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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    Chicago: University of Chicago Press | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-22
    Description: 9-ending prices, which comprise between 40%–95% of retail prices, are popular because shoppers perceive them as being low. We study whether this belief is justified using scanner price-data with over 98-million observations from a large US grocery-chain. We find that 9-ending prices are higher than non 9-ending prices, by as much as 18%. Two factors explain why shoppers believe, mistakenly, that 9-ending prices are low. First, we find that among sale-prices, 9-ending prices are indeed lower than non 9-ending prices, giving 9-ending prices an aura of being low. Second, at first, 9-ending prices were indeed lower than other prices. Shoppers, therefore, learned to associate 9-endings with low prices. Over time, however, 9-ending prices rose substantially, which shoppers failed to notice, because the continuous use of 9-ending prices for promoting deep price cuts draws shoppers’ attention to them, and helps to maintain-and-preserve the image of 9-ending prices as bargain prices.
    Description: Special Issue on Behavioral Pricing
    Keywords: M30 ; M31 ; L11 ; L16 ; L81 ; D12 ; D22 ; D40 ; D90 ; D91 ; E31 ; ddc:330 ; Behavioral Pricing ; Psychological Prices ; Price Perception ; Image Effect ; 9-Ending Prices ; Price Points ; Regular Prices ; Sale Prices
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (1878-9080) vol.44 (2020) p.1
    Publication Date: 2019-05-29
    Description: Fresh collections and their ascospore and conidial isolates backed up by type studies and molecular phylogenetic analyses of a multigene matrix of partial nuSSU-, complete ITS, partial LSU rDNA, rpb2, tef1 and tub2 sequences were used to evaluate the boundaries and species composition of Fenestella and related genera of the Cucurbitariaceae. Eight species, of which five are new, are recognised in Fenestella s.str., 13 in Parafenestella with eight new species and two in the new genus Synfenestella with one new species. Cucurbitaria crataegi is combined in Fenestella, C. sorbi in Synfenestella, Fenestella faberi and Thyridium salicis in Parafenestella. Cucurbitaria subcaespitosa is distinct from C. sorbi and combined in Neocucurbitaria. Fenestella minor is a synonym of Valsa tetratrupha, which is combined in Parafenestella. Cucurbitaria marchica is synonymous with Parafenestella salicis, Fenestella bavarica with S. sorbi, F. macrospora with F. media, and P. mackenziei is synonymous with P. faberi, and the latter is lectotypified. Cucurbitaria sorbi, C. subcaespitosa and Fenestella macrospora are lecto- and epitypified, Cucurbitaria crataegi, Fenestella media, F. minor and Valsa tetratrupha are epitypified in order to stabilise the names in their phylogenetic positions. A neotype is proposed for Thyridium salicis. A determinative key to species is given. Asexual morphs of fenestelloid fungi are phoma-like and do not differ from those of other representatives of the Cucurbitariaceae. The phylogenetic structure of the fenestelloid clades is complex and can only be resolved at the species level by protein-coding genes, such as rpb2, tef1 and tub2. All fungal species studied here occur, as far as has been possible to determine, on members of Diaporthales, most frequently on asexual and sexual morphs of Cytospora.
    Keywords: Cucurbitaria ; Dothideomycetes ; multigene phylogenetic analysis ; new taxa ; Phoma ; Pleosporales ; Pyrenochaeta
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 5
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (1878-9080) vol.45 (2020) p.1
    Publication Date: 2019-06-24
    Description: Members of the genus Cytospora are often reported as endophytes, saprobes or phytopathogens, primarily causing canker diseases of woody host plants. They occur on a wide range of hosts and have a worldwide distribution. Although several species have in the past been reported from China, the vast majority are not known from culture or DNA phylogeny. The primary aim of the present study was thus to clarify the taxonomy and phylogeny of a large collection of Cytospora species associated with diverse hosts in China. Cytospora spp. were collected in northeast, northwest, north and southwest China, indicating that the cold and dry environments favour these fungi. In this paper, we provide an assessment of 52 Cytospora spp. in China, focussing on 40 species represented by 88 isolates from 28 host genera. Based on a combination of morphology and a six-locus phylogeny (ITS, LSU, act1, rpb2, tef1-α and tub2), 13 new species and one new combination are introduced. The majority of the species investigated here appear to be host-specific, although further collections and pathogenicity studies will be required to confirm this conclusion.
    Keywords: canker disease ; new taxa ; plant pathogen ; systematics ; taxonomy ; Valsa
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-04
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-30
    Description: n our daily lives, we consume foods that have been transported, stored, prepared, cooked, or otherwise processed by ourselves or others. Food storage and preparation have drastic effects on the chemical composition of foods. Untargeted mass spectrometry analysis of food samples has the potential to increase our chemical understanding of these processes by detecting a broad spectrum of chemicals. We performed a time-based analysis of the chemical changes in foods during common preparations, such as fermentation, brewing, and ripening, using untargeted mass spectrometry and molecular networking. The data analysis workflow presented implements an approach to study changes in food chemistry that can reveal global alterations in chemical profiles, identify changes in abundance, as well as identify specific chemicals and their transformation products. The data generated in this study are publicly available, enabling the replication and re-analysis of these data in isolation, and serve as a baseline dataset for future investigations.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-08-01
    Description: The InSight spacecraft was proposed to be a build-to-print copy of the Phoenix vehicle due to the knowledge that the lander payload would be similar and the trajectory would be similar. However, the InSight aerothermal analysts, based on tests performed in CO2 during the Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL) and completion of Russian databases, considered radiative heat flux to the aftbody from the wake for the first time for a US Mars mission. The combined convective and radiative heat flux was used to determine if the as-flown Phoenix thermal protection system (TPS) design would be sufficient for InSight. All analyses showed that the design would be adequate. Once the InSight lander was successfully delivered to Mars on November 26, 2018, work began to reconstruct the atmosphere and trajectory in order to evaluate the aerothermal environments that were actually encountered by the spacecraft and to compare them to the design environments.The best estimated trajectory (BET) reconstructed for the InSight atmospheric entry fell between the two trajectories considered for the design, when looking at the velocity versus altitude values. The maximum heat rate design trajectory (MHR) flew at a higher velocity and the maximum heat load design trajectory (MHL) flew at a lower velocity than the BET. For TPS sizing, the MHL trajectory drove the design. Reconstruction has shown that the BET flew for a shorter time than either of the design environments, hence total heat load on the vehicle should have been less than used in design. Utilizing the BET, both DPLR and LAURA were first run to analyze the convective heating on the vehicle with no angle of attack. Both codes were run with axisymmetric, laminar flow in radiative equilibrium and vibrational non-equilibrium with a surface emissivity of 0.8. Eight species Mitcheltree chemistry was assumed with CO2, CO, N2, O2, NO, C, N, and O. Both codes agreed within 1% on the forebody and had the expected differences on the aftbody. The NEQAIR and HARA codes were used to analyze the radiative heating on the vehicle using full spherical ray-tracing. The codes agreed within 5% on most aftbody points of interest.The LAURA code was then used to evaluate the conditions at angle of attack at the peak heating and peak pressure times. Boundary layer properties were investigated to confirm that the flow over the forebody was laminar for the flight.Comparisons of the aerothermal heating determined for the reconstructed trajectory to the design trajectories showed that the as-flown conditions were less severe than design
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN69598 , AIAA SciTech 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-10-12
    Description: This paper describes the plans, flows, key facilities, components and equipment necessary to fully integrate, functionally test and qualify the Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) Observatory. PACE is currently in the design phase of mission implementation. It is scheduled to launch in 2022, extending and improving NASA's twenty-year record of satellite observations of global ocean biology, aerosols and clouds. PACE will advance the assessment of ocean health by measuring the distribution of phytoplankton, which are small plants and algae that sustain the marine food web. It will also continue systematic records of key atmospheric variables associated with air quality and the Earth's climate. The PACE observatory is comprised of the spacecraft and three instruments, an Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) and two polarimeters, the Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter 2 (HARP2) and the Spectro-Polarimeter for Exploration (SPEXone). The spacecraft and the OCI, which is the primary instrument, are developed and integrated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The OCI is a hyper-spectral scanning (HSS) radiometer designed to measure spectral radiances from the ultraviolet to shortwave infrared (SWIR) to enable advanced ocean color and heritage cloud and aerosol particle science. The HARP2 and SPEXone are secondary instruments on the PACE observatory, acquired outside of GSFC. The Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter instrument (HARP2) is a wide swath imaging polarimeter that is capable of characterizing atmospheric aerosols for purposes of sensor atmospheric correction as well as atmospheric science. The SPEXone provides atmospheric aerosol and cloud data at high temporal and spatial resolution. This paper will focus on the Integration and Test (I&T) activities for the PACE mission at NASA GSFC. This I&T phase consists of mechanical, electrical and thermal integration and test of all the spacecraft subsystems and the integration of the instruments with the spacecraft. The PACE observatory environmental tests include electromagnetic interference (EMI)/electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), vibration, acoustics, shock, thermal balance, thermal vacuum, mass properties and center of gravity. This paper will also discuss the observatory shipment to the launch site as well as the launch site processing.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN73647 , IEEE Aerospace Conference; Mar 07, 2020 - Mar 14, 2020; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • 10
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-29
    Description: We document an asymmetry in the rigidity of 9-ending prices relative to non-9-ending prices. Consumers have difficulty noticing higher prices if they are 9-ending, or noticing price-increases if the new prices are 9-ending, because 9-endings are used as a signal for low prices. Price setters respond strategically to the consumer-heuristic by setting 9-ending prices more often after price-increases than after price-decreases. 9-ending prices, therefore, remain 9-ending more often after price-increases than after price-decreases, leading to asymmetric rigidity: 9-ending prices are more rigid upward than downward. These findings hold for both transaction-prices and regular-prices, and for both inflation and no-inflation periods.
    Keywords: L16 ; C91 ; E31 ; C93 ; D80 ; M31 ; ddc:330 ; Asymmetric Price Adjustment ; Sticky/Rigid Prices ; 9-Ending Prices ; Psychological Prices ; Price Points ; Regular/Sale Prices
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-10-28
    Description: Abstract: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Primates forage on a variety of plant parts to balance their dietary intake to meet requirements of energy, nutrition and maintenance, however the reason(s) leading them to ingest some plants which have no nutritional value and/or contain bioactive or even toxic secondary metabolites is recently gaining closer attention. The growing literature suggests that primates consume plants for medicinal purposes (self-medication) as well, particularly when infected with parasites and pathogens (bacteria, viruses, microbes). Interestingly, some of the plants they consume are also used by humans for similar purposes or may have potential uses for humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of a 16-month study of the parasite ecology of a sub-species of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) on the island of Yakushima, we surveyed their feeding habits and collected a subset of plants and plant parts observed being ingested by macaques. The ethnomedicinal value of these plants was surveyed and methanolic extracts of 45 plant parts were tested in vitro against important parasites of humans, including four protozoan parasites Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, and the trematode flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. Potential toxicity of the extracts was also assessed on mammalian cells. RESULTS: A wide range of ethnomedicinal uses in Asia for these plants is noted, with 37% associated with the treatment of parasites, pathogens and related symptoms. Additionally, the 45 extracts tested showed broad and significant activity against our test organisms. All extracts were active against T. b. rhodesiense. The majority (over 80%) inhibited the growth of P. falciparum and L. donovani. Half of the extracts also displayed antiprotozoal potential against T. cruzi while only several extracts were active against both larval and adult stages of S. mansoni. Cytotoxicity was generally low, although several extracts lacked specific toxicity to test parasites. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated a number of plants and their parts to have antiparasitic activity not previously reported in the ethnopharmacological literature. Enhanced understanding of the primate diets, particularly during periods of intensified parasite infection risk may help to further narrow down plants of interest for lead compound development. The study of animal self-medication is a complementary approach, with precedence, to drug discovery of new lead drug compounds against human parasitic diseases.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-11-14
    Description: The effects of ocean warming on the physiological performance of marine organisms have been widely studied. However, few studies have considered the relevance of seasonal acclimation to elevated temperatures and whether native and non-native species have similar tolerances to warming. We tested the hypotheses that the susceptibility to warming in two species of sea anemones from temperate latitudes is (i) higher in winter than in summer, and (ii) higher in the native than in the non-native species. Seasonal variability in the upper thermal tolerance limit of Anthothoe chilensis (native) and Anemonia alicemartinae (non-native) individuals from the northern-central coast of Chile was assessed in laboratory experiments during the austral winter 2015 and summer 2016. In line with our predictions, seawater warming (up to 16 °C above natural levels) significantly suppressed individual performance proxies such as survival and asexual reproduction (longitudinal fission) in the native species, but not in the non-native species. However, asexual reproduction in the non-native sea anemone was rare across warming treatments, and the native species showed a stronger capacity to detach from the substratum under adverse thermal conditions. Negative effects of warming on survival and fission were evident only in winter, when asexual reproduction is more intense in these taxa. Finally, water temperatures of 30 °C or more were lethal for both native and non-native sea anemones. These results show that the non-native species may have a broader thermal tolerance (in terms of survival) than the native taxonomically related species, but the latter displays behavioral adaptations to avoid adverse conditions of high temperatures. We suggest that knowledge about life history traits related to seasonal variations in water temperature and the invasion status of a species can help to predict its performance in a warming ocean.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-11-18
