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  • 1
    Publication Date: 1981-07-10
    Description: Power spectrum analysis of heart rate fluctuations provides a quantitative noninvasive means of assessing the functioning of the short-term cardiovascular control systems. We show that sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity make frequency-specific contributions to the heart rate power spectrum, and that renin-angiotensin system activity strongly modulates the amplitude of the spectral peak located at 0.04 hertz. Our data therefore provide evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays a significant role in short-term cardiovascular control in the time scale of seconds to minutes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Akselrod, S -- Gordon, D -- Ubel, F A -- Shannon, D C -- Berger, A C -- Cohen, R J -- HL 19467/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- SO7 RR 07047/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Jul 10;213(4504):220-2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6166045" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Angiotensins/physiology ; Animals ; Blood Pressure/drug effects ; *Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena ; Computers ; Dogs ; Enzyme Inhibitors ; Glycopyrrolate/pharmacology ; *Heart Rate/drug effects ; Methods ; Nitroprusside/pharmacology ; Oligopeptides/pharmacology ; Parasympathetic Nervous System/physiology ; Propranolol/pharmacology ; Renin/physiology ; Sympathetic Nervous System/physiology ; Teprotide
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 1981-06-19
    Description: The frequency with which diethylstilbestrol induces neoplastic transformation and somatic mutation was measured concomitantly in Syrian hamster embryo cells. While diethylstilbestrol was as active as benzo[a]pyrene in inducing transformation, it failed to induce mutations at two conventionally studied loci. These results suggest that diethylstilbestrol may transform cells in the absence of gene mutations.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barrett, J C -- Wong, A -- McLachlan, J A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Jun 19;212(4501):1402-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6262919" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Benzo(a)pyrene ; Benzopyrenes ; Carcinogens ; *Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Cells, Cultured ; Cricetinae ; Diethylstilbestrol/*pharmacology ; Embryo, Mammalian ; Genes/*drug effects ; Mesocricetus ; *Mutation
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-03-20
    Description: Sexual dimorphism in selected extragenital tissues is described with emphasis on the molecular basis of the differences. Testosterone rather than 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone appears to be the major intracellular androgen in organs other than skin and reproductive tract, but other steroid metabolites and their receptors are required to produce the diverse tissue differences observed in males and females. There is also evidence that multiple hormones from several endocrine glands are required to act in concert with androgens to produce and maintain their effects. Although many of the consequences of sexual dimorphism, such as body size and strength, have been evident for centuries, other differences between males and females such as disease incidence, response to drugs and toxins, and the metabolism and assimilation of dietary constituents have only recently been discovered.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bardin, C W -- Catterall, J F -- HD-13541/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Mar 20;211(4488):1285-94.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7010603" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome/metabolism ; Androgens/metabolism/physiology ; Animals ; Erythropoiesis ; Estradiol/physiology ; Humans ; Kidney/metabolism ; Liver/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Muscles/metabolism ; Progestins/physiology ; Proteins/secretion ; Rats ; Receptors, Androgen/metabolism ; *Sex Differentiation ; Testosterone/metabolism/*physiology ; Transcription, Genetic
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1981-09-25
    Description: Labeled acetylcholine derived from labeled pyruvate in a synaptosomal preparation from rat brain, incubated with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as well as coenzyme A, is stimulated by calcium ions in the absence but not in the presence of Triton X-100. Whereas citrate is taken up by cholinergic synaptosomes because it suppresses the formation of acetylcholine from pyruvate, it is not itself converted into acetylcholine. The evidence suggests that there is a calcium-dependent transfer of mitochondrial acetyl coenzyme A into the cholinergic synaptoplasm, which is apparently devoid of the citrate cleavage enzyme, and is there converted into acetylcholine. The permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane to coenzyme A and acetyl coenzyme A seems to be enhanced by calcium ions, and this effect may be mediated by mitochondrial phospholipase A2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Benjamin, A M -- Quastel, J H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Sep 25;213(4515):1495-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7280667" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase/metabolism ; Acetyl Coenzyme A/*metabolism ; Acetylcholine/*biosynthesis ; Animals ; Brain/*metabolism ; Calcium/physiology ; Citrates/metabolism ; Mitochondria/*metabolism ; NAD/metabolism ; Phospholipases A/metabolism ; Phospholipases A2 ; Rats ; Synaptosomes/*metabolism
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1981-07-10
    Description: Rats treated with chloramphenicol from days 7 to 21 of intrauterine life (50 milligrams per kilogram per day, injected subcutaneously into the mothers) or in the first 3 days of extrauterine life (50 to 100 milligrams per kilogram per day) were trained for avoidance conditioning when 60 days old. The acquisition of the avoidance response was impaired to a highly significant degree in all the treated groups.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bertolini, A -- Poggioli, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Jul 10;213(4504):238-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7244633" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging ; Animals ; Avoidance Learning/*drug effects ; Brain/drug effects/embryology/*growth & development ; Chloramphenicol/*pharmacology ; Female ; Male ; Maternal-Fetal Exchange ; Pregnancy ; Rats ; Sex Factors
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-07-31
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Jul 31;213(4507):494, 496.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7244648" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Beginning of Human Life ; Ethics, Medical ; Female ; *Fertilization ; Fetus ; Humans ; *Life ; Male ; *Personhood ; Pregnancy ; Value of Life
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-05-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 May 8;212(4495):610.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7194507" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cattle ; *Embryo Transfer ; Female ; Humans ; Pregnancy
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-10-23
    Description: In electric fish of the mormyrid family, an efference copy is present in the brain region that receives afferent input from ampullary electroreceptors. The efference copy is elicited by the motor command to fire the electric organ. Its effect is always opposite that the ampullary afferents responding to the electric organ discharge, and it changes to match variations in this afferent input. It probably reduces the central effects of activity in ampullary receptors evoked by the electric organ discharge.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bell, C C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Oct 23;214(4519):450-53.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7291985" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Afferent Pathways/physiology ; Animals ; Brain/*physiology ; Efferent Pathways/physiology ; Electric Organ/*physiology ; Fishes/*physiology ; Proprioception
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-01-30
    Description: Arsenic concentrates in the kidneys of the giant clams of Australia's Great Barrier Reef. The highest concentrations measured were 1004 parts per million, of which most, 2066 parts per million, were in the water-soluble fraction containing trimethylarsoniumlactate and its derivatives. This accumulation is ascribed to a mechanism in which oceanic arsenate is assimilated by symbiotic zooxanthellae and subsequently deposited in host tissues. The gills are the major site of arsenic excretion by these animals. Gill membrane arsenolipids mediate exposure of their trimethylarsonium groups to the sea and its biological oxidative activities.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Benson, A A -- Summons, R E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Jan 30;211(4481):482-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7455685" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arsenic/*metabolism ; Australia ; Invertebrates/metabolism ; Kidney/metabolism ; *Marine Biology ; Phosphates/metabolism ; *Water Pollutants ; *Water Pollutants, Chemical
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1981-06-12
    Description: Somatomedin-C stimulates somatostatin release to a maximum of 390 percent of basal release during short-term (20-minute) incubation of rat hypothalamus. It has no effect on basal or stimulated growth hormone release from primary cultures of rat adenohypophyseal cells during a 4-hour incubation, but inhibits stimulated release by more that 90 percent after 24 hours. These findings suggest that somatomedin-C participates in the growth hormone negative feedback loop with an immediate effect on hypothalamic somatostatin and a delayed effect on the anterior pituitary.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Berelowitz, M -- Szabo, M -- Frohman, L A -- Firestone, S -- Chu, L -- Hintz, R L -- AM 18722/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- AM 24085/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Jun 12;212(4500):1279-81.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6262917" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bucladesine/pharmacology ; Cells, Cultured ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Feedback ; Growth Hormone/pharmacology/*secretion ; Hypothalamus/drug effects/*physiology ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I ; Kinetics ; Pituitary Gland, Anterior/drug effects/*secretion ; Rats ; Somatomedins/*pharmacology
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 1981-07-31
    Description: New applications of laser microbeam irradiation to cell and developmental biology include a new instrument with a tunable wavelength (217- to 800-nanometer) laser microbeam and a wide range of energies and exposure durations (down to 25 X 10(-12) second). Laser microbeams can be used for microirradiation of selected nucleolar genetic regions and for laser microdissection of mitotic and cytoplasmic organelles. They are also used to disrupt the developing neurosensory appendages of the cricket and the imaginal discs of Drosophila.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Berns, M W -- Aist, J -- Edwards, J -- Strahs, K -- Girton, J -- McNeill, P -- Rattner, J B -- Kitzes, M -- Hammer-Wilson, M -- Liaw, L H -- Siemens, A -- Koonce, M -- Peterson, S -- Brenner, S -- Burt, J -- Walter, R -- Bryant, P J -- van Dyk, D -- Coulombe, J -- Cahill, T -- Berns, G S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Jul 31;213(4507):505-13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7017933" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Physiological Phenomena ; Chloroplasts/physiology ; Drosophila ; *Lasers ; Microscopy, Phase-Contrast ; Microsurgery/*methods ; Mitochondria/physiology ; Mitosis ; Neurons/physiology ; Plant Physiological Phenomena
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-01-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bindra, D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Jan 2;211(4477):86-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7444454" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Animal Communication ; Animals ; Hominidae/*physiology ; Language
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-03-06
    Description: Throughout development, Mongolian gerbils engage in conspicuous naso-oral investigations of their social partners' mouth areas. The behavioral contribution of saliva-related stimuli in regulating oral-directed responses was studied during several important phases of the gerbil's social life. Weanlings were preferentially attracted to their mother's saliva, subadults at puberty preferred saliva of littermates to that of nonlittermates, and sexually experienced males preferred the saliva of estrous females to that of nonestrous females. The use of saliva as a discriminative cue during various developmental periods suggests that oral chemostimuli have a perennial role in regulating social interchanges.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Block, M L -- Volpe, L C -- Hayes, M J -- R03MH 27346/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Mar 6;211(4486):1062-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7466378" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Suckling/physiology ; Behavior, Animal/*physiology ; Female ; Gerbillinae/*physiology ; Male ; Maternal Behavior ; Saliva/*physiology ; *Social Behavior
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  • 14
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-04-24
    Description: Evoked potential and unit responses from the lamprey brain to weak electric fields demonstrate that lampreys have an electrosensory system as sensitive as those of other electroreceptive fishes. Electrosensory responses were recorded in the dorsal medulla, the midbrain torus semicircularis, and the optic tectum. Similarities in the structure of the anterior lateral line nerves and medullary organization between lampreys and several primitive jawed fishes indicate that the electroreceptive systems are homologous in these taxa. Thus electroreception was probably present in the earliest vertebrates ancestral to both agnathans and gnathostomes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bodznick, D -- Northcutt, R G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Apr 24;212(4493):465-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7209544" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biological Evolution ; Brain/physiology ; Electric Stimulation ; Evoked Potentials ; Fishes/*physiology ; Lampreys/*physiology ; Sensory Receptor Cells/physiology ; Visual Perception/physiology
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 1981-05-22
    Description: The molecularly cloned, long terminal repeat (LTR) of the Moloney sarcoma virus (M-MSV) provirus has been covalently linked to c-mos, the cellular homolog of the M-MSV-specific sequence, v-mos. These newly constructed clones lack any M-MSV-derived sequences other than the LTR, but in DNA transfection assays they transform cells as efficiently as cloned subgenomic M-MSV fragments containing both v-mos and LTR. Cells transformed by LTR:c-mos hybrid molecules contain additional copies of mos DNA, and several size classes of polyadenylated RNA's with sequence homology to mos. The activation of the transforming potential of c-mos by the proviral LTR suggests a model whereby LTR-like elements could activate other normal cell sequences with oncogenic potential.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Blair, D G -- Oskarsson, M -- Wood, T G -- McClements, W L -- Fischinger, P J -- Vande Woude, G G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 May 22;212(4497):941-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7233190" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Transformation, Viral ; Cells, Cultured ; DNA, Recombinant ; Defective Viruses/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation ; *Genes, Viral ; Mice ; Moloney murine leukemia virus/*genetics ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; Operon ; Plasmids
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  • 16
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-12-18
    Description: A dihydropyridine-pyridinium salt type of redox system is used in a general and flexible method for the site-specific or sustained delivery (or both) of drugs to the brain. A biologically active compound linked to a lipoidal dihydropyridine carrier easily penetrates the blood-brain barrier. Oxidation of the carrier part in vivo to the ionic pyridinium salt prevents its elimination from the brain, while elimination from the general circulation is accelerated. Subsequent cleavage of the quaternary carrier-drug species results in sustained delivery of the drug in the brain and facile elimination of the carrier part.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bodor, N -- Farag, H H -- Brewster, M E 3rd -- GM 27167/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Dec 18;214(4527):1370-2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7313698" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Berberine/administration & dosage ; Blood-Brain Barrier ; Brain Diseases/*drug therapy ; Metabolic Clearance Rate ; Nicotinic Acids/administration & dosage ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Phenethylamines/administration & dosage ; Pyridines/*administration & dosage ; Pyridinium Compounds/*administration & dosage ; Rats
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 1981-04-17
    Description: An investigation of the efficacy of astatine-211--tellurium colloid for the treatment of experimental malignant ascites in mice reveals that this alpha-emitting radiocolloid can be curative without causing undue toxicity to normal tissue. By comparison, negatron-emitting phosphorus-32 as colloidal chromic phosphate had no antineoplastic activity. The most compelling explanation for this striking difference is the dense ionization and short range of action associated with alpha-emission. These results have important implications for the development and use of alpha-emitters as radiocolloid therapy for the treatment of human tumors.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bloomer, W D -- McLaughlin, W H -- Neirinckx, R D -- Adelstein, S J -- Gordon, P R -- Ruth, T J -- Wolf, A P -- CA-12662/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA-15523/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- NS-15380/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Apr 17;212(4492):340-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7209534" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alpha Particles ; Animals ; Ascites/*radiotherapy ; Astatine/*therapeutic use ; Cell Survival/radiation effects ; Chromium/therapeutic use ; *Chromium Compounds ; Colloids ; Female ; Mice ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Neoplasms, Experimental/*radiotherapy ; Ovarian Neoplasms ; Phosphates/therapeutic use ; Phosphorus Radioisotopes/therapeutic use ; Radioisotopes/*therapeutic use ; Tellurium/*therapeutic use ; Transplantation, Homologous
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 1981-02-13
    Description: Inosine, 2-deoxyinosine, and 2-deoxyguanosine completely reversed the increase in exploratory activity elicited in mice by diazepam. The inhibition of exploratory behavior by purines occurred at doses that when given alone have no effect on exploratory behavior. 7-Methylinosine, which does not bind to the brain benzodiazepine binding site in vitro, had no effect on the diazepam-induced increase in exploratory behavior. Behavioral effects produced by various combinations of inosine and diazepam indicate that the interaction between purine and benzodiazepine is antagonistic and support the hypothesis that the naturally occurring purines function in anxiety-related behaviors that respond to benzodiazepine treatment.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Crawley, J N -- Marangos, P J -- Paul, S M -- Skolnick, P -- Goodwin, F K -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Feb 13;211(4483):725-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6256859" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anxiety/*drug effects ; Behavior, Animal/drug effects ; Diazepam/*antagonists & inhibitors ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Humans ; Inosine/*pharmacology ; Male ; Mice ; Receptors, Drug/*drug effects ; Receptors, GABA-A
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  • 19
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-07-31
    Description: Oral administration of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol had a biphasic effect on plasma testosterone concentrations in male mice, causing rapid sustained increases at low doses and subsequent decreases at higher doses. In hypophysectomized and intact mice receiving gonadotropins (human chorionic gonadotropin), treatment with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol maintained higher plasma testosterone concentrations. Thus, this cannabinoid may interact with gonadotropin and directly influence testicular steroidogenesis in vivo.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dalterio, S -- Bartke, A -- Mayfield, D -- 1R01 DA 02/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- P 30 HD 10202/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Jul 31;213(4507):581-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6264607" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chorionic Gonadotropin/pharmacology ; Dronabinol/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacology ; Hypophysectomy ; Kinetics ; Luteinizing Hormone/*blood ; Male ; Mice ; Testosterone/*blood
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  • 20
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-01-23
    Description: Transcripts produced after injection of the Xenopus 5S RNA gene into oocyte germinal vesicles of mice migrate electrophoretically with the 5S RNA marker, an indication that the gene is transcribed and processed with considerable accuracy. Approximately two 5S RNA molecules are transcribed per gene per hour. This system may be useful in studying DNA processing and gene regulation by the mammalian ovum and might be modified to allow permanent incorporation of specific genes into mice.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brinster, R L -- Chen, H Y -- Trumbauer, M E -- HD 00239/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- HD 12384/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Jan 23;211(4480):396-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7194505" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Female ; *Genes ; Mice/*genetics ; Microinjections ; Molecular Weight ; Oocytes/*physiology ; Ovum/*physiology ; RNA, Ribosomal/*genetics ; *Transcription, Genetic ; Xenopus laevis/genetics
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 1981-09-04
    Description: Adult mice were administered the common parasite Toxocara canis or lead or both. The parasite clearly altered mouse performance on tests of exploration, activity, learning, and motor coordination; behavioral effects in mice receiving lead alone were less general. Consequence of Toxocara administration appeared attenuated in animals receiving both agents. Parasite larvae were found in the central nervous system in all infected mice.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dolinsky, Z S -- Burright, R G -- Donovick, P J -- Glickman, L T -- Babish, J -- Summers, B -- Cypess, R H -- 08-K4AI00301A-03/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- 08R1AI1478A-03/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- 5S07RR0749-04/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Sep 4;213(4512):1142-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7268424" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Ascariasis/*complications ; Behavior, Animal/*physiology ; Brain/parasitology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Lead Poisoning/*complications/physiopathology ; Male ; Mice ; Toxocariasis/*complications/physiopathology
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  • 22
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-06-12
    Description: In animals with hippocampal damage, the signaled administration of reward is sufficient to induce the sort of behavioral sterotypy and locomotion that heretofore has been observed only after drug administration. Haloperidol returns these behaviors to normal. The interaction of the hippocampus with reward helps to explain many well-known characteristics of animals with lesions in the hippocampus and may have relevance for catecholamine-based clinical disorders.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Devenport, L D -- Devenport, J A -- Holloway, F A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Jun 12;212(4500):1288-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7195073" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Dextroamphetamine/pharmacology ; Food Deprivation ; Hippocampus/drug effects/*physiology ; Humans ; Locomotion/drug effects ; Rats ; *Stereotyped Behavior/drug effects
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 1981-01-09
    Description: Adult rats fed high concentrations of dietary protein for 9 weeks gained more weight than rats fed isoenergetic diets containing less protein. There were no significant differences in tail and body lengths among several groups of rats on diets containing different amounts of protein; however, total body fat was significantly greater in the rats fed on diets containing 25 percent protein compared to the rats fed 5 percent protein diets. These findings suggest that the role of dietary protein in obesity and other conditions deserves further scrutiny.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Donald, P -- Pitts, C C -- Pohl, S L -- AM05955/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- AM22125/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Jan 9;211(4478):185-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7444462" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging ; Animals ; Animals, Laboratory ; *Body Composition ; *Body Weight ; Dietary Proteins/*metabolism ; Energy Intake ; Obesity/metabolism ; Rats
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 1981-05-22
    Description: Three syngeneic carcinomas from two species shed plasma membrane vesicles when cultured in vitro or grown in the ascites tumor form in vivo. Shed vesicles carry procoagulant activity that can account for the activation of the clotting system and the fibrin deposition associated with these and many other types of malignancy in animals and man.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dvorak, H F -- Quay, S C -- Orenstein, N S -- Dvorak, A M -- Hahn, P -- Bitzer, A M -- Carvalho, A C -- CA 28471/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA 28834/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- HL 23591-2/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 May 22;212(4497):923-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7195067" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Ascitic Fluid/metabolism ; *Blood Coagulation ; Blood Coagulation Factors/*metabolism ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Fibrin/metabolism ; Liver Neoplasms, Experimental/*physiopathology ; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/*physiopathology
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  • 25
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-05-08
    Description: Horseradish peroxidase injections into dorsomedial and dorsolateral regions of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) telencephalon demonstrate, by retrograde cell labeling, that the teleost telencephalon receives a pattern of projections from the thalamus remarkably similar to those of land vertebrates. The evidence provides support for a homology between the dorsomedial region and the corpus striatum of land vertebrates and a homology between two dorsolateral regions and the dorsal and medial pallium of land vertebrates.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Echteler, S M -- Saidel, W M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 May 8;212(4495):683-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6971493" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain Mapping ; Cyprinidae/*anatomy & histology ; Goldfish/*anatomy & histology ; Locus Coeruleus/anatomy & histology ; Medial Forebrain Bundle/anatomy & histology ; Neural Pathways/anatomy & histology ; Raphe Nuclei/anatomy & histology ; Telencephalon/*anatomy & histology ; Thalamus/anatomy & histology
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  • 26
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-08-28
    Description: Milk or viable milk cells collected from 24 dairy cattle naturally infected with bovine leukemia virus were inoculated into lambs, which were subsequently examined for the development of infection. With this bioassay, infectious virus was demonstrated in the milk of 17 of the cows. Bovine leukemia virus is leukemogenic in at least two mammalian species, is widespread in commercial dairy herds, and can infect a wide range of hosts in vivo and cells, including human cells, in vitro.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ferrer, J F -- Kenyon, S J -- Gupta, P -- 3PO1-CA-14193/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Aug 28;213(4511):1014-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6267692" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis ; Biological Assay ; Cattle ; *Leukemia Virus, Bovine/immunology ; Leukemia, Experimental/transmission ; Lymphocytes/microbiology ; Milk/cytology/*microbiology ; *Retroviridae/immunology ; Sheep
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  • 27
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-01-30
    Description: Malformations associated with the fetal hydantoin syndrome have been reproduced in a mouse model. The occurrence of these defects was correlated with maternal serum concentrations, but not with maternal or fetal genotype or the presence of a seizure disorder.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Finnell, R H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Jan 30;211(4481):483-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7455686" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Disease Models, Animal ; Epilepsy/drug therapy ; Female ; Mice ; Mice, Neurologic Mutants/physiology ; Phenytoin/*adverse effects ; *Teratogens
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 1981-08-28
    Description: Morphine has been found in cow and human milk at concentrations of 200 to 500 nanograms per liter. Multistep purification yields a material that has immunological, biological, pharmacological, and chemical properties identical to those of morphine. Similar morphine-like material, which has been tentatively identified in some common plant sources, may be a ubiquitous dietary constituent and a possible source for the material in milk. Since morphine (mu) receptors have a low affinity for enkephalins, and since morphine-like materials have been described in brain and intestine, it is possible that morphine in food may be the source of this material and a normal ligand specific for mu receptors.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hazum, E -- Sabatka, J J -- Chang, K J -- Brent, D A -- Findlay, J W -- Cuatrecasas, P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Aug 28;213(4511):1010-2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6267691" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cattle ; Diet ; Female ; Humans ; Ligands ; Milk/*analysis ; Milk, Human/analysis ; Morphine/*analysis/metabolism ; Receptors, Opioid/*metabolism
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  • 29
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-10-02
    Description: Natural killer cells are a recently discovered subpopulation of lymphoid cells that are present in most normal individuals of a range of mammalian and avian species. Natural killer cells have spontaneous cytolytic activity against a variety of tumor cells and some normal cells, and their reactivity can be rapidly augmented by interferon. They have characteristics distinct from other types of lymphoid cells and are closely associated with large granular lymphocytes, which comprise about 5 percent of blood or splenic leukocytes. There is increasing evidence that natural killer cells, with the ability to mediate natural resistance against tumors in vivo, certain virus and other microbial diseases, and bone marrow transplants, may play an important role in immune surveillance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Herberman, R B -- Ortaldo, J R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Oct 2;214(4516):24-30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7025208" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, Surface/analysis ; Communicable Diseases/*immunology ; Humans ; *Immunity, Cellular ; *Immunity, Innate ; Killer Cells, Natural/*immunology ; Macrophages/immunology ; Monocytes/immunology ; Neoplasms/*immunology ; Neutrophils/immunology ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 1981-05-22
    Description: Exposure to a short photoperiod improved the thermogenic capacity, and cold resistance of Djungarian hamsters and increased the respiratory power of their brown adipose tissue. Exposure to a long photoperiod caused a decrease in thermogenic measurements. This thermotropic action of the short photoperiod was detectable only during late summer and fall. A similar thermotropic response could be elicited by implanting hamsters with melatonin, indicating that the pineal may be involved in photoperiodic control of thermoregulatory effectors.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Heldmaier, G -- Steinlechner, S -- Rafael, J -- Vsiansky, P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 May 22;212(4497):917-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7233183" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue, Brown/*physiology ; Animals ; Body Temperature Regulation/*drug effects ; Cricetinae ; *Light ; Melatonin/*pharmacology ; Periodicity ; Pineal Gland/physiology ; Seasons
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  • 31
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-12-11
    Description: In stage 1 of this experiment pigeons were trained to discriminate between two levels of noise or two colors by pecking on one of two disks. In stage 2 the discriminative stimuli were not presented, but pecking on the disks was rewarded on a random schedule. The second procedure caused the pigeons to forget the discrimination they had learned.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Heinemann, E G -- Sage-Day, J -- Brenner, N -- MH 18246/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Dec 11;214(4526):1254-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7302595" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acoustic Stimulation ; Animals ; Columbidae ; *Discrimination (Psychology) ; Photic Stimulation ; Time Factors
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  • 32
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-05-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hochachka, P W -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 May 1;212(4494):509-14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7209545" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*physiology ; *Diving ; Energy Metabolism ; Glucose/metabolism ; Heart/*physiology ; Lactates/metabolism ; Lung/*physiology ; Oxygen/metabolism ; Pinnipedia/*physiology ; Seals, Earless/*physiology
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  • 33
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-10-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Holden, C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Oct 23;214(4519):418-20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7291982" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aged ; Animals ; *Animals, Domestic ; Humans ; Therapeutics
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 1981-11-27
    Description: Neurogenic factors released by antidromic nerve stimulation are thought to be in part responsible for the vasodilation and breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier that follows trauma to the eye. Substance P is one candidate for the mediation of the inflammatory response since it is thought to be a neurotransmitter in sensory afferents and since exogenous substance P is capable of eliciting a response characteristic of inflammation. In rabbits, intravitreal or topical application onto the eye of a specific substance P antagonist, [d-Pro2, D-Trp7,9]SP, inhibited not only the irritant effects of exogenous substance P but also the inflammatory response to a standardized trauma (infrared irradiation of the iris). These observations suggest that substance P, or a related peptide, is a neurogenic mediator of the inflammatory response in the eye.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Holmdahl, G -- Hakanson, R -- Leander, S -- Rosell, S -- Folkers, K -- Sundler, F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Nov 27;214(4524):1029-31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6171036" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Eye Diseases/*drug therapy ; Inflammation/*drug therapy ; Infrared Rays ; Pupil/drug effects/radiation effects ; Rabbits ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; Substance P/*analogs & derivatives/*antagonists & inhibitors/therapeutic use
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  • 35
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-04-03
    Description: An electric fish in the African family Mormyridae recognizes members of its own species by "listening" to electric organ discharges, which are species-specific signatures. Reactions of fish in the field and of individual electroreceptors to both normal and modified computer-synthesized discharges emphasize the importance of the waveform (time-domain cues) in species recognition.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hopkins, C D -- Bass, A H -- MH26140/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- NS06309/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Apr 3;212(4490):85-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7209524" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Animal Communication ; Animals ; Electric Organ/*physiology ; Female ; Fishes/*physiology ; Male ; Sex Factors ; Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology ; Species Specificity ; Time Factors
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  • 36
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-08-21
    Description: When bound to cell surfaces, certain lectins such as concanavalin A induce a drop in the average diffusion coefficients (D) of a number of cell surface molecules. To find whether such anchorage modulation occurs naturally, D of surface antigens on different cell and tissue types were measured by fluorescence photobleaching recovery. Values for cells of the same tissue origin under different conditions of growth and association - in tissues, in small aggregates, and as isolated cells - varied by less than twofold when polyspecific monovalent antibodies to cell surface antigens were used, a range much less than the sixfold decrease in D observed after lectin-induced anchorage modulation. Thus, if reversible modulation of the diffusion rate is used naturally as a means of cell signaling, it must involve only a few kinds of surface receptors not detected by the antibodies used in this study. In certain tissues, however, a significant proportion of cells showed no apparent receptor mobility. This "all or none" modulation of lateral diffusion may reflect relatively long-lasting alterations in the states of a single cell type or differentiation among the cells of the particular tissue.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gall, W E -- Edelman, G M -- AI-09273/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI-11378/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AM-04256/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Aug 21;213(4510):903-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7196087" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, Surface/physiology ; Cell Adhesion ; Cell Division ; Cells, Cultured ; Chick Embryo ; Cytoskeleton/physiology ; Diffusion ; *Membrane Fluidity ; Mice
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  • 37
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-08-21
    Description: Injection of DDT [1, 1, 1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] into gull eggs at concentrations comparable to those found in contaminated seabird eggs in 1970 induces abnormal development of ovarian tissue and oviducts in male embryos. Developmental feminization of males is associated with inability to breed as adults and may explain the highly skewed sex ratio and reduced number of male gulls breeding on Santa Barbara Island in southern California.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fry, D M -- Toone, C K -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Aug 21;213(4510):922-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7256288" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome/chemically induced/*veterinary ; Animals ; Bird Diseases/chemically induced ; Birds/*physiology ; DDT/*pharmacology ; Environmental Exposure ; Male ; Reproduction/*drug effects ; *Sex Ratio
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  • 38
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-10-23
