ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING  (828)
  • 2010-2014
  • 1980-1984  (828)
  • 1925-1929
  • 1981  (828)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-03-12
    Description: The purpose of the handbook is to update the various snowcover interpretation techniques, document the snow mapping techniques used in the various ASVT study areas, and describe the ways snowcover data have been applied to runoff prediction. Through documentation in handbook form, the methodology developed in the Snow Mapping ASVT can be applied to other areas.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TP-1829 , NAS 1.60:1829 , REPT-81F0067-VOL-8
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-03-12
    Description: Ground surveys and aerial observations were used to monitor rapidly changing moisture conditions in the Salt-Verde watershed. Repetitive satellite snow cover observations greatly reduce the necessity for routine aerial snow reconnaissance flights over the mountains. High resolution, multispectral imagery provided by LANDSAT satellite series enabled rapid and accurate mapping of snow-cover distributions for small- to medium-sized subwatersheds; however, the imagery provided only one observation every 9 days of about a third of the watershed. Low resolution imagery acquired by the ITOSa dn SMS/GOES meteorological satellite series provides the daily synoptic observation necessary to monitor the rapid changes in snow-covered area in the entire watershed. Short term runoff volumes can be predicted from daily sequential snow cover observations.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TP-1823 , NAS 1.60:1823 , REPT-81F0061-VOL-2
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-03-12
    Description: Both LANDSAT and NOAA satellite data were used in improving snowmelt runoff forecasts. When the satellite snow cover data were tested in both empirical seasonal runoff estimation and short term modeling approaches, a definite potential for reducing forecast error was evident. A cost benefit analysis run in conjunction with the snow mapping indicated a $36.5 million annual benefit accruing from a one percent improvement in forecast accuracy using the snow cover data for the western United States. The annual cost of employing the system would be $505,000. The snow mapping has proven that satellite snow cover data can be used to reduce snowmelt runoff forecast error in a cost effective manner once all operational satellite data are available within 72 hours after acquisition. Executive summaries of the individual snow mapping projects are presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TP-1822 , NAS 1.60:1822 , REPT-81F0060-VOL-1
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A series of experiments in the Great Lakes designed to evaluate the application of the Nimbus G satellite Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) were conducted. Absorption and scattering measurement data were reduced to obtain a preliminary optical model for the Great Lakes. Available optical models were used in turn to calculate subsurface reflectances for expected concentrations of chlorophyll-a pigment and suspended minerals. Multiple nonlinear regression techniques were used to derive CZCS water quality prediction equations from Great Lakes simulation data. An existing atmospheric model was combined with a water model to provide the necessary simulation data for evaluation of the preliminary CZCS algorithms. A CZCS scanner model was developed which accounts for image distorting scanner and satellite motions. This model was used in turn to generate mapping polynomials that define the transformation from the original image to one configured in a polyconic projection. Four computer programs (FORTRAN IV) for image transformation are presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: ERIM-150000-11-F , NASA-CR-173511 , NAS 1.26:173511
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Experiments were conducted to evaluate aircraft remote sensing techniques for hydrology in a wide range of physiographic and climatic regions using several sensor platforms. The data were collected in late 1978 and during 1979 in two humid areas--Taylor Creek, Fla., and Little River, Ga. Soil moisture measurements and climatic observations are presented as well as the remote sensing data collected using thermal infrared, passive microwave, and active microwave systems.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: ARR-NE-13 , NAS 1.15:85468 , NASA-TM-85468 , E84-10010
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Integrated Resource Inventory for Southcentral Alaska (INTRISCA) Project comprised an integrated set of activities related to the land use planning and resource management requirements of the participating agencies within the southcentral region of Alaska. One subproject involved generating a region-wide land cover inventory of use to all participating agencies. Toward this end, participants first obtained a broad overview of the entire region and identified reasonable expectations of a LANDSAT-based land cover inventory through evaluation of an earlier classification generated during the Alaska Water Level B Study. Classification of more recent LANDSAT data was then undertaken by INTRISCA participants. The latter classification produced a land cover data set that was more specifically related to individual agency needs, concurrently providing a comprehensive training experience for Alaska agency personnel. Other subprojects employed multi-level analysis techniques ranging from refinement of the region-wide classification and photointerpretation, to digital edge enhancement and integration of land cover data into a geographic information system (GIS).
