly scale events of very small energy are often completely hidden and not even the tedious work of operators can be resolved. To achieve that goal we adopt a robust automatic method, namely the Convolutive Independent Component Analysis (CICA), which in involves higher-order statistics in frequency domain. This technique is successful in seismological framework in the case of seismic signals, which can be considered as the convolution of time delayed source signals. In this work, we focus on Volcano Tectonic (VT) activity at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy) during the 2006 ground uplift. The activity is characterized approximately by 300 low-magnitude (Md 〈 2; for the definition of duration magnitude, see Petrosino et al., [2008]) VT earthquakes. Most of them were concentrated in distinct seismic sequences with hypocentres mainly clustered beneath the Solfatara-Accademia area, at depths ranging between 1 and 4 km b.s.l.. CICA is fruitfully applied to massive data on hourly scale obtaining a separation among different independent sources. Specifically, the identification of meteo-marine (〈 1 Hz), anthropogenic noise (mainly affecting [8-14] Hz frequency range), and hydrothermal tremor (at about 0.8 Hz) is achieved in absence of VT activity, defining the background level. Variations of that underlying condition appear in approaching to the period of intense low-energy VT activity. Namely, a further component in 13-15 Hz compatible with the typical corner frequency of VTs is extracted. We propose a coarse-grained procedure directly applied to massive data separated through CICA, which would provide fast alert on the occurrence of even very-small VTs representing a suitable “observable” to monitor in the observatory practice.
    Description: Published
    Description: Naples
    Description: 8T. Sismologia in tempo reale
    Keywords: Campi Flegrei ; ICA
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: Conference paper
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2020-12-03
    Description: Small landslides to large debris flows and debris avalanches affected the Neapolitan territory surrounding the active volcanoes of the area: Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei and Ischia. Their variable intensity explosive eruptions produced significant quantities of loose pyroclastic material on the slopes of the volcanoes and of the surrounding reliefs. Remobilization processes of this material occurred during and soon after large explosive eruptions, although their intensity and frequency decreased during inter-eruptive periods. The intensity of these processes varies with the different eruptions and is strongly dependent on availability of fine ash in proximal and distal areas. The areas involved varies from hundreds to millions square meters. The syn-eruptive debris flows of the Vesuvius 472 AD eruption are described in detail. Huge ground uplift of the central part of the Ischia resurgent caldera generated debris/rock avalanches, which likely caused tsunamis. Archaeological sites affected by syn-eruptive debris flows have been selected to show the effects of their deposition. Hydraulic risk and risk mitigation actions, emergency management and preparedness measures will be discussed in one of the areas mostly affected by recent debris flows. At Ischia the characteristics of debris/rock avalanches and lahars related to the resurgence and to the reactivation of volcanism will be discussed.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1-53
    Description: 1V. Storia eruttiva
    Description: 5V. Processi eruttivi e post-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: volcanism ; landslides ; debris flows ; debris avalanches ; hydraulic risk ; risk mitigation ; 04.08. Volcanology ; 04.04. Geology
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2020-12-15
    Description: In the years between 2010 and 2015 in the Apennines-Calabrian arc boundary, in the Pollino massif, a long seismic sequence took place. The area is subject to Northeast- Southwest extension, which results in a complex system of normal faults striking Northwest-Southeast, nearly parallel to the Apenninic mountain range. The seismic sequence includes more than 6000 earthquakes in the Pollino region, the maximum magnitude recorded is Ml=5.0 and it happened in October 25th 2012 after about two years of ongoing activity; the peculiar temporal evolution of the seismic sequence allows us to catalogue it as a swarm. Here we describe the main seismological characteristics of this seismic sequence and characterise the fracture field of the region. We analyse thousands of seismograms, deriving accurate locations crust velocity model and anisotropic parameters in the crust. These parameters yield clues and insights that may help understanding the physical mechanisms behind the seismic swarm. Since the late 60s-early 70s era seismologists started developing theories that included variations of the elastic properties of the Earth crust and the state of stress and its evolution prior to the occurrence of a large earthquake. Among the others the theory of the dilatancy: when a rock is subject to stress, the rock grains are shifted generating microcracks, thus the rock itself increases its volume. Inside the fractured rock, fluid saturation and pore pressure play an important role in earthquake nucleation, by modulating the effective stress. Thus, measuring the variations of wave speed and of anisotropic parameter in time can be highly informative on how the stress leading to a major fault failure builds up. We systematically look at seismic-wave propagation properties to possibly reveal short-term variations in the elastic properties of the Earth crust. In active fault areas, tectonic stress variation influences fracture field orientation and fluid migration processes, whose evolution over time can be monitored through the measurement of the anisotropic parameters. We analysed waveforms recorded at permanent and temporary stations hold by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia.