    Description: Voltage clamp studies of macrophages from cultures of mouse spleen macrophages produced N-shaped steady-state current-voltage curves containing a region of negative slope resistance. Some macrophages exhibit two stable states of membrane potential, having current-voltage relationships that cross the voltage axis at three points. Outward currents that turn on at voltages of +15 millivolts or greater were noted in several cells. The addition of barium chloride to the bathing medium abolished the negative slope resistance and reduced the inward currents in response to hyperpolarizing voltage steps. These data provide direct evidence that macrophages exhibit at least tow different voltage-dependent conductances and demonstrate that voltage clamp techniques can be useful in studying the membrane properties of leukocytes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gallin, E K -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Oct 23;214(4519):458-60.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7291986" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Barium/pharmacology ; Cell Membrane/physiology ; Cells, Cultured ; Electric Conductivity ; Macrophages/*physiology ; Membrane Potentials ; Mice ; Spleen/cytology
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  • 39
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-11-13
    Description: Circulating metallothionein was measured by radioimmunoassay over a 13-day period in male Sprague-Dawley rats that received a sequence of three intraperitoneal injections (at 3-day intervals) of either 5 milligrams of zinc or 0.8 milligrams of cadmium per kilogram of body weight. These amounts of zinc and cadmium produced metallothionein concentrations in the range of 2 to 5 nanograms per milliliter of serum (zinc) and 2 to 15 nanograms per milliliter of serum (cadmium). In control rats given saline injections over the same period the metallothionein concentration ranged from 1 to 3 nanograms per milliliter of serum.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Garvey, J S -- Chang, C C -- ES 01629/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Nov 13;214(4522):805-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7292012" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cadmium/*pharmacology ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Male ; Metalloproteins/*blood ; Metallothionein/*blood/immunology ; Radioimmunoassay ; Rats ; Rats, Inbred Strains ; Zinc/*pharmacology
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  • 40
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-11-06
    Description: Serums and extracts of tissues from the female garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) each act as a pheromone and elicit male courtship behavior when applied to the back of another male. Since pheromonal activity is present in yolk and liver tissue of untreated females and can be induced with estrogen treatment in the serums and livers of males, the pheromone may be associated with the circulating yolk lipoprotein, vitellogenin.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Garstka, W R -- Crews, D -- 1 KOZ MH 00135/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- HD 12709/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Nov 6;214(4521):681-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7292007" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Female ; Lipids/physiology ; Liver/physiology ; Male ; Pheromones/*metabolism ; Sex Attractants/blood/*metabolism ; Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology ; Skin/metabolism ; Snakes/*physiology ; Vitellogenins/physiology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 1981-09-04
    Description: Pineal glands in organ culture synthesize and release biopterin and are able to maintain concentrations of biopterin occurring in vivo for up to 54 hours in vitro. The intracellular biopterin content is reduced 50 percent by treatment with l-norepinephrine or cyclic adenosine monophosphate derivatives, but not by d-norepinephrine. This is an indication that biopterin levels are regulated by an adrenergic cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent mechanism. The decline in tissue biopterin content, produced mainly by inhibited of biosynthesis, is maximal at 6 hours and is not associated with either an increase in biopterin release or a shift in the reduction state of the biopterin.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kapatos, G -- Kaufman, S -- Weller, J L -- Klein, D C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Sep 4;213(4512):1129-31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6168019" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine/pharmacology ; Animals ; Biopterin/*biosynthesis ; Bucladesine/*pharmacology ; Guanosine Triphosphate/metabolism ; Norepinephrine/*pharmacology ; Organ Culture Techniques ; Pineal Gland/*metabolism ; Pteridines/*biosynthesis ; Rats
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 42
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-04-03
    Description: Polypeptide receptors on mammalian plasma membranes can be categorized on the basis of function. The binding of ligand by class I receptors results in changes in cell metabolism or behavior. Hormone-receptor interactions typify this group. The binding of ligand by class II receptors in ligand internalization. Although changes in cellular activity may result from metabolism of the internalized ligand, the interaction between ligand and class II receptor does not itself lead to alterations in cell behavior. Class II receptors include those for low-density lipoproteins and for alpha-macroglobulin-protease complexes. Although receptors within each category are chemically disparate, they show striking similarities in behavior. Analysis of the behavioral patterns of receptors in each category reveals insights into receptor physiology and allows for a prospective analysis of receptor characteristics.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kaplan, J -- HL 00598/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL 21120/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL 23376/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Apr 3;212(4490):14-20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6259730" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biological Transport, Active ; Cations, Divalent/metabolism ; Humans ; Ligands ; Membrane Proteins/*classification/metabolism/physiology ; Protein Binding ; Receptors, Cell Surface/classification/metabolism/physiology ; Receptors, Immunologic/classification/metabolism/physiology ; Receptors, LDL
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  • 43
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-05-22
    Description: The content of tetrahydrobiopterin in rat brain was doubled by peripherally administered tetrahydrobiopterin, with the natural 1 diastereoisomer more effective than the unnatural d configuration. The model pteridine, 6-methyltetrahydropterin was ten times more efficient than tetrahydrobiopterin in crossing the blood-brain barrier, and striatal concentrations of 6-methyltetrahydropterin remained elevated for 2 hours, declining with a half-life of 3 hours. While no evidence for a specific uptake mechanism for concentrating 6-methyltetrahydropterin in cells containing tetrahydrobiopterin was detected, the pterin was found in ts presumed site of action, the nerve terminal. Replacement therapy with reduced pterins may therefore be effective in the treatment of the neurological disorders associated with the variant forms of hyperphenylalaninemia that result from defects in the biosynthesis or metabolism of tetrahydrobiopterin within the central nervous system.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kapatos, G -- Kaufman, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 May 22;212(4497):955-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7233193" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biopterin/analogs & derivatives/*metabolism ; Blood-Brain Barrier ; Brain/*metabolism ; Male ; Pteridines/*metabolism ; Pterins/*metabolism ; Rats ; Stereoisomerism ; Structure-Activity Relationship