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:166514 , NASA-CR-166514
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A computer program that simulates the flow of heat and moisture in soils is described. The space-time dependence of temperature and moisture content is described by a set of diffusion-type partial differential equations. The simulator uses a predictor/corrector to numerically integrate them, giving wetness and temperature profiles as a function of time. The simulator was used to generate solutions to diffusion-type partial differential equations for which analytical solutions are known. These equations include both constant and variable diffusivities, and both flux and constant concentration boundary conditions. In all cases, the simulated and analytic solutions agreed to within the error bounds which were imposed on the integrator. Simulations of heat and moisture flow under actual field conditions were also performed. Ground truth data were used for the boundary conditions and soil transport properties. The qualitative agreement between simulated and measured profiles is an indication that the model equations are reasonably accurate representations of the physical processes involved.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:82121 , E83-10342 , NASA-TM-82121 , SM-G1-04086
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A set of assembly language improvements to the CLASSY clustering algorithm were developed and tested. These are described in detail and analyzed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E83-10309 , NAS 1.26:171643 , NAS-811 , NASA-CR-171643 , SR-X1-04033
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Functions, performance capabilities, modes of operation, constraints, redundancy, commands, and telemetry are described for the thematic mapper; the global positioning system; the direct access S-band; the multispectral scanner; the payload correction; the thermal control subsystem; the solar array retention, deployment, and jettison assembly; and the boom antenna retention, deployment, and jettison assembly for LANDSAT 4.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:170520 , SVS-10266-VOL , E83-10286 , NASA-CR-170520
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The data format specifications of the Goddard HDT inventory tapes (GHITS), which accompany shipments of archival digital multispectral scanner image data (HDT-AM tapes), are defined. The GHIT is a nine-track, 1600-BPI tape which conforms to the ANSI standard and serves as an inventory and description of the image data included in the shipment. The archival MSS tapes (HDT-AMs) contain radiometrically corrected but geometrically uncorrected image data plus certain ancillary data necessary to perform the geometric corrections.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-170539 , E83-10279 , GES-10068-VOL-6-APP-G-REV-A , NAS 1.26:170539
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Unprocessed MSS data which is recorded on HDT-RM (a 28 track, high density tape) and on HDT-GM (a 14 track, nonbias recorded, high density tape) are inputs for the LANDSAT 4 data management system. All MSS data initially recorded on HDT-GM are copied to HDT-RM prior to processing. This specification establishes the requirements for the format of the LANDSAT D HDT-RM/HDT-GM.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E83-10278 , NASA-CR-170543 , NAS 1.26:170543 , GES-10075-VOL-6-APP-K-REV-B
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A functional description of the LANDSAT-D Worldwide Reference System (WRS) and an overview of the main orbital parameters and instrument coverages are presented. The primary information required to understand the LANDSAT-D orbital characteristics, to effectively use the Worldwide Reference System (WRS) indexing scheme, and to request specific geographic coverage on the desired observation dates is provided.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-85311 , E83-10280 , NAS 1.15:85311
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Four basic product types are generated from the raw thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) payload data by the NASA GSFC LANDSAT 4 data management system: (1) unprocessed data (raw sensor data); (2) partially processed data, which consists of radiometrically corrected sensor data with geometric correction information appended; (3) fully processed data, which consists of radiometrically and geometrically corrected sensor data; and (4) inventory data which consists of summary information about product types 2 and 3. High density digital recorder formatting and the radiometric correction process are described. Geometric correction information is included.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: SVS-10127-VOL-6 , E83-10277 , NAS 1.26:170541 , NASA-CR-170541
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The LANDSAT-D flight segment payload is the thematic mapper and the multispectral scanner. Narrative and visual descriptions of the LANDSAT-D payload data handling hardware and data flow paths from the sensing instruments through to the GSFC LANDSAT-D data management system are provided. Key subsystems are examined.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E83-10276 , NAS 1.26:170542 , NASA-CR-170542 , SVS-10126-VOL-5-REV-A
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The format of computer compatible tapes which contain LANDSAT 4 and D Prime thematic mapper data is defined. A complete specification of the CCT-AT (radiometric corrections applied and geometric matrices appended) and the CCT-PT (radiometric and geometric corrections) data formats is provided.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:170088 , NASA-CR-170088 , GES-10490 , E83-10237
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The applications notice for the LANDSAT 4 image data quality analysis program is presented. The objectives of the program are to qualify LANDSAT 4 sensor and systems performance from a user applications point of view, and to identify any malfunctions that may impact data applications. Guidelines for preparing proposals and background information are provided.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85266 , E83-10228 , NASA-TM-85266
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The potential market for LANDSAT products through the 1990's was determined. Results are presented in a matrix format. Improved resolution is a major factor in the marketability of LANDSAT data, the 10 meter resolution (projected for 1995) having a significant impact on the federal, private, and international users, and on the agricultural, minerals, and national defense applications. Data delivery time and competition from the French remote sensing system are considered.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:169778 , OAO/TR-81/0057 , E83-10170 , NASA-CR-169778
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data integration is defined and examined as the means of promoting data sharing among the various governmental and private geobased information systems in California. Elements of vertical integration considered included technical factors (such as resolution and classification) and institutional factors (such as organizational control, and legal and political barriers). Attempts are made to fit the theoretical elements of vertical integration into a meaningful structure for looking at the problem from a statewide focus. Both manual (mapped) and machine readable data systems are included. Special attention is given to LANDSAT imagery because of its strong potential for integrated use and its primary in the California Integrated Remote Sensing System program.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E83-10168 , NAS 1.26:166353 , NASA-CR-166353
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A procedure for estimating irrigated land using full frame LANDSAT imagery was demonstrated. Relatively inexpensive interpretation of multidate LANDSAT photographic enlargements was used to produce a map of irrigated land in California. The LANDSAT and ground maps were then linked by regression equations to enable precise estimation of irrigated land area by county, basin, and statewide. Land irrigated at least once in California in 1979 was estimated to be 9.86 million acres, with an expected error of less than 1.75% at the 99% level of confidence. To achieve the same level of error with a ground-only sample would have required 3 to 5 times as many ground sample units statewide. A procedure for relatively inexpensive computer classification of LANDSAT digital data to irrigated land categories was also developed. This procedure is based on ratios of MSS band 7 and 5, and gave good results for several counties in the Central Valley.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-166370 , NAS 1.26:166370 , E83-10154
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Analysis of large volumes of LANDSAT 3 RBV digital data that were converted to photographic form led to the firm identification of several visible artifacts (objects or structures not normally present, but producted by an external agency or action) in the imagery. These artifacts were identified, categorized, and traced directly to specific sensor response characteristics. None of these artifacts is easily removed and all cases remain under active study of possible future enhancement. The seven generic categories of sensor response artifacts identified to date include: (1) shading and stairsteps; (2) corners out of focus; (3) missing reseaus; (4) reseau distortion and data distortion; (5) black vertical line; (6) grain effect; and (7) faceplate contamination. An additional category under study, but not yet determined to be caused by sensor response, is a geometric anomaly. Examples of affected imagery are presented to assist in distinguishing between image content and innate defects caused by the sensor system.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:169725 , E83-10122 , NASA-CR-169725
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results of a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of using Kalman filter techniques for geomagnetic field modeling are given. Specifically, five separate field models were computed using observatory annual means, satellite, survey and airborne data for the years 1950 to 1976. Each of the individual field models used approximately five years of data. These five models were combined using a recursive information filter (a Kalman filter written in terms of information matrices rather than covariance matrices.) The resulting estimate of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation was propogated four years past the data to the time of the MAGSAT data. The accuracy with which this field model matched the MAGSAT data was evaluated by comparisons with predictions from other pre-MAGSAT field models. The field estimate obtained by recursive estimation was found to be superior to all other models.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-169696 , E83-10112 , BTS-FR-81-147 , NAS 1.26:169696
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The benefits of changes in management organization and facilities for the Center for Remote Sensing and Cartography in Utah are reported as well as interactions with and outreach to state and local agencies. Completed projects are described which studied (1) Unita Basin wetland/land use; (2) Davis County foothill development; (3) Farmington Bay shoreline fluctuation; (4) irrigation detection; and (5) satellite investigation of snow cover/mule deer relationships. Techniques developed for composite computer mapping, contrast enhancement, U-2 CIR/LANDSAT digital interface; factor analysis, and multivariate statistical analysis are described.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-169681 , NAS 1.26:169681 , E83-10109
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This directory lists the technical capabilities, personnel, and program structure for remote sensing activities as they existed in each state in late 1980. The institutional framework, participating agencies, applications, status, equipment, software, and funding sources are also indicated.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10127 , NASA-CR-172802 , NAS 1.26:172802
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Four LANDSAT frames, each corresponding to one of the four seasons were spectrally classified and processed using NASA-developed computer programs. One data set was selected or two or more data sets were marged to improve surface cover classifications. Selected areas representing each spectral class were chosen and transferred to USGS 1:62,500 topographic maps for field use. Ground truth data were gathered to verify the accuracy of the classifications. Acreages were computed for each of the land cover types. The application of elevational data to seasonal LANDSAT frames resulted in the separation of high elevation meadows (both with and without recently emergent perennial vegetation) as well as areas in oak forests which have an evergreen understory as opposed to other areas which do not.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E83-10362 , REPT-194 , NASA-TM-85338 , NAS 1.15:85338
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Digital SEASAT-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data were used to enhance linear features to extract geologically significant lineaments in the Appalachian region. Comparison of Lineaments thus mapped with an existing lineament map based on LANDSAT MSS images shows that appropriately processed SEASAT-1 SAR data can significantly improve the detection of lineaments. Merge MSS and SAR data sets were more useful fo lineament detection and landcover classification than LANDSAT or SEASAT data alone. About 20 percent of the lineaments plotted from the SEASAT SAR image did not appear on the LANDSAT image. About 6 percent of minor lineaments or parts of lineaments present in the LANDSAT map were missing from the SEASAT map. Improvement in the landcover classification (acreage and spatial estimation accuracy) was attained by using MSS-SAR merged data. The aerial estimation of residential/built-up and forest categories was improved. Accuracy in estimating the agricultural and water categories was slightly reduced.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-172893 , NAS 1.26:172893 , E83-10365 , CSC/TM-81/6238
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The LANDSAT 4 satellite contains two NASA standard spacecraft computers and 65,536 words of memory. Onboard computer software is divided into flight executive and applications processors. Both applications processors and the flight executive use one or more of 67 system tables to obtain variables, constants, and software flags. Output from the software for monitoring operation is via 49 OBC telemetry reports subcommutated in the spacecraft telemetry. Information is provided about the flight software as it is used to control the various spacecraft operations and interpret operational OBC telemetry. Processor function descriptions, processor operation, software constraints, processor system tables, processor telemetry, and processor flow charts are presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E83-10288 , NAS 1.26:170522 , NASA-CR-170522 , SVS-10266-APP-B
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The final LANDSAT-D orbital dynamic math model (LSD900), comprised of all test validated substructures, was used to evaluate the jitter response of the MSS/TM experiments. A dynamic forced response analysis was performed at both the MSS and TM locations on all structural modes considered (thru 200 Hz). The analysis determined the roll angular response of the MSS/TM experiments to improve excitation generated by component operation. Cross axis and cross experiment responses were also calculated. The excitations were analytically represented by seven and nine term Fourier series approximations, for the MSS and TM experiment respectively, which enabled linear harmonic solution techniques to be applied to response calculations. Single worst case jitter was estimated by variations of the eigenvalue spectrum of model LSD 900. The probability of any worst case mode occurrence was investigated.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: DOC-81SDS4226 , NAS 1.26:170546 , E83-10281 , NASA-CR-170546
