Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Summary The maximum entropy production (MEP) principle used in Part J has been extended to separate the two-dimensional required energy transports determined from Nimbus 7 satellite net radiation measurements into atmospheric and oceanic components. In terms of the meridional component of the ocean transport vectors, results show northward ocean transports throughout the entire Atlantic ocean from southern hemisphere high latitudes to northern hemisphere polar regions, southward transports throughout the entire Indian Ocean, and poleward transports separated at approximately 10°S in the Pacific Ocean. The ocean transport patterns are consistent with well-known features concerning heat transport within the three ocean basins. However, uncertainty remains in the magnitudes of the transports. Because of the large remaining discrepancies between published estimates based on direct measurements and indirect estimates derived from energy budget methods, assessing the accuracy of the magnitudes is difficult, although there is evidence that the limited model resolution leads to synergistic biases in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. In terms of the crossmeridional energy transport component, results suggest that most of the net energy transfer in the tropics takes place within the ocean. In the southern hemisphere high latitudes, the Pacific and Indian Oceans export heat cross-meridionally to the Atlantic Ocean through the passages below Cape Horn and the Cape of Good Hope, although the magnitudes of these inter-ocean heat exchanges are small. Another important aspect of the southern hemisphere results is that poleward transports are dominated by the atmospheric component with strong zonal asymmetry. By contrast, in the northern hemisphere, atmospheric transports over the ocean are generally weaker than the corresponding southern hemisphere terms, indicating that the northern hemisphere oceans are relatively more effective in transferring heat poleward. Finally, poleward atmospheric transports over the continental areas exceed those over the ocean at equivalent latitudes as a result of the generally greater energy deficits over the land areas.
Type of Medium: