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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 251-276 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: We review recent advances in understanding, modeling, and controlling oscillations in the flow past a cavity. The fundamental mechanisms underlying cavity flow oscillations have been known for at least 40 years, but suppressing these oscillations in a reliable and robust way is still a challenge today. Interest in controlling the flow past a cavity is motivated by aerospace applications, but in addition, cavity flows provide an attractive canonical problem for exploring general flow control techniques. The focus is on recent advances in modeling these flows, and in controlling them, using both open-loop and closed-loop techniques. A relatively new perspective is that cavity oscillations may not always be self-sustained, but under some flow conditions may be lightly damped resonances, sustained by external disturbances such as boundary layer turbulence. Areas in which our understanding is incomplete, and which deserve further study, are discussed, in particular the effects of high-frequency open-loop forcing, fundamental limitations of feedback control for a given configuration of sensors and actuators, and the development of a feedback design methodology that respects the limited range of validity of the available dynamical models.
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  • 2
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 371-394 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Mammalian fertilization requires the coordinated activity of motile spermatozoa, muscular contractions of the uterus and oviduct, as well as ciliary beating. These elastic structures generate forces that drive fluid motion, but their configurations are, in turn, determined by the fluid dynamics. We review the basic fluid mechanical aspects of reproduction, including flagellar/ciliary beating and peristalsis. We report on recent biological studies that have shed light on the relative importance of the mechanical ingredients of reproduction. In particular, we examine sperm motility in the reproductive tract, ovum pickup and transport in the oviduct, as well as sperm-egg interactions. We review recent advances in understanding the internal mechanics of cilia and flagella, flagellar surface interaction, sperm motility in complex fluids, and the role of fluid dynamics in embryo transfer. We outline promising computational fluid dynamics frameworks that may be used to investigate these complex, fluid-structure interactions.
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  • 3
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 339-369 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: We consider the hydrodynamics of creatures capable of sustaining themselves on the water surface by means other than flotation. Particular attention is given to classifying water walkers according to their principal means of weight support and lateral propulsion. The various propulsion mechanisms are rationalized through consideration of energetics, hydrodynamic forces applied, or momentum transferred by the driving stroke. We review previous research in this area and suggest directions for future work. Special attention is given to introductory discussions of problems not previously treated in the fluid mechanics literature, with hopes of attracting physicists, applied mathematicians, and engineers to this relatively unexplored area of fluid mechanics.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The fluid mechanics of artificial blood pumps has been studied since the early 1970s in an attempt to understand and mitigate hemolysis and thrombus formation by the device. Pulsatile pumps are characterized by inlet jets that set up a rotational "washing" pattern during filling. Strong regurgitant jets through the closed artificial heart valves have Reynolds stresses on the order of 10,000 dynes/cm2 and are the most likely cause of red blood cell damage and platelet activation. Although the flow in the pump chamber appears benign, low wall shear stresses throughout the pump cycle can lead to thrombus formation at the wall of the smaller pumps (10Đ??50 cc). The local fluid mechanics is critical. There is a need to rapidly measure or calculate the wall shear stress throughout the device so that the results may be easily incorporated into the design process.
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  • 5
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 87-110 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Homeland security involves many applications of fluid mechanics and offers many opportunities for research and development. This review explores a wide selection of fluids topics in counterterrorism and suggests future directions. Broad topics range from preparedness and deterrence of impending terrorist attacks to detection, response, and recovery. Specific topics include aircraft hardening, blast mitigation, sensors and sampling, explosive detection, microfluidics and labs-on-a-chip, chemical plume dispersal in urban settings, and building ventilation. Also discussed are vapor plumes and standoff detection, nonlethal weapons, airborne disease spread, personal protective equipment, and decontamination. Involvement in these applications requires fluid dynamicists to think across the traditional boundaries of the field and to work with related disciplines, especially chemistry, biology, aerosol science, and atmospheric science.
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  • 6
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 159-192 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The review deals with drop impacts on thin liquid layers and dry surfaces. The impacts resulting in crown formation are referred to as splashing. Crowns and their propagation are discussed in detail, as well as some additional kindred, albeit nonsplashing, phenomena like drop spreading and deposition, receding (recoil), jetting, fingering, and rebound. The review begins with an explanation of various practical motivations feeding the interest in the fascinating phenomena of drop impact, and the above-mentioned topics are then considered in their experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The physical removal of viruses and bacteria on the mucociliary escalator is an important aspect of the mammalian lung's innate defense mechanism. The volume of airway surface liquid (ASL) present in the respiratory tract is a critical determinant of both mucus hydration and the rate of mucus clearance from the lung. ASL volume is maintained by the predominantly ciliated epithelium via coordinated regulation of (a) absorption, by the epithelial Na+ channel, and (b) secretion, by the Ca2+ -activated Cl channel (CaCC) and CFTR. This review provides an update on our current understanding of how shear stress regulates ASL volume height in normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia through extracellular ATP- and adenosine (ADO)-mediated pathways that modulate ion transport and ASL volume homeostasis. We also discuss (a) how derangement of the ADO-CFTR pathway renders CF airways vulnerable to viral infections that deplete ASL volume and produce mucus stasis, and (b) potential shear stressĐ??dependent therapies for CF.
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  • 8
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 375-401 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Cyclic nucleotideĐ??activated ion channels play a fundamental role in a variety of physiological processes. By opening in response to intracellular cyclic nucleotides, they translate changes in concentrations of signaling molecules to changes in membrane potential. These channels belong to two families: the cyclic nucleotideĐ??gated (CNG) channels and the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotideĐ??modulated (HCN) channels. The two families exhibit high sequence similarity and belong to the superfamily of voltage-gated potassium channels. Whereas HCN channels are activated by voltage and CNG channels are virtually voltage independent, both channels are activated by cyclic nucleotide binding. Furthermore, the channels are thought to have similar channel structures, leading to similar mechanisms of activation by cyclic nucleotides. However, although these channels are structurally and behaviorally similar, they have evolved to perform distinct physiological functions. This review describes the physiological roles and biophysical behavior of CNG and HCN channels. We focus on how similarities in structure and activation mechanisms result in common biophysical models, allowing CNG and HCN channels to be viewed as a single genre.
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  • 9
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    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 461-490 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The serum/glucocorticoid-induced kinase Sgk1 plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial ion transport. This kinase is very rapidly regulated at the transcriptional level as well as via posttranslational modifications involving phosphorylation by the MAP or PI-3 kinase pathways and/or ubiquitylation. Although Sgk1 is a cell survival kinase, its primary role likely concerns the regulation of epithelial ion transport, as suggested by the phenotype of Sgk1-null mice, which display a defect in Na+ homeostasis owing to disturbed renal tubular Na+ handling. In this review we first discuss the molecular, cellular, and regulatory aspects of Sgk1 and its paralogs. We then discuss its roles in the physiology and pathophysiology of epithelial ion transport.
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  • 10
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 65-100 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: This review summarizes recent information concerning the pharmacological and toxicological significance of the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO, EC 1.14.13.8). The human FMO oxygenates nucleophilic heteroatom-containing chemicals and drugs and generally converts them into harmless, polar, readily excreted metabolites. Sometimes, however, FMO bioactivates chemicals into reactive materials that can cause toxicity. Most of the interindividual differences of FMO are due to genetic variability and allelic variation, and splicing variants may contribute to interindividual and interethnic variability observed for FMO-mediated metabolism. In contrast to cytochrome P450 (CYP), FMO is not easily induced nor readily inhibited, and potential adverse drug-drug interactions are minimized for drugs prominently metabolized by FMO. These properties may provide advantages in drug design and discovery, and by incorporating FMO detoxication pathways into drug candidates, more drug-like materials may be forthcoming. Although exhaustive examples are not available, physiological factors can influence FMO function, and this may have implications for the clinical significance of FMO and a role in human disease.
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  • 11
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 189-213 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The proteasome, a multicatalytic proteinase complex, is responsible for the majority of intracellular protein degradation. Pharmacologic inhibitors of the proteasome possess in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity, and bortezomib, the first such agent to undergo clinical testing, has significant efficacy against multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Preclinical studies demonstrate that proteasome inhibition potentiates the activity of other cancer therapeutics, in part by downregulating chemoresistance pathways. Early clinical studies of bortezomib-based combinations, showing encouraging activity, support this observation. Molecular characterization of resistance to proteasome inhibitors has revealed novel therapeutic targets for sensitizing malignancies to these agents, such as the heat shock pathway. Below, we review the pharmacologic, preclinical, and clinical data that have paved the way for the use of proteasome inhibitors for cancer therapy; outline strategies aimed at enhancing the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors; and review other potential targets in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway for the treatment of cancer.
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  • 12
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    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 411-449 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Many biological functions of heme oxygenase (HO), such as cytoprotection against oxidative stress, vasodilation, neurotransmission in the central or peripheral nervous systems, and anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, or anti-proliferative potential, have been attributed to its enzymatic byproduct carbon monoxide (CO), although roles for biliverdin/bilirubin and iron have also been proposed. In addition to these well-characterized effects, recent findings reveal that HO-derived CO may act as an oxygen sensor and circadian modulator of heme biosynthesis. In lymphocytes, CO may participate in regulatory T cell function. A number of the known signaling effects of CO depend on stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase and/or activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Furthermore, modulation of caveolin-1 status may serve as an essential component of certain aspects of CO action, such as growth control. In this review, we summarize recent findings of the beneficial or detrimental effects of endogenous CO with an emphasis on the signaling pathways and downstream targets that trigger the action of this gas.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Retinoic acid (RA) is involved in vertebrate morphogenesis, growth, cellular differentiation, and tissue homeostasis. The use of in vitro systems initially led to the identification of nuclear receptor RXR/RAR heterodimers as possible transducers of the RA signal. To unveil the physiological functions of RARs and RXRs, genetic and pharmacological studies have been performed in the mouse. Together, their results demonstrate that (a) RXR/RAR heterodimers in which RXR is either transcriptionally active or silent are involved in the transduction of the RA signal during prenatal development, (b) specific RXRʼ̛/RAR heterodimers are required at many distinct stages during early embryogenesis and organogenesis, (c) the physiological role of RA and its receptors cannot be extrapolated from teratogenesis studies using retinoids in excess. Additional cell typeĐ??restricted and temporally controlled somatic mutagenesis is required to determine the functions of RARs and RXRs during postnatal life.
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  • 14
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 387-412 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Tallgrass prairie (TGP) arthropods are diverse and abundant, yet they remain poorly documented and there is still much to be learned regarding their ecological roles. Fire and grazing interact in complex ways in TGP, resulting in a shifting mosaic of resource quantity and quality for primary consumers. Accordingly, the impacts of arthropod herbivores and detritivores are expected to vary spatially and temporally. Herbivores generally do not control primary production. Rather, groups such as grasshoppers have subtle effects on plant communities, and their most significant impacts are often on forbs, which represent the bulk of plant diversity in TGP. Belowground herbivores and detritivores influence root dynamics and rhizosphere nutrient cycling, and above- and belowground groups interact through plant responses and detrital pathways. Large-bodied taxa, such as cicadas, can also redistribute significant quantities of materials during adult emergences. Predatory arthropods are the least studied in terms of ecological significance, but there is evidence that top-down processes are important in TGP.
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  • 15
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 557-580 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Tick pheromones that regulate assembly, attraction/aggregation/attachment, and mating behavior have been described. Most of the compounds regulating these behaviors are purines, substituted phenols, or cholesteryl esters. Other pheromonal compounds include organic acids, hematin, or ecdysteroids. Novel devices have been developed that combine the specific compounds comprising these pheromones with an acaricide. When applied to tick-infested vegetation or directly to the body surfaces of livestock or companion animals, these devices are effective for tick control. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of tick pheromones. In addition, this review also presents examples illustrating how devices using tick pheromones can offer effective alternatives to conventional methods for achieving tick control.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Track and cladistic biogeographic analyses based on insect taxa are used as a framework to interpret patterns of the Latin American and Caribbean entomofauna by identifying biogeographic areas on the basis of endemicity and arranging them hierarchically in a system of regions, subregions, dominions, and provinces. The Nearctic region, inhabited by Holarctic insect taxa, comprises five provinces: California, Baja California, Sonora, Mexican Plateau, and Tamaulipas. The Mexican transition zone comprises five provinces: Sierra Madre Occidental, Sierra Madre Oriental, Transmexican Volcanic Belt, Balsas Basin, and Sierra Madre del Sur. The Neotropical region, which harbors many insect taxa with close relatives in the tropical areas of the Old World, comprises four subregions: Caribbean, Amazonian, Chacoan, and Parana. The South American transition zone comprises five provinces: North Andean Paramo, Coastal Peruvian Desert, Puna, Atacama, Prepuna, and Monte. The Andean region, which harbors insect taxa with close relatives in the Austral continents, comprises three subregions: Central Chilean, Subantarctic, and Patagonian.
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  • 17
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 113-135 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Insect odor and taste receptors are highly sensitive detectors of food, mates, and oviposition sites. Following the identification of the first insect odor and taste receptors in Drosophila melanogaster, these receptors were identified in a number of other insects, including the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae; the silk moth, Bombyx mori; and the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens. The chemical specificities of many of the D. melanogaster receptors, as well as a few of the A. gambiae and B. mori receptors, have now been determined either by analysis of deletion mutants or by ectopic expression in in vivo or heterologous expression systems. Here we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of odor and taste coding in insects.
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  • 18
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 67-89 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Thrips are among the stealthiest of insect invaders due to their small size and cryptic habits. Many invasive thrips are notorious for causing extensive crop damage, vectoring viral diseases, and permanently destabilizing IPM systems owing to irruptive outbreaks that require remediation with insecticides, leading to the development of insecticide resistance. Several challenges surface when attempting to manage incursive thrips species. Foremost among these is early recognition, followed by rapid and accurate identification of emergent pest species, elucidation of the region of origin, development of a management program, and the closing of conduits for global movement of thrips. In this review, we examine factors facilitating invasion by thrips, damage caused by these insects, pre- and post-invasion management tactics, and challenges looming on the horizon posed by invasive Thysanoptera, which continually challenge the development of sustainable management practices.