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Elements of data sets that are available to be integrated for the San Bernardino vertical data integration project are given. Each of the data sets has specified for it the ownership, validity, accuracy and technical requirements for integration.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-166354 , NAS 1.26:166354
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The major objectives and FY 1980 accomplishments are described of a long term program designed to determine the usefulness, cost, and extent to which aerospace remote sensing data can be integrated into existing or future USDA systems to improve the objectivity, reliability, timeliness, and adequacy of information. A general overview, the primary and participating agencies, and the technical highlights of each of the following projects are presented: early warning/crop condition assessment; foreign commodity production forecasting; yield model development; supporting research; soil moisture; domestic crops and land cover; renewable resources inventory; and conservation and pollution.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E82-10236 , NAS 1.15:84202 , AP-J0-04111 , NASA-TM-84202 , JSC-17398
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The AgRISTARS supporting research projects in the areas of data systems, scene radiation, and pattern recognition are reviewed. The objectives, activities, and accomplishments of FY-80 and the objectives and status of FY-81 programs are described.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: SR-J1-04195 , JSC-17792 , NAS 1.15:84203 , E82-10219 , NASA-TM-84203
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The performance of the technology exhibited significant proportion estimation errors, specifically, high mean error in both corn and soybeans area estimation. The data systems, technical approaches, and data assessment of the pilot experiment were reviewed. Results of proportion estimations procedure performance evaluations, and sensitivity evaluations are presented. The role of the pilot experiment in foreign technology development is discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: FC-J1-04175-VOL-2 , NASA-TM-84206 , JSC-17433-VOL-2 , E82-10216 , NAS 1.15:84206
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The components of the magnetic field were examined and expressions for the components were obtained. The radial and tangential components produce values for the magnetic potential on a circular boundary. A solution for the coefficient of the external an internal terms in the potential is presented. The solution was obtained using two different least squares methods: a recursive least squares procedure and the standard method.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: QR-7 , E82-10163 , NASA-CR-168546 , NAS 1.26:168546
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Progress in analysis of Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) infrared and visible observations of the hydrology of Utah Lake is reported. Correlation between HCMM intensities converted to temperature and ground truth temperatures was investigated, and a conversion offset value determined. Ground truth surface temperatures minus HCMM temperatures were plotted against several hydrological parameters. Relationships among visible data, thermal data, and algae concentrations were considered, and summer concentrations of predominant algae species determined. Investigations on the effects of varying algae concentrations on evaporation rates are reported. Efforts to develop a model for evaporation estimation are reported. The relationship between air and water surface temperatures was studied and the temperature distribution in different segments of the lake investigated. Indications of the existence of thermal springs are reported. Correlation of HCMM surface temperature data and depth to groundwater were investigated.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-165085 , E82-10063 , QR-2 , NAS 1.26:165085
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The atmospheric effect on the upward radiance of sunlight scattered from the Earth-atmosphere system is strongly influenced by the contrasts between fields and their sizes. For a given atmospheric turbidity, the atmospheric effect on classification of surface features is much stronger for nonuniform surfaces than for uniform surfaces. Therefore, the classification accuracy of agricultural fields and urban areas is dependent not only on the optical characteristics of the atmosphere, but also on the size of the surface do not account for the nonuniformity of the surface have only a slight effect on the classification accuracy; in other cases the classification accuracy descreases. The radiances above finite fields were computed to simulate radiances measured by a satellite. A simulation case including 11 agricultural fields and four natural fields (water, soil, savanah, and forest) was used to test the effect of the size of the background reflectance and the optical thickness of the atmosphere on classification accuracy. It is concluded that new atmospheric correction methods, which take into account the finite size of the fields, have to be developed to improve significantly the classification accuracy.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-83818
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: During the winter of 1979-1980, the University of Kansas Microwave Active Spectrometer systems measured the backscattering properties of snowpacks under varying conditions at four test sites in Colorado. In addition to the radar data over 1-35 GHz, ground-truth measurements of the atmospheric, snow, and soil characteristics were obtained for each radar data set. The test sites, data acquisition procedures, and data that were acquired in this experiment are presented and described.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-166727 , RSL-TR-410-3
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The dielectric properties of snow in the radio frequency range from 100 KHz to 35 GHz are reviewed. Applicable dielectric mixing formulas are discussed and compared to available experimental data.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: RSL-TR-527-1 , NASA-CR-166764
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: During the three months of orbital operations, the satellite returned data from the world's oceans. Dozens of tropical storms, hurricanes and typhoons were observed, and two planned major intensive surface truth experiments were conducted. The utility of the Seasat-A microwave sensors as oceanographic tools was determined. Sensor and geophysical evaluations are discussed, including surface observations, and evaluation summaries of an altimeter, a scatterometer, a scanning multichannel microwave radiometer, a synthetic aperture radar, and a visible and infrared radiometer.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: REPT-622-233 , NASA-CR-168557
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The design of two systems which reference the position of a longwall shearer coal miner to the mine roof of the present cut and of the last cut are presented. This system is part of an automation system that will guide the rear cutting drum in such a manner that the total depth of cut remains constant even though the front drum may be following an undulating roof profile. The rear drum referencing mechanism continually monitors the distance from the mine roof to the floor for the present cut. This system provides a signal to control a constant depth of cut. The last cut follower mechanism continually monitors the distance from the mine roof of the prior cut to the cutting drum. This latter system provides a signal to minimize the step height in the roof between cuts. The dynamic response of this hydraulic-pneumatic and mechanical system is analyzed to determine accumulator size and precharge pressure.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-161962 , MSSU-EIRS-ME-81-4
