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  • Animals  (491)
  • AERODYNAMICS  (366)
  • 1980-1984  (857)
  • 1925-1929
  • 1981  (857)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The impulsive nature of noise due to the interaction of a rotor blade with a tip vortex is studied. The time signature of this noise is calculated theoretically based on the measured blade surface pressure fluctuation of an operational load survey rotor in slow descending flight and is compared with the simultaneous microphone measurement. Particularly, the physical understanding of the characteristic features of a waveform is extensively studied in order to understand the generating mechanism and to identify the important parameters. The interaction trajectory of a tip vortex on an acoustic planform is shown to be a very important parameter for the impulsive shape of the noise. The unsteady nature of the pressure distribution at the very leading edge is also important to the pulse shape. The theoretical model using noncompact linear acoustics predicts the general shape of interaction impulse pretty well except for peak amplitude which requires more continuous pressure information along the span at the leading edge.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: DGLR Seventh European Rotorcraft and Powered Lift Aircraft Forum; 20 p
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An improvement is presented for the 2-D strategies for adjustment of the flexible top and bottom walls of an Adaptive (Wind Tunnel) Wall Test Section (AWTS). This adjustment is part of the wall adaptation process to eliminate top and bottom wall interference at the source. The improvements to account for second order effects are described in mathematical detail. It is intended that these improvements should further minimize the necessary iterations in the wall adaptation process. An associated computer program written in BASIC is presented and several test cases run with this program are discussed. The strategy performs well for a theoretical test case but when applied to experimental AWTS data some discrepancies in the adapted wall shapes are found.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:181662 , NASA-CR-181662
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A high aspect ratio supercritical wing with oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing model was instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic pressure gases for studying the effects of control surface position and sinusoidal motion on steady and unsteady pressures. Data from the present test (this is the second in a series of tests on this model) were obtained in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.78 and are presented in tabular form.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83201 , L-14831 , NAS 1.15:83201
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation was conducted in the Langley 6- by 28-Inch Transonic Tunnel to determine the two dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of a 10-percent-thick helicopter rotor airfoil at Mach numbers from 0.33 to 0.87 and respective Reynolds numbers from 4.9 x 10 to the 6th to 9.8 x 10 to the 6th. This airfoil, designated the RC-10(N)-1, was also investigated at Reynolds numbers from 3.0 x 10 to the 6th to 7.3 x 10 to the 6th at respective Mach numbers of 0.33 to 0.83 for comparison wit the SC 1095 (with tab) airfoil. The RC-10(N)-1 airfoil was designed by the use of a viscous transonic analysis code. The results of the investigation indicate that the RC-10(N)-1 airfoil met all the design goals. At a Reynolds number of about 9.4 x 10 to the 6th the drag divergence Mach number at zero normal-force coefficient was 0.815 with a corresponding pitching-moment coefficient of zero. The drag divergence Mach number at a normal-force coefficient of 0.9 and a Reynolds number of about 8.0 x 10 to the 6th was 0.61. The drag divergence Mach number of this new airfoil was higher than that of the SC 1095 airfoil at normal-force coefficients above 0.3. Measurements in the same wind tunnel at comparable Reynolds numbers indicated that the maximum normal-force coefficient of the RC-10(N)-1 airfoil was higher than that of the NACA 0012 airfoil for Mach numbers above about 0.35 and was about the same as that of the SC 1095 airfoil for Mach numbers up to 0.5.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.60:1864 , L-14182 , AVRADCOM-TR-81-B-3 , NASA-TP-1864
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Panel aerodynamics (PAN AIR) is a system of computer programs designed to analyze subsonic and supersonic inviscid flows about arbitrary configurations. A panel method is a program which solves a linear partial differential equation by approximating the configuration surface by a set of panels. An overview of the theory of potential flow in general and PAN AIR in particular is given along with detailed mathematical formulations. Fluid dynamics, the Navier-Stokes equation, and the theory of panel methods were also discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3251 , NAS 1.26:3251
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An airfoil designed for helicopter rotor application is investigated. The airfoil is designed to increase maximum normal force coefficient while maintaining favorable drag divergence and pitching moment characteristics. Two modifications are also tested. Maximum normal force coefficient varies from 1.14 to 0.90 at Mach numbers from about 0.35 to 0.65. Both modifications decreased drag coefficient at zero normal force coefficient for Mach numbers near drag divergence, but were less beneficial at a normal force coefficient of -0.2.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AVRADCOM-TR-81-B-6 , NAS 1.60:1965 , L-14825 , NASA-TP-1965
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A task for the Energy Efficient Transport program conducted: (1) The design and wind tunnel development of high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings, investigating the cruise speed regime and also high-lift. (2) The preliminary design and evaluation of an aircraft combining a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing with a winglet. (3) Active Controls: The determination of criteria, configuration, and flying qualities associated with augmented longitudinal stability of a level likely to be acceptable for the next generation transport; and the design of a practical augmentation system. The baseline against which the work was performed and evaluated was the Douglas DC-X-200 twin engine derivative of the DC-10 transport. The supercritical wing development showed that the cruise and buffet requirements could be achieved and that the wing could be designed to realize a sizable advantage over today's technology. Important advances in high lift performance were shown. The design study of an aircraft with supercritical wing and winglet suggested advantages in weight and fuel economy could be realized. The study of augmented stability, conducted with the aid of a motion base simulator, concluded that a negative static margin was acceptable for the baseline unaugmented aircraft.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3469 , NAS 1.26:3469
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The theoretical basis and computational feasibility of the Van Holten method, and its performance and range of validity by comparison with experiment and other approximate methods was examined. It is found that within the restrictions of incompressible, potential flow and the assumption of small disturbances, the method does lead to a valid description of the flow. However, the method begins to break down under conditions favoring nonlinear effects such as wake distortion and blade/rotor interaction.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:165742 , NASA-CR-165742
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An implicit delta form finite difference algorithm for Euler equations in conservation law form was used in preliminary calculations of three dimensional wing vortex interaction. Both steady and unsteady transonic flow wing vortex interactions are computed. The computations themselves are meant to guide upcoming wind tunnel experiments of the same flow field. Various modifications to the numerical method that are intended to improve computational efficiency are also described and tested in both two and three dimensions. Combination of these methods can reduce the overall computational time by a factor of 4.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:166251 , NASA-CR-166251
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Experiments with a truncated and untruncated airfoils of profiles NACA 640A10, were carried out in subsonic wind tunnels in a velocity range of 19m/s to 54m/s corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 200,000 to 468,000 based on the chord. Airfoil spanned the test section to achieve two dimensionality of the model. Velocity measurements, pressure measurements, and vortex shedding in the wake were measured using a hotwire and pressure transducers. The measured chordwise static pressure distribution on the smooth trailing edge airfoil along the midspan plane, agreed with the theoretical results calculated on the basis of the potential flow for that airfoil. Boundary layer profiles measured in the midspan plane, behind the maximum thickness of the airfoil show no separation of the flow. Spanwise distribution of the measured static pressure on the upper surface of the airfoil shows uniformity for both configurations with and without the boundary layer trip. This uniformity of pressure distribution and separation indicates that the flow on the airfoil was uniform and two dimensional in character.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-168563 , SU-JIAA-TR-39
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Computer data are provided for tests conducted on a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blades along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-165457-VOL-2-PT-2
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The drag reduction potential of leading edge devices on a 60 degree delta wing at high lift was examined. Geometric variations of fences, chordwise slots, pylon type vortex generators, leading edge vortex flaps, and sharp leading edge extensions were tested individually and in specific combinations to improve high-alpha drag performance with a minimum of low-alpha drag penalty. The force, moment, and surface static pressure data for angles of attack up to 23 degrees, at Mach and Reynolds numbers of 0.16 and 3.85 x 10 to the 6th power per meter are documented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-165806
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Pressure data at 90 percent blade radius were obtained for a helicopter main rotor with 10-64C blade sections during flight. Concurrent measurements ere made of vehicle flight state, performance and some rotor loads. The test envelope included hover, level flight from about 65 to 162 knots, climb and descent, and collective fixed maneuvers. Good agreement is shown between some sets of airfoil pressure distributions obtained in flight and those from two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests or theoretical calculations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83226
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Pressure distributions and shock shapes on a spherically blunted, 12.84 deg /7 deg on axis biconic and a spherically blunted, 12.84 deg/7 deg bent nose biconic at Mach 6 in air were measured. The angle of attack, referenced to the axis of aft cone, was varied from 0 deg to 25 deg in nominal 5 deg increments. Two values of free stream Reynolds number based on model length were tested. Predictions from simple, theories and from a supersonic, three dimensional, external invsicid code (STEIN) are compared with measured values. Predicted STEIN shock shapes and windward pressures are in agreement with measured values for both biconics over the present range of angle of attack.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-14896 , NASA-TM-83222
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Calculations show improved stator performance when the tip end wall was contoured so that the inlet area was greater than the exit area. Comparisons are made with previously published experimental data. The results of a parametric analysis of the effect contour geometry on the efficiency of a highly loaded axial stator are given. The maximum stator efficiency gain is about 0.8 percentage point, and this represents a 22 percent reduction in stator losses. The degree to which endwall contouring reduces the forces driving secondary flows was also examined. The driving forces for both cross channel and radial secondary flow were reduced.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: E-719 , NASA-TP-1943
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  • 16
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    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The differences in flow behavior two dimensional airfoils in the critical chordlength Reynolds number compared with lower and higher Reynolds number are discussed. The large laminar separation bubble is discussed in view of its important influence on critical Reynolds number airfoil behavior. The shortcomings of application of theoretical boundary layer computations which are successful at higher Reynolds numbers to the critical regime are discussed. The large variation in experimental aerodynamic characteristic measurement due to small changes in ambient turbulence, vibration, and sound level is illustrated. The difficulties in obtaining accurate detailed measurements in free flight and dramatic performance improvements at critical Reynolds number, achieved with various types of boundary layer tripping devices are discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-165803-VOL-1
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Turbulence reduction research using screens, honeycomb, and combinations thereof was conducted in a half-scale model of a portion of the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel. It was found that screens alone reduce axial turbulence more than lateral turbulence; whereas, honeycomb alone reduces laterial turbulence more than axial turbulence. Because of this difference, the physical mechanism for decreasing turbulence for screens and honeycomb must be completely different. It is concluded that honeycomb with a downstream screen is an excellent combination for reducing turbulences.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1958 , L-14628
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A wind-tunnel missile model with either a lower vertical tail fin with a pair of horizontal fins having 0 deg, 22.5 deg, or 30 deg dihedral or an upper vertical tail fin with horizontal fins having 0 deg, -22.5 deg, or -30 deg dihedral was investigated. The results indicated that those configurations with horizontal fins at or below the horizontal plane had nearly linear pitching-moment characteristics, while those with the horizontal fins above the horizontal plane experienced pitch-up which increased with increasing horizontal-fin-dihedral angle. At zero angle of attack, the configurations were directionally stable at most test Mach numbers. Generally, those configurations with the upper vertical fin had positive effective dihedral at zero angle of attack, while those with he lower vertical fin had negative effective dihedral. For roll control, three deflected tail fins produced more total roll control than two horizontal fins. For yaw control, three tail fins deflected equally or differentially produced more total yaw control than the single vertical fin.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83223 , L-14724
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A full-scale XH-59A advancing blade concept helicopter was tested in Ames Research Center's 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel. The helicopter was tested with the rotor on and off, rotor hub fairings on and off, interrotor shaft fairing on and off, rotor instrumentation module on and off, and auxiliary propulsion thrust on and off. An advance ratio range of 0.25 and 0.45 with the rotor on and from 60 to 180 knots with the rotor off was investigated. Data on aerodynamic forces and moments, rotor loads, rotor control positions and vibration for the XH-59A as well as the aerodynamic performance of the isolated rotor are presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: USAAVRADCOM-TR-81-A-27 , A-8732 , NASA-TM-81329
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The two test sections of the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel were calibrated over the operating Mach number range from 1.47 to 4.63. The results of the calibration are presented along with a a description of the facility and its operational capability. The calibrations include Mach number and flow angularity distributions in both test sections at selected Mach numbers and tunnel stagnation pressures. Calibration data are also presented on turbulence, test-section boundary layer characteristics, moisture effects, blockage, and stagnation-temperature distributions. The facility is described in detail including dimensions and capacities where appropriate, and example of special test capabilities are presented. The operating parameters are fully defined and the power consumption characteristics are discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-14024 , NASA-TP-1905
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  • 21
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Transonic flow through a cascade was studied by using the full potential equation and the finite volume method of Jameson and Caughey. The C-type computational grid is generated by an electrostatic analogy and simple shearing transformation. The solution algorithm includes an option of using either an artificial density or an artificial viscosity formulation of the dissipative term. Using the developed code, flows through a cascade of NACA 0012 airfoils and flows through a cascade of shockless blades were computed. It is found that the designed flow through the shockless blade is accurately predicted, the artificial density formulation shows more tolerance to the mesh irregularity, and the C-type mesh does not extend very far upstream for a small pitch-cord ratio.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: FRR-182 , NASA-CR-165471
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Wind-tunnel tests were conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to evaluate the effects on performance of modifying a 17-percent-thick low-speed airfoil. The airfoil contour was altered to reduce the pitching-moment coefficient by increasing the forward loading and to increase the climb lift-drag ratio by decreasing the aft upper surface pressure gradient. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.07 to 0.32, a chord Reynolds number range 1.0 x 10 to the 6th power to 12.0 x 10 to the 6th power, and an angle-of-attack range from about -10 deg to 20 deg.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-14666 , NASA-TP-1919
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.90, at angles of attack up to 45 deg for the lower Mach numbers, and at angles of sideslip up to 15 deg. The model variations under study included adding a canard surface and deflecting horizontal tails, ailerons, and rudders.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83171 , L-14433
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An inviscid analytical study was conducted to determine the upstream flow perturbations caused by placing choke bumps in a wind tunnel. A computer program based on the stream-tube curvature method was used to calculate the resulting flow fields for a nominal free-stream Mach number range of 0.6 to 0.9. The choke bump geometry was also varied to investigate the effect of bump shape on the disturbance produced. Results from the study indicate that a region of significant variation from the free-stream conditions exists upstream of the throat of the tunnel. The extent of the disturbance region was, as a rule, dependent on Mach number and the geometry of the choke bump. In general, the upstream disturbance distance decreased for increasing nominal free-stream Mach number and for decreasing length-to-height ratio of the bump. A polynomial-curve choke bump usually produced less of a disturbance than did a circular-arc bump and going to an axisymmetric configuration (modeling choke bumps on all the tunnel walls) generally resulted in a lower disturbance than with the corresponding two dimensional case.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1892 , L-14415
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The performance of a conventional engine/inlet installation, in which inlet and engine flow field interaction occurs, was compared to the performance of the same inlet remote coupled to the engine. The remote coupled inlet configuration decouples the influence of the engine on the inlet flow field and simulates current small scale inlet test techniques in which inlet airflow is provided by a vacuum source or coupled engine. The investigation was conducted in the NASA-Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel using a General Electric TF-34 turbofan engine and a subsonic inlet having an average inlet contraction ratio of 1.26. Test results indicated that engine interaction allows the inlet to operate with lower distortion levels at and beyond the separation angle-of-attack experienced without engine interaction.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: D6-49228 , NASA-CR-166136
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data from wind tunnel tests of a powered propeller and nacelle mounted on a supercritical wing are analyzed. Installation of the nacelle significantly affected the wing flow and the flow on the upper surface of the wing is separated near the leading edge under powered conditions. Comparisons of various theories with the data indicated that the Neumann surface panel solution and the Jameson transonic solution gave results adequate for design purposes. A modified wing design was developed (Mod 3) which reduces the wing upper surface pressure coefficients and section lift coefficients at powered conditions to levels below those of the original wing without nacelle or power. A contoured over the wing nacelle that can be installed on the original wing without any appreciable interference to the wing upper surface pressure is described.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-166214 , ACEE-25-FR-1564
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The AEROX aerodynamic computer program which provides accurate predictions of induced drag and trim drag for the full angle of attack range and for Mach numbers from 0.4 to 3.0 is described. This capability is demonstrated comparing flight test data and AEROX predictions for 17 different tactical aircraft. Values of minimum (skin friction, pressure, and zero lift wave) drag coefficients and lift coefficient offset due to camber (when required) were input from the flight test data to produce total lift and drag curves. The comparisons of trimmed lift drag polars show excellent agreement between the AEROX predictions and the in flight measurements.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-81237 , A-8344
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A numerical procedure for the iterative solution of inviscid flow problems is described, and its utility for the calculation of steady subsonic and transonic flow fields is demonstrated. Application of the surrogate equation technique defined herein allows the formulation of stable, fully conservative, type dependent finite difference equations for use in obtaining numerical solutions to systems of first order partial differential equations, such as the steady state Euler equations. Steady, two dimensional solutions to the Euler equations for both subsonic, rotational flow and supersonic flow and to the small disturbance equations for transonic flow are presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1866 , E-583
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A fast algorithm was developed for accurately generating boundary-conforming, three-dimensional, consecutively refined computational grids applicable to arbitrary wing-body and axial turbomachinery geometries. The method is based on using an analytic function to generate two-dimensional grids on a number of coaxial axisymmetric surfaces positioned between the centerbody and the outer radial boundary. These grids are of the O-type and are characterized by quasi-orthogonality, geometric periodicity, and an adequate resolution throughout the flow field. Because the built-in nonorthogonal coordinate stretching and shearing cause the grid lines leaving the blade or wing trailing edge to end at downstream infinity, the numerical treatment of the three-dimensional trailing vortex sheets is simplified.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: E-590 , NASA-TP-1920
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A supersonic triplet singularity was developed which eliminates internal waves generated by panels having supersonic edges. The triplet is a linear combination of source and vortex distributions which gives directional properties to the perturbation flow field surrounding the panel. The theoretical development of the triplet singularity is described together with its application to the calculation of surface pressures on wings and bodies. Examples are presented comparing the results of the new method with other supersonic methods and with experimental data.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3466 , AMI-8104
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Buffet tests of two wings with different leading-edge sweep show that it is feasible to use the standards wing root bending moment technique in a cryogenic wing tunnel. The results for the 65 deg sweep delta wing indicate the importance of matching the reduced frequency parameter in model tests for planforms which are sensitive to reduced frequency parameter if quantitative buffet measurements are required. The unique ability of a pressurized cryogenic wind tunnel to separate the effects of Reynolds number and of aeroelastic distortion by variations in the tunnel stagnation temperature and pressure was demonstrated.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-81923
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The development of a potential-flow/boundary-layer method for calculating subsonic and transonic turbulent flow past airfoils with trailing-edge separation is reported. A moment-of-momentum integral boundary-layer method is used which employs the law-of-the-wall/law-of-the-wake velocity profile and a two-layer eddy-viscosity model and ignores the laminar sublayer. All integrals across the boundary layer are obtained in closed form. Separation is assumed to occur when the shearing-stress velocity vanishes. A closed-form solution is derived for separated-flow regions where the shearing stress is negligible. In the potential-flow method, the exact form of the airfoil boundary condition is used, but it is applied at the chord line rather than the airfoil surface. This allows the accurate computation of flow about airfoils at large angles of attack but permits the use of body-oriented Cartesian computational grids. The governing equation for the perturbation velocity potential contains several terms in addition to the classical small-disturbance terms.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-14255 , NASA-TM-81850
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: One-fifth-scale models of three basic ultralight glider designs were constructed to simulate the elastic properties of full scale gliders and were tested at Reynolds numbers close to full scale values. Twenty-four minor modifications were made to the basic configurations in order to evaluate the effects of twist, reflex, dihedral, and various stability enhancement devices. Longitudinal and lateral data were obtained at several speeds through an angle of attack range of -30 deg to +45 deg with sideslip angles of up to 20 deg. The importance of vertical center of gravity displacement is discussed. Lateral data indicate that effective dihedral is lost at low angles of attack for nearly all of the configurations tested. Drag data suggest that lift-dependent viscous drag is a large part of the glider's total drag as is expected for thin, cambered sections at these relatively low Reynolds numbers.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-81269
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the influence of several physical variables on the aerodynamic drag of a standard truck model. The physical variables included: a cab mounted air deflector; a boattail on the rear of the cargo compartment; flow-vanes on the front of the cargo compartment; and a forebody fairing over the cab. Tests were conducted at yaw angles (relative wind angle) of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 degrees and Reynolds numbers of 3.4 x 100,000 to 6.1 x 100,000 based upon the equivalent diameter of the vehicles. The forebody fairing and the flow-vane with the closed bottom were very effective in improving the flow over the forward part of the cargo compartment. The forebody fairing provided a calculated fuel saving of 5.6 liters per hour (1.5 gallons per hour) over the baseline configuration for a ground speed of 88.6 km/hr (55 mph) in national average winds.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: KU-FRL-406-2 , NASA-CR-163107
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Full-scale measurements of shaft thrust and torque were made. Wind-tunnel speeds and blade angles were set for full-scale flight conditions. Excellent quality measurements were obtained of the thrust coefficient, the power coefficient, and the propeller efficiency for various values of the advance ratio and the blade incidence angle at 3/4-blade radius. A conventional propeller theory found in the literature was applied to the present results. Although thrust, power, and efficiency were somewhat overpredicted, the advance ratio for maximum efficiency was predicted quite accurately. It was found that, for some conditions, spinner drag could be significant. A simple correction that was based on the spinner base pressure substantially accounted for the changes in efficiency that resulted from this cause.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: A-8478 , NASA-TM-81285
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Based on the hypothesis that patterns of skin-friction lines and external streamlines reflect the properties of continuous vector fields, topology rules define a small number of singular points (nodes, saddle points, and foci) that characterize the patterns on the surface and on particular projections of the flow (e.g., the crossflow plane). The restricted number of singular points and the rules that they obey are considered as an organizing principle whose finite number of elements can be combined in various ways to connect together the properties common to all steady three dimensional viscous flows. Introduction of a distinction between local and global properties of the flow resolves an ambiguity in the proper definition of a three dimensional separated flow. Adoption of the notions of topological structure, structural stability, and bifurcation provides a framework to describe how three dimensional separated flows originate and succeed each other as the relevant parameters of the problem are varied.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: A-8554 , NASA-TM-81294
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data are presented for lift coefficients from near zero through maximum values at Mach numbers from 0.30 to 0.86 and Reynolds numbers of 3.0 x 10 to the sixth power with transition fixed. A limited amount of data is presented near zero and maximum lift for a Reynolds number of 6.0 x 10 to the sixth power with transition fixed. In addition, transition free data is presented through the Mach number range from 0.30 to 0.86 for near zero lift and a Reynolds number of 3.0 x 10 to the sixth power.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-81927
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A low frequency unsteady lifting-line theory is developed for a harmonically oscillating wing of large aspect ratio. The wing is assumed to be chordwise rigid but completely flexible in the span direction. The theory is developed by use of the method of matched asymptotic expansions which reduces the problem from a singular integral equation to quadrature. The wing displacements are prescribed and the pressure field, airloads, and unsteady induced downwash are obtained in closed form. The influence of reduced frequency, aspect ratio, planform shape, and mode of oscillation on wing aerodynamics is demonstrated through numerical examples. Compared with lifting-surface theory, computation time is reduced significantly. Using the present theory, the energetic quantities associated with the propulsive performance of a finite wing oscillating in combined pitch and heave are obtained in closed form. Numerical examples are presented for an elliptic wing.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-165679
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A new numerical method which was used to reduce the computation time required in fluid dynamics to solve the Navier-Stokes equations at flight Reynolds numbers is described. The method is the implicit analogue of the explicit finite different method. It uses this as its first stage, while the second stage removes the restrictive stability condition by recasting the difference equations in an implicit form. The resulting matrix equations to be solved are either upper or lower block bidiagonal equations. The new method makes it possible and practical to calculate many important three dimensional, high Reynolds number flow fields on computers.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-81279 , A-8524
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation of approximate theoretical techniques for predicting aerodynamic characteristics and surface pressures for relatively slender vehicles at moderate hypersonic speeds was performed. Emphasis was placed on approaches that would be responsive to preliminary configuration design level of effort. Potential theory was examined in detail to meet this objective. Numerical pilot codes were developed for relatively simple three dimensional geometries to evaluate the capability of the approximate equations of motion considered. Results from the computations indicate good agreement with higher order solutions and experimental results for a variety of wing, body, and wing-body shapes for values of the hypersonic similarity parameter M delta approaching one.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-165651 , NA-80-611
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Charts which give an estimation of minimum achievable sonic-boom levels for supersonic cruise aircraft are presented. A minimization method based on modified linear theory was analyzed. Results show several combinations of Mach number, altitude, and aircraft length and weight. Overpressure and impulse values are given for two types of sonic boom signatures for each of these conditions: (1) a flat top or minimum overpressure signature which has a pressure plateau behind the initial shock, and (2) a minimum shock signature which allows a pressure rise after the initial shock. Results are given for the effects of nose shape.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-14190 , NASA-TP-1820
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A noniterative, implicit, space-marching, finite-difference algorithm was developed for the steady thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in conservation-law form. The numerical algorithm is applicable to steady supersonic viscous flow over bodies of arbitrary shape. In addition, the same code can be used to compute supersonic inviscid flow or three-dimensional boundary layers. Computed results from two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the numerical algorithm are in good agreement with those obtained from more costly time-marching techniques.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: A-7923 , NASA-TP-1749
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The goal of this research is the assessment of the validity of existing three dimensional numerical programs in the prediction of the flow fields about general three dimensional hypersonic bodies. A detailed experimental research program was performed in which surface and flow field pressures were mapped. The results of the experimental work were compared with existing inviscid programs. Improvements were made on the existing numerical methods to include angle of attack. A summary of this work is presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-164133
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A subsonic/supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamic analysis was developed by integrating the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS), and the inviscid force calculation modules of the Hypersonic Arbitrary Body Program. APAS analysis was extended for nonlinear vortex forces using a generalization of the Polhamus analogy. The interactive system provides appropriate aerodynamic models for a single input geometry data base and has a run/output format similar to a wind tunnel test program. The user's manual was organized to cover the principle system activities of a typical application, geometric input/editing, aerodynamic evaluation, and post analysis review/display. Sample sessions are included to illustrate the specific task involved and are followed by a comprehensive command/subcommand dictionary used to operate the system.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NA-80-374-PT-1 , NASA-CR-165627
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An experimental investigation of V/STOL thrust augmenter wings in flight at slow forward speeds is reported. Two rectangular planforms of differing relative chord lengths were tested. The augmenters were positioned in the aft portion of the wing to produce increases in circulation lift. Two blown flap configurations were tested for comparison. Surface pressures as well as total forces and moments were obtained on the semispan models at two flap deflections and a range of momentum coefficients. Tabulations of surveys at the pressure augmenter exit, downwash surveys downstream of the wing, and force and moment data are included.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NR80H-102-VOL-2 , NASA-CR-166137-VOL-2
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a thrust augmenter wing suitable for vertical operation were investigated. Wind tunnel test results on the ejector and a similar configuration with a blown flap are analyzed. The configurations represented a VTOL concept at conditions of thrust deflections required for low forward speed flight. The model tested had an unswept untapered wing. Specific data included normal longitudinal forces and monents, surface pressures, ejector exit surveys, and flow field surveys behind the wing.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NR80H-102-VOL-1 , NASA-CR-166137-VOL-1
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  • 47
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Requirements, preliminary design, and verification procedures for a total main rotor isolation system at n/rev are presented. The fuselage is isolated from the vibration inducing main rotor at one frequency in all degrees of freedom by four antiresonant isolation units. Effects of parametric variations on isolation system performance are evaluated.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: D-210-11788-1 , NASA-CR-165666
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The flow characteristics of the V/STOL tunnel were investigated. The results show an interaction between tunnel components. The flow around the tunnel circuit gradually deteriorated with increasing distance from the testing area. The flow in the first diffuser was still satisfactory at the beginning of the circuit, while at the end of the circuit, the flow approaching the contraction became entirely unsatisfactory. Deterioration of flow was due largely to turning the stream around the corners, with the resulting flow distortion affecting the diffusers downstream. The large end of the last diffuser stalled on one side and nearly stalled the flow at the tip of the fan. It was found that these adverse flow characteristics reduce the flow quality and the efficiency of the tunnel.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-165655
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16 Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the aeropropulsive characteristics of a single expansion ramp nozzle (SERN) and a two dimensional convergent divergent nozzle (2-D C-D) installed with both an aft swept and a forward swept wing. The SERN was tested in both an upright and an inverted position. The effects of thrust vectoring at nozzle vector angles from -5 deg to 20 deg were studied. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 1.20 and angles of attack from -2.0 deg to 16 deg. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to about 9.0. Reynolds number based on the wing mean geometric chord varied from about 3 million to 4.8 million, depending upon free stream number.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1778 , L-13902
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The nonplanar quasi-vortex-lattice method is applied to the calculation of lateral-directional stability derivatives of wings with and without vortex-lift effect. Results for conventional configurations and those with winglets, V-tail, etc. are compared with available data. All rolling moment derivatives are found to be accurately predicted. The prediction of side force and yawing moment derivatives for some configurations is not as accurate. Causes of the discrepancy are discussed. A user's manual for the program and the program listing are also included.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-165659 , REPT-80-001 , NAS 1.26:165659
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation was conducted in the Langley 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel to determine the static longitudinal and lateral directional aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced aspect ratio 10 supercritical wing transport model equipped with a full span leading edge slat as well as part span and full span trailing edge flaps. This wide body transport model was also equipped with spoiler and aileron roll control surfaces, flow through nacelles, landing gear, and movable horizontal tails. Six basic wing configurations were tested: (1) cruise (slats and flaps nested), (2) climb (slats deflected and flaps nested), (3) part span flap, (4) full span flap, (5) full span flap with low speed ailerons, and (6) full span flap with high speed ailerons. Each of the four flapped wing configurations was tested with leading edge slat and trailing edge flaps deflected to settings representative of both take off and landing conditions. Tests were conducted at free stream conditions corresponding to Reynolds number of 0.97 to 1.63 x 10 to the 6th power and corresponding Mach numbers of 0.12 to 0.20, through an angle of attack range of 4 to 24, and a sideslip angle range of -10 deg to 5 deg. The part and full span wing configurations were also tested in ground proximity.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-13825 , NASA-TP-1805 , NAS 1.60:1805
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Various three dimensional inlet models were calculated based on the potential flow model. Results are presented in the forms of surface static pressure, flow angularity, surface flow pattern, and inlet flow field. It is indicated that the extension of the lower lip can reduce the adverse pressure gradient and increase the flow separation bound.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: E-941 , NASA-TM-82789 , NAS 1.15:82789
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results of hot wire measurements made in the near wake at a Reynolds number of 9955 are reported. The measurements include the mean velocity profiles, root mean square values of the velocity fluctuations, frequency spectra, and velocity cross correlations. The mean velocity profiles were used to determine the wake width, whose variation in the downstream and spanwise directions was examined. It is observed that close to the cylinder, the wake is narrower toward the free end than it is away from it, while further downstream the wake is wider toward the tip than it is away from it. It is found that the flow over the span can be characterized by four regions: a tip region where vortex shedding occurs at a lower frequency than that prevalent for away from the tip; an intermediate region adjacent to the first one where a frequency component of a nonshedding character is present; a third region characterized by a gradually increasing shedding frequency with increasing distance from the tip; and a two dimensional region where the shedding frequency is constant.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-168661 , SU-JIAA-TR-40 , NAS 1.26:168661
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  • 54
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two dimensional subsonic wind tunnel tests were conducted on a 20% thickness: chord ratio circulation controlled elliptic aerofoil section equipped with forward and reverse blowing slots. Overall performance measurements were made over a range of trailing edge blowing momentum coefficients from 0 to 0.04; some included the effect of leading edge blowing. A detailed investigation of the trailing edge wall jet, using split film probes, hot wire probes and total head tubes, provided measurements of mean velocity components, Reynolds normal and shear stresses, and radial static pressure. The closure of the two dimensional angular momentum and continuity equations was examined using the measured data, with and without correction, and the difficulty of obtaining a satisfactory solution illustrated. Suggestions regarding the nature of the flow field which should aid the understanding of Coanda effect and the theoretical solution of highly curved wall jet flows are presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-168662 , SU-JIAA-TR-41 , NAS 1.26:168662
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A detailed description of a computational program for the evaluation of three dimensional supersonic, inviscid, steady flow past airplanes is presented. Emphasis was put on how a powerful, automatic mapping technique is coupled to the fluid mechanical analysis. Each of the three constituents of the analysis (body geometry, mapping technique, and gas dynamical effects) was carefully coded and described. Results of computations based on sample geometrics and discussions are also presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: POLY-M/AE-81-25 , NASA-CR-165110
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Quantitative pressure and force data for five axisymmetric boattail nozzle configurations were examined. These configurations simulate the variable-geometry feature of a single nozzle design operating over a range of engine operating conditions. Five nozzles were tested in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.30. The experimental data were also compared with theoretical predictions.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1953 , L-14661
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Wind-tunnel tests were conducted on an ogive-cylinder model with two axisymmetric protuberances having cone frustum angles of cone = 23 deg and 45 deg that were used to generate detached shock waves and the resulting separated flow areas downstream of the shock. The tests were conducted in a 9 by 7 foot supersonic wind tunnel at a free-stream Mach number of 2.0 and at Reynolds numbers of 1.5 x 1 million and 3.9 x 1 million, based on body diameter. The model had an afterbody fineness ratio of 8.3, and the ogive nose had a fineness ratio of 3.0. Two characteristics of the fluctuating pressures in surface vortex flows that result from the crossflow component, (velocity along the tunnel longitudinal axis free stream angle of attack), in combination with changes in the longitudinal pressure gradient were measured: (1) the broadband, rms-pressure coefficients and (2) the power spectral densities. Measurements are presented for various flow regions on the model such as the attached turbulent boundary layer, the detached frustum shock wave, and separated flow areas. The results indicate that the pressure fluctuations around or in the neighborhood of the foci of the vortex flows had broadband intensities and power spectral densities nearly identical to the levels previously measured in separated-flow regions at angles of attack of 0 deg.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1951 , A-8563
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Langley transonic dynamics tunnel was used to determine the degree of correlation between rotor performance and the dynamic twist generated by changes in blade tip geometry using an articulated rotor with four different tip geometries at advance ratios of 0.20, 0.30 and 0.35. Based on the data obtained, it is concluded that: (1) there appears to be no strong correlation between blade torsion loads and rotor performance prediction; (2) for a given rotor task at each advance ratio investigated, both the azimuthal variation of torsional moment and the mean torsional moment at 81% radius are configuration dependent; (3) reducing the nose down twist on the advancing blade appears to be more important to forward flight performance than increasing the nose down twist on the retreating blade; (4) the rotor inflow model used was important in predicting the performance of the adaptive rotor; and (5) neither rigid blade solidity effects, inflow environment, nor blade torsion loads can be used alone to accurately predict active rotor performance.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AVRADCOM-TR-81-B-5 , NASA-TP-1926 , L-14674
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Force and moment, flow visualization, and boundary layer state tests were conducted using two 0.004 scale shuttle orbiter models. The force and moment tests were conducted for an angle of attack range from 20 to 40 deg and for Reynolds numbers based on reference length from 0.4 million to 3.6 million. Schlieren photographs were obtained for each angle of attack and Reynolds number. The boundary layer state tests, which were conducted using hot film sensors mounted in a separate model, were conducted over the same range of conditions as the force tests. Test results were combined to show that changes in the boundary layer on a typical hypersonic force test model affect measurement of the axial force coefficient and that the state of the local boundary layer is important for interpreting hypersonic aerodynamic test results.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1952 , L-14782
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A method for predicting aerodynamic characteristics of slender wings with edge vortex separation was developed. Semiempirical but simple methods were used to determine the initial positions of the free sheet and vortex core. Comparison with available data indicates that: the present method is generally accurate in predicting the lift and induced drag coefficients but the predicted pitching moment is too positive; the spanwise lifting pressure distributions estimated by the one vortex core solution of the present method are significantly better than the results of Mehrotra's method relative to the pressure peak values for the flat delta; the two vortex core system applied to the double delta and strake wing produce overall aerodynamic characteristics which have good agreement with data except for the pitching moment; and the computer time for the present method is about two thirds of that of Mehrotra's method.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-164980 , CRINC-FRL-424-1
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  • 61
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The mechanism and sound pressure level of the trailing-edge noise for two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer flow was examined. Experiment is compared with current theory. A NACA 0012 airfoil of 0.61 m chord and 0.46 m span was immersed in the laminar flow of a low turbulence open jet. A 2.54 cm width roughness strip was placed at 15 percent chord from the leading edge on both sides of the airfoil as a boundary layer trip so that two separate but statistically equivalent turbulent boundary layers were formed. Tests were performed with several trailing-edge geometries with the upstream velocity U sub infinity ranging from a value of 30.9 m/s up to 73.4 m/s. Properties of the boundary layer for the airfoil and pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the trailing-edge were examined. A scattered pressure field due to the presence of the trailing-edge was observed and is suggested as a possible sound producing mechanism for the trailing-edge noise.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-164952
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Wind tunnel test results from shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) sting interference tests were evaluated, yielding the general influence of the sting on the normal force and pitching moment coefficients and the side force and yawing moment coefficients. The procedures developed to determine the sting interference, the development of the corrected aerodynamic data, and the development of a new SRB aerodynamic mathematical model are documented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-161885 , TR-230-2042