    Description: Published
    Description: 104° Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana di Fisica - Università della Calabria - dal 17 al 21 settembre 2018
    Description: 2T. Deformazione crostale attiva
    Keywords: Pollino ; seismic sequence ; swarm ; 04.06. Seismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: Oral presentation
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2020-12-17
    Description: The study of the dynamic properties of small-scale magnetic fields in the solar photosphere (magnetic elements, MEs) provides a fundamental tool to investigate some still unknown aspects of turbulent convection, and gain information on the spatial and temporal scales of evolution of the magnetic field in the quiet Sun. We track the MEs in a set of magnetogram long-time series acquired by the Hinode mission, and take advantage of a method based on entropy (the diffusion entropy analysis, DEA) to detect their dynamic regime, under the assumption that MEs are passively transported by the photospheric plasma flow. DEA has been proven to perform better than other standard techniques, and for the first time it is successfully used to provide the scaling properties of the displacement of MEs in the quiet Sun. The main results of this work, which represents an extension of the analysis presented in previous literature, can be summarized as two points: (i) MEs in the quiet Sun undergo a common dynamic turbulent regime independent of the local environment; (ii) the displacement of MEs exhibits a complex transport dynamics that is consistent with a Lévy walk.
    Description: Published
    Description: id 33
    Description: 2A. Fisica dell'alta atmosfera
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2020-12-02
    Description: Volatile elements play an important role in many aspects of the physicochemical architecture of sub-volcanic plumbing systems, from the liquid line of descent to the dynamics of magma storage and eruption. However, it remains difficult to constrain the behaviour of magmatic volatiles on short timescales before eruption using established petrological techniques (e.g. melt inclusions); specifically, in the final days to months of magma storage. This study presents a detailed model of pre-eruptive volatile behaviour in the Campi Flegrei system (Italy), through combined analyses of apatite crystals and glass. The deposits of eight eruptions were examined, covering the full spectrum of melt compositions, eruptive styles and periods of activity at Campi Flegrei in the past 15 kyr. Measured apatite compositions are compared with thermodynamic models that predict the evolution of the crystal compositions during different fractional crystallization scenarios, including (1) volatile-undersaturated conditions, (2) H2O-saturated conditions and (3) varying P–T conditions. The compositions of clinopyroxene-hosted and biotite-hosted apatite inclusions are consistent with crystallization under volatile-undersaturated conditions that persisted until late in magmatic evolution. Apatite microphenocrysts show significantly more compositional diversity, interpreted to reflect a mixed cargo of crystals derived from volatile-undersaturated melts at depth and melts that have undergone cooling and degassing in discrete shallow-crustal magma bodies. Apatite microphenocrysts from lavas show some re-equilibration during cooling at the surface. Clinopyroxene-hosted melt inclusions within the samples typically contain 2–4 wt % H2O, indicating that they have been reset during temporary magma storage at 1–3km depth, similar to the depth of sill emplacement during recent seismic crises at Campi Flegrei. Comparable apatite compositional trends are identified in each explosive eruption analysed, regardless of volume, composition or eruption timing. However, apatites from the different epochs of activity appear to indicate subtle changes in the H2O content of the parental melt feeding the Campi Flegrei system over time. This study demonstrates the potential utility of integrated apatite and glass analysis for investigating pre-eruptive volatile behaviour in apatite-bearing magmas
    Description: Published
    Description: 2463-2491
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2020-12-03
    Description: We present the first high-quality catalog of early aftershocks of the three mainshocks of the 2016 central Italy Amatrice-Visso-Norcia normal faulting sequence. We located 10,574 manually picked aftershocks with a robust probabilistic, non-linear method achieving a significant improvement in the solution accuracy and magnitude completeness with respect to previous studies. Aftershock distribution and relocated mainshocks give insight into the complex architecture of major causative and subsidiary faults, thus providing crucial constraints on multi-segment rupture models. We document reactivation and kinematic inversion of a WNW-dipping listric structure, referable to the inherited Mts Sibillini Thrust (MST) that controlled segmentation of the causative normal faults. Spatial partitioning of aftershocks evidences that the MST lateral ramp had a dual control on rupture propagation, behaving as a barrier for the Amatrice and Visso mainshocks, and later as an asperity for the Norcia mainshock. We hypothesize that the Visso mainshock re-activated also the deep part of an optimally oriented preexisting thrust. Aftershock patterns reveal that the Amatrice Mw5.4 aftershock and the Norcia mainshock ruptured two distinct antithetic faults 3-4 km apart. Therefore, our results suggest to consider both the MST cross structure and the subsidiary antithetic fault in the finite-fault source modelling of the Norcia earthquake.