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The feasibility of utilizing a sensitized pick to discriminate between cutting coal and roof material during the longwall mining process was investigated. A conventional longwall mining pick was instrumented and cutting force magnitudes were determined for a variety of materials, including Illinois #6 coal, shale type materials, and synthetic coal/shale materials.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-161960
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: DOE/NASA/20270-1 , E-828 , NASA-TM-81766
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The antecedent precipitation index (API) is a useful indicator of soil moisture conditions for watershed runoff calculations and recent attempts to correlate this index with spaceborne microwave observations have been fairly successful. It is shown that the prognostic equation for soil moisture used in some of the atmospheric general circulation models together with Thornthwaite-Mather parameterization of actual evapotranspiration leads to API equations. The recession coefficient for API is found to depend on climatic factors through potential evapotranspiration and on soil texture through the field capacity and the permanent wilting point. Climatologial data for Wisconsin together with a recently developed model for global isolation are used to simulate the annual trend of the recession coefficient. Good quantitative agreement is shown with the observed trend at Fennimore and Colby watersheds in Wisconsin. It is suggested that API could be a unifying vocabulary for watershed and atmospheric general circulation modelars.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-83860
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A soil moisture extraction algorithm is developed using a statistical parameter inversion method. Data sets from two aircraft experiments are utilized for the test. Multifrequency microwave radiometric data surface temperature, and soil moisture information are contained in the data sets. The surface and near surface ( or = 5 cm) soil moisture content can be extracted with accuracy of approximately 5% to 6% for bare fields and fields with grass cover by using L, C, and X band radiometer data. This technique is used for handling large amounts of remote sensing data from space.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-166719 , P-A826
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Viable techniques for effecting the transfer from NASA to a user agency of state-of-the-art airborne microwave remote sensing technology for oceanographic applications were studied. A detailed analysis of potential users, their needs and priorities; platform options; airborne microwave instrument candidates; ancillary instrumentation; and other, less obvious factors that must be considered were studied. Conclusions and recommendations for the development of an orderly and effective technology transfer of an airborne microwave system that could meet the specific needs of the selected user agencies are reported.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-165791
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The NIMBUS 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) data are analyzed. The impact of cross polarization and Faraday rotation on SMMR derived brightness temperatures is evaluated. The algorithms used to retrieve the geophysical parameters are tested, refined, and compared with values derived by other techniques. The technical approach taken is described and the results presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-166721
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The software developed to simulate the ground control point navigation system is described. The Ground Control Point Simulation Program (GCPSIM) is designed as an analysis tool to predict the performance of the navigation system. The system consists of two star trackers, a global positioning system receiver, a gyro package, and a landmark tracker.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-166733 , MCR-81-576-VOL-3
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A procedure is described for accurately determining the absolute alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-79648
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The depth to which sunlight will penetrate in turbid waters was investigated. The tests were conducted in water with a single scattering albedo range, and over a range of solar elevation angles. Two different techniques were used to determine the depth of light penetration. It showed little change in the depth of sunlight penetration with changing solar elevation angle. A comparison of the penetration depths indicates that the best agreement between the two methods was achieved when the quasisingle scattering relationship was not corrected for solar angle. It is concluded that sunlight penetration is dependent on inherent water properties only.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-83176
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000 are reported. Systems used were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservation conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam extended to other seam thicknesses.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-164363 , JPL-PUB-81-31 , DOE/ET-12548/5
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An experiment to measure changes in leaf spectra under different methods of preservation over time was conducted. The spectral measurements were made by a three band hand held radiometer which simulated three Thematic Mapper (TM) bands: TM3, TM4, and TM5. Daily spectral measurements of white oak leaves under three preservation treatments were made. The spectral readings over three treatments (fresh, bottled, and bagged vegetation) were indistinguishable in bands TM3 and TM5 for up to 4 days after collection. After that time bagged and bottled samples showed significant increases in reflected energy caused by loss of chlorophyll from and dehydration of the vegetation. No significant variation in the reflectance values from TM4 over preservation type for the experimental period was observed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-82068
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The theoretical basis for a new version of the SPLIT routine for CLASSY is described. (The SPLIT routine is used to guess the positions of the parts of a cluster which is not normally distributed). The proposed routine would be a faster, more accurate replacement for the existing SPLIT routine, which was developed on an ad hoc basis.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-171644 , E83-10308 , NAS 1.26:171644 , SR-X1-04046
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The joint air sea interaction (JASIN) experiment took place off the Northwest coast of Scotland. Sea surface and boundary layer parameters were measured. The JASIN data was used as ground truth for various sensors on the SEASAT satellite.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-169631 , NAS 1.26:169631
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A representative sample of the electric utility industry in the United States was surveyed to determine industry need for spatial data (specifically LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data) and the methods used by the industry to forecast land use changes and future energy demand. Information was acquired through interviews, written questionnaires, and reports (both published and internal).
