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  • 2015 - 2019  (1,093,099)
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  • 1
    Description / Table of Contents: The continental crust is our archive of Earth history, and the store of many natural resources; however, many key questions about its formation and evolution remain debated and unresolved: - What processes are involved in the formation, differentiation and evolution of continental crust, and how have these changed throughout Earth history? - How are plate tectonics, the supercontinent cycle and mantle cooling linked with crustal evolution? - What are the rates of generation and destruction of the continental crust through time? - How representative is the preserved geological record? A range of approaches are used to address these questions, including field-based studies, petrology and geochemistry, geophysical methods, palaeomagnetism, whole-rock and accessory-phase isotope chemistry and geochronology. Case studies range from the Eoarchaean to Phanerozoic, and cover many different cratons and orogenic belts from across the continents.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (362 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862393752
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Description / Table of Contents: Ore deposits form by a variety of natural processes that concentrate elements into a volume that can be economically mined. Their type, character and abundance reflect the environment in which they formed and thus they preserve key evidence for the evolution of magmatic and tectonic processes, the state of the atmosphere and hydrosphere, and the evolution of life over geological time. This volume presents 13 papers on topical subjects in ore deposit research viewed in the context of Earth evolution. These diverse, yet interlinked, papers cover topics including: controls on the temporal and spatial distribution of ore deposits; the sources of fluid, gold and other components of orogenic gold deposits; the degree of oxygenation in the Neoproterozoic ocean; bacterial immobilization of gold in the semi-arid near-surface environment; and mineral resources for the future, including issues of resource estimation, sustainability of supply and the criticality of certain elements to society.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (333 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862396265
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Description / Table of Contents: Volcanism and tectonism are the dominant endogenic means by which planetary surfaces change. This book aims to encompass the broad range in character of volcanism, tectonism, faulting and associated interactions observed on planetary bodies across the inner solar system - a region that includes Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon, Mars and asteroids. The diversity and breadth of landforms produced by volcanic and tectonic processes is enormous, and varies across the inner solar system bodies. As a result, the selection of prevailing landforms and their underlying formational processes that are described and highlighted in this volume are but a primer to the expansive field of planetary volcanism and tectonism. This Special Publication features 22 research articles about volcanic and tectonic processes manifest across the inner solar system.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VII, 448 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862396326
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Basel, Boston, Berlin : Birkhäuser
    Keywords: airbone and satellite technologies ; geoinformation methods ; object-based image analysis ; remote sensing or observational platforms ; spatial interpolation and modelling ; statistical and geostatistical inference
    Description / Table of Contents: This topical volume covers a wide range of multidisciplinary topics, the common theme of which is processing of remotely-acquired spatial data using geo information methods. Satellite or airborne technologies and geo information itself provide powerful tools for solving numerous scientific problems in the geosciences, as they utilize geophysical principles and offer geophysicists new data and methods. Accordingly, this topical volume focuses on six key topics, presenting research applications of satellite or airborne technologies in geodynamics, geomorphology, meteorology and climatology, hydrology and limnology, oceanography and cartography. These applications make use of numerous remote sensing or observational platforms, including: Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), Rapid Eye, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), Landsat-7, Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Doppler Orbitography and Radio positioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS), as well as several altimetric and gravimetric satellite missions. The remotely-sensed data are processed using various geo information techniques, e.g. spatial interpolation and modeling, object-based image analysis, statistical and geo statistical inference and visualization. The volume addresses the interests of scientists and practitioners whose work is related to processing remote sensing data using geoinformation methods. Postgraduate students of geography, geodesy, cartography and geophysics – as well as students of the broader geosciences – will also find the book to be a valuable resource, as it brings together numerous satellite and airborne technologies with geospatial processing methods, presents case studies and examines most applications in the context of basic geophysical principles.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (309 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783034808491
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Description / Table of Contents: This volume highlights key challenges for fluid-flow prediction in carbonate reservoirs, the approaches currently employed to address these challenges and developments in fundamental science and technology. The papers span methods and case studies that highlight workflows and emerging technologies in the fields of geology, geophysics, petrophysics, reservoir modelling and computer science. Topics include: detailed pore-scale studies that explore fundamental processes and applications of imaging and flow modelling at the pore scale; case studies of diagenetic processes with complementary perspectives from reactive transport modelling; novel methods for rock typing; petrophysical studies that investigate the impact of diagenesis and fault-rock properties on acoustic signatures; mechanical modelling and seismic imaging of faults in carbonate rocks; modelling geological influences on seismic anisotropy; novel approaches to geological modelling; methods to represent key geological details in reservoir simulations and advances in computer visualization, analytics and interactions for geoscience and engineering.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VI, 473 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862396593
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Description / Table of Contents: The discipline of Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) has developed in order to solve complex environmental problems, for example understanding the impacts of climate change on the physical environment. IEM provides methods to fuse or link models together, this in turn requires facilities to make models discoverable and also to make the outputs of modelling easily visualized. The vision and challenges for IEM going forward are summarized by leading proponents. Several case studies describe the application of model fusion to a range of real-world problems including integrating groundwater and recharge models within the UK Environment Agency, and the development of ‘catastrophe’ models to predict better the impact of natural hazards. Communicating modelling results to end users who are often not specialist modellers is also an emerging area of research addressed within the volume. Also included are papers that highlight current developments of the technology platforms underpinning model fusion.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VI, 274 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862396876
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Description / Table of Contents: This volume provides a synopsis of current research on volcanic processes, as gained through the use of palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic techniques. Thermoremanent magnetization information provides a powerful means of deciphering thermal processes in volcanic deposits, including estimating the emplacement temperature of pyroclastic deposits, which allows us to understand better the rates of cooling during eruption and transport. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy of remanence are used primarily to investigate rock fabrics and to quantify flow dynamics in dykes, lava flows, and pyroclastic deposits, as well as identify vent locations. Rock-magnetic characteristics allow correlation of volcanic deposits, but also provide means to date volcanic deposits and to understand better their cooling history. Because lava flows are typically good recorders of past magnetic fields, data from them allow understanding of changes in geomagnetic field directions and intensity, providing clues on the origin of Earth's magnetic field.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VI, 275 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862396852
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Description / Table of Contents: Ernie Rutter has made, and continues to make, a significant impact in the field of rock deformation. He has studied brittle and plastic deformation processes that occur within both the oceanic and continental crust, as well as other key properties such as the permeability and seismic velocities of these rocks. His approach has been one that integrates field observations, laboratory experiments and theoretical analyses. This volume celebrates Ernie's key contribution to rock deformation and structural geology by bringing together a collection of papers that represent this broad approach. The papers within the volume address key issues that remain within these fields. These range from fundamental studies of brittle and plastic behaviour along with the resultant structures and microstructures from both the field and laboratory, to applied problems where a better understanding of the deformation and properties of the crust is still needed.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (277 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862396883
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Description / Table of Contents: The subduction zone volatile cycle is key to understanding the petrogenesis, transport, storage and eruption of arc magmas. Volatiles control the flux of slab components into the mantle wedge, are responsible for melt generation through lowering the solidi of mantle materials and influence the crystallizing phase assemblages in the overriding crust. Further, the rates and extents of degassing during magma storage and decompression affect magma rheology, ultimately control eruption style and have consequences for the environmental impact of explosive arc volcanism. This book highlights recent progress in constraining the role of volatiles in magmatic processes. Individual book sections are devoted to tracing volatiles from the subducting slab to the overriding crust, their role in subvolcanic processes and eruption triggering, as well as magmatic-hydrothermal systems and volcanic degassing. For the first time, all aspects of the overarching theme of volatile cycling are covered in detail within a single volume.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (292 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862396890
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Description / Table of Contents: Sea-level change has influenced human population globally since prehistoric times. Even in early phases of cultural development human populations were faced with marine regression and transgression as a result of changing climate and corresponding glacio-isostatic adjustment. Global marine regression during the last glaciation changed the palaeogeography of the continental shelf, converting former marine environments to attractive terrestrial habitats for prehistoric humans. These areas of the shelf were used as hunting and gathering areas, as migration routes between continents, and most probably witnessed the earliest developments in seafaring and marine exploitation, until the postglacial transgression re-submerged these palaeo-landscapes. Based on modern marine research technologies and the integration of large databases, proxy data are increasingly available for the reconstruction of Quaternary submerged landscapes. Also, prehistoric archaeological remains from the recent sea bottom are shedding new light on human prehistoric development driven by rapidly changing climate and environment. This publication contributes to the exchange of ideas and new results in this young and challenging field of underwater palaeoenvironmental investigation.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (294 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862396913
    Language: English
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