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  • 2015-2019  (1,254,206)
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  • 1
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    Basel, Boston, Berlin : Birkhäuser
    Keywords: airbone and satellite technologies ; geoinformation methods ; object-based image analysis ; remote sensing or observational platforms ; spatial interpolation and modelling ; statistical and geostatistical inference
    Description / Table of Contents: This topical volume covers a wide range of multidisciplinary topics, the common theme of which is processing of remotely-acquired spatial data using geo information methods. Satellite or airborne technologies and geo information itself provide powerful tools for solving numerous scientific problems in the geosciences, as they utilize geophysical principles and offer geophysicists new data and methods. Accordingly, this topical volume focuses on six key topics, presenting research applications of satellite or airborne technologies in geodynamics, geomorphology, meteorology and climatology, hydrology and limnology, oceanography and cartography. These applications make use of numerous remote sensing or observational platforms, including: Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), Rapid Eye, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), Landsat-7, Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Doppler Orbitography and Radio positioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS), as well as several altimetric and gravimetric satellite missions. The remotely-sensed data are processed using various geo information techniques, e.g. spatial interpolation and modeling, object-based image analysis, statistical and geo statistical inference and visualization. The volume addresses the interests of scientists and practitioners whose work is related to processing remote sensing data using geoinformation methods. Postgraduate students of geography, geodesy, cartography and geophysics – as well as students of the broader geosciences – will also find the book to be a valuable resource, as it brings together numerous satellite and airborne technologies with geospatial processing methods, presents case studies and examines most applications in the context of basic geophysical principles.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (309 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783034808491
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Description / Table of Contents: Ernie Rutter has made, and continues to make, a significant impact in the field of rock deformation. He has studied brittle and plastic deformation processes that occur within both the oceanic and continental crust, as well as other key properties such as the permeability and seismic velocities of these rocks. His approach has been one that integrates field observations, laboratory experiments and theoretical analyses. This volume celebrates Ernie's key contribution to rock deformation and structural geology by bringing together a collection of papers that represent this broad approach. The papers within the volume address key issues that remain within these fields. These range from fundamental studies of brittle and plastic behaviour along with the resultant structures and microstructures from both the field and laboratory, to applied problems where a better understanding of the deformation and properties of the crust is still needed.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (277 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862396883
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Description / Table of Contents: The subduction zone volatile cycle is key to understanding the petrogenesis, transport, storage and eruption of arc magmas. Volatiles control the flux of slab components into the mantle wedge, are responsible for melt generation through lowering the solidi of mantle materials and influence the crystallizing phase assemblages in the overriding crust. Further, the rates and extents of degassing during magma storage and decompression affect magma rheology, ultimately control eruption style and have consequences for the environmental impact of explosive arc volcanism. This book highlights recent progress in constraining the role of volatiles in magmatic processes. Individual book sections are devoted to tracing volatiles from the subducting slab to the overriding crust, their role in subvolcanic processes and eruption triggering, as well as magmatic-hydrothermal systems and volcanic degassing. For the first time, all aspects of the overarching theme of volatile cycling are covered in detail within a single volume.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (292 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862396890
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Keywords: Social sciences ; Community ecology, Biotic ; Environmental economics ; Economic sociology ; Social Sciences ; Organizational Studies, Economic Sociology ; Environmental Economics ; Community & Population Ecology
    Description / Table of Contents: Chapter 1: Problem of Residue Management due to Rice Wheat Crop Rotation in Punjab --- Chapter 2: The Extent and Management of Crop Stubble --- Chapter 3: Valuation of the Health Impact --- Chapter 4: Alternative Uses of Crop Stubble --- Chapter 5: Environment Legislation in India as a Whole and in the State of Punjab --- Chapter 6: Policies for Restricting the Agriculture Residue Burning in Punjab --- Chapter 7: Concluding Remarks and Policy Implications --- References --- Annexure
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XIX, 144 pages) , 5 illustrations
    ISBN: 9788132220145
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Description / Table of Contents: Microbial carbonates (microbialites) are remarkable sedimentary deposits. They have the longest geological range of any type of biogenic limestones, form in the greatest range of different sedimentary environments, oxygenated the Earth's atmosphere and produce and, furthermore, store large volumes of hydrocarbons. This Special Publication provides significant contributions at a pivotal time in our understanding of microbial carbonates when their economic importance has become established and the results of many research programmes are coming to fruition. It is the first book to focus on the economic aspects of microbialites and in particular the giant pre-salt discoveries offshore Brazil. The volume contains papers on the processes involved in the formation of both ancient and modern microbialites and the diversity of style in microbial carbonate build-ups. Structures and fabrics from both marine and non-marine settings are discussed from throughout the geological record.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VII, 308 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862397279
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Description / Table of Contents: The practical application of structural geology in industry is varied and diverse; it is relevant at all scales, from plate-wide screening of new exploration areas down to fluid-flow behaviour along individual fractures. From an industry perspective, good structural practice is essential since it feeds into the quantification and recovery of reserves and ultimately underpins commercial investment choices. Many of the fundamental structural principles and techniques used by industry can be traced back to the academic community, and this volume aims to provide insights into how structural theory translates into industry practice. Papers in this publication describe case studies and workflows that demonstrate applied structural geology, covering a spread of topics including trap definition, fault seal, fold-and-thrust belts, fractured reservoirs, fluid flow and geomechanics. Against a background of evolving ideas, new data types and advancing computational tools, the volume highlights the need for structural geologists to constantly re-evaluate the role they play in solving industrial challenges.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VII, 267 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862397309
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Cham : Springer
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Aquatic ecology ; Life Sciences ; Freshwater & Marine Ecology
    Description / Table of Contents: Foreword --- Preface --- Part 1 A brief history of marine litter research --- Part 2 Abiotic aspects of marine litter pollution --- Global distribution, composition and abundance of marine litter --- Persistence of plastic litter in the oceans --- Part 3 Biological implications of marine litter --- Deleterious effects of litter on marine life --- The complex mixture, fate and toxicity of chemicals associated with plastic debris in the marine environment --- Marine litter as habitat and dispersal vector --- Part 4 Micro plastics --- Micro plastics in the marine environment: sources, consequences and solutions --- Methodology used for the detection and identification of micro plastics – a critical appraisal --- Sources and pathways of micro plastics to habitats --- Micro plastics in the marine environment: distribution, interactions and effects --- Modeling the role of micro plastics in bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to marine aquatic organisms. A critical review --- Nano plastics in the aquatic environment. Critical review --- Part 5 Socio-economic implications of marine anthropogenic litter --- Micro and nano-plastics and human health --- The economics of marine litter --- Regulation and management of marine litter --- Marine litter and the contribution of citizen science
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XVIII, 447 pages) , 68 illustrations, 35 illustrations in color
    ISBN: 9783319165103
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Keywords: Finance ; Mathematics ; Quantitative Finance ; Game Theory, Economics, Social and Behav. Sciences ; Finance, general ; Actuarial Sciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Part I Markets, Regulation, and Model Risk --- A Random Holding Period Approach for Liquidity-Inclusive Risk Management --- Regulatory Developments in Risk Management: Restoring Confidence in Internal Models --- Model Risk in Incomplete Markets with Jumps --- Part II Financial Engineering --- Bid-Ask Spread for Exotic Options Under Conic Finance --- Derivative Pricing Under the Possibility of Long Memory in the supOU Stochastic Volatility Model --- A Two-Sided BNS Model for Multicurrency FX Markets --- Modeling the Price of Natural Gas with Temperature and Oil Price as Exogenous Factors --- Copula-Specific Credit Portfolio Modeling --- Implied Recovery Rates—Auctions and Models --- Upside and Downside Risk Exposures of Currency Carry Trades via Tail Dependence --- Part III Insurance Risk and Asset Management --- Participating Life Insurance Contracts Under Risk Based Solvency Frameworks: How to Increase Capital Efficiency by Product Design --- Reducing Surrender Incentives Through Fee Structure in Variable Annuities --- A Variational Approach for Mean-Variance-Optimal Deterministic Consumption and Investment --- Risk Control in Asset Management: Motives and Concepts --- Worst-Case Scenario Portfolio Optimization Given the Probability of a Crash --- Improving Optimal Terminal Value Replicating Portfolios --- Part IV Computational Methods for Risk Management --- Risk and Computation --- Extreme Value Importance Sampling for Rare Event Risk Measurement --- A Note on the Numerical Evaluation of the Hartman–Watson Density and Distribution Function --- Computation of Copulas by Fourier Methods --- Part V Dependence Modelling --- Goodness-of-fit Tests for Archimedean Copulas in High Dimensions --- Duality in Risk Aggregation --- Some Consequences of the Markov Kernel Perspective of Copulas --- Copula Representations for Invariant Dependence Functions --- Nonparametric Copula Density Estimation Using a Petrov–Galerkin Projection
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XI, 438 pages) , 84 illustrations
    ISBN: 9783319091143
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Keywords: Finance ; Economic policy ; Development economics ; Finance ; Finance, general ; Economic Policy ; Development Economics
    Description / Table of Contents: Contents --- Foreword --- Chapter 1: Introduction and Overview --- Chapter 2: The Three Phases of Global Liquidity --- 2.1: Conceptual and Measurement Issues --- 2.2: First Phase of Global Liquidity --- 2.2.1: Round-trip Bank Flows to the US --- 2.2.2: Banking Sector Flows to the Rest of the World --- 2.2.3: Exchange Rates and Leverage --- 2.3: Second Phase of Global Liquidity --- 2.4: The Case of Emerging Asia --- 2.5: Third Phase and Onward --- 2.6: References --- Chapter 3: Early Warning Indicators for Financial Vulnerabilities --- 3.1: Principles for Selection of Early Warning Indicators --- 3.2: Core and Noncore Liabilities --- 3.3: References --- Chapter 4: Emerging Asia’s Noncore Liabilities and Policy Effectiveness --- 4.1: Bank-led Flows, Noncore Liabilities, and Credit Growth --- 4.2: Reassessing Monetary Policy --- 4.3: Appendix --- 4.4: References --- Chapter 5: Capital Flows and Income Distribution --- 5.1: National Policy Remains Key --- 5.2: How Capital Flows Affect Income Inequality --- 5.3: Prioritization for a Multi-Objective Goal --- 5.4: Appendix --- 5.5: References --- Chapter 6: Policy Implications --- 6.1 Tailoring Policies to Vulnerabilities --- 6.2 Macroprudential Tools --- 6.2.1 Bank Capital-Oriented Tools --- 6.2.1.1 Capital Requirements that Adjust Over the Cycle --- 6.2.1.2 Forward-Looking Provisioning --- 6.2.1.3: Leverage caps --- 6.2.1.4: Loan-To-Value and Debt-Service-To-Income Caps --- 6.2.1.5: Loan-to-Deposit caps --- 6.2.1.6: Levy on Noncore Liabilities --- 6.2.1.7: Unremunerated Reserve Requirements --- 6.2.2: Relative Merits of URR versus Levies/Taxes --- 6.2.3: Relationship with other Stabilization Policies --- 6.3: Financial Integration and Institutional Design --- 6.4: Policy Choices --- 6.5: References
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VIII, 124 pages) , 69 illustrations
    ISBN: 9789812872845
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Keywords: Globalization ; Management ; Leadership ; International economics ; Production management ; Emerging Markets/Globalization ; Innovation/Technology Management ; Business Strategy/Leadership ; International Economics ; Operations Management
    Description / Table of Contents: 1. Introduction: Needs for New Global Strategies --- Part I. Global Business Strategy --- 2. Management Strategies for Global Businesses --- 3. Changes in the Global Economic Environment --- 4. Comparison of Economic Institutions in China and India --- 5. New Business Model as Response to Competition from Emerging Economies --- 6. India’s Neemrana Industrial Park for Japanese Firms --- Part II. Fundamentals Of Strategic Planning --- 7. Alliance-based Global Strategy --- 8. Hitachi Construction Machinery: Becoming a Wholly Owned Chinese Entity --- 9. Marketing Theory in Global Business Context --- 10. Shiseido Marketing in China --- 11. International R&D Management --- 12. Multinationals’ R&D in China and India --- 13. Thailand’s National Science and Technology Development Agency and Japanese Firms --- 14. Suzuki Motor’s Expansion in India --- 15. Strategy Integration at the Global Level
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XVII, 259 pages) , 48 illustrations, 45 illustrations in color
    ISBN: 9784431554684
    Language: English
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  • 11
    Keywords: soil ; pedology ; Latin America ; Caribbean ; South America
    Description / Table of Contents: The European Commission's in-house science service today publishes the first ever comprehensive overview of the soils of Latin America and the Caribbean. Through colourful maps and illustrations the atlas explains in a simple and clear manner the diversity of soil across Central and South America and the Caribbean. It highlights the vital importance of a natural non-renewable resource which provides food, fodder and fuel for 580 million people. The atlas shows the delicate relationships between soils and the functions that they provide. It raises awareness of the inter-relationships with climate and land use while illustrating the role of soil in food security, particularly in relation to climate change. Latin America's soils also support some of the world's most biodiverse ecosystems. In Latin America and the Caribbean, soils have to meet the needs of a population that is in continuous and rapid growth. More than half of the 576 million hectares of arable land of Latin America are estimated to be affected by degradation processes, notably in South America and Mesoamerica. The main causes are change in land use (especially deforestation), over-exploitation, climate change and social inequality. The atlas presents a number of strategies for soil preservation and conservation.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (176 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789279465130
    Language: English
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  • 12
    Keywords: Central Asia ; Tien Shan ; basin formation ; geological evolution ; sedimentary basin ; climatic change
    Description / Table of Contents: Geological evolution of Central Asian Basins and the western Tien Shan Range / Marie-Françoise Brunet, Edward R. Sobel and Tom McCann / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 1-17, 14 July 2017, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.17 --- Regional evolution and extensional sedimentary basins --- Mesozoic tectonic and topographic evolution of Central Asia and Tibet: a preliminary synthesis / Marc Jolivet / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 19-55, 21 September 2015, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.2 --- Structural setting and evolution of the Afghan orogenic segment – a review / Agemar Siehl / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 57-88, 3 August 2015, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.8 --- Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic evolution of the Amu Darya Basin (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan) / Marie-Françoise Brunet, Andrey V. Ershov, Maxim V. Korotaev, Vladislav N. Melikhov, Eric Barrier, Dmitriy O. Mordvintsev and Irina P. Sidorova / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 89-144, 14 July 2017, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.18 --- Structure and evolution of the Bukhara-Khiva region during the Mesozoic: the northern margin of the Amu-Darya Basin (southern Uzbekistan) / Dmitriy Mordvintsev, Eric Barrier, Marie-Françoise Brunet, Christian Blanpied and Irina Sidorova / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 145-174, 3 May 2017, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.16 --- Subsidence history and basin-fill evolution in the South Caspian Basin from geophysical mapping, flexural backstripping, forward lithospheric modelling and gravity modelling / N. A. Abdullayev, F. Kadirov and I. S. Guliyev / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 175-196, 27 August 2015, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.5 --- Modelling the collisional and sedimentary evolution of the western part of the Tien Shan --- Crustal-scale structure of South Tien Shan: implications for subduction polarity and Cenozoic reactivation / C. Loury, Y. Rolland, S. Guillot, A. V. Mikolaichuk, P. Lanari, O. Bruguier and D. Bosch / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 197-229, 22 July 2015, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.4 --- The stratigraphic, sedimentological and structural evolution of the southern margin of the Kazakhstan continent in the Tien Shan Range during the Devonian to Permian / Dmitriy V. Alexeiev, Harry E. Cook, Alexandra V. Djenchuraeva and Alexander V. Mikolaichuk / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 231-269, 15 July 2015, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.3 --- Lithospheric structure in Central Eurasia derived from elevation, geoid anomaly and thermal analysis / Alexandra M. M. Robert, Manel Fernàndez, Ivone Jiménez-Munt and Jaume Vergés / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 271-293, 7 September 2015, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.10 --- Fault reactivation and far field effects --- Talas–Fergana Fault Cenozoic timing of deformation and its relation to Pamir indentation / Alejandro Bande, Edward R. Sobel, Alexander Mikolaichuk and Verónica Torres Acosta / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 295-311, 17 July 2015, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.1 --- Cenozoic palaeoenvironmental and tectonic controls on the evolution of the northern Fergana Basin / Alejandro Bande, Shukhrat Radjabov, Edward R. Sobel and Tatyana Sim / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 313-335, 18 December 2015, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.12 --- Sedimentation, environment and climate --- Integrated stratigraphy of a continental Pliensbachian–Toarcian Boundary (Lower Jurassic) section at Taskomirsay, Leontiev Graben, southwest Kazakhstan / Johann Schnyder, Denise Pons, Johan Yans, Romain Tramoy and Saya Abdulanova / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 337-356, 14 November 2016, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.15 --- Lower–Middle Jurassic facies patterns in the NW Afghan–Tajik Basin of southern Uzbekistan and their geodynamic context / Franz T. Fürsich, Marie-Françoise Brunet, Jean-Luc Auxiètre and Hermann Munsch / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 357-409, 6 August 2015, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.9 --- The Jurassic of the Western Tien Shan: the Central Kyzylkum Region, Uzbekistan / Tom McCann / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 411-437, 31 March 2016, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.13 --- The Cretaceous of the South Kyzylkum and Nuratau Region, Western Tien Shan, Central Uzbekistan / Tom McCann / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 439-489, 29 April 2016, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.14 --- The Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous alluvial-fan deposits of the Kalaza Formation (Central Asia): tectonic pulse or increased aridity? / Marc Jolivet, Sylvie Bourquin, Gloria Heilbronn, Cecile Robin, Laurie Barrier, Marie-Pierre Dabard, Yingying Jia, Elien De Pelsmaeker and Bihong Fu / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 491-521, 21 September 2015, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.6 --- Cenozoic evolution of the Pamir and Tien Shan mountains reflected in syntectonic deposits of the Tajik Basin / M. Klocke, T. Voigt, J. Kley, S. Pfeifer, T. Rocktäschel, S. Keil and R. Gaupp / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 523-564, 11 September 2015, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.7 --- Late Eocene palaeogeography of the proto-Paratethys Sea in Central Asia (NW China, southern Kyrgyzstan and SW Tajikistan) / Roderic Bosboom, Oleg Mandic, Guillaume Dupont-Nivet, Jean-Noël Proust, Cholponbek Ormukov and Jovid Aminov / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 427, 565-588, 7 September 2015, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP427.11
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VII, 605 Seiten) , Illustrationen, Diagramme, Karten
    ISBN: 9781862397385
    Language: English
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  • 13
    Keywords: meteorology ; weather ; atmosphere ; atmospheric sciences ; climate research ; environmental research
    Description / Table of Contents: Classifications of circulation weather systems have a long history in meteorology and climatology. Starting with manual classifications over specific regions of the globe, these tools (generally called “catalogs of synoptic types”) were restricted mainly to weather forecasting and historical climate variability studies. In the last decades, the advance of computing resources and the availability of datasets have fostered the development of fast and objective methods that process large amount of data. In recent years numerous methods of circulation type classification have been designed, showing their usefulness on a wide range of applications in scientific domains related to weather, climate, and environment. This Research Topic highlights methodological advances in circulation weather types and also their applications to different research areas. The articles included in this research topic show that circulation weather types can be used not only in Europe, where they have been always more frequent, but also applied to other regions of the world.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (153 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9782889196418