    Description: Published
    Description: 6921
    Description: 4T. Sismicità dell'Italia
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 2016 Amatrice-Visso-Norcia seismic sequence (central Italy) ; high-quality catalog of early Aftershocks ; 04.06. Seismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2020-12-07
    Description: Nisyros Island (Greece) is an active volcano hosting a high-enthalpy geothermal system. During June 2013, an extensive survey on Hg concentrations in different matrices (fumarolic fluids, atmosphere, soils and plants) was carried out at Lakki Plain, an intra-caldera area affected by widespread soil and fumarolic degassing. Concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), H2S and CO2, were simultaneously measured in both the fumarolic emissions and the atmosphere around them. At the same time, 130 samples of top soils and 31 samples of plants (Cistus Creticus and Salvifolius and Erica Arborea and Manipuliflora) were collected for Hg analysis. Mercury concentrations in fumarolic gases ranged from 10,500 to 46,300 ng/m3, while Hg concentrations in the air ranged from high background values in the Lakki Plain caldera (10-36 ng/m3) up to 7100 ng/m3 in the fumarolic areas. Outside the caldera, the concentrations were relatively low (2-5 ng/m3). The positive correlation with both CO2 and H2S in air highlighted the importance of hydrothermal gases as carrier for GEM. On the other hand, soil Hg concentrations (0.023-13.7 µg/g) showed no significant correlations with CO2 and H2S in the soil gases, whereas it showed a positive correlation with total S content and an inverse one with the soil-pH, evidencing the complexity of the processes involving Hg carried by hydrothermal gases while passing through the soil. Total Hg concentrations in plant leaves (0.010-0.112 μg/g) had no direct correlation with soil Hg, with Cistus leaves containing higher values of Hg respect to Erica. Even though GEM concentrations in air within the caldera are sometimes orders of magnitude above the global background, they should not be considered dangerous to human health. Values exceeding the WHO guideline value of 1000 ng/m3 are very rare (〈0.1%) and only found very close to the main fumarolic vents, where the access to tourists is prohibited.
    Description: Published
    Description: ID 4783514
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente e geologia medica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Fumarolic mercury ; Atmospheric mercury ; Soil mercury ; Plant mercury ; Mercury output ; 05.09. Miscellaneous
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2021-01-29
    Description: A systematic inspection of the magnetic field and electron density, recorded by Swarm three-satellite constellation over the seismic region hit by the 2016-2017 Amatrice-Norcia (Central Italy) seismic sequence, has allowed us to identify some possible precursory anomalies, when disturbed periods of the geomagnetic conditions are properly taken into account and/or avoided. This paper aims at studying and interpreting the electromagnetic phenomena that have occurred before and during the 2016-2017 Amatrice-Norcia (Central Italy) seismic sequence, in order to look for any possible evidence of precursory anomalies. Results show magnetic field and electron density anomalies of four tracks that precede the major earthquakes of the seismic sequence. After an inspection of the geomagnetic conditions, a Swarm Charlie track, acquired on 20/08/2016 that precedes by 3.2 days the beginning of the whole seismic sequence, remains unexplainable with the normal geomagnetic disturbance phenomena of the Earth's magnetic field. Furthermore, we made carry out a blind study of possible relationship between abnormal magnetic field signals detected by Swarm satellites during geomagnetic quiet conditions and major seismic events from about 4 months before the start of the seismic sequence until about the first 8 months from the seismic sequence (i.e. a total of one year of analysed data). We found find a very interesting increase of such anomalies starting about 40 days before the beginning of the seismic sequence. It coincides and follows surface and atmospheric alterations, resulting in a temporal sequence of anomalies from Earth’s surface up to ionosphere, supporting the possibility of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling models.
    Description: Published
    Description: 305–319
    Description: 1A. Geomagnetismo e Paleomagnetismo
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2021-02-25
    Description: Mediterranean climates are characterized by strong seasonal contrasts between dry summers and wet winters. Changes in winter rainfall are critical for regional socioeconomic development, but are difficult to simulate accurately1 and reconstruct on Quaternary timescales. This is partly because regional hydroclimate records that cover multiple glacial-interglacial cycles2,3 with different orbital geometries, global ice volume and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are scarce. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms of change and their persistence remain unexplored. Here we show that, over the past 1.36 million years, wet winters in the northcentral Mediterranean tend to occur with high contrasts in local, seasonal insolation and a vigorous African summer monsoon. Our proxy time series from Lake Ohrid on the Balkan Peninsula, together with a 784,000-year transient climate model hindcast, suggest that increased sea surface temperatures amplify local cyclone development and refuel North Atlantic low-pressure systems that enter the Mediterranean during phases of low continental ice volume and high concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases. A comparison with modern reanalysis data shows that current drivers of the amount of rainfall in the Mediterranean share some similarities to those that drive the reconstructed increases in precipitation. Our data cover multiple insolation maxima and are therefore an important benchmark for testing climate model performance.
    Description: Published
    Description: 256–260
    Description: 5A. Ricerche polari e paleoclima
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: paleoclimate Mediterranean Pleistocene ; 04.04. Geology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2021-03-10
    Description: The seismic to geodetic moment ratio (Mo/MG) related to seven magma intrusion episodes, occurring at Mt. Etna volcano between 1981 and 2008, are considered. The lateral eruptions show a moment ratio of 0.04–0.06; meaning that only about 5% of the stress energy accumulated with ground deformation was released by earthquakes. Significantly higher values instead characterized vertical (0.25–0.50) and non-eruptive (0.17) dike intrusions. This paper proposes a simple relationship, in order to estimate, during the early phases of an eruption, the intruding magma volumes by the cumulative seismic moment (of the ongoing seismicity) and elapsed time.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1-6
    Description: 5V. Processi eruttivi e post-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2021-03-05
    Description: The Nirano mud volcano is located in the western sector of the Modena Apennine margin (Italy). It represents one of the most spectacular phenomena of sedimentary volcanism in the entire Italian territory and is among the largest in Europe. Here numerous aligned gryphon clusters and seeping pools constantly burst gas and mud inside a morphological depression. Besides the obvious surface expressions of these emission spots, until now the type and amount of gas released in the rest of the large Nirano caldera zone remained unknown. An extensive geochemical soil gas survey (O2, N2, CO2, CH4, 222Rn, He, H2, and light hydrocarbons) and exhalation fluxes (CO2 and CH4), was carried out inside the mud volcano field with the aim of identifying soil degassing distribution, and to estimate the micro- and macro-seepage budget for both CO2 and CH4. Soil gas data highlight the presence of two zones characterized by high concentrations and flux values. These enhanced seepage zones are located in the SW and NE sectors of the mud volcano suggesting that the enhanced gas emissions present in the peripheral zones, are controlled by caldera collapse structures. The most significant CO2 flux (up to 91 g m-2 d-1) and 222Rn anomalies are located in the central part of the crater in correspondence of a morphological escarpment. Here we infer the presence of a buried tectonic system of collapsed terraces that facilitate fluids degassing. In contrast, CH4 fluxes show a scattered distribution and low values (mean 221 mg m-2 d-1). Overall the CH4 degassing budget is low (27.09 t km-2 y-1) when compared with other Italian mud volcanoes. This could be related to a relative low emission activity during the period of the geochemical survey and to a more homogeneous dilution of surface distribution of the emission point-s. Chemical and isotopical composition of the gas discharged from the active gryphons is methane-dominated and the thermogenic signature (ranging from -41 to -47‰) suggests a deep reservoir source. This conclusion is supported by noble-gas measurements (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) conducted in the pore water phase of the emitted mud, indicating a secondary gas exchange occurring at a depth of a few kilometers. The geochemical anomalies found in this study, successfully predicted the occurrence of new degassing phenomena towards the NE sector of the caldera. Indeed recently (i.e. after the survey data acquisition) new manifestations of mud and gas emissions appeared in the north-eastern edge of the caldera.