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:166372 , NASA-CR-166372
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Techniques used and materials presented at a planning session and two workshops held to provide hands-on training in the integration of quantitatively based remote sensing data are described as well as methods used to enhance understanding of approaches to inventories that integrate multiple data sources given various resource information objectives. Significant results from each of the technology transfer sessions are examined.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:167429 , E82-10256 , NASA-CR-167429
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data from LANDSAT, low altitude color aerial photography, and ground visits were combined and used to produce vegetation cover maps and to estimate productivity of range, woodland, and forest resources in northwestern Arizona. A planning session, two workshops, and four status reviews were held to assist technology transfer from NASA. Computer aided digital classification of LANDSAT data was selected as a major source of input data. An overview is presented of the data processing, data collection, productivity estimation, and map verification techniques used. Cost analysis and digital LANDSAT digital products are also considered.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-167428 , NAS 1.26:167428 , E82-10254
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Problems were encountered in deriving a proper reference field to be subtracted from the aeromagnetic data obtained from Project MAGNET. Field models tried thus far do not seem to eliminate properly the main field. The MAGSAT data in the North American continent for the period November 1 to December 22, 1979 are being compiled and compared with MAGNET data. Efforts are being made to eliminate the orbital bias errors. A computer program was developed and successfully tested which computes a topographic profile of the Curie depth isotherm which fits best to the observed vector or scalar field magnetic data.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:168620 , E82-10193 , NASA-CR-168620
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Technical progress made in the foreign commodity production forecasting for the advancement of spring small grains (SSG) area estimation is reported with emphasis on results achieved since the last AgRISTARS level semiannual review. Major objectives and accomplishments are reviewed and the experiment is described. The technical approach data assessment, and data systems used are considered. Results of the group approach comparison study are presented along with preliminary aggregation results for SSG processing procedures. The outlook for the future is assessed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: JSC-17433-VOL-1 , FC-J1-04175 , NAS 1.15:84157 , E82-10120 , NASA-TM-84157
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Infrared and visible data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite were used to study the intensity of the urban heat island, commonly defined as the temperature difference between the center of the city and the surrounding suburban and rural regions, as a function of changes in the season and changes in meteorological conditions in order to derive various parameters which may be used in numerical models for urban climate. The analysis was focused on the city of St. Louis; and in situ data from St. Louis was combined with HCMM data in order to derive the various parameters. The HCMM data were mapped onto a Mercator projection map of the city and ground temperatures were established using data corrected for the effects of atmospheric absorption. The corrected and uncorrected HCMM data were compared to determine the magnitude of the error induced by atmospheric effects.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:168542 , NASA-CR-168542 , E82-10159
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: General information and administrative instructions are provided for individuals gathering ground truth data to support research and development techniques for estimating crop acreage and production by remote sensing by satellite. Procedures are given for personal safety with regards to organophosphorus insecticides, for conducting interviews for periodic observations, for coding the crops identified and their growth stages, and for selecting sites for placing rain gages. Forms are included for those citizens agreeing to monitor the gages and record the rainfall. Segment selection is also considered.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: FC-J1-04108 , JSC-16860 , E82-10116 , NAS 1.26:167434 , NASA-CR-167434
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A portion of the data for the agricultural soil moisture experiment, conducted near Colby, Kansas, was collected from four scatterometers mounted on an aircraft. A method is outlined for locating the scatterometer footprints with respect to a ground-based coordinate system. The method requires the airplane's flight parameters along with aerial photography acquired simultaneously with the scatterometer data. Listings of the programs used in the registration process are included.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: JSC-17296 , SM-L1-04091 , NASA-CR-161058 , NAS 1.26:161058 , E82-10084 , LEMSCO-16340
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The study was conducted on six watersheds ranging in size from 277 km to 3460 km in the Rio Grande and Arkansas River basins of southwestern Colorado. Six years of satellite data in the period 1973-78 were analyzed and snowcover maps prepared for all available image dates. Seven snowmapping techniques were explored; the photointerpretative method was selected as the most accurate. Three schemes to forecast snowmelt runoff employing satellite snowcover observations were investigated. They included a conceptual hydrologic model, a statistical model, and a graphical method. A reduction of 10% in the current average forecast error is estimated when snowcover data in snowmelt runoff forecasting is shown to be extremely promising. Inability to obtain repetitive coverage due to the 18 day cycle of LANDSAT, the occurrence of cloud cover and slow image delivery are obstacles to the immediate implementation of satellite derived snowcover in operational streamflow forecasting programs.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: REPT-81F0063-VOL-4 , NAS 1.60:1825 , NASA-TP-1825
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A scheme was developed for separating the portions of the magnetic field measured by the Magsat 1 satellite that arise from internal and external sources. To test this method, a set of sample coefficients were used to compute the field values along a simulated satellite orbit. This data was then used to try to recover the original coefficients. Matrix inversion and recursive least squares methods were used to solve for the input coefficients. The accuracy of the two methods are compared.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-164928 , QR-6 , E82-10051
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A summary data set concerning 4 years of Antarctic sea-ice conditions was created and is available on magnetic tape. The data were derived from electrically scanning microwave radiometer brightness temperatures and were mapped into a polar stereographic grid enclosing the 50 deg S latitude circle. The grid size varies from about 32 by 32 sq km at the poles to about 28 by 28 sq km at 50 deg S. The microwave brightness temperatures of Antarctic sea ice are predominantly characteristic of first-year ice with an emissivity of 0.92 at 19 GHz frequency. Sea ice concentrations were calculated from the brightness temperature data for each grid element with an algorithm that uses an emissivity value of 0.92 and an ice physical temperature estimate from climatological surface air temperatures. Monthly, multiyear monthly, and yearly maps of brightness temperatures and sea ice concentrations were created for the 4 years, except for 7 months for which useable data were insufficient.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-83812