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  • 19
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 525-555 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Tachinidae are one of the most diverse and ecologically important families in the order Diptera. As parasitoids, they are important natural enemies in most terrestrial ecological communities, particularly as natural enemies of larval Lepidoptera. Despite their diversity and ecological impact, relatively little is known about the evolution and ecology of tachinids, and what is known tends to be widely dispersed in specialized reports, journals, or texts. In this review we synthesize information on the evolutionary history, behavior, and ecology of tachinids and discuss promising directions for future research involving tachinids. We provide an overview of the phylogenetic history and geographic diversity of tachinids, examine the evolution of oviposition strategies and host associations, review known mechanisms of host location, and discuss recent studies dealing with the ecological interactions between tachinids and their hosts. In doing so, we highlight ways in which investigation of these parasitoids provides insight into such topics as biogeographic patterns of diversity, the evolution of ecological specialization, the tritrophic context of enemy-herbivore interactions, and the role of host location behavior in shaping host range.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 91-111 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Plant diseases caused by, or associated with, phytoplasmas occur in hundreds of commercial and native plants, causing minor to extensive damage. Insect vectors, primarily leafhoppers, planthoppers, and psyllids, have been identified for relatively few phytoplasma diseases, limiting the capacity of managers to make informed decisions to protect crops and endangered indigenous plants. In the past two decades our knowledge of insect vectorĐ??phytoplasma interactions has increased dramatically, allowing researchers to make more accurate predictions about the nature and epidemiology of phytoplasma diseases. These better-characterized systems also may provide clues to the identity of insect vectors of other phytoplasma-associated diseases. We review the literature addressing the ecology of insect vectors, phytoplasma-insect ecological and molecular interactions, vector movement and dispersal, and possible management strategies with an emphasis on research from the past 20 years.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 209-232 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The past decade has produced an explosion of new information on the development, neuroanatomy, and possible functions of the mushroom bodies. This review provides a concise, contemporary overview of the structure of the mushroom bodies. Two topics are highlighted: the volume plasticity of mushroom body neuropils evident in the brains of some adult insects and a possible essential role for the ?? lobe in olfactory memory.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 233-258 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Parasitoid wasps have evolved a wide spectrum of developmental interactions with hosts. In this review we synthesize and interpret results from the phylogenetic, ecological, physiological, and molecular literature to identify factors that have influenced the evolution of parasitoid developmental strategies. We first discuss the origins and radiation of the parasitoid lifestyle in the Hymenoptera. We then summarize how parasitoid developmental strategies are affected by ecological interactions and assess the inventory of physiological and molecular traits parasitoids use to successfully exploit hosts. Last, we discuss how certain parasitoid virulence genes have evolved and how these changes potentially affect parasitoid-host interactions. The combination of phylogenetic data with comparative and functional genomics offers new avenues for understanding the evolution of biological diversity in this group of insects.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Phytophagous insects and their natural enemies make up one of the largest and most diverse groups of organisms on earth. Ecological processes, in particular negative indirect effects mediated by shared natural enemies (apparent competition), may be important in structuring phytophagous insect communities. The potential for indirect interactions can be assessed by analyzing the trophic structure of insect communities, and we claim that quantitative food webs are particularly well suited for this task. We review the experimental evidence for both short-term and long-term apparent competition in phytophagous insect communities and discuss the possible interactions between apparent competition and intraguild predation or shared mutualists. There is increasing evidence for the importance of trait-mediated as well as density-mediated indirect effects. We conclude that there is a need for large-scale experiments manipulating communities in their entirety and a greater integration of community and chemical ecology.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: More than 5000 introductions of about 2000 species of exotic arthropod agents for control of arthropod pests in 196 countries or islands during the past 120 years rarely have resulted in negative environmental effects. Yet, risks of environmental effects caused by releases of exotics are of growing concern. Twenty countries have implemented regulations for release of biological control agents. Soon, the International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM3) will become the standard for all biological control introductions worldwide, but this standard does not provide methods by which to assess environmental risks. This review summarizes documented nontarget effects and discusses the development and application of comprehensive and quick-scan environmental risk assessment methods.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Plant-mediated interactions between pathogenic microorganisms and arthropod herbivores occur when arthropod infestation or pathogen infection changes the shared host plant in ways that affect a subsequent attacker of the opposite type. Interest in such "tripartite" interactions has increased as the ecological and plant physiological framework for understanding and contextualizing them has developed. The outcomes of plant-mediated interactions are variable, and only a few provisional patterns can be identified at present. However, these interactions can have important consequences not only for individual pathogens and herbivores, but also for the population dynamics of both types of organisms in managed and natural ecosystems. Research has focused on the role of two plant response pathways in mediating tripartite interactions, one involving jasmonic acid and the other salicylic acid. Further studies of plant-mediated interactions will facilitate an understanding of how plants coordinate and integrate their defenses against multiple biotic threats.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 163-185 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Tremendous strides have been made regarding our understanding of how host plant chemistry influences the interactions between herbivores and their natural enemies. While most work has focused on plant chemistry effects on host location and acceptance by natural enemies, an increasing number of studies examine negative effects. The tritrophic role of plant chemistry is central to several aspects of trophic phenomena including top-down versus bottom-up control of herbivores, enemy-free space and host choice, and theories of plant defense. Furthermore, tritrophic effects of plant chemistry are important in assessing the degree of compatibility between biological control and plant resistance approaches to pest control. Additional research is needed to understand the physiological effects of plant chemistry on parasitoids. Explicit tests are required to determine whether natural enemies can act as selective forces on plant defense. Finally, further studies of natural systems are crucial to understanding the evolution of multitrophic relationships.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 441-465 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Cannibalism among generalist predators has implications for the dynamics of terrestrial food webs. Spiders are common, ubiquitous arthropod generalist predators in most natural and managed terrestrial ecosystems. Thus, the relationship of spider cannibalism to food limitation, competition, and population regulation has direct bearing on basic ecological theory and applications such as biological control. This review first briefly treats the different types of spider cannibalism and then focuses in more depth on evidence relating cannibalism to population dynamics and food web interactions to address the following questions: Is cannibalism in spiders a foraging strategy that helps to overcome the effects of a limited supply of calories and/or nutrients? Does cannibalism in spiders reduce competition for prey? Is cannibalism a significant density-dependent factor in spider population dynamics? Does cannibalism dampen spider-initiated trophic cascades?
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    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Throughout its long evolutionary history, the Dopa decarboxylase gene (Ddc) has acquired a variety of functions in insects. The enzyme (DDC) catalyzes the production of the neural transmitters dopamine and serotonin. Not surprisingly, evidence of the enzyme's involvement in the behavior of insects is beginning to accumulate. In addition, DDC plays a role in wound healing, parasite defense, pigmentation, and cuticle hardening. A high degree of sequence conservation has allowed comparisons of the Ddc-coding regions from various insects, facilitating a number of recent studies on insect systematics. This review outlines the diverse functions of Ddc and illustrates how studies of this model system address many questions on insect neurobiology, developmental biology, and systematics.
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 25-44 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Prostaglandins and other eicosanoids are oxygenated metabolites of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids. These compounds are well known for their important actions in mammalian physiology and disease. Recent work has revealed the presence and biological actions of eicosanoids in insects and many other invertebrate animals. In insects, eicosanoids mediate cellular immunity to microbial and metazoan challenge. Notably, some infectious organisms secrete factors responsible for impairing host insect immune reactions by inhibiting biosynthesis of eicosanoids. Eicosanoids also act in insect reproductive biology, in ion transport physiology, and in fever response to infection as well as in protein exocytosis in tick salivary glands. Aside from ongoing actions in homeostasis, certain eicosanoid actions occur at crucial points in insect life histories, such as during infectious challenge and important events in reproduction.