    Description: Published
    Description: 77-87
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2021-03-18
    Description: Volcanoes are usually monitored through observations of many physical and chemical phenomena. In the most dangerous cases, as the one of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy), great amount of data are collected, both in discrete or continuously, and regularly stored. However, how to transform such mass of data in a deeper understanding of the volcano dynamics is still an open question. Dissimilar information are in fact always hard to compare, but just integrating all the available knowledge hazardous events could be prevented in a reliable way. Fluids, as water and gasses mobilized in the subsoil by the heat induced by deep magmatic sources, are widely recognized as the first engine of similar occurrences and the volcanic gas emissions represent, together with the seismic activity, one of the most considered precursors. At the same time, the electrical geophysical methods are the most applied in order to detect and characterize the fluid patterns in the subsoil. So, the integration of geoelectrical and geochemical observations should represent one of the most pursued approach in volcanoes monitoring. On the contrary, standard way to compare such data has been not yet codified. The ERT tomograms capability to individuate that parts of the subsoil where gasses cumulate is well understood in literature. However, we look for indications about its proficiency in associating the electrical resistivity changes relative to these zones, once compared to the geochemical time series, to deep related contributes, distinguishing them from the seasonal ones. The electrical signature of the fluid patterns, reconstructed through a time-lapse ERT approach, could be of relevance to better characterize the volcanic phenomena and their origins. In this paper a first test of ERT and geochemical time series integration was performed to enhance the understanding of the Pisciarelli fumarolic field evolution, now the most active area in the whole Campi Flegrei caldera.
    Description: Published
    Description: 32-42
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2021-03-01
    Description: 659 water samples from springs and wells in the Sabatini and Vicano-Cimino Volcanic Districts (central Italy) were analyzed for arsenic (As), fluoride (F−) and radon (222Rn) concentrations. Waters mostly sourced from a shallow and cold aquifer hosted within volcanic rocks, which represents the main public drinking water supply. Cold waters from perched aquifers within sedimentary formations and thermal waters related to a deep hydrothermal reservoir were also analyzed. The highest concentrations of As and F− were measured in the thermal waters and attributed to their enhanced mobility during water-rock interaction processes at hydrothermal temperatures. Relatively high concentrations of As and F− were also recorded in those springs and wells discharging from the volcanic aquifer, whereas waters hosted in the sedimentary units showed significantly lower contents. About 60% (As) and 25% (F−) of cold waters from the volcanic aquifer exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for human consumption. Such anomalously high levels of geogenic pollutants were caused by mixing with fluids upwelling through faulted zones from the hydrothermal reservoir. Chemical weathering of volcanic rocks and groundwater flow path were also considered to contribute to the observed concentrations. Cold waters from the volcanic aquifer showed the highest 222Rn concentrations, resulting from the high contents of Rn-generating radionuclides in the volcanic units. Approximately 22% of these waters exceeded the recommended value for human consumption. A specific Quality Index (QI), comprised between 1 (very low) and 4 (very high), was computed for each water on the basis of As, F− and 222Rn concentrations and visualized through a spatial distribution map processed by means of geostatistical techniques. This map and the specific As, F− and 222Rn maps can be regarded as useful tools for water management by local authorities to both improve intervention plans in contaminated sectors and identify new water resources suitable for human consumption.
    Description: Published
    Description: 525-537
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente e geologia medica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2021-03-19
    Description: MarsiteCruise was undertaken in October/November 2014 in the Sea of Marmara to gain detailed insight into the fate of fluids migrating within the sedimentary column and partially released into the water column. The overall objective of the project was to achieve a more global understanding of cold-seep dynamics in the context of a major active strike-slip fault. Five remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives were performed at selected areas along the North Anatolian Fault and inherited faults. To efficiently detect, select and sample the gas seeps, we applied an original procedure. It combines sequentially (1) the acquisition of ship-borne multibeam acoustic data from the water column prior to each dive to detect gas emission sites and to design the tracks of the ROV dives, (2) in situ and real-time Raman spectroscopy analysis of the gas stream, and (3) onboard determination of molecular and isotopic compositions of the collected gas bubbles. The in situ Raman spectroscopy was used as a decision-making tool to evaluate the need for continuing with the sampling of gases from the discovered seep, or to move to another one. Push cores were gathered to study buried carbonates and pore waters at the surficial sediment, while CTD-Rosette allowed collecting samples to measure dissolved-methane concentration within the water column followed by a comparison with measurements from samples collected with the submersible Nautile during the Marnaut cruise in 2007. Overall, the visited sites were characterized by a wide diversity of seeps. CO2- and oil-rich seeps were found at the westernmost part of the sea in the Tekirdag Basin, while amphipods, anemones and coral populated the sites visited at the easternmost part in the Cinarcik Basin. Methane-derived authigenic carbonates and bacterial mats were widespread on the seafloor at all sites with variable size and distributions. The measured methane concentrations in the water column were up to 377 μmol, and the dissolved pore-water profiles indicated the occurrence of sulfate depleting processes accompanied with carbonate precipitation. The pore-water profiles display evidence of biogeochemical transformations leading to the fast depletion of seawater sulfate within the first 25-cm depth of the sediment. These results show that the North Anatolian Fault and inherited faults are important migration paths for fluids for which a significant part is discharged into the water column, contributing to the increase of methane concentration at the bottom seawater and favoring the development of specific ecosystems
    Description: Published
    Description: 36-47
    Description: 3A. Geofisica marina e osservazioni multiparametriche a fondo mare
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente e geologia medica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2021-03-01
    Description: The availability of high‐quality waveforms recorded in epicentral areas of moderate‐to‐strong earthquakes is a key factor for investigating ground‐motion characteristics close to the seismic source. In this study, near‐source strong‐motion waveforms (named NESS1) were collected from worldwide public archives with the aim of building a flat file of high‐quality metadata and intensity measures (IMs) of engineering interest. Particular attention was paid to the retrieval of reliable information about event sources, such as geometries and rupture mechanisms that are necessary to model near‐source effects for engineering seismology and earthquake engineering applications. The accelerometric records are manually and uniformly processed, and the associated information is fully traceable. NESS1 consists of about 800 three‐component waveforms relative to 700 accelerometric stations, caused by 74 events with moment magnitude larger than 5.5 and hypocentral depth shallower than 40 km, with Joyner–Boore distance up to 140 km. Ground‐motion data were selected to have a maximum source‐to‐site distance within one fault length, defined through seismological scaling relations. About 40 records exhibit peak acceleration or peak velocity exceeding 1g or 120cm/s ⁠, and they represent some of the largest ground motion ever recorded. Evidence of near‐source effects was recognized in the NESS1 dataset, such as velocity pulses, large vertical ground motions, directional and hanging‐wall amplifications and fling step. In particular, around 30% of the records was found to exhibit pulse‐like characteristics that are possibly due to forward rupture directivity.
    Description: Published
    Description: 2299-2313
    Description: 5T. Sismologia, geofisica e geologia per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2021-03-04
    Description: Kamarina, located in southern Sicily (Italy), was an important Greek colony since its foundation in the sixth century BC. Archaeological excavations, carried out since the twentieth century, uncovered only limited portions of the site so far. Despite the importance of the Greek colony, the presence of remarkable buildings that archaeologists expected to bring to light has not found fully correspondence in the archaeological excavations. Consequently, the integrated geophysical prospection carried out in the study area is aimed to support and address the future archaeological investigations. After the photographic and thermographic survey obtained by an unmanned aerial vehicle, we performed a systematic survey through ground magnetic and GPR methods over an area of 6200 m2. The acquisition procedures have been optimized in order to get the best results combining high resolution and elevated speed of acquisition. The results derived from the three geophysical techniques have been conveniently combined by means of a cluster analysis, allowing us to clearly identify a series of buried archaeological features. Because of their geometrical characteristics, often in good agreement with the spatial arrangement of the archaeological remains at the surface, these buried archaeological features can be interpreted as roads, walls, or buildings foundations in which the various construction phases of the city can be clearly recognized. The integrated approach has proven to be essential for a robust interpretation of the archaeogeophysical investigation.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1181–1200
    Description: 7SR AMBIENTE – Servizi e ricerca per la società
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2021-03-11
    Description: The seismicity of Stromboli comprises explosion-quakes, volcanic tremor and volcano-tectonic (VT) events. We applied the double-difference approach of Waldhauser and Ellsworth (2000) on 42 VT events recorded during 2005–2016 in order to improve their standard locations. This approach has allowed to cluster hypocentres in two seismogenic sectors (G1 and G2), respectively, located inside and south of Stromboli at depths of 3.5–6 and 10–12 km. The seismicity belonging to G1 is located between the deep and intermediate magma storages of Stromboli and seems to precede the 2007 and 2014 effusive eruptions. This suggests that faulting episodes occur as a response to local stress linked to the pressurization of the magmatic system caused by magma ascent.