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The objective procedure was developed for identifying probable sensor and mission characteristics for an operational satellite land observing system. Requirements were systematically compiled, quantified and scored by type of use, from surveys of federal, state, local and private communities. Incremental percent increases in expected value of data were estimated for critical system improvements. Comparisons with costs permitted selection of a probable sensor system, from a set of 11 options, with the following characteristics: 30 meter spatial resolution in 5 bands and 15 meters in 1 band, spectral bands nominally at Thematic Mapper (TM) bands 1 through 6 positions, and 2 day data turn around for receipt of imagery. Improvements are suggested for both the form of questions and the procedures for analysis of future surveys in order to provide a more quantitatively precise definition of sensor and mission requirements.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-83867
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The complex refractive index of sea ice is modeled and used to predict the microwave signatures of various sea ice types. Results are shown to correspond well with the observed values of the complex index inferred from dielectic constant and dielectric loss measurements performed in the field, and with observed microwave signatures of sea ice. The success of this modeling procedure vis a vis modeling of the dielectric properties of sea ice constituents used earlier by several others is explained. Multiple layer radiative transfer calculations are used to predict the microwave properties of first-year sea ice with and without snow, and multiyear sea ice.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-83865
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An experiment was conducted by the National Langley Research Center to measure atmospheric optical conditions using a 10-channel solar spectral photometer system. This experiment was part of a larger series of multidisciplinary experiments performed in the area of Nantucket Shoals aimed at studying the dynamics of phytoplankton production processes. Analysis of the collected atmospheric data yield total and aerosol optical depths, transmittances, normalized sky radiance distributions, and total and sky irradiances. Results of this analysis may aid in atmospheric corrections of remote sensor data obtained by several sensors overflying the Nantucket Shoals area. Recommendations are presented concerning future experiments using the described solar photometer system and calibration and operational deficiencies uncovered during the experiment.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-83196
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 66
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An interpolation algorithm is presented as a practical alternative to common interpolation and approximation methods when applied to the problem of determining the location of remote sensor data. This algorithm is based upon knowledge of the geometry of the problem and is shown to be inherently more accurate than common interpolation schemes which may be applied to all types of data. A practical location problem is used to demonstrate its accuracy and computational cost.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-82169
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Multifrequency measurements of the radar backscatter from snow-covered terrain were made at several sites in Brookings, South Dakota, during the month of March of 1979. The data are used to examine the response of the scattering coefficient to the following parameters: (1) snow surface roughness, (2) snow liquid water content, and (3) snow water equivalent. The results indicate that the scattering coefficient is insensitive to snow surface roughness if the snow is drv. For wet snow, however, surface roughness can have a strong influence on the magnitude of the scattering coefficient. These observations confirm the results predicted by a theoretical model that describes the snow as a volume of Rayleig scatterers, bounded by a Gaussian random surface. In addition, empirical models were developed to relate the scattering coefficient to snow liquid water content and the dependence of the scattering coefficient on water equivalent was evaluated for both wet and dry snow conditions.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-166709 , RSL-TR-410-1
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 68
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Geologic characteristics of coal resources which may impact new extraction technologies are identified and described to aid system designers and planners in their task of designing advanced coal extraction systems for the central Appalachian region. These geologic conditions are then organized into a matrix identified as the baseline mine concept. A sample region, eastern Kentucy is analyzed using both the developed baseline mine concept and the traditional geologic investigative approach.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-164961 , DOE/ET-12548/9 , JPL-PUB-81-74
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 69
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data from the use of synthetic aperture radar in aerial survey of the southern Maya lowlands suggest the presence of very large areas drained by ancient canals for the purpose of intensive cultivation. Preliminary ground checks in several very limited areas confirm the existence of canals and raised fields. Excavations and ground surveys by several scholars provide valuable comparative information. Taken together, the new data suggest that Late Classic period Maya civilization was firmly grounded in large-scale and intensive cultivation of swampy zones.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-164931
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The software utilized for image correction accuracy measurement is described. The correlation analysis program is written to allow the user various tools to analyze different correlation algorithms. The algorithms were tested using LANDSAT imagery in two different spectral bands. Three classification algorithms are implemented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: MCR-81-576-VOL-4 , NASA-CR-166734
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An approach to remote sensing that meets future mission requirements was investigated. The deterministic acquisition of data and the rapid correction of data for radiometric effects and image distortions are the most critical limitations of remote sensing. The following topics are discussed: onboard image correction systems, GCP navigation system simulation, GCP analysis, and image correction analysis measurement.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: MCR-81-576-VOL-2 , NASA-CR-166732
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: During this period effort was devoted to: formulation of system performance goals in the areas of production cost, miner safety, miner health, environmental impact, and coal conservation, survey and in depth assessment of promising technology, and characterization of potential resource targets. Primary system performance goals are to achieve a return on incremental investment of 150% of the value required for a low risk capital improvement project and to reduce deaths and disability injuries per million man-hour by 50%. Although these performance goals were developed to be immediately applicable to the Central Appalachian coal resources, they were also designed to be readily adaptable to other coals by appending a geological description of the new resource. The work done on technology assessment was concerned with the performance of the slurry haulage system.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: JPL-PUB-81-69 , NASA-CR-164852 , DOE/ET-12548/7