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    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
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    Notes: Invertebrate pathogens and their hosts are taxonomically diverse. Despite this, there is one unifying concept relevant to all such parasitic associations: Both pathogen and host adapt to maximize their own reproductive output and ultimate fitness. The strategies adopted by pathogens and hosts to achieve this goal are almost as diverse as the organisms themselves, but studies examining such relationships have traditionally concentrated only on aspects of host physiology. Here we review examples of host-altered behavior and consider these within a broad ecological and evolutionary context. Research on pathogen-induced and host-mediated behavioral changes demonstrates the range of altered behaviors exhibited by invertebrates including behaviorally induced fever, elevation seeking, reduced or increased activity, reduced response to semiochemicals, and changes in reproductive behavior. These interactions are sometimes quite bizarre, intricate, and of great scientific interest.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 581-608 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Although best known for cooperation, insect societies also manifest many potential conflicts among individuals. These conflicts involve both direct reproduction by individuals and manipulation of the reproduction of colony members. Here we review five major areas of reproductive conflict in insect societies: (a) sex allocation, (b) queen rearing, (c) male rearing, (d) queen-worker caste fate, and (e) breeding conflicts among totipotent adults. For each area we discuss the basis for conflict (potential conflict), whether conflict is expressed (actual conflict), whose interests prevail (conflict outcome), and the factors that reduce colony-level costs of conflict (conflict resolution), such as factors that cause workers to work rather than to lay eggs. Reproductive conflicts are widespread, sometimes having dramatic effects on the colony. However, three key factors (kinship, coercion, and constraint) typically combine to limit the effects of reproductive conflict and often lead to complete resolution.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 45-66 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Botanical insecticides have long been touted as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for pest management because botanicals reputedly pose little threat to the environment or to human health. The body of scientific literature documenting bioactivity of plant derivatives to arthropod pests continues to expand, yet only a handful of botanicals are currently used in agriculture in the industrialized world, and there are few prospects for commercial development of new botanical products. Pyrethrum and neem are well established commercially, pesticides based on plant essential oils have recently entered the marketplace, and the use of rotenone appears to be waning. A number of plant substances have been considered for use as insect antifeedants or repellents, but apart from some natural mosquito repellents, little commercial success has ensued for plant substances that modify arthropod behavior. Several factors appear to limit the success of botanicals, most notably regulatory barriers and the availability of competing products (newer synthetics, fermentation products, microbials) that are cost-effective and relatively safe compared with their predecessors. In the context of agricultural pest management, botanical insecticides are best suited for use in organic food production in industrialized countries but can play a much greater role in the production and postharvest protection of food in developing countries.
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    Notes: Aquatic insects and other benthic invertebrates are the most widely used organisms in freshwater biomonitoring of human impact. Because of the high monetary investment in freshwater management, decisions are often based on biomonitoring results, and a critical and comparative review of different approaches is required. We used 12 criteria that should be fulfilled by an "ideal" biomonitoring tool, addressing the rationale, implementation, and performance of a method. After illustrating how the century-old but still widely used Saprobian system does not meet these criteria, we apply them to nine recent approaches that range from the suborganismal to the ecosystem level. Although significant progress has been made in the field, no recent approach meets all 12 criteria. Given that the use of biomonitoring information has important financial consequences, we suggest that societies and governments prioritize how these criteria should be ranked.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 1-24 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) exist in insects and are encoded by multigene families that are expressed in the brain and other tissues. Upon secretion, these peptides likely serve as hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors, but to date, few direct functions have been demonstrated. In Drosophila melanogaster, molecular genetic studies have revealed elements of a conserved insulin signaling pathway, and as in other animal models, it appears to play a key role in metabolism, growth, reproduction, and aging. This review offers (a) an integrated summary of the efforts to characterize the distribution of ILPs in insects and to define this pathway and its functions in Drosophila and (b) a few considerations for future studies of ILP endocrinology in insects.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 413-440 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The mating system of each species is a unique, dynamic suite of interactions between the sexes. In this review I describe these interactions in the families of flies that contain blood-feeding species. A transition from the aerial swarm, with rapid copulae and no direct female choice, to substrate-based systems with lengthy copulae and opportunities for female choice is evident at both a phylogenetic scale and within nematoceran families under specific ecological conditions. Female monogamy is associated with the former, polyandry with the latter. I suggest that the intensity of sexual selection operating on males in systems where the probability of mating is low has favored male ability to control female receptivity. Reproductive success of males is universally correlated to successful foraging for sugar or blood and (in some species and ecological conditions) to body size. Understanding the ecological basis of the mating systems of these flies will help formulate integrative, sustainable, and biologically lucid approaches for their control.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 635-661 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Whereas foraging has been a major focus of ecological and entomological research, its obligate partner, defecation, has been comparatively neglected. Insects exhibit a range of intriguing behavioral and morphological adaptations related to waste disposal in a range of contexts, including predator-prey interactions, hygiene, habitat location, reproduction, feeding, and shelter construction. Some insects, for example, make use of their own excrement as a physical or chemical defense against natural enemies, while others actively distance themselves from their waste material. Internally feeding insects, fluid-feeders, and social insects face particular challenges because their feeding behavior and/or site fidelity makes them especially vulnerable to problems associated with waste accumulation. As is true for foraging, ecological interactions involving defecation may have far-reaching evolutionary consequences and merit further study.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 285-308 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Interest in trap cropping, a traditional tool of pest management, has increased considerably in recent years. In this review we propose a broader definition of trap cropping that encompasses the inherent characteristics of the trap crop plants themselves as well as the strategies associated with their deployment. Inherent characteristics of a trap crop may include not only natural differential attractiveness for oviposition and feeding, but also other attributes that enable the trap crop plants to serve as a sink for insects or the pathogens they vector. Successful deployment of trap crops within a landscape depends on the inherent characteristics of the trap crop and the higher value crop, the spatial and temporal characteristics of each, the behavior and movement patterns of insect pests, and the agronomic and economic requirements of the production system. Thus, trap cropping is more knowledge-intensive than many other forms of pest management. We review recent references on trap cropping, classify them according to their modalities and level of implementation, and provide a synthesis of the factors that influence the success of trap cropping. Last, we provide a list of recommendations and guidelines that should prove helpful in moving trap cropping forward to its full potential.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 137-161 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Boreal peat bogs contain distinctive insects in addition to widely distributed generalists, including species restricted to bogs (tyrphobionts) and species characteristic of bogs but not confined to them (tyrphophiles). Bogs raised above the water table form characteristic habitat islands in southern boreal and temperate forest zones. Many bogs have persisted for hundreds and even thousands of years, preserving relict ecosystems related to subarctic biomes. The historical development and nature of individual bogs are reflected by differences among their insects, which are of great biogeographical and ecological interest. The environmental sensitivity of bogs also makes insects valuable as bioindicators. Moreover, few readily accessible bogs remain in a natural state. Given the scientific interest of bog insects and the fact that each relict bog habitat island is unique, further studies of the diversity of bog faunas are merited, and the conservation of these habitats should be strongly supported by entomologists.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 309-330 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: As phloem feeders and major vectors of plant viruses, aphids are important pests of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. The processes of aphid settling and reproduction on plants therefore have a direct economic impact, and a better understanding of these events may lead to improved management strategies. Aphids are also important model organisms in the analysis of population differentiation and speciation in animals, and new ideas on plant utilization influence our understanding of the mechanisms generating biological diversity. Recent research suggests that the dominant cues controlling plant preference and initiation of reproduction are detected early during the stylet penetration process, well before the nutrient supply (phloem) is contacted. Aphids regularly puncture cells along the stylet pathway and ingest cytosolic samples, and the cues stimulating settling and parturition likely are metabolites present in peripheral (nonvascular) plant cells. We discuss these findings and their implications for aphid evolution and management.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 359-385 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: With world trade in agricultural commodities increasing, the introduction of exotic insects into new areas where they become pests will increase. The development and application of quarantine treatments or other mitigation approaches to prevent pest introduction in traded commodities raise many research and regulatory issues. The probit 9 standard for quarantine treatment efficacy has given way to risk-based alternatives. Varietal testing may have merit for some treatments or commodities but not for others. Development of generic treatments to control broad groups of insects or insects in all commodities can expedite new trade in agricultural products. Area-wide pest management programs lower pest levels before harvest and improve the quarantine security provided by any postharvest treatments. Systems approaches capitalize on cumulative pest mortality from multiple control components to achieve quarantine security in an exported commodity. Certain quarantine treatment technologies such as irradiation are not universally accepted, which is slowing their adoption. Standardized phytosanitary measures and research protocols are needed to improve the flow of information when countries propose to trade in a regulated commodity.