    Description: Boron isotope (δ11B) analysis using bulk foraminifera samples is a widely used method to reconstruct paleo sea water pH conditions. Although, these analyses exhibit high analytical precision, short term information is lost due to the pooling of tests with distinct and diverse boron isotope signatures resulting in average values for the time interval encompassed in the sample. Here we present and assess the analysis of δ11B of individual foraminifera by means of Laser Ablation Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) to obtain seasonal variability patterns and to test the limits of precision of LA-MC-ICP-MS on the planktonic foraminifera Orbulina universa. The results show that relative seasonal differences (of ∼11 ‰) can be captured from either uncleaned or cleaned individual O. universa tests with an average precision of ±2.9 ‰ (2 SE). The δ11B variability among foraminifera representing the same season is on average 7.4 ‰ (2 SD) irrespective of cleaning state. With our approach, analyses on oxidatively cleaned O. universa do not require the use of a matrix matched standard to obtain B isotope values in the range of those expected for solution multi-specimen analyses from determining local pH. Our results are useful for considering the potential spread caused by foraminifera vital effects and for obtaining information of seasonal ranges of pH and possible bias related to seasonality hidden within conventional solution based δ11B analyses.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-11-22
    Description: Highlights • There is direct and indirect evidence for hydrate occurrence in several areas around Europe. • Hydrate is particularly widespread offshore Norway and Svalbard and in the Black Sea. • Hydrate occurrence often coincides with conventional thermogenic hydrocarbon provinces. • The regional abundance of hydrate in Europe is poorly known. Abstract Large national programs in the United States and several Asian countries have defined and characterised their marine methane hydrate occurrences in some detail, but European hydrate occurrence has received less attention. The European Union-funded project “Marine gas hydrate – an indigenous resource of natural gas for Europe” (MIGRATE) aimed to determine the European potential inventory of exploitable gas hydrate, to assess current technologies for their production, and to evaluate the associated risks. We present a synthesis of results from a MIGRATE working group that focused on the definition and assessment of hydrate in Europe. Our review includes the western and eastern margins of Greenland, the Barents Sea and onshore and offshore Svalbard, the Atlantic margin of Europe, extending south to the northwestern margin of Morocco, the Mediterranean Sea, the Sea of Marmara, and the western and southern margins of the Black Sea. We have not attempted to cover the high Arctic, the Russian, Ukrainian and Georgian sectors of the Black Sea, or overseas territories of European nations. Following a formalised process, we defined a range of indicators of hydrate presence based on geophysical, geochemical and geological data. Our study was framed by the constraint of the hydrate stability field in European seas. Direct hydrate indicators included sampling of hydrate; the presence of bottom simulating reflectors in seismic reflection profiles; gas seepage into the ocean; and chlorinity anomalies in sediment cores. Indirect indicators included geophysical survey evidence for seismic velocity and/or resistivity anomalies, seismic reflectivity anomalies or subsurface gas escape structures; various seabed features associated with gas escape, and the presence of an underlying conventional petroleum system. We used these indicators to develop a database of hydrate occurrence across Europe. We identified a series of regions where there is substantial evidence for hydrate occurrence (some areas offshore Greenland, offshore west Svalbard, the Barents Sea, the mid-Norwegian margin, the Gulf of Cadiz, parts of the eastern Mediterranean, the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea) and regions where the evidence is more tenuous (other areas offshore Greenland and of the eastern Mediterranean, onshore Svalbard, offshore Ireland and offshore northwest Iberia). We provide an overview of the evidence for hydrate occurrence in each of these regions. We conclude that around Europe, areas with strong evidence for the presence of hydrate commonly coincide with conventional thermogenic hydrocarbon provinces.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-11-17
    Description: Water masses and depositional environments over the last 500 ka were reconstructed using absolute and relative abundances of lithogenous, biogenous and redox-sensitive elements in four sediment cores from two channel-levee systems of the Wilkes Land continental slope (East Antarctica). Sediments older than the Mid-Bruhnes event (MBE, 430 ka BP) show reduced glacial/interglacial variability in the abundance of elements associated to the terrigenous mineral phases (i.e. Al, Ti, Fe and partly Si). This suggests minor ice-sheet size changes occurred in the Antarctic margin during the pre-MBE “lukewarm” interval. Post-MBE sediments record instead a high variability between glacial and interglacial periods in the concentration of terrigenous and biogenous (i.e. Ca, Ba) elements suggesting larger amplitude changes in both ice-sheet size and ocean conditions toward the gradual establishment of last glacial cycle conditions. Moreover, a marked increase of Mn during the glacial to interglacial transitions, indicates a post-depositional migration of the redox front and re-oxidation of the surface sediment layers linked to major changes in bottom water oxygen conditions associated to Antarctic Bottom Water formation along the margin at the onset of deglaciations.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-11-19
    Description: Lightweight structures are susceptible to vibration due to their reduced mass. However, conventionally used techniques to avoid high vibration amplitudes (such as increasing the mass and/or applying damping mechanisms) are contradictory to the original goal of designing a lightweight structure. An increase of eigenfrequencies above external, exciting frequencies helps to prevent resonance phenomena. Here, we use a combined design and optimisation method to generate irregular lattice structures to investigate their potential of reaching much higher eigenfrequencies than those of regular structures, while retaining low weight and high stiffness. We generate parametric constructions of lattice structures with different degrees of structural irregularities, including regular lattices with constant and functionally graded strut cross-sections, and irregular lattices. Evolutionary strategic optimisation is used to maximise the first eigenfrequency. Geometric restrictions associated with selective laser melting are considered, and three optimised lattice structures are manufactured in selective laser melting using aluminium (AlSi10Mg). Their eigenfrequencies are measured in vibration experiments with a shaking table. Our approach allows the efficient generation of more than 500 lattice structures. The results show that by using irregular lattice structures, the first eigenfrequency is increased by 58% compared to a regular lattice structure of the same mass. The numerically obtained eigenfrequencies coincided well with the experimental results. It is argued that the implementation of higher degrees of structural irregularities allows the development of solutions with even higher first eigenfrequencies. In conclusion, we show that irregular lattice structures have a high potential to manipulate the eigenfrequencies of lightweight structures.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-11-23
    Description: This open access book addresses an urgent issue on which little organized information exists. It reflects experience in Africa but is highly relevant to other fragile states as well. - Constantine Michalopoulos, John Hopkins University, USA and former Director of Economic Policy and Co-ordination at the World Bank. Fragile countries face a triple data challenge. Up-to-date information is needed to deal with rapidly changing circumstances and to design adequate responses. Yet, fragile countries are among the most data deprived, while collecting new information in such circumstances is very challenging. This open access book presents innovations in data collection developed with decision makers in fragile countries in mind. Looking at innovations in Africa from mobile phone surveys monitoring the Ebola crisis, to tracking displaced people in Mali, this collection highlights the challenges in data collection researchers face and how they can be overcome.
