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  • 2020-2021  (22,957)
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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Leningrad : Gidrometeorolog. Izd.
    Call number: MOP 33767
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 663 S.
    Language: Russian
    Note: In kyrill. Schr., russ.
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Call number: M 18.91571
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 134 Seiten
    ISSN: 2363-7196
    Series Statement: Global tectonics and metallogeny : special issue Vol. 10/2-4
    Classification: A.3.4.
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Global tectonics and metallogeny
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Journal available for loan
    Journal available for loan
    München : Altop-Verlag ; 2007 -
    Call number: Z 19.92410
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1865-4266
    Former Title: Vorg. Nachhaltiges Wirtschaften in Deutschland
    Language: German
    Note: Ungezählte Beil. ab 2010: Special , Erscheint jährlich 4x
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 4
    Call number: AWI G6-19-92375
    In: Berichte / Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Geowissenschaften, Nr. 9
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 278 Seiten , Illustrationen
    ISSN: 0175-9302
    Series Statement: Berichte / Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Geowissenschaften 9
    Language: German
    Note: Zugleich: Dissertation, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 1999 , INHALTSVERZEICHNIS 1. Einleitung 1.1 Kenntnisstand und offene Fragen 1.2 Fragestellung und Ziele dieser Arbeit 2. Umweltbedingungen in den Arbeitsgebieten 2.1 Hydrographie, Eisverhältnisse und NAO 2.2 Zur Variation von Wassertiefe und Breite der Dänemarkstraße und zur Vereisung Islands während des letzten Glazials 3. Methoden 3.1 Auswahl der Kernstationen 3.2 Probennahme und Analysen (Übersicht) 3.3 Zur Rekonstruktion von Paläobedingungen im Oberflächenwasser Zur Aussage stabiler Isotopenverhältnisse in planktischen Foraminiferen Zur Messung stabiler Isotopenverhältnisse Zur Massenspektrometrie Zur Rekonstruktion von Oberflächentemperaturen Alkane und Alkohole als Maß für Staubeintrag Eistranspmtiertes Material und vulkanische Aschen 3.4 Zur Rekonstruktion von Paläobedingungen im Zwischen-/ Tiefenwasser Häufigkeit von Cibicides- und anderen benthischen Arten (inkl. Taxonomie) Stabile Isotopenverhältnisse in benthischen Foraminiferen 3.5 AMS 14C-Datierungen Probenreinigung 3. 6 Hauptelementanalysen von vulkanischen Asche-Leithorizonten 3. 7 Geomagnetische Meßgrößen und magnetische Suszeptibiltät 3.8 Techniken zur Spektralanalyse 4. Methodische Ergebnisse 4.1 Zum Einfluß der Probenreinigung auf δ18O-/ δ13C-Werte 4.2 Probleme bei der langfristigen Reproduzierbarkeit von δ18O-Zeitreihen 4.3 Einfluß der Korngröße und Artendefinition planktischer Foraminiferen auf SST-Rekonstruktionen in hohen Breiten 4.4 Vergleich der stabilen Isotopenwerte von Cibicides lobatulus und Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi 5. Stratigraphische Grundlagen und Tiefenprofile der Klimasignale 5.1 Stratigraphische Korrelation zwischen parallel-gekernten GKG- und SL-/KL-Profilen 5.2 Flanktische δ18O-/ δ13C-Kurven, 14C-Alter und biostratigraphische Fixpunkte Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Kern 23351 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.3 Benthische δ18O-/ δ13C-Werte in Kern PS2644 5.4 Siliziklastische Sedimentkomponenten: Eistransportiertes Material Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.5 Vulkanische Glasscherben in Kern PS2644: Wind- und Eiseintrag 5.6 Geochemie und Alter einzelner Tephralagen als Leithorizonte Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.7 Magnetische Suszeptibilität in den Kernen PS2644, PS2646 und PS2647 Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 und PS2647 5.8 Geomagnetische Feldintensität und Richtungsänderungen in Kern PS2644 5.9 Variation von Planktonfauna und -flora Westliches Islandbecken: Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 und PS2647 Vøring-Plateau: Kern 23071 und 23074 5.10 Benthische Foraminiferen in Kern PS2644 6. Entwicklung von Temperatur und Salzgehalt nördlich der Dänemark-Straße 6.1 Variation der Oberflächentemperatur nach Planktonforaminiferen 6.2 Variation der Oberflächentemperatur nach Uk37 6.3 Variation der Oberflächensalinität 7. Die Feinstratigraphie von Kern PS2644 als Basis für eine Eichung der 14C-Altersskala 22 - 55 ka 7.1 Korrelation zwischen den Klimasignalen in Kern PS2644 und der GISP2-Klimakurve zum Kalibrieren der 14C-Alter und Erstellen eines Altersmodells Tephrachronologische Marker Korrelationsparameter und -regeln Sonderfälle/ Probleme bei der Korrelation 7.2 Alters-stratigraphische Korrelation der Klimakurven von Kern 23071 und 23074 7.3 Variation der Altersanomalien zwischen 20 und 55 14C-ka 7.4 Variabilität des planktischen 14C-Reservoiralters in Schmelzwasserbeeinflußten Seegebieten Variation der planktischen 14C-Alter unmittelbar an der Basis von Heinrich-Ereignis 4 Unterschiede zwischen planktischen und benthischen 14C-Altern in der westlichen Islandsee. Zur Erklärung der inversen Altersdifferenzen 7.5 Differenz zwischen 14C- und Kalenderalter: Zeitliche Variation unter Einfluß des Erdmagnetfeldes - Modell und Befund 7.6 Sedimentationsraten der Kerne 23071, 23074 und PS2644 nach dem GISP2-Altersmodell Vøring-Plateau: Kerne 23071 und 23074 Südwest-Islandsee: Kern PS2644 8. Klimaoszillationen im Europäischen Nordmeer in der Zeit und Frequenzdomäne 8.1 "Der Einzelzyklus" in den Klimakurven von Kern PS2644 8.2 Zur Veränderlichkeit der Warm- und Kaltextreme sowie Zyklenlänge Besonderheiten in der Zyklenlänge Variation der Kalt-(Stadiale) Variation der Interstadiale 8.3 Periodizitäten der Klimasignale im Frequenzband der D.-Oe.-Zyklen. Der D.-Oe.-Zyklus von 1470 J., seine Multiplen und harmonischen Schwingungen Weitere Frequenzen: 1000-1150 Jahre- und 490- 510 Jahre-Zyklizitäten Höhere Frequenzen im Bereich von Jahrhunderten und Dekaden 8.4 Phasenbeziehungen und (örtliche) Steuemngsmechanismen der Dansgaard-Oeschger-Zyklen 9. Schlußfolgerungen Danksagung Literaturverzeichnis Anhang
    Location: AWI Reading room
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 5
    Call number: Z 06.0500
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1824-7741
    Former Title: Vorgänger Geologisch-paläontologische Mitteilungen, Innsbruck
    Language: German , English
    Note: Ersch. unregelmäßig , Beiträge teilweise in Englisch
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 6
    Call number: MOP 19538/1d-6d
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 111 S.
    ISSN: 0486-2287
    Language: Russian
    Note: In kyrill. Schr.
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 7
    Call number: IASS 15.89494
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: Losebl.-Ausg.
    Edition: Stand: Oktober 2010
    ISBN: 9783768501828
    Language: German
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 8
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    [Edgecumbe, N.Z.] : A. Muller
    Call number: M 15.89146
    Description / Table of Contents: An account of the results of the 2 March 1987 earthquake in the eastern Bay of Plenty and the aftermath's effects on the people and places on the Rangitaiki Plains
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 223 S., , Ill.
    Language: English
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 9
    Call number: (DE-599)GBV03709842X
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Language: German
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 10
    Call number: PIK N 453-17-91096
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 50 Seiten , Illustrationen, Diagramme
    Language: German
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 11
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Leiden : Nijhoff ; 1.2009 -
    Call number: IASS 17.92082
    Type of Medium: Monograph non-lending collection
    ISSN: 1876-8814
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 12
  • 13
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Garmisch-Partenkirchen : Institut für atmosphärische Umweltforschung der Fraunhofer- Gesellschaft
    Call number: MOP 44829 / Mitte
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 25 S. , graph. Darst.
