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  • 1990-1994  (42)
  • 1965-1969
  • 1991  (42)
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  • 1990-1994  (42)
  • 1965-1969
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Summary An air quality index is used to represent the total effect of various pollutants in the city atmosphere, and a statistical model to predict this index by its controlling factors is developed using the real-time system identification theory with an exponential weighting to enhance the contributions of the latest observed data in the model. With the real-time iteration, the coefficients in the model are successively corrected after each prediction according to the difference between the predicted and the observed values for the system to make the model keep up with the change of the predicted system. As a result, the prediction ability has become much better than the conventional regressive models, and it is easy to establish with a smaller sample. As an example, this paper also gives the results of its application to Shanghai.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Summary Wave-organized convective features in the southwest Indian Ocean are described using Hovmoller composites of satellite imagery, OLR anomalies and ECMWF precipitable water departures during the southern summer. Westward movement of large convective elements is noted in the 10–20°S latitude band in about half of the years between 1970 and 1984. A study of 47 convective systems from satellite imagery establishes the climatological features, including zonal propagation speeds for maritime systems in the range −2 to −4 m s−1, wavelengths of 25–35° longitude (3,000 km), lifespans of 10–20 days and convective areas of 7–10° longitude (800 km). Transient convective waves over the tropical SW Indian Ocean are slower and more diverse than their northern hemisphere counterparts. Interannual tendencies in the frequency and mode are studied. Wet summers over SE Africa correspond with an increased frequency of westward moving convective systems, whereas in dry summers convective systems tend to be quasi-stationary. INSAT data composites provide additional insight into the convective structure and show that tropical waves penetrated into southern Africa in February 1988. A more quantitative assessment of transient convective waves is provided by Hovmoller composites of OLR anomalies and precipitable water departures. Both display westward moving systems in 1976 and 1984 and highlight the wide variety and mixed mode character of convective waves. A case study is analyzed which illustrates the deepening of a moist, unstable layer coincident with the westward passage of a convective wave.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Meteorology and atmospheric physics 46 (1991), S. 175-179 
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Summary From a data set of sea-breeze observations corresponding to cases of no synoptic-scale flow in Barcelona during the period 1970–89, some features of this wind have been deduced. Maximum velocities of between 6–14 m/s generally occur during 12–16 SLT. Diurnal evolution gives a clockwise rotation of sea breeze so that this wind blows roughly parallel to the shoreline in late afternoon. The rate of the change of direction is in agreement with numerical results from a simple nonlinear sea breeze model.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Summary An analysis of data pertaining to the period 1861–1986 reveals that (1) a 1 °C rise in the mean annual air temperature of the British Isles has historically been associated with a 35% drop in the percentage of days that the United Kingdom has experienced cyclonic flow, and (2) a 2 °C increase in the mean annual air temperature over the sea to the north has typically been matched by a 60% drop in the percentage of days that the isles have experienced cyclonic flow originating from that source region. These findings raise significant questions about the oft-reported claim that CO2-induced global warming will lead to an increase in world storminess.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Meteorology and atmospheric physics 46 (1991), S. 205-210 
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Meteorology and atmospheric physics 46 (1991), S. 185-195 
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Summary Based on ESSA-satellite imagery for the period July 1969–June 1970, this study investigates spatial and temporal variations of East African cloudiness. The major results of this work show that the mean annual cloud amounts over East Africa are lower than those in adjacent tropical areas. One of the main reasons for this is the quasi-meridional alignement of the ITCZ over East Africa during the winter months. Within the area itself, the highest mean annual cloud amount values can generally be found in a diagonally oriented zone extending from the eastern Congo Basin to the Ethiopian Highlands. In contrast to the cloudiness north of the equator, which is dominated by oscillation periods in the range of 30–60 days, the cloudiness fluctuations encountered south of the equator show periodicities around 2 days (in the western part) and 20 days (in the eastern part), respectively. The