    Keywords: ddc:320 ; Data collection ; Fragile states ; Development economics ; Economic development ; African economics ; African innovations ; Mobile phone surveys ; Rapid emergency response survey ; Displaced people ; Central African Republic ; Geo-spatial sampling ; Rapid consumption surveys ; Vulnerable populations
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-11-23
    Description: In diesem Open Access-Buch werden fünf zentrale Themenbereiche des Umwelt- und Bioressourcenmanagement (UBRM) vorgestellt. Umwelt- und Bioressourcenmanagerinnen und -manager kennen die Herausforderungen des 21. Jahrhunderts, wie sie zum Beispiel in der Agenda 2030 der Vereinten Nationen - den sogenannten nachhaltigen Entwicklungszielen (Sustainable Development Goals - SDGs) - formuliert wurden. Sie denken vernetzt und verfügen über fachliche, methodische und soziale Kompetenzen, die für eine inter- und transdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit erforderlich sind. Sie sind in der Lage, mit sich verändernden Anforderungen umzugehen und können sich in eine breite Palette von Fachbereichen vertiefen. Ihre Qualifikation wird in vielen Wirtschaftsbereichen, in nationalen und internationalen Organisationen sowie in privaten und öffentlichen Einrichtungen nachgefragt. Die Leserinnen und Leser bekommen in jedem der hier vorgestellten Themenbereich Einblicke in verschiedene UBRM-Fachbereiche sowie darüber, welche Kompetenzen und Fertigkeiten erworben werden können. Dies wird anhand konkreter Fallbeispiele verdeutlicht. Abschließend veranschaulichen Porträts von Absolventinnen und Absolventen die Studien- und Berufspraxis und zeigen, wie nachhaltige Zukunftsgestaltung im Sinne der Agenda 2030 aussehen kann.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Umweltmanagement ; Bioressourcen ; Nachhaltigkeit ; Sustainability ; Universität für Bodenkultur ; Open Access ; UBRM
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-11-23
    Description: Dieses Open-Access-Fachbuch setzt sich empirisch und theoretisch mit Teilaspekten der digitalen Transformation und deren Konsequenzen für die Unternehmensführung auseinander. Die mit der Digitalisierung verbundenen neuen Technologien, Geschäftsmodelle sowie Denk- und Handlungsweisen verändern die Welt grundlegend und mit einer hohen Geschwindigkeit. Der Band greift aktuelle, praxisrelevante Fragestellungen und Herausforderungen des Megatrends Digitalisierung auf und bietet Informationen zu Themen wie plattformbasierte Dienstleistungen, Cybersicherheit, Ambidextrie, Big Data Analytics, Kryptowährungen, Smart Contracts, Online Marketing Tools, Augmented Reality und Social Influencing. Die 15 Beiträge wurden durch Autorenteams erarbeitet. Diese setzen sich aus Lehrenden und Forschenden sowie Vertreterinnen und Vertretern der Unternehmenspraxis mit akademischem Background zusammen. Sämtliche Beiträge basieren auf empirischen Analysen, die zumeist ihren Schwerpunkt auf Gestaltungsprobleme aus der Unternehmenspraxis legen, und beinhalten somit ein breites Spektrum an konkreten Fallbeispielen.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Digitale Transformation ; Digitalisierung ; Open Access ; Digitaler Wandel ; Digital Business ; Unternehmensführung ; Management ; Megatrend ; Big Data ; Geschäftsmodelle ; Cybersicherheit ; Digitales Zeitalter ; Virtual Reality ; Arbeitsmodelle ; Google AdWords ; Schweiz ; Social Influencing ; Augmented Reality ; Ambidextrie ; Kryptowährungen
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-11-26
    Description: We emphasize the importance of marine silicate weathering (MSiW) reactions in anoxic sediment as fundamental in generating alkalinity and cations needed for carbonate precipitation and preservation along continental margins. We use a model that couples thermodynamics with aqueous geochemistry to show that the CO2 released during methanogenesis results in a drop in pH to 6.0; unless these protons are buffered by MSiW, carbonate minerals will dissolve. We present data from two regions: the India passive margin and the active subduction zone off Japan, where ash and/or rivers supply the reactive silicate phase, as reflected in strontium isotope data. Offshore India and Korea, alteration of continent-derived silicates results in pore water enriched in radiogenic 87Sr, with 87Sr/86Sr ratios as high as 0.7095 and 0.7104, respectively. Off Japan, strontium in pore water influenced by ash alteration is depleted in 87Sr, with 87Sr/86Sr as low as 0.7065. Carbonate minerals formed by alkalinity and cations generated through MSiW carry these strontium isotopic signals, and are typically dolomite, siderite, and Fe-rich calcite. These contrast with the aragonite and high-magnesium calcite that form during anaerobic oxidation of methane and incorporate the coeval seawater 87Sr/86Sr signal. We show that MSiW is necessary for authigenic carbonate formation and preservation along continental margins, which remove carbon from Earth's surface at rates previously estimated to be at least 1012 mol yr−1. In addition, these authigenic carbonates are of relevance to studies of the deep biosphere, fluid flow, seismogenesis, slope stability, and reservoir characteristics.