    Language: English
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 14
    Call number: S 90.0066(162,1)
    In: Geologisches Jahrbuch / A
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 261 Seiten , Ill., 1 DVD-ROM (12 cm) und 1 Tafel-Beil. ([2] S.)
    ISBN: 9783510968534
    Series Statement: Geologisches Jahrbuch 162
    Classification: A.2.8.
    Language: German
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 15
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Madrid : Secc
    Call number: PIK N 456-17-90913
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 536 Seiten
    Series Statement: Ministerio de Transportes Turismo Y Comunicaciones : Publicación Serie A 114
    Parallel Title: 1,1=6; 2,1=13 von Publicaciones / D / Ministerio del Aire, Subsecretaria de Aviación Civil, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional
    Language: Spanish
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 16
    Unknown
    London : Penguin Books
    ISBN: 9780141985206
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 17
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Bonn : Helmholtz Association ; 2006-
    Associated volumes
    Call number: 3/S 07.0034(2016)
    In: Annual report
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 51 Seiten
    ISSN: 1865-6439 , 1865-6447
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Annual report ... / Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
    Language: English
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: Following Milankovitch's theory the incoming insolation or summer energy at 65°N is typically analysed to predict the waxing or waning of land ice. We here use a model-based deconvolution of the LR04 benthic-d18O stack into land ice distribution (de Boer et al., 2014, Köhler et al., 2015) to verify if the latitudinal focal point of land ice dynamics has changed over the last 2 Myr or whether this choice of 65°N in orbital data is indeed well justified. We find that the 5°-latitudinal band which contributes most to land ice albedo radiative forcing (ΔR_[LI]) is 70-75°N between 2.0-1.5 Myr, which is then until 1.0 Myr gradually substituted by 65-70°N. During the last 1 Myr both 60-65°N and 65-70°N dominate ΔR_[LI] and contribute approximately the same amount, while the relative importance of 70-75°N is shrinking. Our analyses illustrates that the choice of 65°N seems for the last 1 Myr to be well justified, while for earlier parts of the last 2 Myr the dominant land ice changes seems to happen up to 10° further to the north. Focusing on the last 800 kyr (the time for which precise data on atmospheric CO2 concentration exists) we furthermore find that the multi-millennial land ice growth and proxy-based reconstruction of global cooling (= the glaciation) appear synchronously to each other and to decreasing obliquity, but diverge from CO2. This suggests that the global cooling associated with Earth's way into an ice age as deduced in the reconstructions has to be mainly caused by the land ice albedo feedback, and is not dominated by the CO2 greenhouse forcing. One way of perceiving this CO2-glaciation divergence in reconstructions is that the reduced incoming insolation at high latitudes causes land ice growth and cooling, while there is a coexisting process that keeps CO2 at a relatively constant level. Solid Earth modeling experiments have indicated that falling sea level might lead to enhanced magma and CO2 production at mid-ocean ridges. Hasenclever et al. (2017) suggested that the combination of marine volcanism at mid-ocean ridges and at hot spot island volcanoes might react to decreasing sea level and be a potential cause for this CO2-glaciation divergence. This CO2-glaciation divergence needs to be considered, when using paleo data to quantify paleoclimate sensitivity: periods with diverging CO2 and global temperature change should be filtered out when approximating the relationship between global temperature rise and CO2 concentrations (Köhler et al., 2018). References: de Boer et al. (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3999. Köhler et al. (2015). https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-11-1801-2015. Hasenclever et al. (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms15867. Köhler et al. (2018). https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL077717.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 21
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    Chicago: University of Chicago Press | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-22
    Description: 9-ending prices, which comprise between 40%–95% of retail prices, are popular because shoppers perceive them as being low. We study whether this belief is justified using scanner price-data with over 98-million observations from a large US grocery-chain. We find that 9-ending prices are higher than non 9-ending prices, by as much as 18%. Two factors explain why shoppers believe, mistakenly, that 9-ending prices are low. First, we find that among sale-prices, 9-ending prices are indeed lower than non 9-ending prices, giving 9-ending prices an aura of being low. Second, at first, 9-ending prices were indeed lower than other prices. Shoppers, therefore, learned to associate 9-endings with low prices. Over time, however, 9-ending prices rose substantially, which shoppers failed to notice, because the continuous use of 9-ending prices for promoting deep price cuts draws shoppers’ attention to them, and helps to maintain-and-preserve the image of 9-ending prices as bargain prices.
    Description: Special Issue on Behavioral Pricing
    Keywords: M30 ; M31 ; L11 ; L16 ; L81 ; D12 ; D22 ; D40 ; D90 ; D91 ; E31 ; ddc:330 ; Behavioral Pricing ; Psychological Prices ; Price Perception ; Image Effect ; 9-Ending Prices ; Price Points ; Regular Prices ; Sale Prices
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2020
    Print ISSN: 0018-067X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2540
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 23
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    Unknown
    Reed Business Information
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: Flushing cold water through a tube down the throat can stop the body overheating, helping prevent brain damage after a heart attack
    Print ISSN: 0028-6664
    Electronic ISSN: 1364-8500
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 24
  • 25
    Publication Date: 2020
    Print ISSN: 1087-0156
    Electronic ISSN: 1546-1696
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: Journal of Political Economy, Ahead of Print. 〈br/〉
    Print ISSN: 0022-3808
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-534X
    Topics: Economics
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: Summary Adaptation to low‐oxygen environment in host tissues is crucial for microbial pathogens, particuarlly fungi, to successfully infect target hosts. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for hypoxia tolerance in most pathogens are poorly understood. A mitochondrial protein, BbOhmm, is demonstrated to limit oxidative stress resistance and virulence in the insect fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Here, we found that BbOhmm negatively affected hypoxic adaptation in the insect haemocoel while regulating respiration‐related events, heme synthesis and mitochondrial iron homeostasis. A homologue of the mammalian sterol regulatory element‐binding proteins (SREBPs), BbSre1, was shown to be involved in BbOhmm‐mediated low‐oxygen adaptation. Inactivation of BbSre1 resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity to hypoxic and oxidative stress. Similar to ΔBbOhmm, ΔBbSre1 or the ΔBbOhmmΔBbSre1 double mutant accumulated high levels of heme and mitochondrial iron, regulating the similar pathways during hypoxic stress. BbSre1 transcriptional activity and nuclear import were repressed in ΔBbOhmm cells, and affected by intracellular ROS and oxygen levels. These findings have led to a new model in which BbOhmm affects ROS homeostasis in combination with available oxygen to control the transcriptional activity of BbSre1, which in turn mediates low‐oxygen adaptation by regulating mitochondrial iron homeostasis, heme synthesis and respiration‐implicated genes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 1462-2912
    Electronic ISSN: 1462-2920
    Topics: Biology
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: Summary Ursu Lake is located in the Middle Miocene salt deposit of Central Romania. It is stratified, and the water column has three distinct water masses: an upper, freshwater‐to‐moderately saline stratum (0–3 m), an intermediate stratum exhibiting a steep halocline (3–3.5 m), and a lower, hypersaline stratum (4 m and below) that is euxinic (i.e. anoxic and sulphidic). Recent studies have characterised the lake's microbial taxonomy, and given rise to intriguing ecological questions. Here, we explore whether the communities are dynamic or stable in relation to taxonomic composition, geochemistry and biophysics, and ecophysiological functions during the annual cycle. We found: (i) seasonally fluctuating, light‐dependent communities in the upper layer (≥0.987–0.990 water‐activity), a stable but phylogenetically diverse population of heterotrophs in the hypersaline stratum (water activities down to 0.762), and a persistent plate of green sulphur bacteria that connects these two (0.958–0.956 water activity) at 3–3.5 m; (ii) communities which might be be involved in carbon‐ and sulphur cycling between and within the lake's three main water masses; (iii) uncultured lineages including Acetothermia (OP1), Candidate Phyla Radiation, Cloacimonetes (WWE1), Marinimicrobia (SAR406), Omnitrophicaeota (OP3), Parcubacteria (OD1), and SR1, in the hypersaline stratum (likely involved in the anaerobic steps of carbon‐ and sulphur cycling); and (iv) that species richness and habitat stability are associated with high redox‐potentials. Ursu Lake has a unique and complex ecology, exhibiting both dynamic fluctuations and stability, and can be used as a comparator system for other stratified hypersaline systems and a modern analogue for ancient euxinic water bodies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 1462-2912
    Electronic ISSN: 1462-2920
    Topics: Biology
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈span〉U-Pb geochronology on baddeleyite is a powerful technique that can be applied effectively to chronostratigraphy. In southern Africa, the Kaapvaal Craton hosts a well-preserved Mesoarchean to Paleoproterozoic geological record, including the Neoarchean Ventersdorp Supergroup. It overlies the Witwatersrand Supergroup and its world-class gold deposits. The Ventersdorp Supergroup comprises the Klipriviersberg Group, Platberg Group, and Pniel Group. However, the exact timing of formation of the Ventersdorp Supergroup is controversial. Here we present 2789 ± 4 Ma and 2787 ± 2 Ma U-Pb isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) baddeleyite ages and geochemistry on mafic sills intruding the Witwatersrand Supergroup, and we interpret these sills as feeders to the overlying Klipriviersberg Group flood basalts. This constrains the age of the Witwatersrand Supergroup and gold mineralization to at least ca. 2.79 Ga. We also report 2729 ± 5 Ma and 2724 ± 7 Ma U-Pb ID-TIMS baddeleyite ages and geochemistry from a mafic sill intruding the Pongola Supergroup and on an east-northeast−trending mafic dike, respectively. These new ages distinguish two of the Ventersdorp Supergroup magmatic events: the Klipriviersberg and Platberg. The Ventersdorp Supergroup can now be shown to initiate and terminate with two large igneous provinces (LIPs), the Klipriviersberg and Allanridge, which are separated by Platberg volcanism and sedimentation. The age of the Klipriviersberg LIP is 2791−2779 Ma, and Platberg volcanism occurred at 2754−2709 Ma. The Allanridge LIP occurred between 2709−2683 Ma. Klipriviersberg, Platberg, and Allanridge magmatism may be genetically related to mantle plume(s). Higher heat flow and crustal melting resulted as a mantle plume impinged below the Kaapvaal Craton lithosphere, and this was associated with rifting and the formation of LIPs.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0016-7606
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2674
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2020
    Print ISSN: 1751-7362
    Electronic ISSN: 1751-7370
    Topics: Biology
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  • 31
  • 32
    Publication Date: 2020
    Print ISSN: 0969-7128
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5462
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: Available online 1 January 2020〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Carbon〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Qiaoli Lin, Fan Yang, Hongyu Yang, Ran Sui, Yu Shi, Jianbin Wang〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉This paper presents an experimental approach where the effect of Cr and Sn concentrations on the wetting of graphite by molten Cu-〈em〉x〈/em〉Sn-〈em〉y〈/em〉Cr ternary alloys at 1373 K. It shows that a small quantity of Cr addition (≤2 at.%) can improve the wettability significantly owing to the formation of chromium carbides at the interface. Sn addition (〈em〉x〈/em〉 ≤ 30 at.%) can further improve the wettability by decreasing the surface tension. However, higher Sn concentration (〈em〉x〈/em〉 ≥ 40 at.%) will cause the precipitation of main phase at the interface, varying from Cr〈sub〉7〈/sub〉C〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 to Cr〈sub〉3〈/sub〉C〈sub〉2〈/sub〉, which in turn will slightly deteriorate the wettability. The phase equilibrium transition point (〈em〉x〈/em〉 ≈ 35% in Cu–〈em〉x〈/em〉Sn–1Cr/C〈sub〉graphite〈/sub〉) is responsible for wettability variation by the increase of Sn concentration. When the Sn concentration is ≥ 40 at.%, the spreading dynamics are satisfied with the assumption of the classical diffusion-limited spreading model. When the Sn concentration is ≤ 30 at.%, the transport route of Cr is from the Sn segregation layer on the drop surface to the triple line rather than from the internal diffusion of the bulk drop to the triple line, and then a precursor film with the specific width can be formed.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0008-6223
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-3891
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2020
    Print ISSN: 1545-9993
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-9985
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2020
    Print ISSN: 1465-7392
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4679
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: Available online 1 January 2020〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Valentina D.A. Corino, Massimo W. Rivolta, Luca T. Mainardi, Roberto Sassi〈/p〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉 〈h6〉Background and Objectives〈/h6〉 〈p〉In contrast to potassium channel blockers, drugs affecting multiple channels seem to reduce torsadogenic risks. However, their effect on spatial heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization (SHVR) is still matter of investigation. Aim of this work is to assess the effect of four drugs blocking the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel, alone or in combination with other ionic channel blocks, on SHVR, as estimated by the V-index on short triplicate 10 s ECG.〈/p〉 〈/div〉 〈div〉 〈h6〉Methods〈/h6〉 〈p〉The V-index is an estimate of the standard deviation of the repolarization times of the myocytes across the entire myocardium, obtained from multi-lead surface electrocardiograms. Twenty-two healthy subjects received a pure hERG potassium channel blocker (dofetilide) and 3 other drugs with additional varying degrees of sodium and calcium (L‐type) channel block (quinidine, ranolazine, and verapamil), as well as placebo. A one-way repeated-measures Friedman test was performed to compare the V-index over time.〈/p〉 〈/div〉 〈div〉 〈h6〉Results〈/h6〉 〈p〉Computer simulations and Bland-Altman analysis supported the reliability of the estimates of V-index on triplicate 10 s ECG. Ranolazine, verapamil and placebo did not affect the V-index. On the contrary, after quinidine and dofetilide administration, an increase of V-index from predose to its peak value was observed (ΔΔV-index values were 19 ms and 27 ms, respectively, p〈0.05).〈/p〉 〈/div〉 〈div〉 〈h6〉Conclusions〈/h6〉 〈p〉High torsadogenic drugs (dofetilide and quinidine) affected significantly the SHVR, as quantified by the V-index. The metric has therefore a potential in assessing drug arrhythmogenicity.〈/p〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0169-2607
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-7565
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: Bifacial solar cells based on organic-inorganic perovskite are fabricated with a laminating process. The structure of the devices is ITO/SnO2/CH3NH3PbI3/NiO/ITO, in which both electrodes are the transparent ITO layer. Therefore, the device can receive light from both sides. By laminating the two half-devices, ITO/SnO2/CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbI3/NiO/ITO, at high temperature with pressure, the merging of the middle perovskite layers is enhanced. The optimized bifacial PSCs show a Voc of 0.85 V, FF of 0.58, Jsc of 17.53 mA/cm2, and PCE of 8.47%. The photovoltaic performance varies when the light is illuminated from different sides of the bifacial PSCs. With illumination from the SnO2 side, the Voc and Jsc of the PSCs are apparently higher than those from the NiO side, suggesting more severe electron-hole recombination at the NiO/perovskite interface than at the SnO2/perovskite interface.