    Description: 1-6
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 04.08. Volcanology
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2021-03-04
    Description: Since 2016, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) has produced and disseminated an ensemble of four global ocean reanalyses produced at eddy-permitting resolution for the period from 1993 to present, called GREP (Global ocean Reanalysis Ensemble Product). This dataset offers the possibility to investigate the potential benefits of a multi-system approach for ocean reanalyses, since the four reanalyses span by construction the same spatial and temporal scales. In particular, our investigations focus on the added value of the information on the ensemble spread, implicitly contained in the GREP ensemble, for temperature, salinity, and steric sea level studies. It is shown that in spite of the small ensemble size, the spread is capable of estimating the flow-dependent uncertainty in the ensemble mean, although proper re-scaling is needed to achieve reliability. The GREP members also exhibit larger consistency (smaller spread) than their predecessors, suggesting advancement with time of the reanalysis vintage. The uncertainty information is crucial for monitoring the climate of the ocean, even at regional level, as GREP shows consistency with CMEMS high-resolution regional products and complement the regional estimates with uncertainty estimates. Further applications of the spread include the monitoring of the impact of changes in ocean observing networks; the use of multi-model ensemble anomalies in hybrid ensemble-variational retrospective analysis systems, which outperform static covariances and represent a promising application of GREP. Overall, the spread information of the GREP product is found to significantly contribute to the crucial requirement of uncertainty estimates for climatic datasets.
    Description: Data from the reanalyses presented in this work are available from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS, http://marine.copernicus.eu/). Part of this work was supported by the EOS COST Action (“Evaluation of Ocean Synthesis”, http://eos-cost.eu/) through its Short Term Scientific Missions program. The full C-GLORS dataset is available at http://c-glors.cmcc.it. This work has received funding from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS).
    Description: Published
    Description: 287-312
    Description: 4A. Oceanografia e clima
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2021-03-30
    Description: Even modest ash-rich volcanic eruptions can severely impact a range of human activities, especially air travel. The dispersal of ash in these eruptions depends critically on aggregation and sedimentation processes - however these are difficult to quantify in volcanic plumes. Here, we image ash dynamics from mild explosive activity at Santiaguito Volcano, Guatemala, by measuring the depolarisation of scattered sunlight by non-spherical ash particles, allowing the dynamics of diffuse ash plumes to be investigated with high temporal resolution (〉1 Hz). We measure the ash settling velocity downwind from the main plume, and compare it directly with ground sampled ash particles, finding good agreement with a sedimentation model based on particle size. Our new, cost-effective technique leverages existing technology, opening a new frontier of integrated ash visualisation and ground collection studies which could test models of ash coagulation and sedimentation, leading to improved ash dispersion forecasts. This will provide risk managers with improved data quality on ash location, reducing the economic and societal impacts of future ash-rich eruptions.
    Description: Published
    Description: 15680
    Description: 5V. Processi eruttivi e post-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2021-03-09
    Description: The assessment of satellite image classifications is usually carried out using a test sample assumed as the ground truth, from which a confusion matrix is derived. There are cases where the reference data, even those coming from a ground survey, are affected by errors and do not represent a reliable truth. In the field of geophysical parameter retrieval, the triple collocation (TC) technique is applied for validating remotely sensed products when the source of test data (e.g., ground data) does not represent a reliable reference. TC is able to retrieve the error variances of three systems observing the same target parameter, assuming that their errors are independent. In this paper, we exploit the same idea to test the classification accuracy in cases where the ground truth is not available. We extend the TC approach to the classification problem for a general number of classes, but we solve it numerically for a two-class problem (i.e., collapsed and noncollapsed buildings). The specific case refers to the detection of L'Aquila 2009 earthquake damage from very high-resolution optical data. The image classification, performed by exploiting an object-based analysis, is compared with those from two different ground surveys carried out after the earthquake by different teams and with different purposes. This paper demonstrates the power of the TC approach for assessing the classification accuracy with no reliable ground truth available, and provides an insight into the problem of assessing damage, from satellite and on ground, in a very critical and unsafe situation, like the one occurring after an earthquake. Moreover, it was found that the remotely sensed product can have an order of accuracy comparable to that of at least one of the ground surveys.
    Description: Published
    Description: 485-496
    Description: 1VV. Altro
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article