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An explicit-implicit technique for solving Navier-Stokes equations is described which, is much less complex than other implicit methods. It is used to solve a complex, two-dimensional, steady-state, supersonic-flow problem. The computational efficiency of the method and the quality of the solution obtained from it at high Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) numbers are discussed. Modifications are discussed and certain observations are made about the method which may be helpful in using it successfully.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-14746 , NASA-TP-1934
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The flow processes in rocket pump inducers are summarized. The experimental investigations were carried out with air as the test medium. The major characteristics features of the rocket pump inducers are low flow coefficient (0.05 to 0.2) large stagger angle (70 deg to 85 deg) and high solidity blades of little or no camber. The investigations are concerned with the effect of viscosity not the effects of cavitation. Flow visualization, conventional and hot wire probe measurement inside and at the exit of the blade passage, were the analytical methods used. The experiment was carried out using four three and two bladed inducers with cambered blades. Both the passage and the exit flow were measured. The basic research and boundary layer investigation was carried out using a helical flat plate (of some dimensions as the inducer blades tested), and flat plate helical inducer (four bladed). Detailed mean and turbulence flow field inside the passage as well as the exit of the rotor were derived from these measurement. The boundary layer, endwall, and other passage data reveal extremely complex nature of the flow, with major effects of viscosity present across the entire passage. Several analyses were carried out to predict the flow field in inducers. These included an approximate analysis, the shear pumping analysis, and a numerical solution of exact viscous equations with approximate modeling for the viscous terms.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: PSU/TURBO-R81-3 , NASA-CR-3471
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The clustering algorithm is controlled by a second-order, ordinary differential equation which uses the airfoil surface density gradient as a forcing function. The solution to this differential equation produces a surface grid distribution which is automatically clustered in regions with large gradients. The interior grid points are established from this surface distribution by using an interpolation scheme which is fast and retains the desirable properties of the original grid generated from the standard elliptic equation approach.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-81330 , A-8733
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of lifting configuration consisting of a 60 deg delta main wing with two smaller 60 deg delta wings (called sub-wings) attached underneath. The test was designed to determine the effects on lift, drag, and pitching moment due to various placement of the subwings in relation to the main wing. Test results indicate the increasing vertical separation between the main wing and the sub-wings produced the most significant results; a 23.1% increase in maximum lift coefficient, a reduction in drag coefficient at high lift coefficients, and an increase in longitudinal stability. Lateral separation of the sub-wings produced no significant changes. Placement of the sub-wings rearward increases the initial lift curve slope and maximum lift coefficient and also increase the longitudinal stability. Results of a computer study using a vortex lattice code supported the experimental conclusions.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3460
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The impulsive nature of noise due to the interaction of a rotor blade with a tip vortex is studied. The time signature of this noise is calculated theoretically based on the measured blade surface pressure fluctuation of an operational load survey rotor in slow descending flight and is compared with the simultaneous microphone measurement. Particularly, the physical understanding of the characteristic features of a waveform is extensively studied in order to understand the generating mechanism and to identify the important parameters. The interaction trajectory of a tip vortex on an acoustic planform is shown to be a very important parameter for the impulsive shape of the noise. The unsteady nature of the pressure distribution at the very leading edge is also important to the pulse shape. The theoretical model using noncompact liner acoustics predicts the general shape of interaction impulse pretty well except for peak amplitude which requires more continuous information along the span at the leading edge.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: PAPER-32 , USAAVRADCOM-TR-81-A-24 , NASA-TM-81320 , A-8692 , European Rotorcraft and Powered Lift Aircraft Forum; Moffett Field, CA; United States
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An experiment was conducted to determine wing-alone supersonic aerodynamic characteristics at high angles of attack. The wings tested varied in aspect ratio from 0.5 to 4.0 and in taper ratio from 0 to 1.0. The wings were tested at angles of attack ranging rom -5 deg to 60 deg and at Mach number from 1.60 to 4.60. The aerodynamic characteristics were obtained by integrating local pressures measured over the wing surfaces. Presented and discussed are results showing the effects of aspect ratio, taper ratio, Mach number, and angle of attack on force and moment coefficients and center of pressure locations. Also included are tabulations of the pressure measurements.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-14546 , NASA-TP-1889
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results from analytical and experimental studies of the aerodynamic characteristics of a turbojet-boosted launch vehicle concept through a Mach number range of 1.50 to 2.86 are presented. The vehicle consists of a winged orbiter utilizing an area-ruled axisymmetric body and two winged turbojet boosters mounted underneath the orbiter wing. Drag characteristics near zero lift were of prime interest. Force measurements and flow visualization techniques were employed. Estimates from wave drag theory, supersonic lifting surface theory, and impact theory are compared with data and indicate the ability of these theories to adequately predict the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. Despite the existence of multiple wings and bodies in close proximity to each other, no large scale effects of boundary layer separation on drag or lift could be discerned. Total drag levels were, however, sensitive to booster locations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1888 , L-14509
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A high frequency extension of the unsteady, transonic code LTRAN2 was created and is evaluated by comparisons with experimental results. The experimental test case is a NACA 64A010 airfoil in pitching motion at a Mach number of 0.8 over a range of reduced frequencies. Comparisons indicate that the modified code is an improvement of the original LTRAN2 and provides closer agreement with experimental lift and moment coefficients. A discussion of the code modifications, which involve the addition of high frequency terms of the boundary conditions of the numerical algorithm, is included.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-81307 , A-8668
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An improved version of Woodward's chord plane aerodynamic panel method for subsonic and supersonic flow is developed for cambered wings exhibiting edge separated vortex flow, including those with leading edge vortex flaps. The exact relation between leading edge thrust and suction force in potential flow is derived. Instead of assuming the rotated suction force to be normal to wing surface at the leading edge, new orientation for the rotated suction force is determined through consideration of the momentum principle. The supersonic suction analogy method is improved by using an effective angle of attack defined through a semi-empirical method. Comparisons of predicted results with available data in subsonic and supersonic flow are presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3449 , CRINC/FRL-426-1
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Wave-induced resonance associated with the geometry of wind-tunnel test sections can occur. A theory that uses acoustic impedance concepts to predict resonance modes in a two dimensional, slotted wall wind tunnel with a plenum chamber is described. The equation derived is consistent with known results for limiting conditions. The computed resonance modes compare well with appropriate experimental data. When the theory is applied to perforated wall test sections, it predicts the experimentally observed closely spaced modes that occur when the wavelength is not long compared with he plenum depth.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1880 , L-14480
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The performance of a "chin" nozzle which diverts flow in a downward direction immediately downstream of a fan typical of designs suitable for V/STOL A applications was evaluated. Back pressure distortion to the fan and fan discharge pressure distortion were also measured. Results show that the distortion is significant at the closest spacing between the fan exit and cascade entrance tested, and that the chin nozzle performance deteriorates with increased flow diversion to the chin nozzle. Color oil flow visualization on video tape and still photos were also obtained. Tests were conducted behind a 12" model fan in the NASA-Lewis fan calibration facility.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-165361 , D180-26446-1
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The aerodynamic performance of the inlet manifold and stator assembly of the compressor drive turbine was experimentally determined with cold air as the working fluid. The investigation included measurements of mass flow and stator-exit fluid torque as well as radial surveys of total pressure and flow angle at the stator inlet and annulus surveys of total pressure and flow angle at the stator exit. The stator-exit aftermixed flow conditions and overall stator efficiency were obtained and compared with their design values and the experimental results from three other stators. In addition, an analysis was made to determine the constituent aerodynamic losses that made up the stator kinetic energy loss.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: DOE/NASA/1011-34 , AVRADCOM-TR-80-C-20 , NASA-TM-82682 , E-572
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A method is described for designing a forebody with cross sections which vary smoothly from an initial prescribed nose shape to a different prescribed base shape in such a way that the cross-section areas conform to a preassigned axial area distribution. It is shown that these conditions can be satisfied with a remaining degree of freedon, which can be used to accomplish a modest amount of geometric or pressure tailoring of the forebody. An example is provided which involves modifying the pressure distribution along a given meridian line of the forebody.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-14516 , NASA-TP-1881
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The operation of the TAIR (Transonic AIRfoil) computer code, which uses a fast, fully implicit algorithm to solve the conservative full-potential equation for transonic flow fields about arbitrary airfoils, is described on two levels of sophistication: simplified operation and detailed operation. The program organization and theory are elaborated to simplify modification of TAIR for new applications. Examples with input and output are given for a wide range of cases, including incompressible, subcritical compressible, and transonic calculations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: A-8594 , NASA-TM-81296
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: All calculations were done in the stability axes system. The winglets used were constructed of modified GA(w)-2 airfoils. Aerodynamic characteristics discussed include: angle of attack; lift-curve slope; side force; yawing moments; rolling moments.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: KU-FRL-399-3 , NASA-CR-165710
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A natural-laminar-flow airfoil for general aviation applications, the NLF(1)-0416, was designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The basic objective of combining the high maximum lift of the NASA low-speed airfoils with the low cruise drag of the NACA 6-series airfoils was achieved. The safety requirement that the maximum lift coefficient not be significantly affected with transition fixed near the leading edge was also met. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show excellent agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils, both laminar flow and turbulent flow, confirm the achievement of the basic objective.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1861 , L-14117
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A method was developed to improve the accuracy of an existing computer program used to calculate transonic velocities on a blade-to-blade surface of a turbomachine. The method eliminates problems encountered in obtaining solutions with the velocity gradient equation when large gradients in velocity occur through the blade row. With the improved method, results indicate that the transonic solution can be obtained by scaling the velocities obtained at the reduced mass flow rate where all velocities are subsonic thereby eliminating the need for a solution of the velocity gradient equation. Solutions obtained with the scaling method on a two dimensional compressor cascade and an axial turbine stator show good agreement with experimental data. The results obtained for the stationary blade rows and comparison of analytical results obtained with and without the present method suggest that the method will yield an improved solution for centrifugal compressor impellers.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1772 , E-128
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An aerodynamic analysis system based on potential theory at subsonic/supersonic speeds and impact type finite element solutions at hypersonic conditions is described. Three dimensional configurations having multiple nonplanar surfaces of arbitrary planform and bodies of noncircular contour may be analyzed. Static, rotary, and control longitudinal and lateral directional chracteristics may be generated. The analysis has been implemented on a time sharing system in conjunction with an input tablet digitizer and an interactive graphics input/output display and editing terminal to maximize its responsiveness to the preliminary analysis problem. Typical simulation indicates that program provides an efficient analysis for systematically performing various aerodynamic configuration tradeoff and evaluation studies.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-165628 , NA-80-374-PT-2
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The lack of slipstream static pressure distribution seriously affected the results but recommendations for removing the deficiency are discussed. The wake survey rake is shown to be a valuable tool in aircraft flight testing. Flow characteristics in the wake of the propeller were examined.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-163920 , MSSU-EIRS-ASE-81-3
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Forty-six different fins, which were members of twelve plan-form families, were tested. A two dimensional Boeing single element airfoil at an angle of attack of eight degrees and a sweepback angle of thirty-two was used to simulate a portion of the wing of a generator aircraft. Various free stream velocities were used to test any individual fin at its particular angle of attack. While the fin itself was mounted on the upper surface of the generator model, the angle of attack of each fin was varied until stall was reached and/or passed. The relative fin vortex strengths were measured in two ways. First, the maximum angular velocity of a four blade rotor placed in the fin vortex center was measured with the use of a stroboscope. Second, the maximum rolling moment on a following wing model placed in the fin vortex center was measured by a force balance.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-163874 , ISU-ERI-AMES-81112
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  • 83
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effect of the specific heat ratio gamma of the incoming ideal gas on the flow properties, especially on pressure distributions along the base and sting surfaces and on reattachment distance, was investigated. The specific heat ratios considered were gamma = 1.2, 1.4, and 1.667. Also, effects of other major parameters, such as eddy-viscosity coefficient (or effective Reynolds number) and Mach number, on the afterbody pressure and reattachment distance were studied and are discussed. Evolution of shock induced flow and stabilization time were examined and are discussed for a transient problem. The important influence of the flow-field geometry, pressure distributions, and reattachment distance on the aerodynamics radiative heat transfer for an atmosphere entry probe in high speed flight are briefly described.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: A-8271 , NASA-TP-1769
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  • 84