    Print ISSN: 1110-662X
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-529X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2020
    Print ISSN: 1471-003X
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-0048
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 39
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    Reed Business Information
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: An AI system trained to spot abnormalities in mammograms can predict who will or won’t develop breast cancer better than radiologists
    Print ISSN: 0028-6664
    Electronic ISSN: 1364-8500
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Protein Expression and Purification〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Shan Lin, Cuibing Zhou, Hancheng Zhang, Zhiming Cai〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉5′- nucleotidase (5′-NT) is a key enzyme in nucleoside/nucleotide metabolic pathway, it plays an important role in the biosynthesis of cordycepin in caterpillar fungus. In this study, a 〈em〉5′-NT〈/em〉 gene was identified and mined from genomic DNA of caterpillar fungus, which was 1968 bp in length and encoded 656 amino acid residues. The recombinant 5′-NT was first time heterologously expressed in 〈em〉Pichia pastoris〈/em〉 GS115, subsequently purified and functionally characterized. The optimal reaction temperature for 5′-NT was 35 °C, and it retained 52.8% of its residual activity after incubation at 50 °C for 1 h. The optimal reaction pH was 6.0 and it exhibited high activity over a neutral pH range. Furthermore, 5′-NT exhibited excellent K〈sub〉m〈/sub〉 (1.107 mM), V〈sub〉max〈/sub〉 (0.113 μmol/mg·min) and 〈em〉k〈/em〉〈sub〉cat〈/sub〉 (4.521 S〈sup〉-1〈/sup〉) values compared with other typical 5′-nucleotidase. Moreover, substrate specificity analyses indicated that 5′-NT exhibited different phosphatase activity towards the substrates containing different basic groups. The work presented here could be useful to 5′-NT applications and provide more scientific basis and new ideas for the biosynthesis of artificial control cordycepin.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 1046-5928
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-0279
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: February 2020〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Volume 197〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Cheng Li, Aliza Abraham, Biao Li, Jiarong Hong〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉We present incoming flow characterization of a 2.5 ​MW turbine at high spatio-temporal resolution, using super-large-scale particle image velocimetry (SLPIV). The datasets have a field of view of 85 ​m (vertical) 〈math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" altimg="si1.svg"〉〈mrow〉〈mo linebreak="goodbreak" linebreakstyle="after"〉×〈/mo〉〈/mrow〉〈/math〉 40 ​m (streamwise) centered at 0.2 rotor diameter upstream. The mean field shows the presence of the induction zone and a distinct region with enhanced vertical velocity. In comparison to vortex theory, SLPIV streamwise velocity presents a steeper velocity drop close to the rotor plane and a more confined induction zone. Time series of nacelle sonic anemometer and SLPIV measured streamwise velocity outside the induction zone show generally matched trends with time-varying discrepancies due to the induction and nacelle effects. The discrepancy, characterized by the sonic-SLPIV velocity ratio, is normally distributed and is less than unity 85% of the time. Data shows both yaw error and incident angle have direct impacts on this ratio, while the intensity of short-term velocity fluctuation has limited effect. Increased yaw error leads to an increase in both the mean and the spread of the ratio. The ratio decreases when the incident angle changes from pointing downward to zero. Further change from zero to pointing upward causes it to plateau with its fluctuations augmented.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0304-3908
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-8197
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 42
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    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Changes in extreme weather, such as tropical cyclones, are one of the most serious ways society experiences the impact of climate change. Advance forecasted conditional attribution statements, using a numerical model, were made about the anthropogenic climate change influence on an individual tropical cyclone, Hurricane Florence. Mean total overland rainfall amounts associated with the forecasted storm’s core were increased by 4.9 ± 4.6% with local maximum amounts experiencing increases of 3.8 ± 5.7% due to climate change. A slight increase in the forecasted storm size of 1 to 2% was also attributed. This work reviews our forecasted attribution statement with the benefit of hindsight, demonstrating credibility of advance attribution statements for tropical cyclones.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 43
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    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: The chemical compounds that make up “new car smell” can be harmful, and they have been found in new cars at levels 10 times higher than recommended limits
    Print ISSN: 0028-6664
    Electronic ISSN: 1364-8500
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Regulatory T cell (T〈sub〉reg〈/sub〉) activation and expansion occur during neonatal life and inflammation to establish immunosuppression, yet the mechanisms governing these events are incompletely understood. We report that the transcriptional regulator c-Myc (Myc) controls immune homeostasis through regulation of T〈sub〉reg〈/sub〉 accumulation and functional activation. Myc activity is enriched in T〈sub〉regs〈/sub〉 generated during neonatal life and responding to inflammation. Myc-deficient T〈sub〉regs〈/sub〉 show defects in accumulation and ability to transition to an activated state. Consequently, loss of Myc in T〈sub〉regs〈/sub〉 results in an early-onset autoimmune disorder accompanied by uncontrolled effector CD4〈sup〉+〈/sup〉 and CD8〈sup〉+〈/sup〉 T cell responses. Mechanistically, Myc regulates mitochondrial oxidative metabolism but is dispensable for fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Indeed, T〈sub〉reg〈/sub〉-specific deletion of Cox10, which promotes oxidative phosphorylation, but not Cpt1a, the rate-limiting enzyme for FAO, results in impaired T〈sub〉reg〈/sub〉 function and maturation. Thus, Myc coordinates T〈sub〉reg〈/sub〉 accumulation, transitional activation, and metabolic programming to orchestrate immune homeostasis.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Cetuximab improves the survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The main limitation is primary and secondary resistance, the underlying mechanism of which requires extensive investigation. We proved that PRSS expression levels are significantly negatively associated with the sensitivity of cancer cells to cetuximab. Detailed mechanistic analysis indicated that PRSS can cleave cetuximab, leading to resistance. Cetuximab or bevacizumab combined with SPINK1, a PRSS inhibitor, inhibited cell growth more efficiently than cetuximab or bevacizumab alone in xenograft models. PRSS levels in the serum of 156 patients with mCRC were analyzed, and poor efficacy of cetuximab therapy was observed in patients with aberrant PRSS expression. PRSS expression in monoclonal antibody (mAb)–treated patients with cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas database was also evaluated to determine whether patients with higher PRSS expression have significantly reduced progression-free survival. Our work provides a strong scientific rationale for targeting PRSS in combination with cetuximab therapy.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
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  • 46
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉The evolution of endothermy represents a major transition in vertebrate history, yet how and why endothermy evolved in birds and mammals remains controversial. Here, we combine a heat transfer model with theropod body size data to reconstruct the evolution of metabolic rates along the bird stem lineage. Results suggest that a reduction in size constitutes the path of least resistance for endothermy to evolve, maximizing thermal niche expansion while obviating the costs of elevated energy requirements. In this scenario, metabolism would have increased with the miniaturization observed in the Early-Middle Jurassic (~180 to 170 million years ago), resulting in a gradient of metabolic levels in the theropod phylogeny. Whereas basal theropods would exhibit lower metabolic rates, more recent nonavian lineages were likely decent thermoregulators with elevated metabolism. These analyses provide a tentative temporal sequence of the key evolutionary transitions that resulted in the emergence of small, endothermic, feathered flying dinosaurs.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Zhongzheng Guo, Xianbang Jiang〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉In order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanical behavior and optical properties of cubic transition-metal carbides TM〈sub〉4〈/sub〉C〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 (TM = V, Nb, Ta), we explored the anisotropies of their elastic properties, thermal conductivities, and complex dielectric functions based on first-principles calculations. The phase stabilities of the carbides were analyzed based on their formation enthalpy and the results indicated that they are energetically stable, where the phase stability sequence is: Ta〈sub〉4〈/sub〉C〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 〉 Nb〈sub〉4〈/sub〉C〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 〉 V〈sub〉4〈/sub〉C〈sub〉3〈/sub〉. Systematic investigations of the elastic properties of the single-crystal and polycrystalline forms showed that the anisotropy of the elastic properties follows the sequence: Ta〈sub〉4〈/sub〉C〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 〉 V〈sub〉4〈/sub〉C〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 〉 Nb〈sub〉4〈/sub〉C〈sub〉3〈/sub〉. Moreover, we predicted the sound velocities and Debye temperatures, minimum thermal conductivities, optical properties, and their anisotropies for the cubic TM〈sub〉4〈/sub〉C〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 (TM = V, Nb, Ta) carbides, and the results indicated that all are anisotropic. Finally, we determined the sequences of the anisotropies of the minimum thermal conductivities and optical properties.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉 〈h5〉Graphical abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉〈figure〉〈img src="https://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S002236971931861X-fx1.jpg" width="500" alt="Image 1" title="Image 1"〉〈/figure〉〈/p〉〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0369-8726
