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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (1878-9080) vol.44 (2020) p.1
    Publication Date: 2019-05-29
    Description: Fresh collections and their ascospore and conidial isolates backed up by type studies and molecular phylogenetic analyses of a multigene matrix of partial nuSSU-, complete ITS, partial LSU rDNA, rpb2, tef1 and tub2 sequences were used to evaluate the boundaries and species composition of Fenestella and related genera of the Cucurbitariaceae. Eight species, of which five are new, are recognised in Fenestella s.str., 13 in Parafenestella with eight new species and two in the new genus Synfenestella with one new species. Cucurbitaria crataegi is combined in Fenestella, C. sorbi in Synfenestella, Fenestella faberi and Thyridium salicis in Parafenestella. Cucurbitaria subcaespitosa is distinct from C. sorbi and combined in Neocucurbitaria. Fenestella minor is a synonym of Valsa tetratrupha, which is combined in Parafenestella. Cucurbitaria marchica is synonymous with Parafenestella salicis, Fenestella bavarica with S. sorbi, F. macrospora with F. media, and P. mackenziei is synonymous with P. faberi, and the latter is lectotypified. Cucurbitaria sorbi, C. subcaespitosa and Fenestella macrospora are lecto- and epitypified, Cucurbitaria crataegi, Fenestella media, F. minor and Valsa tetratrupha are epitypified in order to stabilise the names in their phylogenetic positions. A neotype is proposed for Thyridium salicis. A determinative key to species is given. Asexual morphs of fenestelloid fungi are phoma-like and do not differ from those of other representatives of the Cucurbitariaceae. The phylogenetic structure of the fenestelloid clades is complex and can only be resolved at the species level by protein-coding genes, such as rpb2, tef1 and tub2. All fungal species studied here occur, as far as has been possible to determine, on members of Diaporthales, most frequently on asexual and sexual morphs of Cytospora.
    Keywords: Cucurbitaria ; Dothideomycetes ; multigene phylogenetic analysis ; new taxa ; Phoma ; Pleosporales ; Pyrenochaeta
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (1878-9080) vol.45 (2020) p.1
    Publication Date: 2019-06-24
    Description: Members of the genus Cytospora are often reported as endophytes, saprobes or phytopathogens, primarily causing canker diseases of woody host plants. They occur on a wide range of hosts and have a worldwide distribution. Although several species have in the past been reported from China, the vast majority are not known from culture or DNA phylogeny. The primary aim of the present study was thus to clarify the taxonomy and phylogeny of a large collection of Cytospora species associated with diverse hosts in China. Cytospora spp. were collected in northeast, northwest, north and southwest China, indicating that the cold and dry environments favour these fungi. In this paper, we provide an assessment of 52 Cytospora spp. in China, focussing on 40 species represented by 88 isolates from 28 host genera. Based on a combination of morphology and a six-locus phylogeny (ITS, LSU, act1, rpb2, tef1-α and tub2), 13 new species and one new combination are introduced. The majority of the species investigated here appear to be host-specific, although further collections and pathogenicity studies will be required to confirm this conclusion.
    Keywords: canker disease ; new taxa ; plant pathogen ; systematics ; taxonomy ; Valsa
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-08-04
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-30
    Description: n our daily lives, we consume foods that have been transported, stored, prepared, cooked, or otherwise processed by ourselves or others. Food storage and preparation have drastic effects on the chemical composition of foods. Untargeted mass spectrometry analysis of food samples has the potential to increase our chemical understanding of these processes by detecting a broad spectrum of chemicals. We performed a time-based analysis of the chemical changes in foods during common preparations, such as fermentation, brewing, and ripening, using untargeted mass spectrometry and molecular networking. The data analysis workflow presented implements an approach to study changes in food chemistry that can reveal global alterations in chemical profiles, identify changes in abundance, as well as identify specific chemicals and their transformation products. The data generated in this study are publicly available, enabling the replication and re-analysis of these data in isolation, and serve as a baseline dataset for future investigations.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-01
    Description: The InSight spacecraft was proposed to be a build-to-print copy of the Phoenix vehicle due to the knowledge that the lander payload would be similar and the trajectory would be similar. However, the InSight aerothermal analysts, based on tests performed in CO2 during the Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL) and completion of Russian databases, considered radiative heat flux to the aftbody from the wake for the first time for a US Mars mission. The combined convective and radiative heat flux was used to determine if the as-flown Phoenix thermal protection system (TPS) design would be sufficient for InSight. All analyses showed that the design would be adequate. Once the InSight lander was successfully delivered to Mars on November 26, 2018, work began to reconstruct the atmosphere and trajectory in order to evaluate the aerothermal environments that were actually encountered by the spacecraft and to compare them to the design environments.The best estimated trajectory (BET) reconstructed for the InSight atmospheric entry fell between the two trajectories considered for the design, when looking at the velocity versus altitude values. The maximum heat rate design trajectory (MHR) flew at a higher velocity and the maximum heat load design trajectory (MHL) flew at a lower velocity than the BET. For TPS sizing, the MHL trajectory drove the design. Reconstruction has shown that the BET flew for a shorter time than either of the design environments, hence total heat load on the vehicle should have been less than used in design. Utilizing the BET, both DPLR and LAURA were first run to analyze the convective heating on the vehicle with no angle of attack. Both codes were run with axisymmetric, laminar flow in radiative equilibrium and vibrational non-equilibrium with a surface emissivity of 0.8. Eight species Mitcheltree chemistry was assumed with CO2, CO, N2, O2, NO, C, N, and O. Both codes agreed within 1% on the forebody and had the expected differences on the aftbody. The NEQAIR and HARA codes were used to analyze the radiative heating on the vehicle using full spherical ray-tracing. The codes agreed within 5% on most aftbody points of interest.The LAURA code was then used to evaluate the conditions at angle of attack at the peak heating and peak pressure times. Boundary layer properties were investigated to confirm that the flow over the forebody was laminar for the flight.Comparisons of the aerothermal heating determined for the reconstructed trajectory to the design trajectories showed that the as-flown conditions were less severe than design
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN69598 , AIAA SciTech 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 8
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    Chicago: University of Chicago Press | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-22
    Description: 9-ending prices, which comprise between 40%–95% of retail prices, are popular because shoppers perceive them as being low. We study whether this belief is justified using scanner price-data with over 98-million observations from a large US grocery-chain. We find that 9-ending prices are higher than non 9-ending prices, by as much as 18%. Two factors explain why shoppers believe, mistakenly, that 9-ending prices are low. First, we find that among sale-prices, 9-ending prices are indeed lower than non 9-ending prices, giving 9-ending prices an aura of being low. Second, at first, 9-ending prices were indeed lower than other prices. Shoppers, therefore, learned to associate 9-endings with low prices. Over time, however, 9-ending prices rose substantially, which shoppers failed to notice, because the continuous use of 9-ending prices for promoting deep price cuts draws shoppers’ attention to them, and helps to maintain-and-preserve the image of 9-ending prices as bargain prices.
    Description: Special Issue on Behavioral Pricing
    Keywords: M30 ; M31 ; L11 ; L16 ; L81 ; D12 ; D22 ; D40 ; D90 ; D91 ; E31 ; ddc:330 ; Behavioral Pricing ; Psychological Prices ; Price Perception ; Image Effect ; 9-Ending Prices ; Price Points ; Regular Prices ; Sale Prices
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-10-12
    Description: This paper describes the plans, flows, key facilities, components and equipment necessary to fully integrate, functionally test and qualify the Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) Observatory. PACE is currently in the design phase of mission implementation. It is scheduled to launch in 2022, extending and improving NASA's twenty-year record of satellite observations of global ocean biology, aerosols and clouds. PACE will advance the assessment of ocean health by measuring the distribution of phytoplankton, which are small plants and algae that sustain the marine food web. It will also continue systematic records of key atmospheric variables associated with air quality and the Earth's climate. The PACE observatory is comprised of the spacecraft and three instruments, an Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) and two polarimeters, the Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter 2 (HARP2) and the Spectro-Polarimeter for Exploration (SPEXone). The spacecraft and the OCI, which is the primary instrument, are developed and integrated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The OCI is a hyper-spectral scanning (HSS) radiometer designed to measure spectral radiances from the ultraviolet to shortwave infrared (SWIR) to enable advanced ocean color and heritage cloud and aerosol particle science. The HARP2 and SPEXone are secondary instruments on the PACE observatory, acquired outside of GSFC. The Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter instrument (HARP2) is a wide swath imaging polarimeter that is capable of characterizing atmospheric aerosols for purposes of sensor atmospheric correction as well as atmospheric science. The SPEXone provides atmospheric aerosol and cloud data at high temporal and spatial resolution. This paper will focus on the Integration and Test (I&T) activities for the PACE mission at NASA GSFC. This I&T phase consists of mechanical, electrical and thermal integration and test of all the spacecraft subsystems and the integration of the instruments with the spacecraft. The PACE observatory environmental tests include electromagnetic interference (EMI)/electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), vibration, acoustics, shock, thermal balance, thermal vacuum, mass properties and center of gravity. This paper will also discuss the observatory shipment to the launch site as well as the launch site processing.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN73647 , IEEE Aerospace Conference; Mar 07, 2020 - Mar 14, 2020; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • 10
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-29
    Description: We document an asymmetry in the rigidity of 9-ending prices relative to non-9-ending prices. Consumers have difficulty noticing higher prices if they are 9-ending, or noticing price-increases if the new prices are 9-ending, because 9-endings are used as a signal for low prices. Price setters respond strategically to the consumer-heuristic by setting 9-ending prices more often after price-increases than after price-decreases. 9-ending prices, therefore, remain 9-ending more often after price-increases than after price-decreases, leading to asymmetric rigidity: 9-ending prices are more rigid upward than downward. These findings hold for both transaction-prices and regular-prices, and for both inflation and no-inflation periods.
    Keywords: L16 ; C91 ; E31 ; C93 ; D80 ; M31 ; ddc:330 ; Asymmetric Price Adjustment ; Sticky/Rigid Prices ; 9-Ending Prices ; Psychological Prices ; Price Points ; Regular/Sale Prices
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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