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  • Other Sources  (5)
  • Articles (OceanRep)  (5)
  • Springer Nature  (5)
  • American Meteorological Society
  • 2020-2021  (5)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-02-04
    Description: Rivers are a major supplier of particulate and dissolved material to the ocean, but their role as sources of bio-essential dissolved iron (dFe) is thought to be limited due to rapid, efficient Fe removal during estuarine mixing. Here, we use trace element and radium isotope data to show that the influence of the Congo River margin on surface Fe concentrations is evident over 1000 km from the Congo outflow. Due to an unusual combination of high Fe input into the Congo-shelf-zone and rapid lateral transport, the Congo plume constitutes an exceptionally large offshore dFe flux of 6.8 ± 2.3 × 108 mol year−1. This corresponds to 40 ± 15% of atmospheric dFe input into the South Atlantic Ocean and makes a higher contribution to offshore Fe availability than any other river globally. The Congo River therefore contributes significantly to relieving Fe limitation of phytoplankton growth across much of the South Atlantic.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2020-01-13
    Description: The effluents containing the discarded water from the textile industry are graded as one of the foremost pollutants in all industrial sectors. The wide varieties of dyes, which is susceptible to the possibility of carcinogens or mutagens, and it will be harmful to entire ecosystem. The titanium dioxide, one of the foremost heterogeneous semiconductor photocatalysts, has been acknowledged for the wide applications in hydrogen production from water splitting and degradation of organic and inorganic pollutants since last few decades. The present work is successively advanced for the removal of methylene blue from the seawater. The work was carried under natural sunlight with the presence of C/TiO2 and Cu–C/TiO2. The photocatalytic removal experiment was carried out with different catalyst dosages (0.25–1.25 g/L), different initial concentrations from 5 to 30 μM and at different pH values (3–9). The highest removal rate was found at the optimum condition of pH 8 and 1 g/L. At the optimum condition, 100% efficiency was achieved under natural sunlight. The kinetic studies reveal the pseudo-first-order kinetics and half-life time comparison proves the enhanced visible light harvesting of Cu–C/TiO2.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2020-02-20
    Description: Weddell Sea-derived Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is one of the most important deep water masses in the Southern Hemisphere occupying large portions of the deep Southern Ocean (SO) today. While substantial changes in SO-overturning circulation were previously suggested, the state of Weddell Sea AABW export during glacial climates remains poorly understood. Here we report seawater-derived Nd and Pb isotope records that provide evidence for the absence of Weddell Sea-derived AABW in the Atlantic sector of the SO during the last two glacial maxima. Increasing delivery of Antarctic Pb to regions outside the Weddell Sea traced SO frontal displacements during both glacial terminations. The export of Weddell Sea-derived AABW resumed late during glacial terminations, coinciding with the last major atmospheric CO2 rise in the transition to the Holocene and the Eemian. Our new records lend strong support for a previously inferred AABW overturning stagnation event during the peak Eemian interglacial.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-03-16
    Description: Scleractinian “stony” corals are major habitat engineers, whose skeletons form the framework for the highly diverse, yet increasingly threatened, coral reef ecosystem. Fossil coral skeletons also present a rich record that enables paleontological analysis of coral origins, tracing them back to the Triassic (~241 Myr). While numerous invertebrate lineages were eradicated at the last major mass extinction boundary, the Cretaceous-Tertiary/K-T (66 Myr), a number of Scleractinian corals survived. We review this history and assess traits correlated with K-T mass extinction survival. Disaster-related “survival” traits that emerged from our analysis are: (1) deep water residing (〉100 m); (2) cosmopolitan distributions, (3) non-symbiotic, (4) solitary or small colonies and (5) bleaching-resistant. We then compared these traits to the traits of modern Scleractinian corals, using to IUCN Red List data, and report that corals with these same survival traits have relatively stable populations, while those lacking them are presently decreasing in abundance and diversity. This shows corals exhibiting a similar dynamic survival response as seen at the last major extinction, the K-T. While these results could be seen as promising, that some corals may survive the Anthropocene extinction, they also highlight how our relatively-fragile Primate order does not possess analogous “survival” characteristics, nor have a record of mass extinction survival as some corals are capable.
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  • 5
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    Springer Nature
    In:  Scientific Reports, 10 (1). Art.Nr. 2340.
    Publication Date: 2020-03-23
    Description: Corals and sponges harbor diverse microbial communities that are integral to the functioning of the host. While the taxonomic diversity of their microbiomes has been well-established for corals and sponges, their functional roles are less well-understood. It is unclear if the similarities of symbiosis in an invertebrate host would result in functionally similar microbiomes, or if differences in host phylogeny and environmentally driven microhabitats within each host would shape functionally distinct communities. Here we addressed this question, using metatranscriptomic and 16S rRNA gene profiling techniques to compare the microbiomes of two host organisms from different phyla. Our results indicate functional similarity in carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur assimilation, and aerobic nitrogen cycling. Additionally, there were few statistical differences in pathway coverage or abundance between the two hosts. For example, we observed higher coverage of phosphonate and siderophore metabolic pathways in the star coral, Montastraea cavernosa, while there was higher coverage of chloroalkane metabolism in the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta. Higher abundance of genes associated with carbon fixation pathways was also observed in M. cavernosa, while in X. muta there was higher abundance of fatty acid metabolic pathways. Metagenomic predictions based on 16S rRNA gene profiling analysis were similar, and there was high correlation between the metatranscriptome and metagenome predictions for both hosts. Our results highlight several metabolic pathways that exhibit functional similarity in these coral and sponge microbiomes despite the taxonomic differences between the two microbiomes, as well as potential specialization of some microbially based metabolism within each host.
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