    Language: English
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  • 14
    Keywords: Physics ; History ; Nuclear physics ; Heavy ions ; Hadrons ; Particle acceleration ; Physics ; Nuclear Physics, Heavy Ions, Hadrons ; History and Philosophical Foundations of Physics ; Particle Acceleration and Detection, Beam Physics ; History of Science
    Description / Table of Contents: Part I Reminiscences: Rolf Hagedorn and Relativistic Heavy Ion Research.-- Part II The Hagedorn Temperature --- Part III Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks Heavy Ion Path to Quark-Gluon Plasma --- Acronyms
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XVI, 441 pages)
    ISBN: 9783319175454
    Language: English
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  • 15
    Description / Table of Contents: Arthur Smith Woodward was the Natural History Museum's longest-serving Keeper of Geology and the world's leading expert on fossil fish. He was also an unwitting victim of the Piltdown fraud, which overshadowed his important scientific contributions. The aim of this book is to honour Smith Woodward's contributions to vertebrate palaeontology, discuss their relevance today and provide insights into the factors that made him such an eminent scientist. The last few years have seen a resurgence in fossil vertebrate (particularly fish) palaeontology, including new techniques for the ‘virtual’ study of fossils (synchrotron and micro CT-scanning) and new research foci, such as ‘Evo-Devo’ – combining fossils with the development of living animals. This new research is built on a strong foundation, like that provided by Smith Woodward's work. This collection of papers, authored by some of the leading experts in their fields, covers the many facets of Smith Woodward's life, legacy and career. It will be a benchmark for studies on one of the leading vertebrate palaeontologists of his generation.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (362 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862397415
    Language: English
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  • 16
    Description / Table of Contents: The mountains of the Mediterranean world are now largely ice free, but many were repeatedly glaciated during the Quaternary ice age. This created spectacular glaciated landscapes with a rich array of glacial deposits and landforms. The glacial and glacio-fluvial records are often very well preserved and our understanding of the timing of Quaternary glaciation has very recently been transformed through the application of dating methods utilizing uranium-series and cosmogenic isotopes. Glacial records from the Mediterranean now boast some of the most robust chronologies for mountain glaciation anywhere in the world – they represent a unique archive of Quaternary environmental change of global significance. The southerly latitude and relatively small size of Mediterranean glaciers rendered them especially sensitive to Pleistocene and Holocene climate changes. This volume brings together the leading researchers and the latest research on Mediterranean glaciation. Several papers also explore glacier behaviour in the Holocene – including those glaciers of southernmost Europe at risk of disappearing this century.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (X, 315 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862397477
    Language: English
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  • 17
    Description / Table of Contents: Palaeoseismic records and seismological data from continental interiors increasingly show that these areas of slow strain accumulation are more subject to seismic and associated natural hazards than previously thought. Moreover, some of our instincts developed for assessing hazards at plate boundaries might not apply here. Hence assessing hazards and drawing implications for the future is challenging, and how well it can be done heavily depends on the ability to assess the spatiotemporal distribution of past large earthquakes. This book explores some key issues in understanding hazards in slowly deforming areas. Examples include classic intraplate regions, such as Central and Northern Europe, Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Australia, and North and South America, and regions of widely distributed strain, such as the Tien Shan Mountains in Central Asia. The papers in this volume are grouped into two sections. The first section deals with instrumental and historical earthquake data and associated hazard assessments. The second section covers methods from structural geology, palaeoseismology and tectonic geomorphology, and incorporates field evidence.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (261 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862397453
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  • 18
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    Hamburg : Maribus
    Keywords: Meer, Nachhaltigkeit, Ozeanologie, Strategie
    Description / Table of Contents: The fourth edition of the World Ocean Review (WOR) focuses on sustainability and explores how that concept can guide the management of our marine environment. WOR 4 explains the key ecosystem services supplied by our seas and identifies the main threats to them. It offers an overview of current marine policy at regional and transnational level and shows how conservation and sustainable use of our oceans can be reconciled in future.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (151 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783866482531
    Language: English
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  • 19
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    London : Ubiquity Press
    Keywords: Governance ; Sustainable Development ; International development ; Public policy ; Nachhaltigkeit
    Description / Table of Contents: As we move from the era of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) it is important to consider how development agendas are set, the progress that has been made over the past 15 years, and how current debates are shaping global development efforts for the next 15. This book was, produced as part of a University College London-London International Development Centre research collaboration entitled, "Thinking Beyond Sectors for Sustainable Development". The aim of the book is to provide a concise introduction to the debates in a number of vital development sectors, review progress made in each sector, and to consider how looking beyond sectors might open new opportunities for inclusive, sustainable development. Each chapter in this book was produced collaboratively by academics from a wide number of disciplines. As such, it represents a truly interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral effort, of the kind that will be necessary for successful development and implementation of future international development goals.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XVI, 110 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781909188433
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: agriculture
    Description / Table of Contents: This book is a collection of chapters, concerning the developments within the Agroecology field of study. The book includes scholarly contributions by various authors pertinent to Agricultural and Biological Sciences. Each contribution comes as a separate chapter complete in itself but directly related to the book's topics and objectives. The target audience comprises scholars and specialists in the field.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (230 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535121305
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: mathematics ; signal processing
    Description / Table of Contents: The application of Fourier transform (FT) in signal processing and physical sciences has increased in the past decades. Almost all the textbooks on signal processing or physics have a section devoted to the FT theory. For this reason, this book focuses on signal processing and physical sciences. The book chapters are related to fast hybrid recursive FT based on Jacket matrix, acquisition algorithm for global navigation satellite system, determining the sensitivity of output parameters based on FFT, convergence of integrals of products based on Riemann-Lebesgue Lemma function, extending the real and complex number fields for treating the FT, nonmaterial structure, Gabor transform, and chalcopyrite bioleaching. The book provides applications oriented to signal processing and physics written primarily for engineers, mathematicians, physicians and graduate students, will also find it useful as a reference for their research activities.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (222 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535121275
    Language: English
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  • 22
    Keywords: Finance ; Mathematics ; Quantitative Finance ; Game Theory, Economics, Social and Behav. Sciences ; Finance, general ; Actuarial Sciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Part I Markets, Regulation, and Model Risk --- A Random Holding Period Approach for Liquidity-Inclusive Risk Management --- Regulatory Developments in Risk Management: Restoring Confidence in Internal Models --- Model Risk in Incomplete Markets with Jumps --- Part II Financial Engineering --- Bid-Ask Spread for Exotic Options Under Conic Finance --- Derivative Pricing Under the Possibility of Long Memory in the supOU Stochastic Volatility Model --- A Two-Sided BNS Model for Multicurrency FX Markets --- Modeling the Price of Natural Gas with Temperature and Oil Price as Exogenous Factors --- Copula-Specific Credit Portfolio Modeling --- Implied Recovery Rates—Auctions and Models --- Upside and Downside Risk Exposures of Currency Carry Trades via Tail Dependence --- Part III Insurance Risk and Asset Management --- Participating Life Insurance Contracts Under Risk Based Solvency Frameworks: How to Increase Capital Efficiency by Product Design --- Reducing Surrender Incentives Through Fee Structure in Variable Annuities --- A Variational Approach for Mean-Variance-Optimal Deterministic Consumption and Investment --- Risk Control in Asset Management: Motives and Concepts --- Worst-Case Scenario Portfolio Optimization Given the Probability of a Crash --- Improving Optimal Terminal Value Replicating Portfolios --- Part IV Computational Methods for Risk Management --- Risk and Computation --- Extreme Value Importance Sampling for Rare Event Risk Measurement --- A Note on the Numerical Evaluation of the Hartman–Watson Density and Distribution Function --- Computation of Copulas by Fourier Methods --- Part V Dependence Modelling --- Goodness-of-fit Tests for Archimedean Copulas in High Dimensions --- Duality in Risk Aggregation --- Some Consequences of the Markov Kernel Perspective of Copulas --- Copula Representations for Invariant Dependence Functions --- Nonparametric Copula Density Estimation Using a Petrov–Galerkin Projection
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XI, 438 pages) , 84 illustrations
    ISBN: 9783319091143
    Language: English
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  • 23
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: materials science ; fluids
    Description / Table of Contents: Ionic liquids continue to attract a great deal of research attention in an even increasing number of areas, including more traditional areas such as synthesis (organic and materials) and physical properties studies and predictions, as well as less obvious areas such as lubrication and enzymatic transformations. In this volume, recent advances in a number of these different areas are reported and reviewed, thus granting some appreciation for the future that ionic liquids research holds, and affording inspiration for those who have not previously considered the application of ionic liquids in their area of interest.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (690 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535121220
    Language: English
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  • 24
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: environmental sciences ; storage ; fuels
    Description / Table of Contents: This book presents an analysis of the results of studies of motor fuels ageing, conducted in laboratory and model conditions, in terms of building a system operating on-line, allowing continuous assessment of the operational usability of gasoline and diesel fuels, including those containing the addition of ethanol and FAME, respectively. This research was carried out in the framework of the project: "A system for the continuous control of the degree and rate of the liquid fuels ageing process during storage, which received co-funding from the European Regional Development Fund under the Operational Programme "Innovative Economy". The book presents an evaluation of the impact of fuel production processes on its stability and an analysis of changes in normative parameters of fuels during their storage and use. The book presents also the results of tests on the corrosive effects of fuels during storage processes.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (276 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535117346
    Language: English
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  • 25
    Keywords: agricultural and biological sciences ; biodiversity ; ecosystems ; ecology
    Description / Table of Contents: The term biodiversity has become a mainstream concept that can be found in any newspaper at any given time. Concerns on biodiversity protection are usually linked to species protection and extinction risks for iconic species, such as whales, pandas and so on. However, conserving biodiversity has much deeper implications than preserving a few (although important) species. Biodiversity in ecosystems is tightly linked to ecosystem functions such as biomass production, organic matter decomposition, ecosystem resilience, and others. Many of these ecological processes are also directly implied in services that the humankind obtains from ecosystems. The first part of this book will introduce different concepts and theories important to understand the links between ecosystem function and ecosystem biodiversity. The second part of the book provides a wide range of different studies showcasing the evidence and practical implications of such relationships.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (658 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535120285
    Language: English
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  • 26
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    Cambridge, UK : Open Book Publishers
    Keywords: conservation
    Description / Table of Contents: Is planting grass margins around fields beneficial for wildlife? Which management interventions increase bee numbers in farmland? Does helping migrating toads across roads increase populations? How do you reduce predation on bird populations? What Works in Conservation has been created to provide practitioners with answers to these and many other questions about practical conservation. This book provides an assessment of the effectiveness of 648 conservation interventions based on summarized scientific evidence relevant to the practical global conservation of amphibians, reducing the risk of predation for birds, conservation of European farmland biodiversity and some aspects of enhancing natural pest control and soil fertility. It contains key results from the summarized evidence for each conservation intervention and an assessment of the effectiveness of each by international expert panels. The volume is published in partnership with the Conservation Evidence project and is fully linked to the project's website where more detailed evidence and references can be freely accessed.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XXXII, 340 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781783741595
    Language: English
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  • 27
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: agriculture ; toxicity ; agrochemicals ; hazards
    Description / Table of Contents: This edited book, Toxicity and Hazard of Agrochemicals, is intended to provide an overview of toxicology that examines the hazardous effects of common agrochemicals employed every day in our agricultural practices. Furthermore, it is hoped that the information in the present book will be of value to those directly engaged in the handling and use of agrochemicals and that this book will continue to meet the expectations and needs of all interested in the different aspects of human and environmental risk toxicities.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (168 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535121459
    Language: English
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  • 28
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    Amsterdam : Amsterdam University Press
    Keywords: cartography ; society and social sciences ; society and culture: general ; media studies ; ageing ; issue mapping ; digital methods
    Description / Table of Contents: Issue Mapping for an Ageing Europe is a seminal guide to mapping social and political issues with digital methods. The issue at stake concerns the imminent crisis of an ageing Europe and its impact on the contemporary welfare state. The book brings together three leading approaches to issue mapping: Bruno Latour's social cartography, Ulrich Beck's risk cartography and Jeremy Crampton's critical neo-cartography. These modes of inquiry are put into practice with digital methods for mapping the ageing agenda, including debates surrounding so-called 'old age', cultural philosophies of ageing, itinerant care workers, not to mention European anti-ageing cuisine. Issue Mapping for an Ageing Europe addresses an urgent social issue with new media research tools.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (169 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789048524457
    Language: English
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  • 29
    Keywords: humanities ; archaeology ; landscape archaeology ; landscape ; biography ; history ; archaeology ; human geography
    Description / Table of Contents: ‘Landscape Biographies’ explores the long and complex histories of landscapes from personal and social perspectives. As an essential part of human life-worlds, landscapes have the potential to absorb something of people's lives, works, and thoughts. But landscapes also shape their own life-histories at different timescales, transcending human life-cycles and generating their own temporalities and rhythms. It comes as no surprise, therefore, that the co-scripting of landscapes and people figures prominently in the (auto-)biographical works of writers and attracts the interest of geographers, archaeologists, historians, and anthropologists. This has even resulted in a new genre in landscape research, rapidly gaining in popularity, under the heading of 'landscape biography'. In ‘Landscape Biographies’, twenty geographers, archaeologists, historians, and anthropologists investigate the diverse ways in which landscapes and monuments have been constructed, transmitted, and transformed from prehistory up to the present, from Manhattan to Shanghai, from Iceland to Portugal, and from England to Estonia. Among the authors are distinguished scholars like Gísli Pálsson, Cornelius Holtorf, Joshua Pollard, and Mark Gillings.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (437 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789048517800
    Language: English
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  • 30
    Description / Table of Contents: Scandinavia and its Arctic territories of Svalbard and Greenland represent geographical regions with a long history of Mesozoic palaeontology. However, the last few decades have witnessed a surge of new discoveries. Especially famous are the Triassic and Late Jurassic Lagerstätten of East Greenland and Spitsbergen in the Svalbard Archipelago, together with the Late Cretaceous strata of southern Sweden and the UNESCO World Heritage locality at Stevns Klint in Denmark. The latter records one of the most complete terminal Mesozoic rock successions known globally. Collectively, these deposits encompass the spectrum of Mesozoic biotic evolution, including the explosive radiation of marine faunas after the Permian–Triassic extinction, seminal specialization of amniotes for life in the sea, Late Triassic–Jurassic domination of the land by dinosaurs and the Cretaceous development of modern terrestrial floras and marine ecosystems. This volume, authored by leading experts in the field, encapsulates key aspects of the latest research and will provide a benchmark for future investigations into the Scandinavian Mesozoic world.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (336 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862397484
    Language: English
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  • 31
    Description / Table of Contents: Field studies over a range of scales have been important in the upstream oil and gas industry for decades. Advances in digital outcrop characterization and data capture, coupled with increased computational capabilities, have resulted in a resurgence in fieldwork; these field studies are required to develop depositional, stratigraphic and structural concepts and provide the data which underpin the current generation of complex, computer generated, 3D subsurface models. These models provide an informed means of benchmarking the subsurface along with a more considered view of subsurface uncertainty and management of the risks identified. The papers in this volume cover safety in the field, frontier basin petroleum system assessment, field appraisal and development including unconventional resources, applications of techniques such as LiDAR and 3D photogrammetry, and uncertainty characterization. The studies were undertaken in diverse locations such as the Faroe Islands, Italy, Algeria, India, the USA and Trinidad; they represent a range of tectonic settings and a wide geological time frame. The spectrum of papers is testament to the value and integral position that fieldwork occupies within the modern hydrocarbon industry.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (268 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781786201409
    Language: English
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  • 32
    Keywords: cohesive sediment ; inundation ; effluent mixing ; shoaling waves ; water quality
    Description / Table of Contents: This special issue contains selected papers from the 13th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling (ECM13), held Nov 4-6, 2013. The conference brings modelers from academic institutions, government and private industry together to present and discuss the latest developments in the field of marine environmental modeling. Begun in 1989 by Dr. Malcolm Spaulding, the conference is held every other year in a retreat-like setting with a maximum of about 125 people to encourage interaction and help strengthen ties between modeling communities. A wide range of modeling issues are encouraged, including advances in physical understanding, numerical algorithm development, model applications, and better tools. A wide range of modeling topics are encouraged as well, including storm surge, eutrophication, larval transport, search and rescue, oil spills, fisheries issues, coastal erosion and contaminated sediment transport. Many conferences also have special themes. The special theme of ECM13 was modeling related to Hurricane Sandy which in late October 2012 devastated the Caribbean and the US East Coast, including record flooding in New York City. The 22 papers presented here cover a broad spectrum of topics, including simulations of cohesive sediment, inundation, effluent mixing, shoaling waves, and water quality and with modeling applications from Alaska to New Zealand.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VII, 424 Seiten)
    Edition: Printed Edition of the Special Issue Published in Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
    ISBN: 9783038420477
    Language: English
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  • 33
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: energy engineering ; renewable resources
    Description / Table of Contents: This book contains chapters in which the problems of modern photovoltaics are considered. The majority of the chapters provide an overview of the results of research and development of different types of solar cells. Such chapters are completed by a justification for a new solar cell structure and technology. Of course, highly effective solar energy conversion is impossible without an in-depth examination of the solar cell components as physical materials. The relations between structural, thermodynamic, and optical properties of the physical material without addressing the band theory of solids are of both theoretical and practical interest. Requirements formulated for the material are also to be used for maximally efficient conversion of solar radiation into useful work.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (396 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535121848
    Language: English
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  • 34
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: engineering ; heat and mass transfer
    Description / Table of Contents: This book covers a wide variety of topics related to advancements in different stages of mass transfer modelling processes. Its purpose is to create a platform for the exchange of recent observations, experiences, and achievements. It is recommended for those in the chemical, biotechnological, pharmaceutical, and nanotechnology industries as well as for students of natural sciences, technical, environmental and employees in companies which manufacture machines for the above-mentioned industries. This work can also be a useful source for researchers and engineers dealing with mass transfer and related issues.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (288 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535121923
    Language: English
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  • 35
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: greenhouse gases ; global warming ; climate change
    Description / Table of Contents: Sustainability should be a key component of every process, safeguarding resources and reserves for future generations. This book shows how a responsible use of resources is possible, offering valid technological alternatives to fight climate change. We offer current technologies and valid methods for a wide range of activities: teaching, investigation, work, business and even daily life. We encourage all our readers to join us and become part of the solution to climate change, rather than the problem. After reading this book, we are certain that you will find justified reasons to start your own personal and social awareness campaign in favour of these effective technologies against climate change.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (314 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535122739
    Language: English
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  • 36
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: petroleum science ; petrochemicals ; petrochemical industry
    Description / Table of Contents: The petrochemical industry is an important area in our pursuits for economic growth, employment generation, and basic needs. It is a huge field that encompasses many commercial petrochemical and polymer-enabled products. The book is designed to help the reader, particularly students and researchers of petroleum science and engineering, to understand synthesis, processing, mechanics, and simulation of the petroleum processes. The selection of topics addressed and the examples, tables, and graphs used to illustrate them are governed, to a large extent, by the fact that this book is aimed primarily at petroleum science and engineering technologists. Undoubtedly, this book contains must read materials for students, engineers, and researchers working in the area of petrochemicals and petroleum and provides valuable insights into the related synthesis, processing, mechanisms, and simulation. This book is concise, self-explanatory, informative, and cost-effective.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (150 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535121763
    Language: English
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  • 37
    Keywords: pollution ; biodegradation ; bioremediation
    Description / Table of Contents: This book contains a collection of research works focused on the biodegradation of different types of pollutants, both in water and solids. The book is divided in three major sections: A) Biodegradation of organic pollutants in solids and wastewater, B) Biodegradation of complex pollutants, and C) Novel technologies in biodegradation and bioremediation.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (176 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535122388
    Language: English
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  • 38
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: air pollution ; air quality ; urban areas
    Description / Table of Contents: Air pollution is thus far one of the key environmental issues in urban areas. Comprehensive air quality plans are required to manage air pollution for a particular area. Consequently, air should be continuously sampled, monitored, and modeled to examine different action plans. Reviews and research papers describe air pollution in five main contexts: Monitoring, Modeling, Risk Assessment, Health, and Indoor Air Pollution. The book is recommended to experts interested in health and air pollution issues.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (654 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535121800
    Language: English
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  • 39
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: forest ; forestration
    Description / Table of Contents: Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem of Earth. They are distributed across the globe. Forests account for 75% of the gross primary productivity of the Earth's biosphere, and contain 80% of the Earth's plant biomass. Human society and forests influence each other in both positive and negative ways. Forests provide ecosystem services to humans. Forests can also impose costs, affect people's health, and interfere with tourist enjoyment. This publication presents reviews and research results on negative and positive human interference on forests, as well as ecology, management, governance, policy and economic issues. The book consists of four sections with 12 chapters derived from around the world.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (286 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535121756
    Language: English
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  • 40
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    Marseille : OpenEdition Press
    Keywords: open access ; open data ; open science
    Description / Table of Contents: At a time when the Digital Republic Bill is proposing to insert provisions relating to open access in the French Research Code, the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), alongside its partners in the ISTEX project, as well as a large number of researchers and actors in the field of public research, are offering via this White Paper the results of their deliberations and analyses.For several years now, the scientific community involved in public research has been arguing for the need to create a legal and organisational framework for access to scientific and technical data and information in the digital world, in particular data from its own research activities.This White Paper gives an account of these reflections on the practices of researchers with regard to the use of scientific and technical information and digital tools. The package of proposals for the creation of Open Science is the result of combined efforts and powerful testimonies from the world of research.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (186 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9782821868700
    Language: English
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  • 41
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    Basel, Boston, Berlin : Birkhäuser
    Keywords: Tsunami ; Pacific Ocean
    Description / Table of Contents: The 2011 Tohoku earthquake generated a catastrophic tsunami that killed nearly 20,000 people along the coast of Japan and caused the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The tsunami propagated throughout the Pacific Ocean and also affected many other countries, including Russia, the USA, New Zealand, French Polynesia and Chile, demonstrating once again the terrible threat that tsunami waves pose for Pacific countries and the need for basin-wide international scientific collaboration. Following a brief introduction, this volume presents 21 scientific papers, including 12 on aspects of the 2011 Tohoku event. A first group of papers provides detailed field survey results from the coasts of Japan and Russia and examines the wave dynamics on the basis of these surveys, the source mechanism of the earthquake, and the far-field impacts of the Tohoku tsunami. The second group reports on the 2012 tsunamis in El Salvador, the Philippines, off the east coast of Honshu and the landmark Haida Gwaii event off the west coast of British Columbia, Canada, while the papers in a third set discuss a number of remaining challenging questions in tsunami science and warning. The volume will be of interest to scientists and practitioners involved in all aspects of tsunamis from earthquake source processes to transoceanic wave propagation and coastal impacts. Postgraduate students in geophysics, oceanography and coastal engineering – as well as those in the broader geosciences, civil and environmental engineering – will also find the book a valuable resource, as it combines recent case studies with the latest advances in tsunami science and natural hazards mitigation.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VI, 366 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783034808644
    Language: English
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  • 42
    Keywords: Tsunami ; Indian Ocean
    Description / Table of Contents: This is the first volume of a collection of essays focusing on progress in tsunami science since the great tsunami of 26 December. A magnitude Mw 9.1 earthquake (third strongest ever instrumentally recorded) generated a global tsunami that killed about 230,000 people along the coasts of 14 countries in the Indian Ocean and propagated as far as the North Pacific and North Atlantic. Since then, various countries from around the globe contributed major funding to tsunami research and mitigation, enabling the installation of hundreds of new high-precision instruments, the development of new technology and the establishment of more modern communication systems. As a result, incredible progress has been achieved in tsunami research and operation during the ten years after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The papers presented in this first of two special volumes of Pure and Applied Geophysics reflect the state of tsunami science during this time. Eight papers are related to case studies highlighting regional hazards around the globe, while five papers record progress in tsunami warning systems. Benchmark studies that describe the accuracy of numerical models for tsunami impact, as well as a variety of inundation and generation studies, are presented by 7 additional papers.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VI, 390 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783034809115
    Language: English
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  • 43
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    Basel, Boston, Berlin : Birkhäuser
    Keywords: fault zone ; earthquake processes