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2553
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: 15 April 2020〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Volume 500〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Kazuki Akiyoshi, Takashi Yoshida, Teruyoshi Sasayama, Ahmed L. Elrefai, Misato Hara, Keiji Enpuku〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉We demonstrate the wash-free detection of biological targets based on the Brownian relaxation of magnetic markers. The Brownian relaxation time of bound markers was prolonged by using a cluster (or agglomerate) of bound markers that was formed via the binding reaction between markers and targets. Thus, bound and free markers were differentiated magnetically by using the difference in their relaxation times. Two types of magnetic properties, i.e., third-harmonic signal and magnetic relaxation, were used for measurement. The concentration of target was detected from the decrease in the third-harmonic signal and the increase in the magnetic-relaxation signal. We demonstrated the detection of C-reactive proteins using these two properties. In both cases, a good correlation was obtained between the measured signal and the concentration of target. It was also shown that the two methods had different concentration dependences, which will be caused mainly by the distribution of cluster size of the bound markers.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0304-8853
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-4766
    Topics: Physics
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Zhenzhuang Li, Zongbin Li, Jiajing Yang, Dong Li, Bo Yang, Yudong Zhang, Claude Esling, Xiang Zhao, Liang Zuo〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉Heusler-type Ni-(Co)-Mn-X (X = In, Sn, Sb) meta-magnetic alloys can exhibit various magneto-functional behaviors due to the strong coupling between the magnetic and structural orders. Here, we demonstrate large magnetocaloric effect and magnetic shape memory effect in a directionally solidified Ni〈sub〉45.7〈/sub〉Co〈sub〉4.2〈/sub〉Mn〈sub〉37.3〈/sub〉Sb〈sub〉12.8〈/sub〉 alloy with 〈553〉〈sub〉A〈/sub〉 preferred orientation. It is shown that large magnetic entropy change up to 27.4 Jkg〈sup〉–1〈/sup〉K〈sup〉–1〈/sup〉 can be achieved under the field change of 5 T. Moreover, a large magnetic field-induced strain of 0.42% was also obtained with no-prestrain through inverse martensitic transformation induced by applying a magnetic field of 7 T. The present magnetostain is much higher than those in polycrystalline Ni-(Co)-Mn-Sb based alloys reported previously. Such enhanced magneto-functional behavior could be attributed to the highly textured microstructure and enlarged lattice distortion through Co addition.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0304-8853
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-4766
    Topics: Physics
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: 15 April 2020〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Volume 500〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Subrata Ghosh, Pintu Sen, Kalyan Mandal〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉First order coupled magnetostructural transition (MST) between ferromagnetic orthorhombic and paramagnetic hexagonal structure and large magnetocaloric effect are reported in the present article in transition metal based Al doped (Mn〈sub〉0.6〈/sub〉Fe〈sub〉0.4〈/sub〉)NiSi〈sub〉1−〈/sub〉〈em〉〈sub〉x〈/sub〉〈/em〉Al〈em〉〈sub〉x〈/sub〉〈/em〉 (〈em〉x〈/em〉 = 0.06, 0.07) alloys. On doping Al in place of Si, the structural transition temperature is found to shift to around room temperature (~272 K for 〈em〉x〈/em〉 = 0.07) from a high temperature of ~1210 K for MnNiSi system. On further increase in Al doping with 〈em〉x〈/em〉 = 0.08, only magnetic transition is observed at ~145 K. Isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔS〈sub〉M〈/sub〉) as large as ~20.6 Jkg〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉K〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 is found for the alloy with 〈em〉x〈/em〉 = 0.07 due to a change of 50 kOe magnetic field. Large value of ΔS〈sub〉M〈/sub〉 observed near room temperature for the alloy with 〈em〉x〈/em〉 = 0.07 enable it as a potential candidate for magnetic refrigerant.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0304-8853
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-4766
    Topics: Physics
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: 15 March 2020〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Materials Letters, Volume 263〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Ziyu Fu, Min Wu, Xinyi Yang, Juan Ding, Weiwei Lei, Yongming Sui, Bo Zou〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉Strain engineering has proven to be a powerful method in tailoring the surface electronic structure and the catalytic properties of nanomaterials. Here, we develope a green and effective strategy for synthesis of Au icosahedron and report systematic studies Au nanocrystals (including cubes, octahedrons, and icosahedrons) with similar nanosizes as efficient electrocatalyst for glucose-based biofuel cells. Our results demonstrate that the penta-twinned Au icosahedron catalyst shows a maximum specific activity in glucose electrooxidation with 2.5 mA cm〈sup〉−2〈/sup〉 current density, which is over 3 times higher than the Au octahedron catalyst. The microstructures of Au icosahedron confirm that such enhanced electrocatalytic activity could be ascribed to the intrinsic surface strain.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0167-577X
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-4979
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Maschinenwesen, Werkstoffwissenschaften, Fertigungstechnik, Bergbau u. Hüttenwesen, Verkehrstechnik, Feinwerktechnik
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: 30 March 2020〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Applied Surface Science, Volume 507〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Mingliang Pei, Lixia Huo, Xiaomei Zhao, Shuzhen Chen, Jiaxin Li, Zixin Peng, Kaifeng Zhang, Hui Zhou, Peng Liu〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉A facile strategy was developed to construct stable hydrophobic surface via the covalent self-assembly of silane-terminated fluorinated polymer as surface-attached polymer, which was synthesized by the free radical polymerization of 2-(perfluorohexyl)ethyl methacrylate (FOL) with γ-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) as chain transfer agent. The synthesis condition for the silane-terminated fluorinated polymer (f-PFOL) and coating condition for the covalent hydrophobic coating on the Silicon (Si100) wafer were optimized with the static contact angle analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The surface-free energies (γ〈sub〉s〈/sub〉) was stable at around 9.5 mJ/m〈sup〉2〈/sup〉 after washing off the non-functionalized poly(2-(perfluorohexyl)ethyl methacrylate) (PFOL), with the f-PFOL/PFOL mixture solution concentration higher than 0.045 g/mL. The proposed approach provides a universally applicable coating technique for the stable hydrophobic surface on various substrates.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Graphical abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉〈figure〉〈img src="https://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0169433219339558-ga1.jpg" width="500" alt="Graphical abstract for this article" title=""〉〈/figure〉〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0169-4332
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5584
    Topics: Physics
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: 15 March 2020〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Materials Letters, Volume 263〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Jianqiao Yang, Shuzhong Wang, Yanhui Li, Zhuohang Jiang, Jie Zhang, Donghai Xu, Kai Wang〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉The corrosion characteristics of alloy 600 in supercritical water containing organic sulfides was investigated after an exposure at 480 °C and 25 MPa for 72 h. A duplex-structure corrosion scale was observed, with the outer layer predominantly consisting of NiS. The inner corrosion layer was composed of Cr-rich spinel oxides and the fast channels (resulting from the interconnected sulfidation productions such as NiS and Ni〈sub〉3〈/sub〉S〈sub〉2〈/sub〉) for outward transport of metal cations. This phenomenon can be attributed to the emulative oxidation-sulfidation of alloy 600 because the supercritical water containing organic sulfides system may become a mixture of dominant SCW and H〈sub〉2〈/sub〉S due to the gasification reaction of organic sulfides. The formation and growth processes of corrosion scales was also discussed.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0167-577X
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-4979
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Maschinenwesen, Werkstoffwissenschaften, Fertigungstechnik, Bergbau u. Hüttenwesen, Verkehrstechnik, Feinwerktechnik