different oscillation patterns, which are roughly separated by the Rift Valley area (longitudinally) and the equator (latitudinally), resemble the signals of the adjacent (African and Asian) monsoon regimes. However, during the winter months oscillation periods around 40 days can be found north of the equator, whereas a quasi-biweekly oscillation appears over the coastal areas in summer. Further details of the seasonal variability of East African cloudiness are discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Summary The annual and diurnal variation of the conductivity near the ground at Athens, based on long-term data, are presented. The diurnal double oscillation is a characteristic of the “atmospheric electric climate” of Athens. In addition, the influence of air pollution due to smoke and sulfur dioxide and of wind speed (as an element affecting the dispersion of pollulants) on large ion concentration and on conductivity has been examined. The air pollution, which is often severe in Athens area, results in decreasing conductivity and increasing large ion concentration, while the influence of wind speed is also pronounced. The results justify the use of conductivity as a pollution index. Finally the plausible influence of air temperature and relative humidity and of their rate of change on air electrical conductivity, has been examined. The results are ambiguous and depending on the season, especially for relative humidity.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Summary The nudging assimilation scheme described in the companion paper by Brill et al. is applied to study oceanic cyclogenesis during GALEIOP 10 on 27–28 February 1986. A 36-h control simulation statically initialized from 0000 UTC 27 February 1986 data moves the cyclone too far north and east in the 12-h period of most rapid deepening limiting the usefulness of the simulation for diagnostic study. The use of nudging to dynamically assimilate special 3-h and routine 12-h rawindsonde and dropsonde data into the model during the entire 36-h forecast period failed to deepen the cyclone as it moved northeast off the Atlantic seaboard beyond the area covered 3-h by sounding data. Subjectively analyzed mean sea-level pressures (MSLP) were included in the data base to allow the model to nudge toward 3-h surface pressure analyses extended to cover the region of cyclogenesis over the ocean. The assimilation of 3-h surface data over the ocean is insufficient to produce a realistic simulation of cyclogenesis. This result motivated the use of the nudging technique to assimilate surface pressure and upper air data over land during the 12-h pre-cyclogenetic period (i.e. dynamic initialization) and compare the subsequent 24-h simulation with one initialized statically at the same synoptic time. Dynamic initialization produced the best simulation of the occanic cyclone based upon the standard statistical scores and positions of the MSLP minima. This simulation is used to diagnose differences between cyclogenesis during GALEIOP 1 and IOP 10. Isentropic analyses and vertical cross sections are derived from the model simulations and are used to contrast the strength of the upper tropospheric forcing and the low-level static stability associated with each case. The results of the diagnostic analyses reveal that stronger surface response (based upon MSLP minima) to weaker upper-level forcing during GALEIOP 10 (compared with GALEIOP 1) was associated with differences in the lower tropospheric static stability and thermal advection patterns and their interaction with upper tropospheric features.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Meteorology and atmospheric physics 45 (1991), S. 113-123 
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Summary The equivalent potential energy of the moist atmosphere is defined as the sum of its total potential energy and latent heat. The available equivalent potential energy is the amount of equivalent potential energy available for conversion into kinetic energy. For the isolated moist atmospheres, we may find the equivalent lowest state which is the limit of the states attained through all the actual processes involving water condensation and possesses the least equivalent potential energy. Thus, the maximum available equivalent potential energy with respect to the equivalent lowest state can be estimated for any provided initial state. This study may extend the understanding for the development of precipitation systems in the moist atmosphere.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Summary This paper examines the performance of several atmospheric instability indices for operational hail forecasting in the Greek National Hail Suppression Program (GNHSP). These indices are part of the adopted forecasting procedure in the GNHSP, which also involves a synoptic index of convection and a synoptic scale typing scheme. The assessment of the indices is accomplished objectively through a multivariate statistical technique, namely factor analysis. The analysis resulted in grouping of the indices into three factors. The indices with high loading and scores are considered to best detect convection for hail forecasting in the GNHSP.
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