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    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 225-249 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The gas-lift technique comprises the injection of gas bubbles in vertical oil wells to increase production. It is based on a reduction of the tubing gravitational pressure gradient. Several fluid-flow phenomena influencing such vertical gas-liquid flows are discussed. These effects include the radial distribution of void fraction and of gas and liquid velocity, flow regime changes, and system stability problems. Associated consequences for gas-lift performance and related optimization approaches are also discussed.
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    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 395-425 
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    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Over the past four decades, the combination of in situ and remote sensing observations has demonstrated that long nonlinear internal solitary-like waves are ubiquitous features of coastal oceans. The following provides an overview of the properties of steady internal solitary waves and the transient processes of wave generation and evolution, primarily from the point of view of weakly nonlinear theory, of which the Korteweg-de Vries equation is the most frequently used example. However, the oceanographically important processes of wave instability and breaking, generally inaccessible with these models, are also discussed. Furthermore, observations often show strongly nonlinear waves whose properties can only be explained with fully nonlinear models.
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    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 1-25 
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    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Brooke Benjamin's original theories of fluid mechanical phenomena changed our basic understanding of cavitation bubbles, surface and internal waves, gravity currents, instabilities of shear flow over flexible surfaces, and swirling flows. For some types of finite-amplitude wave phenomena, he generated integral constraints and derived new partial differential equations; by establishing their general properties he showed how they have wide application. He developed a complementary approach based on functional analysis that was quite new to fluid mechanics. He demonstrated methods for deriving, without detailed calculation, the essential features of nonlinear and indeterminate flow problems that are otherwise intractable.
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    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 129-157 
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    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The challenges in understanding hypersonic flight are discussed and critical hypersonic aerothermodynamics issues are reviewed. The ability of current analytical methods, numerical methods, ground testing capabilities, and flight testing approaches to predict hypersonic flow are evaluated. The areas where aerothermodynamic shortcomings restrict our ability to design and analyze hypersonic vehicles are discussed, and prospects for future capabilities are reviewed. Considerable work still needs to be done before our understanding of hypersonic flow will allow for the accurate prediction of vehicle flight characteristics throughout the flight envelope from launch to orbital insertion.
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    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 27-63 
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    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.
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    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 431-459 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The FXYD proteins are a family of seven homologous single transmembrane segment proteins (FXYD1Đ??7), expressed in a tissue-specific fashion. The FXYD proteins modulate the function of Na,K-ATPase, thus adapting kinetic properties of active Na+ and K+ transport to the specific needs of different cells. Six FXYD proteins ( 1Đ??5, 7 ) are known to interact with Na,K-ATPase and affect its kinetic properties in specific ways. Although effects of FXYD proteins on parameters such as K1/2Na+, K1/2K+, KmATP, and Vmax are modest, usually twofold, these effects may have important long-term consequences for homeostasis of cation balance. In this review we summarize basic features of FXYD proteins and present recent evidence for functional effects, structure-function relations and structural interactions with Na,K-ATPase. We then discuss possible physiological roles, based on in vitro observations and newly available knockout mice models. Finally, we also consider evidence that FXYD proteins affect functioning of other ion transport systems.
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    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 67-95 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Because of the anatomy, function, and nonregenerative nature of the myocardium, inflammation in this tissue is not well tolerated. Nevertheless, various diseases of the heart are characterized by inflammatory responses involving the effector mechanisms of innate and adaptive (lymphocyte-dependent) immunity. The innate immune response to ischemia-reperfusion injury is, by far, the most common cause of myocardial inflammation. Innate responses may have beneficial influences that preserve myocardial function in the short term but may be maladaptive in chronic states. Adaptive responses in the myocardium occur with infection or loss of tolerance, and lead to myocarditis. Given the narrow margin for benefit of cardiac inflammation, special regulatory mechanisms likely raise the threshold, compared to other tissues, for the induction and persistence of adaptive immune responses. These mechanisms include strong central and peripheral T cell tolerance to heart antigens and induction of anti-inflammatory feedback mechanisms involving cytokines such as interferon-??.
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    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 649-684 
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    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels mediate responses in a large variety of signaling mechanisms. Most studies on mammalian TRP channels rely on heterologous expression, but their relevance to in vivo tissues is not entirely clear. In contrast, Drosophila TRP and TRP-like (TRPL) channels allow direct analyses of in vivo function. In Drosophila photoreceptors, activation of TRP and TRPL is mediated via the phosphoinositide cascade, with both Ca2+ and diacylglycerol (DAG) essential for generating the light response. In tissue culture cells, TRPL channels are constitutively active, and lipid second messengers greatly facilitate this activity. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) completely blocks lipid activation of TRPL, suggesting that lipid activation is mediated via PLC. In vivo studies in mutant Drosophila also reveal an acute requirement for lipid-producing enzyme, which may regulate PLC activity. Thus, PLC and its downstream second messengers, Ca2+ and DAG, constitute critical mediators of TRP/TRPL gating in vivo.
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    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alpha (ʼ̛), beta/delta (?‚/??), and gamma (??) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which also includes the estrogen, androgen, and glucocorticoid receptors. Recent evidence suggests that PPARs regulate genes involved in lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation in various tissues; however, the mechanisms involved are not completely understood. Anti-diabetic drugs, called glitazones, can selectively activate PPAR??, and hypolipidemic drugs, called fibrates, can weakly activate PPARʼ̛. Both classes of drugs can decrease insulin resistance and dyslipidemias, which also makes them attractive for treating the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome exhibits a constellation of risk factors for atherosclerosis that include obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemias, and hypertension. Interestingly, all three PPARs are present in macrophages and can therefore have a profound effect on several disease processes, including atherosclerosis. Macrophages are key players in atherosclerotic lesion development. Currently, the first line of defense in reducing the risk of atherosclerosis is aimed at lowering low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and raising high-density lipoproteins (HDL), but a large percentage of patients on statins still succumb to coronary artery disease. However, with the development of drugs selectively activating PPARs, a new arsenal of drugs specifically targeting to the macrophage/foam cell may potentially have a profound impact on how we treat cardiovascular disease.
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    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The multitude of chemically highly different agonists for 7TM receptors apparently do not share a common binding mode or active site but nevertheless act through induction of a common molecular activation mechanism. A global toggle switch model is proposed for this activation mechanism to reconcile the accumulated biophysical data supporting an outward rigid-body movement of the intracellular segments, as well as the recent data derived from activating metal ion sites and tethered ligands, which suggests an opposite, inward movement of the extracellular segments of the transmembrane helices. According to this model, a vertical see-saw movement of TM-VIĐ??and to some degree TM-VIIĐ??around a pivot corresponding to the highly conserved prolines will occur during receptor activation, which may involve the outer segment of TM-V in an as yet unclear fashion. Small-molecule agonists can stabilize such a proposed active conformation, where the extracellular segments of TM-VI and -VII are bent inward toward TM-III, by acting as molecular glue deep in the main ligand-binding pocket between the helices, whereas larger agonists, peptides, and proteins can stabilize a similar active conformation by acting as Velcro at the extracellular ends of the helices and the connecting loops.
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    Notes: The roles of proteases in cancer are now known to be much broader than simply degradation of extracellular matrix during tumor invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, proteases from tumor-associated cells (e.g., fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, endothelial cells) as well as tumor cells are recognized to contribute to pathways critical to neoplastic progression. Although elevated expression (transcripts and proteins) of proteases, and in some cases protease inhibitors, has been documented in many tumors, techniques to assess functional roles for proteases require that we measure protease activity and inhibition of that activity rather than levels of proteases, activators, and inhibitors. Novel techniques for functional imaging of protease activity, both in vitro and in vivo, are being developed as are imaging probes that will allow us to determine protease activity and in some cases to discriminate among protease activities. These should be useful clinically as surrogate endpoints for therapies that alter protease activities.
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    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 215-234 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: New methods to measure thiol oxidation show that redox compartmentation functions as a mechanism for specificity in redox signaling and oxidative stress. Redox Western analysis and redox-sensitive green fluorescent proteins provide means to quantify thiol/disulfide redox changes in specific subcellular compartments. Analyses using these techniques show that the relative redox states from most reducing to most oxidizing are mitochondria 〉 nuclei 〉 cytoplasm 〉 endoplasmic reticulum 〉 extracellular space. Mitochondrial thiols are an important target of oxidant-induced apoptosis and necrosis and are especially vulnerable to oxidation because of the relatively alkaline pH. Maintenance of a relatively reduced nuclear redox state is critical for transcription factor binding in transcriptional activation in response to oxidative stress. The new methods are applicable to a broad range of experimental systems and their use will provide improved understanding of the pharmacologic and toxicologic actions of drugs and toxicants.
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    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 317-353 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Over the past four decades, treatment of acute leukemia in children has made remarkable progress, from this disease being lethal to now achieving cure rates of 80% for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 45% for acute myeloid leukemia. This progress is largely owed to the optimization of existing treatment modalities rather than the discovery of new agents. However, the annual number of patients with leukemia who experience relapse after initial therapy remains greater than that of new cases of most childhood cancers. The aim of pharmacogenetics is to develop strategies to personalize medications and tailor treatment regimens to individual patients, with the goal of enhancing efficacy and safety through better understanding of the person's genetic makeup. In this review, we summarize recent pharmacogenomic studies related to the treatment of pediatric acute leukemia. These include work using candidate-gene approaches, as well as genome-wide studies using haplotype mapping and gene expression profiling. These strategies illustrate the promise of pharmacogenomics to further advance the treatment of human cancers, with childhood leukemia serving as a paradigm.
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    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 381-410 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The protein variously named ABCG2/BCRP/MXR/ABCP is a recently described ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter originally identified by its ability to confer drug resistance that is independent of Mrp1 (multidrug-resistance protein 1) and Pgp (P-glycoprotein). Unlike Mrp1 and Pgp, ABCG2 is a half-transporter that must homodimerize to acquire transport activity. ABCG2 is found in a variety of stem cells and may protect them from exogenous and endogenous toxins. ABCG2 expression is upregulated under low-oxygen conditions, consistent with its high expression in tissues exposed to low-oxygen environments. ABCG2 interacts with heme and other porphyrins and protects cells and/or tissues from protoporphyrin accumulation under hypoxic conditions. Individuals who carry ABCG2 alleles that have impaired function may be more susceptible to porphyrin-induced toxicity. Abcg2 knock-out models have allowed in vivo studies of Abcg2 function in host and cellular defense. In combination with immunohistochemical analyses, these studies have revealed how ABCG2 influences the absorption, distribution, and excretion of drugs and cytotoxins.
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    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 193-224 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: What mechanisms of flow control do animals use to enhance hydrodynamic performance? Animals are capable of manipulating flow around the body and appendages both passively and actively. Passive mechanisms rely on structural and morphological components of the body (i.e., humpback whale tubercles, riblets). Active flow control mechanisms use appendage or body musculature to directly generate wake flow structures or stiffen fins against external hydrodynamic loads. Fish can actively control fin curvature, displacement, and area. The vortex wake shed by the tail differs between eel-like fishes and fishes with a discrete narrowing of the body in front of the tail, and three-dimensional effects may play a major role in determining wake structure in most fishes.
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    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 111-128 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Wind tunnels have wide-ranging functionality, including many applications beyond aeronautics, and historically have been the major source of information for technological aerodynamics/aeronautical applications. There are a myriad of scaling issues/differences from flight to wind tunnel, and their study and impacts are uneven and a function of the particular type of extant flow phenomena. Typically, the most serious discrepancies are associated with flow separation. The tremendous ongoing increases in numerical simulation capability are changing and in many aspects have changed the function of the wind tunnel from a (scaled) "predictor" to a source of computational calibration/validation information with the computation then utilized as the flight prediction/scaling tool. Numerical simulations can increasingly include the influences of the various scaling issues. This wind tunnel role change has been occurring for decades as computational capability improves in all aspects. Additional issues driving this trend are the increasing cost (and time) disparity between physical experiments and computations, and increasingly stringent accuracy requirements.
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    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 427-452 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: When the free surfaces of most solids approach their bulk melting temperatures from below, the molecular structure of the material gives way to a disordered structure with some attributes of both the solid and liquid phases. When the temperature is sufficiently close to that of bulk transition, the surface melts and literally flows as a viscous fluid. This phenomenon, called interfacial premelting, lies at the heart of the microscopic theory of melting of solid matter, and captures the interest of condensed matter physicists and physical chemists alike. The process is ubiquitous and responsible for a wide range of consequences in materials with biological, geophysical, and technological significance. Because such systems are often exposed to spatial or temporal variations in thermodynamic forcing, there are a host of fluid mechanical phenomena that result from this underlying melting behavior. The fluid dynamics of unfrozen surfaces holds clues for understanding the bulk behavior of polycrystalline materials, from Earth's mantle to the stratosphere and beyond. In this review we focus on the fluid dynamical consequences of the premelting of solids.