    Description / Table of Contents: Recent theoretical developments, acquisitions of large seismic and other data sets, detailed geological studies and novel laboratory experiments offer new opportunities for advancing the understanding of fault zone and earthquake processes. The present and a previous volume provide broad state-of-the-art perspectives on earthquakes and crustal fault zones. Subjects discussed in this volume include imaging of fault zones and the crust, microstructural analyses of fault zone rocks, long paleoseismic record, inferences on stress, stress drops and fault geometries, properties of dynamic ruptures, generation and healing of rock damage, temporal changes of attenuation, postseismic deformation and scaling of earthquake source properties. The volume will be useful to students and professional researchers from Earth Sciences, Material Sciences, Physics and other disciplines, who are interested in properties and processes of earthquakes and faults.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (IX, 379 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783034809238
    Language: English
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  • 44
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    Basel, Boston, Berlin : Birkhäuser
    Keywords: dynamic systems ; fractals
    Description / Table of Contents: Chaotic dynamic systems and non-linear processes, together with the resulting fractals and multifractals, are fundamental for analyzing data and understanding processes in the Earth and Environmental Sciences. Many processes and phenomena, poorly recognized only a few years ago, now can be studied and understood with the help of conceptual models from the fields of fractals and dynamics systems. This represents a bold step towards understanding how planet Earth works. The twenty-one papers presented in this volume reflect the state of fundamental and applied research on fractals and dynamic systems in Geoscience, from magma dynamics to geomorphology, from seismology to space science. The volume is of interest to scientists using fractals, multifractals, non-linear dynamics and chaos theory for analyzing complex datasets, as those arising from geological and geophysical processes. Postgraduate students and students in various fields of geoscience as well as physics and applied mathematics will also find the book to be a valuable resource for a clear view of the leading-edge research on fractals and dynamic systems in Geoscience.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VI, 302 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783034809351
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  • 45
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    Basel, Beijing, Wuhan : MDPI
    Keywords: recharge ; aquifers ; MAR ; water banking ; economics ; policy
    Description / Table of Contents: Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) and water banking are of increasing importance to water resources management. MAR can be used to buffer against drought and changing or variable climate, as well as provide water to meet demand growth, by making use of excess surface water supplies and recycled waters. Along with hydrologic and geologic considerations, economic and policy analyses are essential to a complete analysis of MAR and water banking opportunities. The papers included in this Special Issue fill a gap in the literature by revealing the range of economic and policy considerations relevant to the development and implementation of MAR programs. They illustrate novel techniques that can be used to select MAR locations and the importance and economic viability of MAR in semi-arid to arid environments. The studies explain how MAR can be utilized to meet municipal and agricultural water demands in water-scarce regions, as well as assist in the reuse of wastewater. Some papers demonstrate how stakeholder engagement, ranging from consideration of alternatives to monitoring, and multi-disciplinary analyses to support decision-making are of high value to development and implementation of MAR programs. The approaches discussed in this collection of papers, along with the complementary and necessary hydrologic and geologic analyses, provide important inputs to water resource managers.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XII, 271 Seiten)
    Edition: Printed Edition of the Special Issue Published in Water
    ISBN: 9783038420941
    Language: English
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  • 46
    Keywords: community based monitoring ; benefit sharing ; REDD+ ; monitoring, reporting and verification ; results-based financing ; forest inventories
    Description / Table of Contents: Since the early design of activities to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the need to engage local communities and indigenous groups in monitoring and reporting has been recognized. REDD+ has advanced under the UNFCCC negotiations, but most countries still need to define formally what the role of communities in their national monitoring systems will be. Previous research and experiences have shown that local communities can effectively contribute in the monitoring of natural resources. This editorial introduces a Special Issue of Forests which discusses the implications of and potential for including community based monitoring (CBM) in monitoring and benefit-sharing systems in REDD+. It outlines the main points of the nine contributions to the Special Issue which cover a wide geographical area and report on projects and research which engages more than 150 communities from eight different countries from Africa, Asia and Latin America. The editorial summarizes how the articles and reports build further understanding of the potential of CBM to contribute to the implementation, monitoring and distribution of benefits in REDD+. It also discusses the results of an on-going opinion survey on issues related to CBM and its relation to benefit sharing, which indicates that there is still disagreement on a number of key elements.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XVI, 213 Seiten)
    Edition: Printed Edition of the Special Issue Published in Forests
    ISBN: 9783038420651
    Language: English
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  • 47
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    Basel, Beijing, Wuhan : MDPI
    Keywords: climate change ; water resources management ; uncertainty ; meteorological variables ; hydrological models ; climate models
    Description / Table of Contents: Climate change will bring about significant changes to the capacity of, and the demand on, water resources. The resulting changes include increasing climate variability that is expected to affect hydrologic conditions. The effects of climate variability on various meteorological variables have been extensively observed in many regions around the world. Of these, rainfall is one of the most important variables. Understanding the effects of climate variability on spatial and temporal rainfall characteristics is of special interest to water resource policy makers. Investigating rainfall variability at the regional scale is essential for understanding potential impacts on humans and the natural environment. Atmospheric circulation, topography, land use and other regional features modify global changes to produce unique patterns of change at the regional scale. As the future changes to these water resources cannot be measured in the present, hydrological models are critical in the planning required to adapt our water resource management strategies to future climate conditions. Such models include catchment runoff models, reservoir management models, flood prediction models, groundwater recharge and flow models, and crop water balance models. In water-scarce regions such as Australia, urban water systems are particularly vulnerable to rapid population growth and climate change. In the presence of climate change induced uncertainty, urban water systems need to be more resilient and multi-sourced. Decreasing volumetric rainfall trends have an effect on reservoir yield and operation practices. Severe intensity rainfall events can cause failure of drainage system capacity and subsequent urban flood inundation problems. Policy makers, end users and leading researchers need to work together to develop a consistent approach to interpreting the effects of climate variability and change on water resources.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XI, 328 Seiten)
    Edition: Printed Edition of the Special Issue Published in Water
    ISBN: 9783038420828
    Language: English
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  • 48
    Keywords: sustainability
    Description / Table of Contents: CIRIAF (Inter-University Research Center on Pollution and Environment “Mauro Felli” is a research center, based at the University of Perugia, which promotes interdisciplinary research activities in the fields of environmental pollution and its health and socio-economic effects, sustainable development, renewable and alternative energy, energy planning, and sustainable mobility. One hundred professors from fourteen different Italian universities are involved in the activities of the center. The CIRIAF National Congress (e.g., the fourteenth one in 2014), has become, over time, an important event for researchers and experts (engineers, physicists, chemists, architects, doctors, and economists). These individuals are not simply academics; they also hail from ministries, environmental agencies, and local authorities. The annual meeting in Perugia is an opportunity to discuss the issues related to energy, environment and sustainable development. The Special Issue will include the best papers presented at the Congress. These were selected by the Scientific Committee with the help of the various Chairmen of the Sessions. The papers cover all the various aspects of sustainability, from an interdisciplinary point of view, with a strong emphasis on the link between energy production, use and conservation, and environmental impact.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (IX, 162 Seiten)
    Edition: Printed Edition of the Special Issue Published in Sustainability
    ISBN: 9783038420989
    Language: English
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  • 49
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    Basel, Beijing, Wuhan : MDPI
    Keywords: zero energy mass custom homes ; mass customisation and personalisation ; sustainable housing development ; energy efficiency measurement ; design and construction management ; user behaviour and choice ; renewable energy technology ; housing affordability and inclusiveness ; value analysis in design decision making ; ZEMCH Network
    Description / Table of Contents: The earth is experiencing the adverse effect of climate change. In response to growing global warming issues and the constant increase of energy prices, house-builders and housing manufacturers today are becoming more responsive to the delivery of net zero energy and carbon dioxide emission sustainable homes than ever. Within this context, the sustainability may embrace housing economy and adequacy beyond the legitimacy in which the quality barely coincides with individuals' dynamic various needs, desires and expectations. In this special issue, "mass customisation" is reviewed being considered as a paradoxical concept which has been recognised as a means to lessen production costs of end-user products whilst achieving the customisability through economies of scope rather than economies of scale. Nevertheless, the housing industry's business operation tends to follow routines and the close system mode of operation often hinders the enterprises from adopting unfamiliar inn ovations which may be inevitable in realising the delivery and operation of socially, economically and environmentally sustainable homes. In order to deliver a marketable and replicable zero energy/emission mass custom home, or ZEMCH, the strategic balance between the optional and standard features seems to be critical. The optional features may be provided with the aim to enhance design quality (or customizability) that helps contribute to satisfying desires and expectations of individual stakeholders. The standard equipment, on the other hand, needs to be installed in buildings as it aims to exceed product quality whose levels can be adjusted in conjunction with societal demands and requirements. This edition encompasses a wide spectrum of hopes and fears around the design, production and marketing approaches to the ZEMCH delivery and operation, and showcases some exemplars budding out in different climates around the globe.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XI, 239 Seiten)
    Edition: Printed Edition of the Special Issue Published in Sustainability
    ISBN: 9783038421122
    Language: English
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    Basel, Beijing, Wuhan : MDPI
    Keywords: geothermics ; development ; EGS ; energy ; exploration ; geothermal ; heat ; monitoring ; modeling ; power ; renewable ; resource ; supercritical
    Description / Table of Contents: Geothermal energy has been harnessed for recreational uses for millennia, but only for electricity generation for a little over a century. Although geothermal is unique amongst renewables for its baseload and renewable heat provision capabilities, uptake continues to lag far behind that of solar and wind. This is mainly attributable to (i) uncertainties over resource availability in poorly-explored reservoirs and (ii) the concentration of full-lifetime costs into early-stage capital expenditure (capex). Recent advances in reservoir characterization techniques are beginning to narrow the bounds of exploration uncertainty, both by improving estimates of reservoir geometry and properties, and by providing pre-drilling estimates of temperature at depth. Advances in drilling technologies and management have potential to significantly lower initial capex, while operating expenditure is being further reduced by more effective reservoir management—supported by robust models—and increasingly efficient energy conversion systems (flash, binary and combined-heat-and-power). Advances in characterization and modelling are also improving management of shallow low-enthalpy resources that can only be exploited using heat-pump technology. Taken together with increased public appreciation of the benefits of geothermal, the technology is finally ready to take its place as a mainstream renewable technology, exploited far beyond its traditional confines in the world’s volcanic regions.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XXX, 398 Seiten)
    Edition: Printed Edition of the Special Issue Published in Energies
    ISBN: 9783038421344
    Language: English
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    Description / Table of Contents: Introduction --- Wolf Mayer: Introduction: enquiries into the history of geology / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:1-8, first published on February 28, 2017, doi:10.1144/SP442.41 --- Tracing the history of INHIGEO (International Commission on the History of Geological Sciences) --- Irena Malakhova: The founding of INHIGEO: documents and letters, with comments / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:9-19, first published on February 16, 2017, doi:10.1144/SP442.38 --- Algimantas Grigelis and Stanisław Czarniecki: International Commission on the History of Geological Sciences: the earliest events / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:21-27, first published on November 9, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.30 --- Kennard B. Bork and Barry J. Cooper: INHIGEO in recent times / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:29-39, first published on July 15, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.15 --- Mike R. Johnston and Kenneth L. Taylor: Historians of geology in the field: a half-century of INHIGEO excursions / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:41-54, first published on July 22, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.17 --- Martin Rudwick: Insiders and outsiders: INHIGEO seen from the sidelines / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:55-62, first published on November 9, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.25 --- Why study the history of geology --- Barry J. Cooper: Changing reflections on the history of geology / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:63-67, first published on November 9, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.23 --- On theories, ideas and concepts in geology --- Martina Kölbl-Ebert: Thinking about the geosciences in their religious/philosophical context / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:69-79, first published on May 23, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.5 --- Grzegorz Racki: Methodological uniformitarianism of Hugo Kołłątaj: an unknown Polish precursor of the Lyellian geological paradigm / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:81-91, first published on December 2, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.29 --- Stefan Cwojdzinski: History of a discussion: selected aspects of the Earth expansion v. plate tectonics theories / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:93-104, first published on November 11, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.24 --- D. Letsch: Swiss contributions to mid-nineteenth century tectonic research: a step backwards or the prologue to the nappe tectonics revolution? / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:105-116, first published on May 26, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.1 --- Kenneth L. Taylor: Before volcanoes became ordinary / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:117-126, first published on December 2, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.27 --- Guillermo E. Alvarado and Lina C. Patino: The history of volcanology in Costa Rica: from the Amerindian legends to the beginning of the twenty-first century / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:127-140, first published on November 9, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.35 --- Antony R. Orme: Dynamic geomorphology: historical convergence towards modern practice / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:141-154, first published on December 23, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.34 --- Spencer G. Lucas and Guillermo E. Alvarado: Vertebrate palaeontology in Central America: a narrative and analytical history / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:155-169, first published on May 23, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.9 --- Sally Newcomb: Progression of instrument use and practice in mineralogy and petrology, 1750–1950 / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:171-180, first published on November 11, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.22 --- Teaching the history of geoscience --- Silvia F. de M. Figueirôa: Innovation and critical thinking: contributions of the history and philosophy of geological sciences to teaching, especially undergraduate teaching / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:181-188, first published on June 13, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.7 --- Renee M. Clary: Controversies in the history of geology and their educational importance for facilitating understanding of the nature of science / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:189-198, first published on November 15, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.36 --- Yufeng Zhou: Review of the history of higher education in geology during the past 100 years in China / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:199-203, first published on July 15, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.14 --- On the contribution of women to the geosciences --- M. Kölbl-Ebert and S. Turner: Towards a history of women in the geosciences / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:205-216, first published on August 15, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.16 --- Biographical studies --- Zoya A. Bessudnova: The first Russian monograph on the History of Geology by Grigory E. Shchurovsky, professor of Moscow University: on the 150th anniversary of the publication / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:217-227, first published on November 17, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.31 --- K. R. Aalto: Clarence Dutton's geology / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:229-238, first published on July 15, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.18 --- Alberto C. Riccardi: Life and geological studies of Joaquín Frenguelli / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:239-251, first published on June 29, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.6 --- T. Sato, T. Yamada, and M. Yajima: Teiichi Kobayashi: his life and works, with an emphasis on his contribution to the history of the geosciences in Japan / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:253-262, first published on November 11, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.19 --- Government agencies, institutions and societies --- Marianne Klemun: Spaces and places: an historical overview of the development of geology in Austria (Habsburg Monarchy) in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:263-270, first published on November 11, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.20 --- Isabel Rábano: Early history of the Spanish Geological Survey: the Commission for the Geological Map of Spain (1849–1910) / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:271-278, first published on May 25, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.3 --- Teresa Salomé Mota and Ana Carneiro: The ups and downs of geology in Portugal: the Geological Survey, a historical perspective / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:279-287, first published on May 25, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.2 --- Luz Fernanda Azuela: Towards a nationwide geological survey in nineteenth century Mexico / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:289-301, first published on June 30, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.11 --- Lucero Morelos-Rodríguez: Brief history of geological and mining exploration in nineteenth century Mexico / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:303-313, first published on May 25, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.8 --- Alberto C. Riccardi: Geographical and geological explorations of the La Plata Museum 1884–1905 / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:315-326, first published on July 15, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.13 --- Philippe Taquet: A look into the history of geology in France / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:327-332, first published on November 11, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.21 --- Jiuchen Zhang: Social functions of historical studies of Chinese geology / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:333-339, first published on June 29, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.4 --- Regional geological studies --- Björn Sundquist: Early geological studies and mapping in Sweden / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:341-352, first published on June 29, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.10 --- John Diemer: Murchison in Sweden: consolidating Lower Silurian stratigraphy in the summer of 1844 / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:353-366, first published on November 9, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.26 --- A. Grigelis: The earliest geological observations in Lithuania: a historical viewpoint / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:367-376, first published on February 28, 2017, doi:10.1144/SP442.40 --- Marek Graniczny, Krystyna Wołkowicz, Halina Urban, and Stanisław Wołkowicz: Contribution of Polish geologists to geology in Siberia and the Far East / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:377-386, first published on February 23, 2017, doi:10.1144/SP442.39 --- Renee M. Clary and Tom Sharpe: The furthest end of the Earth: the role of geological research in Antarctic exploration, 1895–1922 / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:387-399, first published on December 2, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.28 --- Reviews on the history of petroleum exploration and production --- StanisŁaw WoŁkowicz, Marek Graniczny, Krystyna WoŁkowicz, and Halina Urban: History of the oil industry in Poland until 1939 / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:401-411, first published on December 2, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.32 --- Francesco Gerali and Paolo Riguzzi: Gushers, science and luck: Everette Lee DeGolyer and the Mexican oil upsurge, 1909–19 / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:413-424, first published on December 2, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.37 --- Francesco Gerali and Jenny Gregory: Harsh oil: finding petroleum in early twentieth century Western Australia / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 442:425-436, first published on December 2, 2016, doi:10.1144/SP442.33 ---
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VII, 449 Seiten) , Illustrationen, Diagramme, Karten
    ISBN: 9781786202697
    Language: English
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    Acton, Australia : ANU Press
    Keywords: Mathematics ; Probability ; Statistics ; Bayesian inference
    Description / Table of Contents: Bayesian methods for statistical analysis is a book on statistical methods for analysing a wide variety of data. The book consists of 12 chapters, starting with basic concepts and covering numerous topics, including Bayesian estimation, decision theory, prediction, hypothesis testing, hierarchical models, Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, finite population inference, biased sampling and nonignorable nonresponse. The book contains many exercises, all with worked solutions, including complete computer code. It is suitable for self-study or a semester-long course, with three hours of lectures and one tutorial per week for 13 weeks.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XVII, 679 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781921934261
    Language: English
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    Keywords: Environment ; Nuclear energy ; Natural disasters ; Probabilities ; Quality control ; Reliability ; Industrial safety ; Environmental management ; Environment ; Environmental Management ; Nuclear Energy ; Natural Hazards ; Quality Control, Reliability, Safety and Risk ; Probability Theory and Stochastic Processes
    Description / Table of Contents: Foreword --- Preface --- Cooperators --- Part 1 Active Faults --- Part 2 Seismic Source Modeling and Seismic Motion --- Part 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment with External Hazards --- Part 4 Nuclear Risk Governance in Society
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XII, 177 pages) , 74 illustrations, 36 illustrations in color
    ISBN: 9784431558224
    Language: English
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    London : Bloomsbury Academic
    Keywords: Politics ; Politics and International Relations ; Insurance ; Economic Insecurity
    Description / Table of Contents: The world is witnessing the paradox of simultaneous increase in income and insecurity. According to available data, global average per capita income has increased in recent decades, while at the same time actual and perceived insecurity has also increased. This paradox is true for both developed and developing countries. However, the concrete form and causes of insecurity differs across these two groups of countries. To the extent that income levels in many developing countries are very low, economic insecurity in these countries takes a starker and chronic form. In Financing for Overcoming Economic Insecurity, leading experts examine the causes and consequences of rising economic insecurity and policy measures that can be adopted to overcome insecurity. The volume contains papers addressing issues of economic insecurity pertaining to both developed and developing countries and caused by both economic factors and natural hazards. It also discusses the issues at both macro and micro levels. The volume’s focus on policy measures, such as redistribution and reinvestment of profit income in developed countries and imposition of capital control and promotion of micro insurance in developing countries, should be of much help to policymakers as well as researchers.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XI, 248 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781472544421
    Language: English
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    Keywords: landscape ecology ; anthropogenic impacts
    Description / Table of Contents: This book has been written to present major and efficient applications in landscape ecology, as well as to propose a solid action for this category of topics. The book aims to illustrate various treatment methods of the land-use models impact on landscape ecology creation. The book is divided into three parts: Part I: Ecological interpretation of land-use act - in this part, ecosystem and land use turn out to be a significant factor in the process of creating an ecological landscape. Part II: Landscape district in applied ecological analysis - this part attempts to illustrate the best possible model of analysis integrated with landscape in practical case studies. Part III: The anthropogenic impacts on landscape creation - this part discusses the human impact on landscape creation.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (138 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535125143
    Language: English
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: water ; hydrology ; hydrogeology ; ground water
    Description / Table of Contents: Water inside the earth, the groundwater and the invisible resource is the most important source of survival of mankind on this globe. Part of the hydrological cycle between entry (percolation and recharge) and exit (natural or forced extraction and discharge), the groundwater fascinates all: engineers, hydrogeologists, agriculturists, environmentalists, scientists, academia, resource managers and domestic and industrial users. This book is the outcome of efforts of those eminent authors who despite their fascination were able to write upon some important facet of groundwater flow and the transport of pollutants with it. The dimensions covered range from simple descriptive narratives; to expose of analytical methods; to complex mathematical treatment; to numerical simulations and computer modeling. All areas have been touched upon for the sake of general readers, students, professional engineers and scientists.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (200 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535124665
    Language: English
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: radiation ; material science
    Description / Table of Contents: The study of radiation effects has developed as a major field of materials science from the beginning, approximately 70 years ago. Its rapid development has been driven by two strong influences. The properties of the crystal defects and the materials containing them may then be studied. The types of radiation that can alter structural materials consist of neutrons, ions, electrons, gamma rays or other electromagnetic waves with different wavelengths. All of these forms of radiation have the capability to displace atoms/molecules from their lattice sites, which is the fundamental process that drives the changes in all materials. The effect of irradiation on materials is fixed in the initial event in which an energetic projectile strikes a target. The book is distributed in four sections: Ionic Materials; Biomaterials; Polymeric Materials and Metallic Materials.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (460 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535124184
    Language: English
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    Keywords: maar ; volcanoes ; volcanic activities
    Description / Table of Contents: This Book of Abstracts covers the abstracts presented at the 6th International Maar Conference (6IMC) in Changchun (China). The 6IMC conference sessions are focused on Maar and Environment Change, covering a wide spectrum of topics including: characteristics, mechanism, modeling and geological background of Monogenetic volcanic activities; volcanic evolution and spatial distribution regulation, resources, disaster, detecting, monitoring and societal responses of volcanic activity.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (126 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535125419
    Language: English
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  • 59
    Keywords: Underwater ; Photogrammetry ; Bathymetry ; ROV ; 3D modelling ; Multi-media ; Marine biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Water covers approximately 71% of the planet’s surface and human activities have been relying on it since remote times. Many traces of these exist under the “zero level” and will continue to exist in the future. Measuring, positioning, and mapping objects under water have experienced very significant modifications, brought about by advances in technology and also by changed requirements, demands for new products, introduction of new tools, and the modification of existing equipment. The exploration, documentation, and recording of underwater environments remains a difficult task, and is sometimes still unsolved. The research, design, and development of techniques and procedures for correctly validating underwater environments are more than ever important. This Special Issue originates from the ISPRS/CIPA Workshop "UNDERWATER 3D RECORDING & MODELING—Experiences in Data Acquisition, Calibration, Orientation, Modelling & Accuracy Assessment” (http://3dom.fbk.eu/files/underwater/index.html).
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XX, 368 Seiten)
    Edition: Printed Edition of the Special Issue Published in Sensors
    ISBN: 9783038422235
    Language: English
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    Keywords: natural hazards ; environmental hazards ; natural disasters
    Description / Table of Contents: Natural and environmental hazards research comprises a diverse set of subjects and methodologies and this book is no exception - offering the reader only a small glimpse into the physical and social processes that threaten human interests. Atmospheric Hazards-Case Studies in Modeling, Communication, and Societal Impacts explores atmospheric-based hazards through focused investigations ranging from a local to global perspective. Within this short compendium, the major scales of atmospheric motion are well represented with topics on microscale turbulent transport of pollutants, mesoscale events stemming from thunderstorm complexes, and synoptic scale extreme precipitation episodes. Chapters include discussions on modeling aspects for investigating hazards (pollution, regional climate models) and the forecasting and structure of high wind events (derechos), whereas others delve into hazard communication, preparedness, and social vulnerability issues (tornadoes, hurricanes, and lightning). Although the chapters are quite disparate upon first inspection, the topics are united through their interweaving of both the physical and societal mechanisms that create the atmospheric hazard and eventual disaster.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (144 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535125167
    Language: English
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    Rijeka : InTech
    Keywords: climate change ; atmospheric sciences ; weather ; climate modeling ; climate modelling
    Description / Table of Contents: The topics of climate change, weather prediction, atmospheric sciences and other related fields are gaining increased attention due to the possible impacts of changes in climate and weather upon the planet. Concurrently, the increasing ability to computationally model the governing partial differential equations that describe these various topics of climate has gained a great deal of attention as well. In the current book, several aspects of these topics are examined to provide another stepping stone in recent advances in the fields of study and also focal points of endeavor in the evolving technology.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (164 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789535126614
    Language: English
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    Basel, Beijing, Wuhan : MDPI
    Keywords: landscape change ;