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  • 21
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    Unknown
    Elsevier
    In:  Marine and Petroleum Geology, 113 (Article number 104122).
    Publication Date: 2019-11-27
    Description: Highlights • Total amount of generated biogenic methane is estimated at ~3100 Gt. • Total amount of generated thermogenic methane is estimated at ~1,560 Gt. • The Maykop formation is partially productive in the central basin and not yet fully productive towards the basin peripherals. A new numerical model reconstructing the depositional history (98–0 Ma) of the Western Black Sea sub-basin is presented. The model accounts for changing boundary conditions (i.e. water depth, bottom water temperature, heat flow evolution over time) and estimates the rates and total amounts of the in-situ biogenic methane generation and thermally-driven organic matter maturation in the source rocks. The overall thermogenic and biogenic gas generation predicted by the model is estimated at ~1560 Gt and ~3100 Gt, respectively.
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019-11-28
    Description: Understanding the distribution and structure of biotopes is essential for marine conservation according to international legislation, such as the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The biotope ‘Sea Pen and Burrowing Megafuna Communities’ is included in the OSPAR list of threatened and/or declining habitats. Accordingly, the MSFD prescribes a monitoring of this biotope by the member states of the EU. In the German North Sea, however, the distribution and spatial extent of this biotope as well as the structuring of its benthic species inventory is unknown. We used an extensive geo-referenced dataset on occurrence, abundance and biomass of the benthic infauna of the south-eastern North Sea to estimate the distribution of the biotope and to characterize the associated infauna assemblages. Sediment preferences of the burrowing megafauna, comprising decapod crustaceans and echiurids, were identified and the core distribution areas of the burrowing megafauna were modelled using Random Forests. Clusters of benthic infauna inside the core distribution areas were identified by fuzzy clustering. The burrowing megafauna occurred on a wide range of sediments with varying mud contents. The core distribution area of the burrowing megafauna was characterized by elevated mud content and a water depth of 25–55 m. The analysis of the benthic communities and their relation to sedimentological conditions identified four infauna clusters of slightly varying species composition. The biotope type ‘Sea Pen and Burrowing Megafuna Communities’ is primarily located inside the paleo valley of the river Elbe and covers an area of 4980 km2. Dedicated monitoring will have to take into account the spatial extent and the structural variability of the biotope. Our results can provide a baseline for the evaluation of the future development of the environmental status of the biotope. The maps generated herein will facilitate the communication of information relevant for environmental management to authorities and policy makers.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019-12-02
    Description: The drainage divides of ice sheets separate the overall glaciated area into multiple sectors. These drainage basins are essential for partitioning mass changes of the ice sheet, as they specify the area over which basin specific measurements are integrated. The delineation of drainage basins on ice sheets is challenging due to their gentle slopes accompanied by local terrain disturbances and complex patterns of ice movement. Until now, in Greenland the basins have been mostly delineated along the major ice divides, which results in large drainage sectors containing multiple outlet glaciers. However, when focusing on measuring glaciological parameters of individual outlet glaciers, more detailed drainage basin delineations are needed. Here we present for the first time a detailed and fully traceable approach that combines ice sheet wide velocity measurements by Sentinel-1 and the high resolution TanDEM-X global DEM to derive individual glacier drainage basins. We delineated catchments for the Northeast Greenland Ice Sheet with a modified watershed algorithm and present results for 31 drainage basins. Even though validation of drainage basins remains a difficult task, we estimated basin probabilities from Monte-Carlo experiments and applied the method to a variety of different ice velocity and DEM datasets finding discrepancies of up to 16 in the extent of catchment areas. The proposed approach has the potential to produce drainage areas for the entirety of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-12-13
    Description: Highlights: • Assessment of the Indian Ocean simulation from global forced sea- ice models. • SST biases are 2 times smaller in forced simulations than the coupled simulations. • Coupled model shows large inter-model spread over the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. • Refinement in model horizontal resolution does not significantly improve simulations. • Uncover a secondary pathway of northward cross-equatorial transport along 75 °E. • Models are unable to capture the observed thick barrier layer in the north Bay of Bengal. Abstract: We present an analysis of annual and seasonal mean characteristics of the Indian Ocean circulation and water masses from 16 global ocean–sea-ice model simulations that follow the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE) interannual protocol (CORE-II). All simulations show a similar large-scale tropical current system, but with differences in the Equatorial Undercurrent. Most CORE-II models simulate the structure of the Cross Equatorial Cell (CEC) in the Indian Ocean. We uncover a previously unidentified secondary pathway of northward cross-equatorial transport along 75 °E, thus complementing the pathway near the Somali Coast. This secondary pathway is most prominent in the models which represent topography realistically, thus suggesting a need for realistic bathymetry in climate models. When probing the water mass structure in the upper ocean, we find that the salinity profiles are closer to observations in geopotential (level) models than in isopycnal models. More generally, we find that biases are model dependent, thus suggesting a grouping into model lineage, formulation of the surface boundary, vertical coordinate and surface salinity restoring. Refinement in model horizontal resolution (one degree versus degree) does not significantly improve simulations, though there are some marginal improvements in the salinity and barrier layer results. The results in turn suggest that a focus on improving physical parameterizations (e.g. boundary layer processes) may offer more near-term advances in Indian Ocean simulations than refined grid resolution.
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-12-07
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN75491
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019-12-12
    Description: The clumped isotope (Δ47) proxy is a promising geochemical tool to reconstruct past ocean temperatures far back in time and in unknown settings, due to its unique thermodynamic basis that renders it independent from other environmental factors like seawater composition. Although previously hampered by large sample-size requirements, recent methodological advances have made the paleoceanographic application of Δ47 on small (〈5 mg) foraminifer samples possible. Previous studies show a reasonable match between Δ47 calibrations based on synthetic carbonate and various species of planktonic foraminifers. However, studies performed before recent methodological advances were based on relatively few species and data treatment that is now outdated. To overcome these limitations and elucidate species-specific effects, we analyzed 14 species of planktonic foraminifers in sediment surface samples from 13 sites, covering a growth temperature range of ∼0–28 °C. We selected mixed layer-dwelling and deep-dwelling species from a wide range of ocean settings to evaluate the feasibility of temperature reconstructions for different water depths. Various techniques to estimate foraminifer calcification temperatures were tested in order to assess their effects on the calibration and to find the most suitable approach. Results from this study generally confirm previous findings that there are no species-specific effects on the Δ47-temperature relationship in planktonic foraminifers, with one possible exception. Various morphotypes of Globigerinoides ruber were found to often deviate from the general trend determined for planktonic foraminifers. Our data are in excellent agreement with a recent foraminifer calibration study that was performed with a different analytical setup, as well as with a calibration based exclusively on benthic foraminifers. A combined, methodologically homogenized dataset also reveals very good agreement with an inorganic calibration based on travertines. Our findings highlight the potential of the Δ47 paleothermometer to be applied to recent and extinct species alike to study surface ocean temperatures as well as thermocline variability for a multitude of settings and time scales.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-12-12
    Description: Highlights • Common HIMU end member in adjacent continental and oceanic volcanic provinces. • End member St. Helena HIMU derived from deep upwelling(s)/plume(s). • Plateau collision & plume interaction with Gondwana active margin causes breakup. • Hybrid volcanic-tectonic margins resulted from Zealandia – Antarctica breakup. Abstract Margins resulting from continental breakup are generally classified as volcanic (related to flood basalt volcanism from a starting plume head) or non-volcanic (caused by tectonic processes), but many margins (breakups) may actually be hybrids caused by a combination of volcanic and tectonic processes. It has been postulated that the collision of the Hikurangi Plateau with the Gondwana margin ∼110 Ma ago caused subduction to cease, followed by large-scale extension and ultimately breakoff of the Zealandia micro-continent from West Antarctica through seafloor spreading which started at ∼85 Ma. Here we report new geochemical (major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope) data for Late Cretaceous (99-69 Ma) volcanism from Zealandia, which include the calc-alkalic, subduction-related Mount Somers (99-96 Ma) and four intraplate igneous provinces: 1) Hikurangi Seamount Province (99-88 Ma), 2) Marlborough Igneous Province (98-94 Ma), 3) Westland Igneous Province (92-69 Ma), and 4) Eastern Chatham Igneous Province (86-79 Ma). Each of the intraplate provinces forms mixing arrays on incompatible-element and isotope ratio plots between HIMU (requiring long-term high U/204Pb) and either a depleted (MORB-source) upper mantle (DM) component or enriched continental (EM) type component (located in the crust and/or upper mantle) or a mixture of both. St. Helena end member HIMU could be the common component in all four provinces. Considering the uniformity in composition of the HIMU end member despite the type of lithosphere (continental, oceanic, oceanic plateau) beneath the igneous provinces, we attribute this component to a sublithospheric source, located beneath all volcanic provinces, and thus most likely a mantle plume. We propose that the plume material rose beneath the active Gondwana margin and flowed along the subducting lithosphere beneath the Hikurangi Plateau and neighboring seafloor and through slab tears/windows beneath the Gondwana (later to become Zealandia) continental lithosphere. We conclude that both plateau collision, resulting in subduction cessation, and the opening of slab tears/windows, allowing hot asthenosphere and/or plume material to upwell to shallow depths, were important in causing the breakup of Zealandia from West Antarctica. Combined tectonic-volcanic processes are also likely to be responsible for causing breakup and the formation of other hybrid type margins.
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019-12-16
    Description: Highlights • First systematic dissolved neodymium isotope distributions in Angola and Cape Basins. • Deep water neodymium isotopes dominated by conservative mixing in study area. • Neodymium isotopes trace surface waters from Mozambique Channel in Angola Basin. • Cape Basin bottom water neodymium isotopes are unaffected by neodymium from sediments. • Glacial Cape Basin bottom waters may show effects of sedimentary neodymium inputs. Abstract In contrast to the vigorous deep ocean circulation system of the north- and southwestern Atlantic Ocean, no systematically sampled datasets of dissolved radiogenic neodymium (Nd) isotope signatures exist to trace water mass mixing and provenance for the more restricted and less well ventilated Angola Basin and the Cape Basin in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, where important parts of the return flow of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation are generated. Here, to improve our understanding of water mass mixing and provenance, we present the first full water column Nd isotope (expressed as εNd values) and concentration data for a section across the western Angola Basin from 3° to 30° S along the Zero Meridian and along an E-W section across the northern Cape Basin at 30° S sampled during GEOTRACES cruise GA08. Compared with the southwestern Atlantic basin we find overall less radiogenic εNd signatures reaching −17.6 in the uppermost 200 m of the Angola and Cape basins. In the western Angola Basin these signatures are the consequence of the admixture of a coastal plume originating near 13° S and carrying an unradiogenic Nd signal that likely resulted from the dissolution of Fe-Mn coatings of particles formed in river estuaries or near the West African coast. The highly unradiogenic Nd isotope signatures in the upper water column of the northern Cape Basin, in contrast, originate from old Archean terrains of southern Africa and are introduced into the Mozambique Channel via rivers like the Limpopo and Zambezi. These signatures allow tracing the advection of shallow waters via the Agulhas and Benguela currents into the southeastern Atlantic Ocean. The Nd isotope compositions of the deep water masses in both basins primarily reflect conservative water mass mixing with the only exception being the central Angola Basin, where the signatures are significantly overprinted by terrestrial inputs. Bottom waters of the Cape Basin show excess Nd concentrations of up to 6 pmol/kg (20%), originating from resuspended bottom sediments and/or dissolution of dust, but without significantly changing the isotopic composition of the waters due to similar εNd values of particles and bottom waters ranging between −9.6 and −10.5. Given that bottom waters within the Cape Basin today are enriched in Nd, non-conservative Nd isotopic effects may have been resolvable under past glacial boundary conditions when bottom waters were more radiogenic.
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019-12-17
    Description: Highlights • Nd isotope records from the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean. • New Early Cretaceous general circulation model. • Opening history of gateways on the Falkland Plateau. • Gateway opening controlled organic carbon burial. Organic carbon burial is an important driver of carbon cycle and climate dynamics on geological and shorter time scales. Ocean basins emerging during the Early Cretaceous break-up of Gondwana were primary sites of organic carbon burial, implying that their tectonic and oceanographic evolution may have affected trends and perturbations in global climate via changes in local organic carbon burial. Assessing the role of individual ocean basins in the global carbon-climate context requires a sound understanding of the processes that induced large-scale changes in carbon burial and the timing of these changes. Here we reconstruct the oceanographic evolution, and its links to organic carbon burial, in the Barremian to Albian South Atlantic and Southern Ocean basins, which may have acted as carbon sinks of global importance. Our reconstruction is based on combined seawater neodymium isotope and sedimentological records obtained from multiple deep sea drill sites and a new general circulation model. Deep water circulation within and between those basins was primarily controlled by the opening of the shallow Falkland Plateau Gateway (between ∼118 Ma and ∼113 Ma) and the deep Georgia Basin Gateway (by ∼110 Ma), for which we provide new age constraints based on biostratigraphic and carbon isotope data. The opening of these gateways was accompanied by local to basin-wide decreases in organic carbon burial, suggesting that ocean circulation affected the oxygenation state via changes in deep water ventilation. Although our data do not provide quantitative information on the impact of changes in regional organic carbon burial on the global carbon cycle, the synchronicity between the reduction of organic carbon burial in the South Atlantic basin and global warming during the Early Albian points to a strong causal relationship.
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019-12-20
    Description: Bioturbation is one of the key mediators of biogeochemical processes in benthic habitats that can have a high contribution to seafloor functioning and benthic pelagic coupling in coastal waters. Previous studies on bioturbation were limited to point locations and extrapolations in single regions, but have not accounted for regional differences under changing environmental conditions, though there are indications that species contributions will differ across regions or with biotic and abiotic context. To capture those differences and assess global patterns and commonalities, multi-regional analyses are imperative. Here for the first time, bioturbation potential (BPc), a functional indicator of benthic community bioturbation, was estimated based on macrofauna data from four regions (i.e. German Baltic Sea, German North Sea, Belgian part of the North Sea and the Eastern English Channel). For each region and sediment type we identified key species contributing to BPc. Comparison within and across regions demonstrated regional differences, and both overlap and mismatch between species that are functionally important and those that are dominant in biomass. Knowledge on the functionally important species is crucial when management objectives include the protection of certain ecosystem functions. Available environmental layers were used as predictors to model the spatial distribution of BPc for each area and to explore the underlying drivers of differences. Random forest models were trained using as response variables either i) BPc initially calculated per station; or ii) BPp – the species-specific contribution to BPc – for key species (with subsequent summation of their predicted full-coverage distributions to BPc). Maps of BPc distribution predicted by random forest were compared with those generated using natural neighbour interpolation. Overall, derived BPc values increased towards the German parts of the North and Baltic Seas. The relevance of BPc for ecosystem processes and functions, however, vary with biotic and abiotic settings. Results revealed a strong association of BPc with species diversity and region, but less with sediment grain size. A large range of BPc occurred when species richness was low. This suggests that the provisioning of high bioturbation activity is possible also under low diversity, where it is vulnerable due to reduced resilience. The executed multi-regional analysis allowed identifying regional differences in performance of macrofauna, suggesting the need for regionspecific conservation and management strategies. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105945 Received 26 July 2019; Received in revised form 12 November 2019; Accepted 14 November 2019 ⁎ Corresponding author. E-mail address: mayya.gogina@io-warnemuende.de (M. Gogina). Ecological Indicators 110 (2020) 105945 1470-160X/ Crown Copyright © 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. T
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019-12-20
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This data set includes the results of digital image correlation of ten brittle-viscous experiments on crustal extension and four benchmark experiments performed at the Tectonic Modelling Lab of the University of Bern (UB). The experiments demonstrate the differences in rift development in orthogonal versus rotation extension. Detailed descriptions of the experiments and monitoring techniques can be found in Zwaan et al. (2019) to which this data set is supplementary. Additional background information concerning the general modelling approach are available in Zwaan et al. (2016).. The data presented here consist of movies displaying digital image correlation (DIC) derived surface and internal displacement fields as well as profiles of the lateral cumulative surface displacements.Digital photographs of the experimental surface and digital image cross section of the computed CT-scans were analyzed with DIC (Adam et al., 2005, 2013) techniques to quantify displacements in the image plane at high precision (〈0.1 mm). DIC was undertaken with the software DaVis 8.0 (LaVision) applying 2D-DIC (FFT-legacy) multipass processing with a final interrogation window size of 32x32 (CT: 12x12) pixels and 50% (CT: 25%) overlap.
    Keywords: analogue models of geologic processes ; EPOS ; Multi-scale laboratories ; analogue modelling results ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 DATA ANALYSIS AND VISUALIZATION ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH ; tectonic setting 〉 extended terrane setting 〉 continental rift setting ; tectonic process 〉 continental_breakup 〉 rifting ; rift valley ; depression ; Silicon/Silly putty/PDMS ; Sand 〉 Quartz Sand ; Sand 〉 Corundum Sand ; Extension box ; Digital Image Correlation (DIC) / Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) 〉 StrainMaster (La Vision GmbH) ; X-ray computed tomographic scanner (CT-scan) ; SLR camera ; Surface image
    Language: English
    Type: Dataset , Dataset
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2019-12-19
    Description: Mangrove forest conservation can help reduce global C emissions. Despite this benefit to climate change mitigation and adaptation, mangrove forests are being deforested or degraded at an alarming rate, though restoration efforts may offset these losses. The impacts of deforestation to C stocks are relatively intuitive and result in significant decreases in C stocks. It remains unclear how degradation from selective harvesting of trees affects C stocks or how effective restoration efforts are at restoring C stocks. Furthermore, total ecosystem C (TEC) stocks of pristine mangroves can significantly vary spatially. To address these issues, we conducted an intensive, national assessment of mangrove forests across Cambodia using a grid approach to: 1) examine how land use land cover (i.e., pristine, deforested, degraded, and restored forests) impacts TEC stocks, and 2) how TEC stocks vary spatially across the country. TEC stocks from deforested mangroves were always lower than pristine forests, resulting in an overall loss of 60% C (480 Mg C ha−1). However, TEC stocks from degraded and 25-year-old restored mangroves forests did not differ from pristine forests. Mean TEC in mangroves was 784.7 ± 30.1 Mg C ha−1, decreasing from 957.2 ± 32.8 Mg C ha−1 in the northern region to 628.9 ± 33.1 Mg C ha−1 in the central region to 386.2 ± 19.1 Mg C ha−1 in the southern region of Cambodia. Intensive sampling in mangroves across Cambodia verified impacts of deforestation reported elsewhere, revealed the lack of degradation impacts on TEC stocks, and demonstrated the effectiveness of restoration on TEC stocks after only 25 years. Our gridded sampling approach was able to capture spatial variability across Cambodia and provide a more realistic TEC stock information that can be used for national reporting or participation in C markets.
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2019-12-17
    Description: Alleinerziehende gehören in Deutschland konstant zu den am meisten von Armut betroffenen Bevölkerungsgruppen: Während die Armutsrate der gesamten Bevölkerung im Jahr 2016 bei 16,5% und die von Paarhaushalten mit Kindern bei ‚nur‘ 10% lag, waren doppelt bzw. dreimal so viele (32,5%) Alleinerziehende von Armut betroffen. 90% aller Alleinerziehenden sind Frauen. Obwohl das hohe Armutsausmaß alleinerziehender Mütter wissenschaftlich bestens dokumentiert ist, sind die Ursachen bisher wenig erforscht. Dieses Buch entwickelt anhand der Lebensverlaufsperspektive ein Theoriemodell, das sowohl die dynamischen Interdependenzen von Familien- und Erwerbsverläufen als auch den rahmenden Einfluss bestehender Familien- und Arbeitsmarktpolitik systematisch berücksichtigt. Es werden folgende Forschungsfragen beantwortet: Inwiefern ist dieses hohe Armutsrisiko das Ergebnis eines endogenen Selektionsprozesses ins Alleinerziehen oder des Alleinerziehens per se? Inwiefern trägt die Differenzierung von drei Wegen ins Alleinerziehen (Trennung einer Ehe, Trennung einer nichteheliche Lebensgemeinschaft, außerpartnerschaftliche Kindesgeburt) zum Verständnis dieser Effekte bei? Inwiefern werden diese beiden Effekte vom bestehenden institutionellen Kontext moderiert? Diese Fragen wurden anhand von Daten des Sozio-Ökonomischen Panel (SOEP) mit verschiedenen quantitativen Methoden empirisch analysiert. Im Vergleich zu Frauen, die nicht alleinerziehend werden, weisen zukünftige Alleinerziehende bereits zwei Jahre vor dem Übergang ins Alleinerziehen ein substanziell höheres Armutsrisiko auf. Zusätzlich wird die Wahrscheinlichkeit, arm zu sein, durch den Übergang ins Alleinerziehen substanziell noch erhöht. Dabei gibt es jedoch deutliche Unterschiede je nach Weg ins Alleinerziehen. Weiterhin wird gezeigt, dass weder die Arbeitsmarktreformen der frühen 2000er Jahre noch der Ausbau der Familienpolitik zu einer substanziellen Reduktion der Armutsrate für Alleinerziehende beigetragen haben.
    Description: Zugl.: Dissertation, Freie Universität Berlin, 2018. Die Publikation wurde durch das Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB) und den Leibniz-Publikationsfonds für Open-Access-Monografien gefördert.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Armut ; Alleinerziehende ; Selektionsprozesse ; Familienpolitik ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; SOEP ; UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS) ; Understanding Society ; Deutschland ; Vereinigtes Königreich
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 34
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    Unknown
    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-12-17
    Description: We show that in a exogenous growth model with Epstein-Zin (1989, 1991) recursive preferences calibrated to Bulgarian data under the progressive taxation regime (1993-2007), the economy exhibits equilibrium indeterminacy. These results are in line with the findings in Benhabib and Farmer (1994, 1996) and Farmer (1999). Also, the fi ndings in this paper are in contrast to Guo and Lansing (1988) who argue that progressive taxation works as an automatic stabilizer. In contrast, under the flat tax regime (2008-16), the same economy calibrated to Bulgarian data now displays saddle-path stability. The decrease in the average effective tax rate addresses the indeterminacy issue and eliminates the "sink" dynamics.
    Keywords: H22 ; J46 ; ddc:330 ; progressive taxation ; equilibrium (in)determinacy ; Epstein-Zin preferences ; Bulgaria
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019-12-14
    Description: In 1988 DARPA provided funding to NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center to support the development of GaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIP). The goal was to make a single element photodetector that might be expandable to a two-dimensional array format. Ultimately, this led to the development of a 128 x 128 element array in collaboration with AT&T Bell Labs and Rockwell Science Center in 1990. We continued to develop numerous generations of QWIP arrays most recently resulting in the multi-QWIP focal plane for the NASA-US Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat 8 mission launched in 2013 and a similar instrument on the Landsat 9 mission to be launched in 2020. Toward the end of the Landsat 8 QWIP-based Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) instrument the potential of the newly developed Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) detector array technology became of great interest to NASA for three primary reasons: 1) higher operating temperature; 2) broad spectral response and; 3) higher sensitivity. We have collaborated extensively with QmagiQ, LLC and Northwestern University to further pursue and advance the SLS technology ever since we started back in 2012. In December of 2018 we launched the first SLS-based IR camera system to the International Space Station on board the Robotic Refueling Mission #3 (RRM3). This paper will describe the evolution of QWIP technology leading to the current development of SLS-based imaging systems at the Goddard Space Flight Center over the past 30 years.
    Keywords: Engineering (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN75338 , SPIE Photonics West; Dec 10, 2019; San Francisco, CA
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019-12-22
    Description: Density-driven mass movement deposits (MMDs) were mapped throughout the Quaternary sedimentary record of Lake El'gygytgyn (NE Siberia) using high-resolution acoustic data. Three different acoustic facies types were identified in the lake: (1) pelagic sediment, (2) plastic flow deposits and (3) turbidites. Deposits from plastic flows are dominantly present proximal to the lakes' slopes, whereas deposits from turbidity currents occur more spatially distributed. During glacial times, the distribution of MMDs was more uniform, while during interglacial periods, MMDs were deposited predominantly close to the slope of the northwestern area. Furthermore, the overall number of MMDs and accumulated sediment volume significantly varies between glacial/interglacial periods. About 1.6 times more MMDs were mapped during interglacials, contributing to a 3.5 times higher sediment volume. The main reason for this large difference is that a significant increase in plastic flows were formed during interglacials, which account for a much larger volume of sediments when compared with the glacial intervals characterized by increased amount of turbidites. It appears that the most important source areas for MMDs are located at the northern and western shores. Cycles of lake level changes caused by variations in climate conditions between glacials and interglacials are likely the main trigger mechanism for the generation of these MMDs. The climate-dependent genesis and partly erosive potential influencing the sedimentary record contain implications to consider for future paleo-environmental reconstructions in lacustrine settings.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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