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    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 483-512 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: This article provides a critical review of computational techniques for flow-noise prediction and the underlying theories. Hybrid approaches, in which the turbulent noise source field is computed and/or modeled separately from the far-field calculation, are afforded particular attention. Numerical methods and modern flow simulation techniques are discussed in terms of their suitability and accuracy for flow-noise calculations. Other topics highlighted include some important formulation and computational issues in the application of aeroacoustic theories, generalized acoustic analogies with better accounts of flow-sound interaction, and recent computational investigations of noise-control strategies. The review ends with an analysis of major challenges and key areas for improvement in order to advance the state of the art of computational aeroacoustics.
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    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 277-307 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: We review mathematical models of confined bubbles, emphasizing physical mechanisms as expressed in simple geometries. Molecular interactions between liquid, gas, and the confining solid are all important and are described through the disjoining pressure concept. Methods for finding static shapes are considered. The static solution is a springboard for discussing pressure-driven and surface-tension-driven flows, both of which involve viscous effects and macroscopic films entrained near apparent contact lines. We next discuss vapor bubbles produced by thermal effects. Vaporization localized near contact lines and condensation distributed in colder parts of the interface lead to steady vapor bubbles. Their size is determined through global constraints. Unsteady vapor bubbles are discussed and we end with thoughts on open problems.
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    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 309-338 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Electrophoretic separation of a mixture of chemical species is a fundamental technique of great usefulness in biology, health care, and forensics. In capillary electrophoresis (which has evolved from its predecessor, slab-gel electrophoresis), the sample migrates through a single microcapillary instead of through the network of pores in a gel. A fundamental design problem is to minimize dispersion in the separation direction. Molecular diffusion is inevitable and sets a theoretical limit on the best separation that can be achieved. But in practice, there are a number of effects arising out of the interplay between fluid flow, chemistry, thermal effects, and electric fields that result in enhanced dispersion. This paper reviews the subject of fluid flow in such capillary microchannels and examines the various causes of enhanced dispersion that limit the efficiency of separation.
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    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 453-482 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent combustion is a relatively new research field. Much research has been carried out over the past years, but to realize the full predictive potential of combustion LES, many fundamental questions still have to be addressed, and common practices of LES of nonreacting flows revisited. The focus of the present review is to highlight the fundamental differences between Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and LES combustion models for nonpremixed and premixed turbulent combustion, to identify some of the open questions and modeling issues for LES, and to provide future perspectives.
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    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 123-158 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The insulin resistance syndrome refers to a constellation of findings, including glucose intolerance, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, that promote the development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other disorders. Defining the pathophysiological links between insulin resistance, the insulin resistance syndrome, and its sequelae is critical to understanding and treating these disorders. Over the past decade, two approaches have provided important insights into how changes in insulin signaling produce the spectrum of phenotypes associated with insulin resistance. First, studies using tissue-specific knockouts or tissue-specific reconstitution of the insulin receptor in vivo in mice have enabled us to deconstruct the insulin resistance syndromes by dissecting the contributions of different tissues to the insulin-resistant state. Second, in vivo and in vitro studies of the complex network of insulin signaling have provided insight into how insulin resistance can develop in some pathways whereas insulin sensitivity is maintained in others. These data, taken together, give us a framework for understanding the relationship between insulin resistance and the insulin resistance syndromes.
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    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 223-251 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The ability of animals to survive food deprivation is clearly of considerable survival value. Unsurprisingly, therefore, all animals exhibit adaptive biochemical and physiological responses to the lack of food. Many animals inhabit environments in which food availability fluctuates or encounters with appropriate food items are rare and unpredictable; these species offer interesting opportunities to study physiological adaptations to fasting and starvation. When deprived of food, animals employ various behavioral, physiological, and structural responses to reduce metabolism, which prolongs the period in which energy reserves can cover metabolism. Such behavioral responses can include a reduction in spontaneous activity and a lowering in body temperature, although in later stages of food deprivation in which starvation commences, activity may increase as food-searching is activated. In most animals, the gastrointestinal tract undergoes marked atrophy when digestive processes are curtailed; this structural response and others seem particularly pronounced in species that normally feed at intermittent intervals. Such animals, however, must be able to restore digestive functions soon after feeding, and these transitions appear to occur at low metabolic costs.
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    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 685-717 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Ion channels are pore-forming transmembrane proteins that allow ions to permeate biological membranes. Pore structure plays a crucial role in determining the ion permeation and selectivity properties of particular channels. In the past few decades, efforts have been undertaken to identify key elements of the pore regions of different classes of ion channels. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about permeation and selectivity of channel proteins from the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily. Whereas all TRP channels are permeable for cations, only two TRP channels are impermeable for Ca2+ (TRPM4, TRPM5), and two others are highly Ca2+ permeable (TRPV5, TRPV6). Despite the great advances in the TRP channel field during the past decade, only a limited number of reports have dealt with functional characterization of pore properties, biophysical aspects of cation permeation, or description of pore structures of TRP channels. This review gives an overview of available experimental and theoretical data and discusses the functional impact of pore-structure modifications on TRP channel properties.
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 719-736 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The TRP (transient receptor potential) superfamily of cation channels is present in all eukaryotes, from yeast to mammals. Many TRP channels have been studied in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, revealing novel biological functions, regulatory modes, and mechanisms of localization. C. elegans TRPV channels function in olfaction, mechanosensation, osmosensation, and activity-dependent gene regulation. Their activity is regulated by G protein signaling and polyunsaturated fatty acids. C. elegans TRPPs related to human polycystic kidney disease genes are expressed in male-specific neurons. The KLP-6 kinesin directs TRPP channels to cilia, where they may interact with F0/F1 ATPases. A sperm-specific TRPC channel, TRP-3, is required for fertilization. Upon sperm activation, TRP-3 translocates from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane to allow store-operated Ca2+ entry. The TRPM channels GON-2 and GTL-2 regulate Mg2+ homeostasis and Mg2+ uptake by intestinal cells; GON-2 is also required for gonad development. The TRPML CUP-5 promotes normal lysosome biogenesis and prevents apoptosis. Dynamic, precise expression of TRP proteins generates a remarkable range of cellular functions.
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    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 29-49 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Many forms of pediatric and adult heart disease result from a deficiency in cardiomyocyte number. Through repopulation of the heart with new cardiomyocytes (that is, induction of regenerative cardiac growth), cardiac disease potentially can be reversed, provided that the newly formed myocytes structurally and functionally integrate in the preexisting myocardium. A number of approaches have been utilized to effect regenerative growth of the myocardium in experimental animals. These include interventions aimed at enhancing the ability of cardiomyocytes to proliferate in response to cardiac injury, as well as transplantation of cardiomyocytes or myogenic stem cells into diseased hearts. Here we review efforts to induce myocardial regeneration. We also provide a critical review of techniques currently used to assess cardiac regeneration and functional integration of de novo cardiomyocytes.
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    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 253-278 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Oxidative stressĐ??the production and accumulation of reduced oxygen intermediates such as superoxide radicals, singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicalsĐ??can damage lipids, proteins, and DNA. Many disease processes of clinical interest and the aging process involve oxidative stress in their underlying etiology. The production of reactive oxygen species is also prevalent in the world's oceans, and oxidative stress is an important component of the stress response in marine organisms exposed to a variety of insults as a result of changes in environmental conditions such as thermal stress, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, or exposure to pollution. As in the clinical setting, reactive oxygen species are also important signal transduction molecules and mediators of damage in cellular processes, such as apoptosis and cell necrosis, for marine organisms. This review brings together the voluminous literature on the biochemistry and physiology of oxidative stress from the clinical and plant physiology disciplines with the fast-increasing interest in oxidative stress in marine environments.
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    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factors (NHERF-1 and NHERF-2) are a family of adaptor proteins characterized by the presence of two tandem PDZ protein interaction domains and a C-terminal domain that binds the cytoskeleton proteins ezrin, radixin, moesin, and merlin. The NHERF proteins are highly expressed in the kidney, small intestine, and other organs, where they associate with a number of transporters and ion channels, signaling proteins, and transcription factors. Recent evidence has revealed important associations between the NHERF proteins and several G proteinĐ??coupled receptors such as the ?‚2-adrenergic receptor, the ?”-opioid receptor, and the parathyroid hormone receptor, as well as growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors such as the platelet-derived growth factor receptor and the epidermal growth factor receptor. This review summarizes the emerging data on the biochemical mechanisms, physiologic outcomes, and potential clinical implications of the assembly and disassembly of receptor/NHERF complexes.
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    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 307-343 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: In the gastrointestinal tract, phasic contractions are caused by electrical activity termed slow waves. Slow waves are generated and actively propagated by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). The initiation of pacemaker activity in the ICC is caused by release of Ca2+ from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptorĐ??operated stores, uptake of Ca2+ into mitochondria, and the development of unitary currents. Summation of unitary currents causes depolarization and activation of a dihydropyridine-resistant Ca2+ conductance that entrains pacemaker activity in a network of ICC, resulting in the active propagation of slow waves. Slow wave frequency is regulated by a variety of physiological agonists and conditions, and shifts in pacemaker dominance can occur in response to both neural and nonneural inputs. Loss of ICC in many human motility disorders suggests exciting new hypotheses for the etiology of these disorders.
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    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 345-374 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Phosphorylation of Ser19 on the 20-kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC20) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) is essential for initiation of smooth muscle contraction. The initial [Ca2+]i transient is rapidly dissipated and MLCK inactivated, whereas MLC20 and muscle contraction are well maintained. Sustained contraction does not reflect Ca2+ sensitization because complete inhibition of MLC phosphatase activity in the absence of Ca2+ induces smooth muscle contraction. This contraction is suppressed by staurosporine, implying participation of a Ca2+-independent MLCK. Thus, sustained contraction, as with agonist-induced contraction at experimentally fixed Ca2+ concentrations, involves (a) G protein activation, (b) regulated inhibition of MLC phosphatase, and (c) MLC20 phosphorylation via a Ca2+-independent MLCK. The pathways that lead to inhibition of MLC phosphatase by Gq/13-coupled receptors are initiated by sequential activation of Gʼ̛q/ʼ̛13, RhoGEF, and RhoA, and involve Rho kinaseĐ??mediated phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of MLC phosphatase (MYPT1) and/or PKC-mediated phosphorylation of CPI-17, an endogenous inhibitor of MLC phosphatase. Sustained MLC20 phosphorylation is probably induced by the Ca2+-independent MLCK, ZIP kinase. The pathways initiated by Gi-coupled receptors involve sequential activation of G?‚??i, PI 3-kinase, and the Ca2+-independent MLCK, integrin-linked kinase. The last phosphorylates MLC20 directly and inhibits MLC phosphatase by phosphorylating CPI-17. PKA and PKG, which mediate relaxation, act upstream to desensitize the receptors (VPAC2 and NPR-C), inhibit adenylyl and guanylyl cyclase activities, and stimulate cAMP-specific PDE3 and PDE4 and cGMP-specific PDE5 activities. These kinases also act downstream to inhibit (a) initial contraction by inhibiting Ca2+ mobilization and (b) sustained contraction by inhibiting RhoA and targets downstream of RhoA. This increases MLC phosphatase activity and induces MLC20 dephosphorylation and muscle relaxation.
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    Notes: Communication between endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes regulates not only early cardiac development but also adult cardiomyocyte function, including the contractile state. In the normal mammalian myocardium, each cardiomyocyte is surrounded by an intricate network of capillaries and is next to endothelial cells. Cardiomyocytes depend on endothelial cells not only for oxygenated blood supply but also for local protective signals that promote cardiomyocyte organization and survival. While endothelial cells direct cardiomyocytes, cardiomyocytes reciprocally secrete factors that impact endothelial cell function. Understanding how endothelial cells communicate with cardiomyocytes will be critical for cardiac regeneration, in which the ultimate goal is not simply to improve systolic function transiently but to establish new myocardium that is both structurally and functionally normal in the long term.
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    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 619-647 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The aim of this review is to provide a basic framework for understanding the function of mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, particularly as they have been elucidated in heterologous expression systems. Mammalian TRP channel proteins form six-transmembrane (6-TM) cation-permeable channels that may be grouped into six subfamilies on the basis of amino acid sequence homology (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPA, TRPP, and TRPML). Selected functional properties of TRP channels from each subfamily are summarized in this review. Although a single defining characteristic of TRP channel function has not yet emerged, TRP channels may be generally described as calcium-permeable cation channels with polymodal activation properties. By integrating multiple concomitant stimuli and coupling their activity to downstream cellular signal amplification via calcium permeation and membrane depolarization, TRP channels appear well adapted to function in cellular sensation. Our review of recent literature implicating TRP channels in neuronal growth cone steering suggests that TRPs may function more widely in cellular guidance and chemotaxis. The TRP channel gene family and its nomenclature, the encoded proteins and alternatively spliced variants, and the rapidly expanding pharmacology of TRP channels are summarized in online supplemental material.
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    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 563-583 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Airways are embedded in the mechanically dynamic environment of the lung. In utero, this mechanical environment is defined largely by fluid secretion into the developing airway lumen. Clinical, whole lung, and cellular studies demonstrate pivotal roles for mechanical distention in airway morphogenesis and cellular behavior during lung development. In the adult lung, the mechanical environment is defined by a dynamic balance of surface, tissue, and muscle forces. Diseases of the airways modulate both the mechanical stresses to which the airways are exposed as well as the structure and mechanical behavior of the airways. For instance, in asthma, activation of airway smooth muscle abruptly changes the airway size and stress state within the airway wall; asthma also results in profound remodeling of the airway wall. Data now demonstrate that airway epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts respond to their mechanical environment. A prominent role has been identified for the epithelium in transducing mechanical stresses, and in both the fetal and mature airways, epithelial cells interact with mesenchymal cells to coordinate remodeling of tissue architecture in response to the mechanical environment.
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    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 585-618 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome who die usually succumb to multiorgan failure as opposed to hypoxia. Despite appropriate resuscitation, some patients' symptoms persist on a downward spiral, apparently propagated by an uncontained systemic inflammatory response. This phenomenon is not well understood. However, a novel hypothesis to explain this observation proposes that it is related to the life-saving ventilatory support used to treat the respiratory failure. According to this hypothesis, mechanical ventilation per se, by alterating both the magnitude and the pattern of lung stretch, can cause changes in gene expression and/or cellular metabolism that ultimately can lead to the development of an overwhelming inflammatory responseĐ??even in the absence of overt structural damage. This mechanism of injury has been termed biotrauma. In this review we explore the biotrauma hypothesis, the causal relationship between biophysical injury and organ failure, and its implications for the future therapy and management of critically ill patients.
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