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  • 44
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-11-13
    Description: Long-term implants releasing a small quantity of melatonin (45 nanograms per day) were used to determine the brain sites of the hormone's antigonadal action in a photoperiodic species, the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). Implants in the medial preoptic and supra- and retrochiasmatic areas elicited completed gonadal regression after 7 weeks. Implants in other brain regions had little effect on the animals' reproductive state.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Glass, J D -- Lynch, G R -- NS-15503/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Nov 13;214(4522):821-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7292016" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Female ; Genitalia, Female/drug effects/*pathology ; Hypothalamus/*drug effects ; Light ; Melatonin/*pharmacology ; Mice ; Periodicity ; Preoptic Area/drug effects ; Supraoptic Nucleus/drug effects
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  • 45
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-10-23
    Description: Diabetic patients with increased plasma glucose concentrations may develop cerebral symptoms of hypoglycemia when their plasma glucose is rapidly lowered to normal concentrations. The symptoms may indicate insufficient transport of glucose from blood to brain. In rats with chronic hyperglycemia the maximum glucose transport capacity of the blood-brain barrier decreased from 400 to 290 micromoles per 100 grams per minute. When plasma glucose was lowered to normal values, the glucose transport rate into brain was 20 percent below normal. This suggests that repressive changes of the glucose transport mechanism occur in brain endothelial cells in response to increased plasma glucose.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gjedde, A -- Crone, C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Oct 23;214(4519):456-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7027439" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biological Transport ; *Blood-Brain Barrier ; Brain/blood supply ; Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism ; Glucose/*metabolism ; Hyperglycemia/*metabolism ; Insulin/physiology ; Kinetics ; Rats ; Regional Blood Flow
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 1981-09-04
    Description: The weight of interscapular brown fat in the rat and its rate of respiration increased in response to a single meal. These data suggest that brown adipose tissue plays a role in the thermic effect of meals and that diet-induced thermogenesis may reflect the summation of the thermic effects of single meals during prolonged overeating.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Glick, Z -- Teague, R J -- Bray, G A -- 1 RO1 AM 27019/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Sep 4;213(4512):1125-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7268419" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue, Brown/anatomy & histology/*metabolism ; Animals ; *Body Temperature Regulation ; Dietary Carbohydrates/*metabolism ; Dietary Proteins/metabolism ; Female ; Liver/metabolism ; Organ Size ; *Oxygen Consumption ; Rats
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 47
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-10-02
    Description: The ability of vertebrae skeletal muscle to contract more vigorously than normal in the presence of potentiating agents depends on the initial length of a muscle cell. Other factors such as the intracellular calcium ion transient, temperature, chemical nature of the potentiating agent, and the ratio of intrinsic twitch to tetanic force influence the degree of contractile potentiation but cannot account for the length dependence. At least part of a muscle cell seems normally less than fully active during contractions not only at short lengths but also at optimal sarcomere lengths.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lopez, J R -- Wanek, L A -- Taylor, S R -- NS 14268/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Oct 2;214(4516):79-82.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6974399" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aequorin ; Animals ; Calcium/*physiology ; In Vitro Techniques ; *Muscle Contraction/drug effects ; Muscles/*physiology/ultrastructure ; Rana temporaria ; Temperature ; Zinc/pharmacology
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 1981-06-05
    Description: Two divalent cation ionophores, A23187 and Ionomycin, which are selective for calcium, stimulated the resorption of fetal rat long bones in organ culture at 0.1 to 1 micromolar but not at higher concentrations. Both agents inhibited DNA synthesis at concentrations that stimulated resorption. These results might explain the differences in ionophore effects on bone previously reported, and they imply that cell replication is not required for osteoclast formation in fetal rat long bone cultures.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lorenzo, J A -- Raisz, L G -- AM 07290/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- AM 18063/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Jun 5;212(4499):1157-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6785885" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology ; Bone Resorption/*drug effects ; Bone and Bones/drug effects/*metabolism ; Calcimycin/*pharmacology ; Calcium/metabolism ; Calcium Radioisotopes ; Cells, Cultured ; DNA/*biosynthesis ; DNA Replication/*drug effects ; Ethers/pharmacology ; Fetus ; Ionomycin ; Ionophores/pharmacology ; Kinetics ; Mice ; Parathyroid Hormone/pharmacology
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  • 49
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-11-27
    Description: The binding of [3H]spiperone, a dopamine receptor ligand, to striatal membranes was increased 30 to 35 percent in rats made diabetic with alloxan or streptozotocin. Binding of [3H]spiperone was normal in rats made diabetic with alloxan but treated with insulin. Thus the number of dopamine receptors and central dopaminergic transmission may be altered in diabetes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lozovsky, D -- Saller, C F -- Kopin, I J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Nov 27;214(4524):1031-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6458088" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