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: 15 March 2020〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Materials Letters, Volume 263〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Huanfu Zhou, Chengming Lu, Shixuan Li, Jiji Deng, Kangguo Wang〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉Novel Ca〈sub〉3〈/sub〉Al〈sub〉2〈/sub〉(GeO〈sub〉4〈/sub〉)〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 microwave dielectric ceramic with high 〈em〉Q〈/em〉 was prepared by a conventional solid-phase reaction method. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shown that the ceramic was a single garnet phase with parameters of 〈em〉a〈/em〉 = 〈em〉b〈/em〉 = 〈em〉c〈/em〉 = 12.11845(16)Å, 〈em〉V〈/em〉 = 1779.625(69) Å〈sup〉3〈/sup〉 and 〈em〉Z〈/em〉 = 8. As the sintering temperature increased from 1250 °C to 1350 °C, the bulk density (〈em〉ρ〈/em〉), relative permittivity (〈em〉ε〈sub〉r〈/sub〉〈/em〉) and quality factor (〈em〉Q × f〈/em〉) values increased first, reached a maximum value and then decreased. The temperature coefficient of resonator frequency (〈em〉τ〈sub〉f〈/sub〉〈/em〉) varied slightly in a small negative range from −15 to –22 ppm/°C. The Ca〈sub〉3〈/sub〉Al〈sub〉2〈/sub〉(GeO〈sub〉4〈/sub〉)〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 ceramic sintered at 1325 °C exhibited the best microwave dielectric properties of 〈em〉ε〈sub〉r〈/sub〉〈/em〉 = 7.6, 〈em〉Q × f〈/em〉 = 104,100 GHz and 〈em〉τ〈sub〉f〈/sub〉〈/em〉 = −15 ppm/°C, showing that it is a good candidate for microwave devices with low dielectric loss.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0167-577X
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-4979
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Maschinenwesen, Werkstoffwissenschaften, Fertigungstechnik, Bergbau u. Hüttenwesen, Verkehrstechnik, Feinwerktechnik
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Materials Letters〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Man Wang, Xinyu Tan, Yiteng Tu, Peng Xiang, Lihua Jiang, Aibi Yang, Ruizhen Xu, Xiaobo Chen〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉An effective superhydrophobic and self-healing coating is fabricated on building materials. This coating can restore its properties at room temperature after being damaged by rubber or acid. The coating can not only be directly applied on different substrates, but also be used for anti-corrosion. The corrosion current of the coated iron plate is reduced by 57.1%, and the corrosion potential is increased by 3.9%.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0167-577X
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-4979
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Maschinenwesen, Werkstoffwissenschaften, Fertigungstechnik, Bergbau u. Hüttenwesen, Verkehrstechnik, Feinwerktechnik
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  • 56
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Materials Letters〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Zhang Yi, Zang Xiao-yun, Wang Ke, He Si-yuan, Liu Jia-gui, Zhao Wei, Gong Xiao-lu, Yu Jin〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉Radial graded structures in biological materials, e.g. bones, are lightweight and exhibit good mechanical properties. This paper developed a novel method to fabricate a functionally radial graded aluminum foam. In this method, a sequential solidification was applied from the periphery to the inner on the foaming aluminum melt to obtain a radial gradient. The graded foams were then served as fillers for thin-walled tubes. Quasi-static compressive tests were conducted on the foams and foam-filled tubes. The results indicated that the graded foam-filled tubes exhibited improved crushing resistance and specific energy absorption, compared to the uniform foam-filled tube with similar weight.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Graphical abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉〈figure〉〈img src="https://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0167577X1931924X-ga1.jpg" width="500" alt="Graphical abstract for this article" title=""〉〈/figure〉〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0167-577X
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-4979
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Maschinenwesen, Werkstoffwissenschaften, Fertigungstechnik, Bergbau u. Hüttenwesen, Verkehrstechnik, Feinwerktechnik
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Materials Letters〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Hongyan Tang, Fan Wang, Dan Li, Xuenan Gu, Yubo Fan〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉This article describes the development of Mg-Sr-RE (RE=La, Nd, Gd) alloys based on a microalloying strategy for stent applications, which aims to control the biosafety and improve the degradation simultaneously. The results reveal that the designed Mg-Sr-RE alloys are close to a single-phase solid solution with the total alloying addition restricted to 0.5 wt.%. Mg-Sr-RE alloy exhibits 0.5-2 times increment of ductility while 45-66 % slower corrosion rates than binary Mg-Sr. Both the indirect and direct cell assays indicate that Mg-Sr-RE alloys reduce HAVSMCs proliferation, stimulate the HUVECs growth and endothelialization related gene expression, which may benefit in the healing of stent-assisted vascular injuries.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0167-577X
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-4979
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Maschinenwesen, Werkstoffwissenschaften, Fertigungstechnik, Bergbau u. Hüttenwesen, Verkehrstechnik, Feinwerktechnik
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Journal of Nuclear Materials〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Ryan Newell, Abhishek Mehta, Dennis D. Keiser, Yongho Sohn〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉Thermally induced phase reversion kinetics of decomposed α + γ′ phases to γ phase was investigated for the U – 10 wt% Mo (U–10Mo) hypoeutectoid alloy using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The as-cast U–10Mo alloy was homogenized to the γ phase at 1073K for 96 h, and decomposed at sub-eutectoid temperature of 773K as a function of time from 240 to 1200 h. The decomposition of γ phase initiated via two mechanisms: (1) discontinuous precipitation (DP) or cellular precipitation along the grain boundaries and inclusions; and (2) continuous precipitation (CP) within the γ grains as γ′ needles. After 720 h at 773K, the DP colonies completely consumed the continuous γ matrix, after which discontinuous coarsening (DC) was observed. The completely-decomposed U–10Mo alloy samples were then annealed at 843, 853, and 863K as a function of time to document the kinetics of α+γ' → γ phase reversion. The reference intensity ratio analysis was employed to XRD patterns to quantify the phase amount after each heat treatment. A combinatorial kinetic model, consisting of the classical JMAK nucleation and growth, and spherical particle dissolution, was employed to describe the α+γ' → γ phase reversion as a function of time and temperature. This phenomenological model provided a good approximation for the phase reversion within the temperature and time ranges examined in this study. Furthermore, a diffusion enhancement approach was employed for a set of typical irradiation parameters to estimate the irradiation effect on the α+γ' → γ phase reversion kinetics.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0022-3115
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-4820
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Physics
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  • 59
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: 16 January 2020〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Tetrahedron Letters, Volume 61, Issue 3〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): 〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0040-4039
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-3581
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Applied Surface Science〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Shundong Guan, Tianshi Wang, Xiuli Fu, Li-Zhen Fan, Zhijian Peng〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉Layered SnS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 has attracted extensive attention as promising anode material for sodium-ion storage owing to its high theoretical specific capacity. However, the practical performance is always hindered by its inferior rate capability and severe capacity fading. Herein, a novel coherent SnS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉/NiS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 hetero-nanosheet arrays on carbon cloth (SnS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉/NiS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉@CC) is fabricated through a facile one-step solvothermal method by controlling the synchronous growth of SnS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 and NiS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉. Benefiting from the strong coupling effect between SnS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 and NiS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉, and thus the markedly elevated electric conductivity and charge transfer rate for sodiation/desodiation reaction, such composite exhibits significantly enhanced performance than its pure SnS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 counterpart as the anode for sodium-ion battery, presenting a high reversible capacity (909.2 mA h g〈sup〉-1〈/sup〉 of the fifth cycle at 200 mA g〈sup〉-1〈/sup〉), excellent rate capability (360 mA h g〈sup〉-1〈/sup〉 at 5 A g〈sup〉-1〈/sup〉) and satisfying cycling stability (588.9 and 343.2 mA h g〈sup〉-1〈/sup〉 at 0.5 and 2 A g〈sup〉-1〈/sup〉 after 100 cycles, respectively). Moreover, the measured Na〈sup〉+〈/sup〉 diffusion coefficient for such SnS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉/NiS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉@CC electrode is almost two orders of magnitude higher than that of pure SnS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉@CC. Such heterogeneous structuring for enhancing the rate performance could offer an effectively alternative way for the development of advanced electrode materials for energy storage devices.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Graphical abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉〈figure〉〈img src="https://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0169433219340589-ga1.jpg" width="399" alt="Graphical abstract for this article" title=""〉〈/figure〉〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0169-4332
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5584
    Topics: Physics
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Applied Surface Science〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Jiangnan Chen, Jianwei Cong, Yao Chen, Qiang Wang, Mingchen Shi, Xiaomin Liu, Hui Yang〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉Manganese sulfide has been explored as anode for LIBs owing to its impressive theoretical capacity. However, inferior electronic/ionic conductivity and severe volume expansion occurring during the electrochemical cycle usually result in poor electrochemical performance. In this report, a novel composite, MnS nanoparticles integrating N,S co-doped carbon nanosheets (N,S-C) grown on flexible carbon fiber cloth (MnS@N,S-C/CFC), is fabricated as anode material for LIBs. The N,S co-doped carbon nanosheets protect MnS particles from aggregation so as to facilitate nanosized structure formation, significantly accelerating Li〈sup〉+〈/sup〉 diffusivity and accommodating stress/strain caused by volume changes. Nanosheets are also connected by CFC substrate to provide the transmission pathway of the electrons and promote fast electron transfer. Morever, compared to the MnS/CFC particles, the remarkably boosted integration between MnS@N,S-C and CFC substrate ensures superior conductivity and improved mechanical stability. Consequently, the MnS@N,S-C/CFC electrode delivers superior specific capacity of 800 mAh g〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 at 0.05 A g〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 as well as excellent rate-capability (535 mAh g〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 up to 2 A g〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉), and improved durability (maintaining 52.7% after 500 cycles at 2 A g〈sup〉-1〈/sup〉), presenting a simple strategy to boost the electrochemical performance of LIBs anodes by encapsulation of conductive carbon and heteroatom doping.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Graphical abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉〈figure〉〈img src="https://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0169433219340565-ga1.jpg" width="274" alt="Graphical abstract for this article" title=""〉〈/figure〉〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0169-4332
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5584
    Topics: Physics
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Applied Surface Science〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Xiao-Jing Ji, Gui-Fang Luan, Ji-Chen Lyu, Lan-Yue Cui, Shuo-Qi Li, Rong-Chang Zeng, Zhen-Lin Wang〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉Complications related to corrosion and infection of magnesium (Mg) implants are encountered by physical barrier and local drug delivery system. In this work, the multilayer films composed of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and SiO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 nanoparticles were fabricated on Mg alloys by the spin-spray layer-by-layer assembly method. The resultant films were characterized via FT-IR, XPS, SEM and EDS techniques. The corrosion behaviors of the multilayer films were investigated via electrochemical tests and hydrogen evolution experiment. The obtained films showed corrosion resistance, self-healing ability, antibacterial efficacy and a prolonged release profile. The results also suggested that the loading dosage and the release rate of CIP could be controlled by the assembly parameters. Moreover, the 〈em〉in vitro〈/em〉 release kinetics of CIP from the multilayer films could be fitted with the pseudo-second-order model.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Graphical abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉 〈p〉The (CIP/PAH/SiO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉/PAH)〈sub〉20〈/sub〉 multilayer film was successfully fabricated on magnesium alloys through the spin-spray layer-by-layer technique with the controlled CIP release, excellent antibacterial activity, favorable corrosion resistance and apparent self-healing ability.〈/p〉 〈p〉〈figure〉〈img src="https://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0169433219340577-ga1.jpg" width="467" alt="Graphical abstract for this article" title=""〉〈/figure〉〈/p〉 〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0169-4332
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5584
    Topics: Physics
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Applied Surface Science〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Guoqiang Han, Luyao Lv, Gaopeng Yang, Yixiang Niu〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful and ultra-precision instrument in nano-scale, which is widely used in many fields. It is a complex and time-consuming process for AFM imaging. Most of the original AFM images are with low resolution. For nano-scale measurement and imaging, it is very important to obtain super-resolution images. In most cases, super-resolution imaging takes a long time and the quality of imaging is unsatisfactory. In this regard, a novel super-resolution imaging method based on compressed sensing (CS) technology is proposed in AFM. In the experiment, six samples with different morphology were used to test the effect of super-resolution image reconstruction with different upscaling factors (2, 3 and 4). The quality of reconstructed image is analyzed and evaluated by image evaluation metrics (PSNR and SSIM). The relationship between the reconstruction quality of different images and the actual TV or TV/R of sample images is analyzed, which can provide a preliminary basis for predicting the imaging quality. Comparing with other super-resolution imaging methods, the proposed method has achieved better imaging effect both visually and quantitatively. In summary, super-resolution imaging method based on CS not only has high imaging quality but also has high speed.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0169-4332
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    Topics: Physics
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  • 64
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    In: Nature
    Publication Date: 2020
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2020
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 66
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    In: Nature
    Publication Date: 2020
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: March 2020〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Journal of Hydrology, Volume 582〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Jina Jeong, Eungyu Park, Huali Chen, Kue-Young Kim, Weon Shik Han, Heejun Suk〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉In the present study, a cost function is developed for the robust training of recurrent neural-network models using groundwater-level data that are corrupted by outliers and noise. The optimal cost function in this study utilizes least trimmed squares (LTS) with asymmetric weighting (AW) and the Whittaker smoother (WS), which have different outlier- or noise-rejecting mechanisms. The developed cost function is benchmarked with other cost functions in the training of a long short-term memory (LSTM) model using data from the Gangjin–Seongjeon and Pohang–Gibuk monitoring wells in South Korea, the results of which are then compared to the validation data. Based on comparisons of the validation results, it is confirmed that the optimal cost function is the most successful in rejecting the influence of outliers during the training process when applied to data from the Gangjin–Seongjeon monitoring well. It is also demonstrated that the estimation results based on this optimal cost function can effectively identify outliers in groundwater-level data. For the Pohang–Gibuk monitoring well data, the optimal cost function without AW exhibits superior regularizing performance by generating the lowest mean estimation error. Using this cost function, the influence of persistent noise is mostly canceled out, and the estimation results reflect the regular changes in the water table level of a shallow aquifer over time. The developed robust cost function can potentially be employed in many hydrogeological applications, such as the monitoring of groundwater resources, the prediction and analysis of water table levels, and the identification of changes in aquifer processes. The cost function is also expected to be useful for many other field applications in which the data are susceptible to external influences.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0022-1694
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2707
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography , Geosciences
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Journal of Solid State Chemistry〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Wen-Juan Shi, Yong-Zhi Li, Qi-Xuan Hu, Gang-Ding Wang, Lei Hou, Yao-Yu Wang〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉The self-assembly of Zn〈sup〉2+〈/sup〉 ion and an azolyl-carboxyl bifunctional ligand, 4,6-bis(triazol-1-yl)isophthalic acid (H〈sub〉2〈/sub〉btzip), give rise to one three-dimensional (3D) porous metal-organic framework (MOF), [Zn(btzip)(H〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O)〈sub〉0.5〈/sub〉]·H〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O (〈strong〉1〈/strong〉). The MOF shows a rare (4,8)-connected 〈strong〉scu〈/strong〉 net containing 1D channels, based on 4-connecetd ligands and 8-connected [Zn(COO)〈sub〉2〈/sub〉(H〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O)] dimers. Owing to the decoration of uncoordinated N atoms in porous walls, 〈strong〉1〈/strong〉 can selectively capture CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 molecules over CH〈sub〉4〈/sub〉 with high adsorption heat and considerable selectivity. The different adsorption sites for CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 in 〈strong〉1〈/strong〉 were deeply explored by simulations. In addition, 〈strong〉1〈/strong〉 also displays strong solid-state luminescence that is from the intraligand charge transfer.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉 〈h5〉Graphical abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉One new Zn-MOF with a rare (4,8)-connected 〈strong〉scu〈/strong〉 topology was constructed by a azolyl-carboxyl bifunctional ligand, which contains polar channels decorated by uncoordinated N atoms and displays adsorption selectivity for CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 over CH〈sub〉4〈/sub〉 and luminescent properties as well.〈figure〉〈img src="https://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0022459619306759-fx1.jpg" width="289" alt="Image 1" title="Image 1"〉〈/figure〉〈/p〉〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0022-4596
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-726X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Journal of Crystal Growth〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Hao Xie, Hongyu Lin, Qianqian Xu, Hongbo Lu, Yan Sun, Shuhong Hu, Ning Dai〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉Surface morphology of InAs〈sub〉1-x-y〈/sub〉Sb〈sub〉x〈/sub〉P〈sub〉y〈/sub〉 epilayers grown by liquid phase epitaxy has been studied, which has two typical patterns: crosshatch pattern and shiny uniform pattern, depending on the lattice mismatch between the epilayer and the substrate. Two kinds of micro-defects of globules and hillocks appear in the above two patterns. Although lower temperature growth can eliminate both globules and hillocks, it also brings a problem that the band gap of InAs〈sub〉1-x-y〈/sub〉Sb〈sub〉x〈/sub〉P〈sub〉y〈/sub〉 alloy is not high due to the low P composition. Our study shows that globules and hillocks have no effects on the crystalline quality and compositional uniformity of InAs〈sub〉1-x-y〈/sub〉Sb〈sub〉x〈/sub〉P〈sub〉y〈/sub〉 epilayers.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0022-0248
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019〈/p〉 〈p〉〈b〉Source:〈/b〉 Journal of Crystal Growth〈/p〉 〈p〉Author(s): Keita Kataoka, Tetsuo Narita, Kayo Horibuchi, Hiroaki Makino, Kengo Nagata, Yoshiki Saito〈/p〉 〈div xml:lang="en"〉 〈h5〉Abstract〈/h5〉 〈div〉〈p〉The formation mechanism of Ga-rich streaks in the AlGaN layers formed at macro-step edges was investigated by analyzing AlGaN layers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on AlN/sapphire-templates. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in the cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that the macro-steps formed during AlN growth were maintained through the upper AlGaN layer. This can be explained by the less interaction between adjacent macro-steps due to the sufficiently smaller surface diffusion lengths of Ga and Al species than the inter-macro-step distance of submicron to a few microns. Moreover, atomic force microscopy indicated that the apparent smooth region between macro-steps involved many atomic steps and terrace width of a few ten nanometers which may be the actual scale of the diffusion lengths. At the macro-step edge, facets that are different from a 〈em〉c〈/em〉-plane are formed. The higher incorporation efficiency of Ga atoms on these facets compared with that of the 〈em〉c〈/em〉-plane likely led to the formation of Ga-rich streaks due to the less inter-surface diffusion between the facets and 〈em〉c〈/em〉-plane regions. We demonstrated AlGaN growth without Ga-rich streaks using the flattened AlN/sapphire-template by polishing; this resulted in the achievement of homogeneous emission energies in AlGaN-based quantum wells.〈/p〉〈/div〉 〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0022-0248
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Abstract〈/div〉We describe a new extinct spiny rat, 〈span〉Proclinodontomys dondasi〈/span〉 n. gen. n. sp. (Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Echimyidae), represented by a noteworthy preserved skull and mandible from the early-middle Pleistocene outcrops at the coastal cliffs of SE Buenos Aires Province (Central Argentina). Phylogenetic analyses allow us to propose that the new species described here and the already known 〈span〉Eurzygomatomys mordax〈/span〉 (Winge) represent a new genus closely related to the living 〈span〉Euryzygomatomys spinosus〈/span〉 and 〈span〉Clyomys laticeps〈/span〉. The new genus differs from 〈span〉Euryzygomatomys〈/span〉 and 〈span〉Clyomys〈/span〉 by having much more procumbent upper incisors, a more developed fossa for the M. temporalis, more flared and laterally expanded zygomatic arches, frontal less markedly expanded posteriorly, jugals much deeper anteriorly than posteriorly, with the dorsal border descending more abruptly posteriorly, smaller orbital cavity, and external auditory meatus relatively smaller and slanted upward and backward. Several features of the new species reflect a higher degree of adaptation to semifossorial habits than those of 〈span〉E〈/span〉. 〈span〉spinosus〈/span〉. The origin of the semifossorial ecomorphotype within echimyids may have been triggered by the expansion of relatively open and arid environments that arose near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. The record of this new echimyid in Central Argentina indicates that during the early-middle Pleistocene, the southern limit of the geographic range of extinct representatives of the Brazilian lineage of semifossorial echimyids extended farther south than that of their living members.UUID: http://zoobank.org/c30ec1fe-4352-4867-a02f-e0d45c884bfe〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0022-3360
    Electronic ISSN: 1937-2337
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Abstract〈/div〉 〈span〉Neusticemys neuquina〈/span〉 (Fernández and de la Fuente, 1988) is a turtle from the Upper Jurassic of the Neuquén Basin, Patagonia, Argentina. Here we describe in detail a new skull, lower jaw, and a vertebra, utilizing both traditional anatomical description and computed tomography (CT). New diagnostic cranial characters of 〈span〉Neusticemys neuquina〈/span〉 are: a round depression on the ventral surface of the basisphenoid, a relatively larger oval foramen nervi trigemini, and reduced and steepened triturating surfaces on both the maxilla and dentary. The new morphological information presented in this study was included in a phylogenetic analysis, the primary result of which was recovery of 〈span〉Neusticemys neuquina〈/span〉 within Thalassochelydia. Characters recognized as synapomorphies of this clade include: (1) anterolateral recess of the anterior surface of the quadrate positioned lateral to the processus trochlearis oticum, (2) presence of a fossa on the supraoccipital-opisthotic-exoccipital contact area, (3) foramina anterius caroticus cerebralis located close together but independently perforating the basisphenoid, and (4) the presence of the splenial in the mandible. Two contrasting dispersal scenarios could explain how this species of Thalassochelydia can be found outside of Europe. The presence of 〈span〉Neusticemys neuquina〈/span〉 in the Neuquén Basin could be the consequence of an early dispersion event, for which we lack intermediate forms, or it could be the result of a later event once the clade was already established in Europe.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0022-3360
    Electronic ISSN: 1937-2337
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Abstract〈/div〉Three new species of 〈span〉Cyphaspides〈/span〉 are proposed: 〈span〉C. ammari, C. nicoleae〈/span〉, and 〈span〉C. pankowskiorum〈/span〉. These species are based on specimens obtained from Middle Devonian (Eifelian) strata of the Bou Tchrafine Group, near Erfoud, in the Province of Errachidia, southeastern Morocco. The present contribution enhances our knowledge of 〈span〉Cyphaspides〈/span〉 by providing details of three new species that are based on well-preserved, complete, and articulated types. The genus 〈span〉Cyphaspides〈/span〉 is discussed, and an emended diagnosis is provided. The paleobiogeography, ontogeny, and relationships of the genus are discussed.UUID: http://zoobank.org/4a7aab8f-8c8e-4498-9cc2-6f8c69b85213〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0022-3360
    Electronic ISSN: 1937-2337
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Abstract〈/div〉Nectocaridids are soft-bodied Cambrian organisms that have been controversially interpreted as primitive cephalopods, at odds with the long-held belief that these mollusks evolved from a shell-bearing ancestor. Here, I document a new nectocaridid from the Whetstone Gulf Formation, extending the group’s range into the Late Ordovician. 〈span〉Nectocotis rusmithi〈/span〉 n. gen. n. sp. possesses a robust internal element that resembles a non-mineralized phragmocone or gladius. Nectocaridids can be accommodated in the cephalopod total group if the earliest cephalopods (1) inherited a non-mineralized shell field from the ancestral mollusk; and (2) internalized this shell field. This evolutionary scenario would overturn the traditional ectocochleate, 〈span〉Nautilus〈/span〉-like reconstruction of the ancestral cephalopod, and indicate a trend towards increased metabolic efficiency through the course of Cambrian–Ordovician evolution.UUID: http://zoobank.org/ed594200-37b9-4642-bd8f-4fb72dc544eb〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0022-3360
    Electronic ISSN: 1937-2337
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Abstract〈/div〉Non-spicular sponges constitute 〉8% of the extant sponge biodiversity at the species level, yet their evolutionary history is poorly known due to a sparse fossil record. The genus 〈span〉Vauxia〈/span〉, previously only known from middle Cambrian (Miaolingian, Wuliuan) Lagerstätten, was regarded as the earliest fossil record of non-spicular demosponges. Here we describe the first vauxiid sponge, 〈span〉Vauxia leioia〈/span〉 new species, from the early Cambrian Chengjiang Biota (Series 2, Stage 3). This sponge exhibits a double-layered fibrous skeleton: the mesh and fiber thickness of the endosomal layer are irregular while the dermal layer, which directly connects with the endosomal skeleton without intermediate supporting fibers, is regular in both aspects. Measurements using scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the endosomal fibers are composed of carbonaceous material, but are tomographically indiscernible from the host rock, while the dermal fibers are preserved as impressions without obvious accumulation of carbonaceous material. Although the original composition of the dermal skeleton is now hard to establish, we cannot rule out that it was siliceous. The morphological characters of 〈span〉V〈/span〉. 〈span〉leioia〈/span〉 n. sp. represent an intermediate state between other 〈span〉Vauxia〈/span〉 species and the recently established vauxiid genus 〈span〉Angulosuspongia〈/span〉. However, more data are required to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship among these taxa.UUID: http://zoobank.org/0ebb91b8-5dad-420f-bb2c-dc203d37bebd〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0022-3360
    Electronic ISSN: 1937-2337
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 76