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In order to increase the operating margins of the detector for safe, reliable operation under difficult in-mine conditions the transmitted signal strength was increased to provide additional signal margin for in-mine conditions and the transmitter section was redesigned to reduce frequency pulling of the transmitter frequency with variations in antenna load. The linearity of the pick load SCO signal with true pick load was increased, and hysteresis effects were minimized. The sensitized pick hardware was ruggedized for rough inmine use. The sensitized pick and telemetry system provided excellent, high quality signals proportional to cutting load under all conditions experienced during testing.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: SRD-81-048 , NASA-CR-161869
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 74
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A measurement system was developed for the Eickhoff longwall shearer to determine the contour of the coal face as it mines coal. Contour data are obtained by an indirect measurement technique based on evaluating the motion of the shearer during mining. Starting from a known location, points along the coal face are established through a knowledge of the machines' positions and yaw movements as it moves past the coal face. The hardware and system operation procedures are described. The tests of system performance and their results are reported.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-161849 , REPT-262-400
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Procedures were developed and tested for using KA-80A optical bar camera panoramic photography for timber typing forest land and classifying nonforest land. The study area was the south half of the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit. Final products from this study include four timber type map overlays on 1:24,000 orthophoto maps. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study: (1) established conventional timber typing procedures can be used on panoramic photography if the necessary equipment is available, (2) The classification and consistency results warrant further study in using panoramic photography for timber typing; and (3) timber type mapping can be done as fast or faster with panoramic photography than with resource photography while maintaining comparable accuracy.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-161082 , LEMSCO-15691
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 76
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This bibliography lists 480 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-SP-7041(30)
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 77
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: To determine their applicability for terrain profiling, Seasat altimeter measurements were analyzed for the following geographic areas: (1) Andean salars of southern Bolivia; (2) Alaska; (3) south-central Arizona; (4) imperial Valley of California; (5) Yuma Valley of Arizona; and (6) Great Salt Lake Desert. Analysis of the data over all of these geographic areas shows that the satellite altimeter servo did not respond quickly enough to changing terrain features. However, it is demonstrated that retracking of the archived surface return waveforms yields surface elevations over smooth terrain accurate to + or - 1 m when correlated with large scale maps. The retracking algorithm used and its verification over the salars of southern Bolivia are described. Results are presented for each of the six geographic areas.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-156878
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 78
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Generalized surface slopes were computed for the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets by differencing plotted contour levels and dividing them by the distance between the contours. It was observed that more than 90% of the ice sheets have surface slopes less than 1%. Seasat test mode-1 Seasat altimeter measurements over Greenland were analyzed by comparisons with collinear and intersecting normal mode Seasat altimeter passes. Over the ice sheet, the computed surface elevations from test mode-1 measurements were consistently lower by about 45 m and the AGC levels were down by approximately 6 dB. No test mode-1 data were acquired over Antarctica. It is concluded that analysis of the existing altimeter data base over the two ice sheets is crucial in designing a future improved altimeter tracking capability. It is recommended that additional waveform retracking be performed to characterize ice sheet topography as a function of geographic area and elevation.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-156877
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 79
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Fabrication and testing of a laser system for instantaneous location of a longwall shearer are summarized. Calculations and measurements for the design of a laser based system for monitoring and controlling the trajectory of the shearing machine as it progresses along the longwall face are reported. An early version was fabricated by employing simple mechanical contrivances and a standard miners lamp. It is concluded that the advantages of the early version is the ability to test the longwall face without approval from the Mine Safety and Health Administration.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-161848
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 80
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The capability of a natural background sensor for measuring the thickness of top coal on a longwall face was examined. The limitations on the time during which tests could be performed, and the roof conditions, did not produce readings of top coal measurements during the shearer operation. It was demonstrated that the system is capable to survive operating conditions in the mine environment, while the static tests confirmed that the natural background sensor approach is a valid method of measuring top coal thickness in mines where the roof rock provides a constant radiation level. It is concluded that the practical results will improve sequent development of an integrated vertical control system which is information from the natural background system.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: SRD-81-020-PT-B , NASA-CR-161847
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 81
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Various geodetic and mapping algorithms are analyzed as they apply to radar tracking systems and tested in extended BASIC computer language for real time computer applications. Closed-form approaches to the solution of converting Earth centered coordinates to latitude, longitude, and altitude are compared with classical approximations. A simplified approach to atmospheric refractivity called gradient refraction is compared with conventional ray tracing processes. An extremely detailed set of documentation which provides the theory, derivations, and application of algorithms used in the programs is included. Validation methods are also presented for testing the accuracy of the algorithms.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-163102 , GMD-802678
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 82
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Electrical scanning microwave radiometer brightness temperature, meteorological data, climatological data, and winter wheat crop information were used to estimate that soil moisture content in the Great Plains region. Results over the predominant winter wheat areas indicate that the best potential to infer soil moisture occurs during fall and spring. These periods encompass the growth stages when soil moisture is most important to winter wheat yield. Other significant results are reported.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-164142 , REPT-3622-4
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability