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  • Organic Chemistry  (669)
  • Life and Medical Sciences  (486)
  • 1980-1984  (1,155)
  • 1980  (1,155)
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  • 1980-1984  (1,155)
Year
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: centrosomes ; kinetochores ; microtubule initiation ; nuclease enzymes ; electron microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A lysed cell system was used to study the organelle structure and nucleation of exogenous tubulin at kinetochores and centrosomes in mitotic PtK2 cells. We have used this lysed cell system in conjunction with nuclease digestion experiments to determine which specific nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) are involved in either the structure and/or microtubule-initiating capacity of kinetochores and centrosomes. The results indicate that DNase I specifically decondenses the kinetochore plate structure, with the eventual loss in the ability of the chromosomes to nucleate microtubule assembly. DNase I had no effect on either the structure or nucleating capacity of centrosomes. Both RNase T1 and RNase A specifically attacked the amorphous pericentriolar material of the centrosomes, with a concomitant loss in the ability of this material to nucleate microtubule formation. Neither RNase appeared to affect the structure or nucleating capacity of the kinetochore. Therefore, the two types of nucleases appear to exert preferential effects on the different types of microtubule initiation sites in mitotic mammalian cells. The results suggest that DNA is a major component of the kinetochore, while RNA is a major component of the amorphous pericentriolar material. These findings support the concept that microtubule initiation sites in mitotic cells contain nucleic acids which are essential for the structural and functional integrity of the sites.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Ca-ion ; Labyrinthula ; contraction ; glycerination ; Ca-reservoir ; cell movement ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Colonies of Labyrinthula, a colonial marine protist, expand by protrusive movements of the specialized slimeways. The movements recorded in time-lapse films are of two types - filopodial and lamellipodial - and occur at rates equivalent to those of cell translocation.Evidence is presented that Ca2+ regulates the contraction of the actomyosin system of filaments present in the slimeways of Labyrinthula. In glycerinated models or in colonies exposed to ionophore A23187 contraction is evidenced by the occurrence of periodic contractions of the slimeways, giving them the appearance of strings of beads. Glycerinated slimeways contract on the addition of Ca2+ and ATP while slimeways provided with ionophore A23187 contract on addition of Ca2+ alone. The concentration required is 1.1 × 10-7 M Ca2+ while concentrations of 6.2 × 10-8 or lower were ineffective. Rates of contraction were measured in time-lapse films which provide evidence that contractions and beading occur everywhere in the slimeway system. When beading occurs, the 6-nm filaments transform from an array of parallel single filaments into an interwoven meshwork.We have identified by pyroantimonate-OsO4 fixation, as possible Ca2+ reservoirs, deposits of Ca2+ in bothrosomes - structures through which cell secretions pass into the slimeways. The electron-dense deposits are located at the base of the bothrosome and disappear after incubation with EGTA. We propose that the translocation of cells as well as the movements of slimeways may be regulated by the cells through the local measured liberation of Ca2+ from the bothrosome where it is sequestered.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 1 (1980), S. 31-40 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin ; fascin ; actin cross-linking proteins ; fertilization ; microvilli ; sea urchin eggs ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Following fertilization, the sea urchin egg cortex undergoes a structural change involving the assembly and organization of actin filaments into microvilli. Antifascin localizes this actin cross-linking protein in the microvilli of the fertilized egg cortex but no organized staining is present in the unfertilized cortex. Determination of the actin content of eggs using the DNAase I inhibition assay indicates that actin is about 1.4% of the total protein. Approximately 90% of this actin is soluble in low calcium isotonic extracts of unfertilized eggs while only 60-65% can be recovered in identical extracts of fertilized eggs. Similar measurements for fascin using a radioimmunoassay indicate this molecule represents about 0.3% of the total egg protein, essentially all of which is recovered in low calcium isotonic extracts of unfertilized eggs. After fertilization only 65-70% of this actin cross-linking protein is in the soluble phase. These results demonstrate a markedly different solubility for actin and fascin after fertilization, when the indirect immunofluorescence staining localizes fascin in the microvilli, and are consistent with the idea that fascin organizes newly polymerized actin filaments into the microvillar cores. A consideration of the amounts of actin and fascin incorporated into the cortex after fertilization and the number of microvilli on the egg surface indicates that the measured values are sufficient to account for the observed microvillar elongation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: mitosis ; mitotic spindle ; kinetochore ; microtubule ; micronucleus ; Tetrahymena ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Mitotic micronuclei were isolated from Tetrahymena thermophila and data on spindle ultrastructure were obtained from serial, transverse sections. Comparison of data from nuclei at meta- and early anaphase with data from nuclei at late anaphase showed that during anaphase, sister kinetochores move from the equator to the spindle poles, but kinetochore translocation occurs without any apparent change in either the number or length of kinetochore microtubules. This unprecedented result is ascribed significance with regard to the mechanism of kinetochore transport since there are only a limited number of ways that result could be achieved. The organization of the peripheral sheath changes during anaphase as evidenced by gaps in the sheath at late anaphase. Numerous kinetochore and non-kinetochore microtubules are located in polar regions of the spindle at late anaphase, whereas those regions contained only peripherally arranged microtubules at earlier stages. Tracking of individual kinetochore microtubules in late anaphase nuclei showed that some of them appeared to become incorporated into the peripheral sheath near the pole. At early and late anaphase, crossbridges connect adjacent microtubules throughout the spindle poleward to the kinetochores, as well as in the interzone.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cell motility ; extracellular matrix ; collagen ; glycosaminogly cans ; collagenase ; hyaluronidase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The effect of specific components of the extracellular matrix on the motility of tissue cells was studied using organ-cultured aggregates of embryonic fibroblasts. Spherical aggregates of chick embryo heart and skin fibroblasts were fused with [3H]-thymidine-labeled aggregates of the identical cell type. The movement of labeled cells into the unlabeled partner aggregate served as an estimate of cell motility in the cultured tissue-like aggregates. Collagenase treatment decreased the collagen content of heart fibroblast aggregates and increased cell motility; ascorbic acid treatment increased the collagen content of skin fibroblast aggregates and decreased cell motility. Reduction of the glycosaminoglycan content with testicular hyaluronidase had no measurable effect on cell motility in heart fibroblast aggregates.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Physarum polycephalum ; myosin light chains ; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ; calcium ; cytoplasmic streaming ; actomyosin ATPase regulation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Myosin from the slime mold Physarum polycephalum contains three sizes of polypeptides: a heavy chain and two light chains, LC-1 and LC-2. Using a simple qualitative test for calcium binding by comparing electrophoretic migration of the polypeptides in sodium dodecy1 sulfate (SDS) acrylamide gels in the presence and absence of calcium, we have found that Physarum myosin light chain LC-2 migrates with an apparent molecular weight of 16,900 daltons in the presence of the metal ion chelator ethylene glycol bis (B-aminoethyl ether) N,N′-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). However, if calcium chloride is added to the sample prior to electrophoresis, the apparent molecular weight decreases to 16,100. Lanthanide and cadmium ions, but not magnesium, can substitute for calcium. Because the ionic radii of Ca2+, La3+, and Cd2+ are almost identical, we conclude that Physarum myosin LC-2 possesses a very size-specific binding site for calcium. Physarum myosin LC-1 and the heavy chain give no evidence for binding calcium by this test. Since cytoplasmic streaming in the plasmodium of Physarum requires calcium, our evidence indicates that the calcium-binding property of Physarum myosin LC-2 may be important in regulating the production of force by actomyosin in the ectoplasm. Unexpectedly, the myosin light chain in Physarum capable of binding calcium, LC-2, is the essential light chain, while LC-1 is a member of the regulatory class of myosin light chains [V. T. Nachmias, personal communication]. Until now, essential myosin light chains have not been shown to have high affinity divalent cation binding sites. This means a new version of the myosin-based model for actomyosin regulation by calcium may be required to explain cytoplasmic movement in Physarum, and perhaps in other motile systems involving cytoplasmic myosins as well.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: nematodes ; muscle structure ; mutants ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A search for new mutants with altered body-wall muscle cell structure has been undertaken in the nematode C elegans. One-hundred seventeen mutants were isolated after mutagenesis with ethyl methanesulfonate or ultraviolet light, enrichment by a motility-requiring test, and screening by polarized light microscopy; 102 of these mutants were in ten previously established genes, whereas 15 mutants permitted the identification of seven new complementation groups in C elegans. Two of the new genes map on linkage group I (unc-94 and unc-95) and four genes are sex linked (unc-96, unc-97, unc-98, and unc-99). One complementation group (unc-100) could not be mapped because of the special characteristics of its cohort mutants. Representative mutants of the mapped genes were examined by polarized light and electron microscopy. All of the mutants exhibit disruptions of the normal A and I band organization of thick and thin filaments. Several of the mutants produce collections of thin filament-like structures. In one of these cases, HE177 demonstrated collections of somewhat wider, intermediate-sized filaments as well, and the HE195 mutant produces paracrystalline aggregates of thin filaments amidst looser arrangements of similar structures. The mutants in newly identified genes, as well as the new mutants in previously established genetic loci, have promise as tools in the study of myofibrillar assembly and function. Among the 22 complementation groups associated with body-wall structure in C elegans, it is likely that some genes code for regulatory and morphogenetic functions in addition to the well-studied structural, contractile, and calcium-associated proteins in muscle.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: tubulin ; Drosophila ; β-ecdysterne ; differentiating ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Drosophila Kc cells exposed to physiological doses of the moulting hormone, β-ecdysone, elongate, become motile, and subsequently aggregate. This pattern of morphogenesis was found to require the assembly of a microtubular cytoskeleton. Tubulin content was significantly increased in hormone-treated cells when compared to controls, as measured by a 3H-colchicine-binding assay. However, determinations of rates of tubulin synthesis and breakdown revealed no difference between control and hormone-treated cells for either parameter. When tubulin content was assayed by methods that do not depend on colchicine-binding activity, no difference between hormone-treated and control cells was observed. These results are discussed in terms of a model in which β-ecdysone affects the distribution of tubulin in “assembly-active” and “assembly-inactive” pools.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 1 (1980), S. 159-162 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 1 (1980), S. 163-163 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axon guidance ; chemotaxis ; haptotaxis substrate pathways ; development ; pattern biology ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In multicellular organisms, guidance cues are either diffusible molecules or cellular or extracellular surfaces that are found in reproducible locations and that orient migrating cells and cell processes. The pattern of the guidance cues usually determines the complex in vivo migration routes of motile cells and cell processes. Within organisms, guidance cues are found to be organized in two general patterns: (a) broad gradients - such as diffuse chemotactic gradients; (b) discrete routes (substrate pathways) - such as chemotactic gradients confined to long channels, and such as the axon surface which represents a long specific highway for migrating Schwann cells.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 1 (1980), S. 131-140 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sea urchin coelomocytes ; motility ; filopodial formation and elongation ; ciné film analysis ; scanning electron microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Sea urchin coelomocytes were examined during their morphological transformation from petaloid to filopodial forms by scanning electron microscopy and ciné film analysis. Petaloid coelomocytes have a variable morphology but, in general, consist of numerous thin sheets of cytoplasm, the petals, arranged in three dimensions around a central nuclear region. The transition to the filopodial form can occur in either substrate-attached or suspended cells and begins with the formation of several microspikes at the edge of each petal. These become more apparent as the cytoplasm between each microspike/filopodium is retracted centripetally. Concomitantly, the diameter of the flattened cell is increased by as much as twofold as the filopodia actively lengthen at a uniform, average rate of 0.5 μm/minute. The transformation process requires ca 15 minutes and is complete when the cell diameter no longer increases. These filopodia are functionally distinct from the passively produced retraction fibers observed in cultured mammalian cells. The formation of filopodia is biphasic and includes both a cytoplasmic retraction phase and an active extension phase.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 1 (1980), S. 167-167 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 165 (1980), S. 167-174 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The relationships between dimensions of book lung subunits were measured and analyzed as a function of body size in diverse spiders over a body mass range of 3.4 to 3,190 mg. Book lungs are the characteristic respiratory gas exchange organs in these arachnids. Actual gas exchange occurs across numerous air-filled cuticular plates, which invaginate hemolymph sinuses within the abdomens of these animals. Characteristic linear dimensions of these air-filled compartments reflecting diffusion paths scaled to the 0.2 power of body mass and showed only a fourfold increase over the size range in the sample. This deviation from isometric scaling in the direction obtained and its numerical similarity to scaling of alveolar dimensions to body size in vertebrates was interpreted as an adaptation to reduce diffusion distances between these compartments and vascular fluids. Conversely, lengths and widths of these plates scaled to the one-third power of body mass, isometric scaling, and increased between six-and eightfold over the size range. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that respiratory gas distribution within spider lungs is achieved by convective mixing as has been recently hypothesized.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This paper deals with the structure of gill epithelia in the sole, Solea solea, as revealed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In this marine teleost the chloride cell and its accessory cell form a cellular complex. Apically the plasma membranes of these cells are loosely juxtaposed, thus forming a leaky epithelium covering a large part of the gill.
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 165 (1980), S. 205-222 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Voles and lemmings are the most successful group of graminivorous rodents, but the adaptations allowing them to enter this niche are not fully known. Dissections of the masticatory musculature of the 12 genera and subgenera of North American microtines show an increase in the potential anterior vector component and in the potential vertical vector component of these muscles relative to the molar tooth row. The result is a separation of the compressive and propulsive functions of the masticatory muscles during the power stroke of mastication. This has led to the formulation of a propalinal “swing” hypothesis which is supported by vector analyses of the musculature.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) lay nearly spherical, flexible-shelled eggs having an outer mineral layer composed of calcium carbonate in the aragonite form. The mineral layer is arranged into loosely organized groups of nodular shell units, with numerous spaces (or pores) between adjacent shell units. Shell units are structurally complex, consisting of an inner tip that is morphologically distinct from the main body of the shell unit. Contained within an intact shell unit at the interface of the tip and the main part of the shell unit is the central plaque, an apparent modification of the shell membrane that may serve to nucleate calcification of shell units during shell formation. The tips of shell units are firmly attached to a single, multilayered shell membrane throughout much of incubation. The calcareous layer begins to detach from the shell membrane about half-way through incubation, and changes in shell morphology attending this detachment indicate that snapping turtles may use the shell as a source of calcium during embryogenesis. The arrangement of the mineral layer into groups of shell units, the large number of spaces between shell units, and little or no interlocking of crystallites of adjacent shell units apparently are factors contributing to the ability of these eggs to swell as they absorb water.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 165 (1980), S. 223-223 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 165 (1980) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The scutate scales are entirely missing in chick embryos homozygous for the gene, “scaleless.” Reticulate scales of this mutant are present; however, they have undergone abnormal morphogenesis into irregular mounds and crevices. The pattern of keratinization seen along the anterior metatarsus of normal embryos differs dramatically from that seen along the anterior metatarsus of scaleless embryos. In contrast, we find that the unique pattern of keratinization seen in the epidermal cells of normal reticulate scales is retained in mutant reticulate scales, even though these scales are morphologically abnormal. We believe that differences in the initial tissue interactions (which establish the inductive ability of the dermis) of these two types of scales are responsible for the differences seen in their responses to the scaleless gene. The pleiotropic nature of the scaleless gene is discussed.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Teeth of fetuses of a caecilian, Dermophis mexicanus (Amphibia: Gymnophiona), show ontogenetic variation in crown structure from small, multidenticulate, and non-pedicellate to larger, spoon-shaped, pedicellate teeth with a single apical spike. Number of denticles decreases as enamel-secreting cells mature. Numbers of teeth and of tooth rows increase ontogenetically. A fetal vomeropalatine set of teeth is present in D. mexicanus but absent in species previously examined. Teeth transitional to the adult shape and arrangement appear shortly before birth. The transition is correlated with birth, not fetal size. There is relatively little increase in numbers of teeth during the juvenile period. The pattern of development does not fully agree with either morphogenetic field theory or with clone theory, both as defined by Osborn ('78). Sequence of initiation is appropriate to either. Tooth shape changes agree with aspects of clone theory. Multiple rows of fetal teeth and the transition to adult follow field theory. Clone theory holds that patterns of development and shape are self-regulated, field theory that they are controlled extrinsically. I suggest that substances regulating differentiation mediate early development, and hormones later development, including inception of adult teeth, and are comparable to “field substances” influencing primordia that originate according to clone theory. Components of both theories are appropriate to analyzing tooth development phenomena.
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  • 23
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 166 (1980), S. 258-258 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A broad survey of muscle unit properties in 14 muscles of the cat hind limb is presented which emphasizes some general features of unit properties in mammalian muscles. A more detailed analysis of muscle unit properties in three muscles of the posterior compartment of the lower leg is then presented using Burke's tetrapartite (FF, FI or F (Int.), FR, and S) unit classification scheme. Our data on the properties of motor units in cat tibialis posterior (TP) have been compared to those generated by Burke and colleagues on units in flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG). In all three muscles, twitch contraction time was distinctly slower for type S units and specific tension outputs were substantially greater for type FF units than for type S units. The innervation ratios of type FR units were slightly lower than for type S units but the specific tension of the FR units was closer to FF units than to type S units. The FF units controlled 70-74% of the cumulative force output of each muscles, indicating a substantial capacity for powerful rapid contractions of all three of these muscles despite their differences in “size,” action, and force generation. Distinctive features of the three muscles included differences in the unit types' force producing capabilities and in the relative representation of “nonfatigable” type FR and S units in each muscle. In particular, TP is endowed with some unusually powerful type FF units and a high percentage (42%) of type S units. In contrast, FDL has units that develop relatively little force and an unusually high representation (56%) of type FR units. The possible relationships between these muscle features and their presumed role in posture and locomotion is discussed.
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 166 (1980) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Electron microscopy was used to follow the transformation of the endostyle to a thyroid gland in the anadromous sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus L., throughout metamorphosis (stages 1-7). Transformation of the larval (ammocoete) endostyle begins at the first signs of external change (stages 1-2), and the adult form of the gland is reached by stage 5. Only slight modifications of the gland accompany further development to the end of metamorphosis.Development of the thyroid gland involves degeneration, proliferation, and reorganization of the cells in the endostyle, and changes in their fine structure. Ultrastructural changes during early stages are most obvious in the type 1 cells that make up the shrinking glandular tracts, and involves the accumulation of cytoplasmic microfilaments and a variety of cytoplasmic inclusions. The glandular tracts and their cells gradually disappear through autolysis and, apparently, through phagocytosis by neighboring epithelial cells and macrophages. Although the fine structure of the type 2, 3, 4, and 5 cells is not altered in the early stages, by stage 3, many of these cells become either vacuolated, undergo autolysis, or are extruded. Phagocytosis of some of each of these cell types likely occurs.Thyroid follicles are first observed during stage 4. Some of their lumina seem to arise from the accumulation of material in intercellular spaces and from vacuoles among cell clusters. Other lumina may represent a portion of the original lumen of the endostyle. Many follicles appear to be comprised of cells with cytological characteristics similar to those of larval cell types 3 and 2c. Some of the other larval cell types, such as type 5, may also be involved. In young adult lampreys follicles are composed of cuboidal to columnar cells that lack the dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum seen in follicular cells of higher vertebrates. Dense collagenous connective tissue surrounding the follicles contains relatively few blood vessels.The transformation process described may have some relevance to our understanding of the development and evolution of the vertebrate thyroid gland.
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  • 27
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 166 (1980), S. 275-288 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Serial sections ranging from very young embryos to hatched juveniles and whole embryos of Scyliorhinus show that dentition and dermal skeleton belong to two independent secondary developmental fields that differ both developmentally and structurally. The development of the dentition starts very early, with a thickening of the ectoderm in the region of the mouth (stage 04), the invagination of the dental lamina (stage 18), and the formation of the germs of the first generation (stage 20). Tooth replacement movements start only near the end of embryogenesis (stage 35). Scale germs, on the other hand, first begin to form at stage 24. Scales erupt shortly before the animal hatches (stage 43). Only one scale generation is formed during embryogenesis. The forces which erupt the scales may come from fluid pressures in vacuoles of the fibrous layer of the dermis. Those which erupt the teeth probably also result from similar fluid pressures. The crown and upper part of the base of scales and teeth are formed by cells of the inner dental epithelium which are differentiated from the ectoderm. They are also formed by odontoblasts which are derived from the vascular layer of the dermis. However, the basal plates of scales and teeth containing the anchoring fibers are formed by osteoblasts, which are derived from the fibrous layer of the dermis.
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  • 28
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The morphology of the bean-shaped accessory glands (BAGs) of males of Tenebrio molitor is described. All cells in the secretory epithelium are long and narrow (300-400 mμ × 5 mμ). The seven types of secretory cells are distinguished from one another by the morphology of their secretory granules. Granule substructure varies from simple spheres with homogeneous electrondense contents to complex forms with thickened exterior walls or with crystalline and membranous contents. Individual cell types were mapped by staining whole glands with Oil Red O, and the cell distributions were confirmed by wax histology and ultramicroscopy. The secretions of all seven cell types form a secretory plug composed of seven layers. During mating, the secretory plug from each BAG is forced into the ejaculatory duct by contractions of a sheath of circular muscle. The mirror image plugs from symmetrical BAGs fuse and are transformed into the wall of the spermatophore.
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  • 29
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    Journal of Morphology 166 (1980), S. 387-387 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 30
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The external surface of the cornea and adjacent epidermis of larvae in representative developmental stages and of adult frogs, Rana pipiens, was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Surface cells are polygonal, usually hexagonal, in outline and covered with microprojections. During larval development prior to metamorphic stages, neither eyelids nor Harderian glands have developed; microprojections on the corneal surface are high and branched, and cell boundaries are elevated. On the anterior portion of the cornea and on the epidermis near the eye, the surface pattern is less dense, and ciliated cells are present. During metamorphic stages, corneal cell boundaries become less prominent and the pattern of microprojections more variable and markedly different from that of larvae of earlier stages. Corneal cells have a spongy appearance, are covered by a coating material, or are characterized as light or dark based on their brightness and surface texture. As eyelids develop in metamorphic stages XX-XXI, the numbers of ciliated cells increase dramatically, both on the corneal surface and on the edges of the developing lids. In later metamorphic stages XXII-XXV, lids and Harderian glands become well-developed, and cilia are no longer observed. The adjacent epidermal surface becomes devoid of cilia but perforated by openings of cutaneous glands. Its spongy appearance is similar to that of both the cornea and neighboring epidermis of the mature frog. Changes in corneal surface features are probably metamorphic events associated with development of lids and Harderian glands and a shift from an aqueous to an air environment.
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  • 31
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Notes: Three categories of dietary adaptation are recognized - faunivory, frugivory, and folivory - according to the distinctive structural and biochemical features of animal matter, fruit, and leaves respectively, and the predominance of only one in the diets of most species.Mammals subsisting mainly on animal matter have a simple stomach and colon and a long small intestine, whereas folivorous species have a complex stomach and/or an enlarged caecum and colon; mammals eating mostly fruit have an intermediate morphology, according to the nature of the fruit and their tendency to supplement this diet with either animal matter or leaves. The frugivorous group are mostly primates: 50 of the 78 mammalian species, and 117 of the 180 individuals included in this analysis are primates.Coefficients of gut differentiation, the ratio of stomach and large intestine to small intestine (by area, weight, and volume), are low in faunivores and high in folivores; the continuous spread of coefficients reflects the different degrees of adaptation to these two dietary extremes.Interspecific comparisons are developed by allowing for allometric factors. In faunivores, in which fermentation is minimal, the volume of stomach and large intestine is related to actual body size, whereas these chambers are more voluminous in larger frugivores and mid-gut fermenting folivores; fore-gut fermenters show a marked decrease in capacity with increasing body size. Surface areas for absorption are related to metabolic body size, directly so in frugivores; area for absorption is relatively less in larger faunivores and more in larger folivores, especially those with large stomachs.Indices of gut specialization are derived from these regressions by nonlinear transformation, with references to the main functional features of capacity for fermentation and surface area for absorption.These are directly comparable with the dietary index, derived from quantitative feeding data displayed on a three-dimensional graph, with all species within a crescentic path from 100% faunivory through 557ndash;80% frugivory to 100% folivory, perhaps illustrating, at least for primates, the evolutionary path from primitive insectivorous forms through three major ecological grades.
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  • 32
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    Journal of Morphology 164 (1980), S. 161-166 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Tactile hairs are present on all three subsegments of the antennal flagellum of the human louse. There is, in addition, a single chemoreceptor (tuft organ) on subsegment 2 and 12 or 13 chemoreceptors (one tuft organ, two pore organs and nine or ten pegs) on subsegment 3. The cuticle surrounding the bases of the pegs at the tip of the antenna is unusual in that parts of it are perforated by many fine pores. This cuticle is underlain by a thin layer of dendrites. This region may also have a chemoreceptor function.
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  • 33
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Notes: The heart-body of the marine worm Amphitrite, located within the supraesophageal dorsal vessel, is in the form of a cylinder the thin wall of which is deeply corrugated by luminal projections and folds along its entire length. It is anchored in places to the luminal surface of the dorsal vessel by an extracellular matrix containing collagen fibers. The luminal surfaces of both the heart-body and the dorsal vessel are covered by a basement membrane-like vascular lamina which in turn supports a discontinuous pseudoendothelium of littoral hemocytes.The cells of the heart-body constitute a pseudostratified, high columnar epithelium. They possess extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), a well developed Golgi zone, ferritin particles and granules, and several types of membrane-bound inclusions. Hemoglobin molecules identical to those in the circulation lie within cytoplasmic, membrane-bound vesicles. Analysis of our electron micrographs suggests the following sequence of hemoglobin production and secretion: Large quantities of a moderately dense flocculent material, probably globin, are synthesized in RER and move to the Golgi zone within partly rough- and partly smooth-surfaced transitional cisternae; small transport vesicles, formed from Golgi cisternae that have fused with transitional cisternae, convey the flocculent material from the convex to the concave face of the Golgi complex; a similar flocculent material and an amorphous, highly dense material are processed in the Golgi complex and are transferred to condensing vacuoles in which clearly identifiable hemoglobin molecules are first observed. Mature secretory vesicles containing only hemoglobin migrate to the cell periphery and discharge their contents by exocytosis. Hemoglobin molecules then cross the vascular lamina to reach the circulation.
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  • 34
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    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Notes: Two morphologically distinct structures occur on the surfaces of the oral papillae in several loricariid catfish species; namely, (1) typical vertebrate taste buds composed of receptor and sustentacular cells and (2) brushlike projections, termed epidermal brushes, that represent specialized epidermal cells containing keratin. Both of these structures were studied with the combined use of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The general body surface, fins, and rostral cutaneous processes of some loricariid catfishes are covered with taste or terminal buds but lack the epidermal brushes. It is suggested that the epidermal brushes found on the oral papillae serve as protective devices for the taste buds and as abrasive surfaces for substrate scraping during feeding. The taste buds on the oral papillae may detect any gustatory stimuli from the resulting substrate disturbance. Comparative studies reveal many differences in the number and spatial arrangement of these two structures on the oral papillae among the several species of the Loricariidae examined. These differences may represent functional adaptations to the various modes of life in the Loricariidae.
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    Journal of Morphology 164 (1980), S. 213-214 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 36
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    Journal of Morphology 164 (1980) 
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  • 37
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    Journal of Morphology 164 (1980), S. 215-233 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Electron microscope studies on Necturus maculosus oocytes ranging in size from 1.1-1.5 mm in diameter indicate the primary proteinaceous yolk to arise within structures referred to in other amphibian oocytes as yolk precursor sacs or bodies. The origin of these yolk precursor sacs appears to result from the activity of the Golgi complexes which form multivesicular and granular-vesicular bodies, the limiting membrane of which is at times incomplete. During differentiation, the yolk precursor sacs contain small vesicles similar in size to Golgi vesicles, larger vesicles similar to vesicular elements of the agranular endoplasmic reticulum and, on occasion, a portion of a mitochondrion. The interior of these sacs becomes granular, perhaps by a dissolution of the components just described, and soon becomes organized into a crystalline configuration.In oocytes 2.0-2.5 mm in diameter, an extensive micropinocytotic activity begins, continues throughout vitellogenesis, and constitutes the primary mechanism for the formation of secondary yolk protein. Numerous coated and smooth-surfaced vesicles, as well as electron-dense and electronlucent ones, fuse in the cortical ooplasm to form progressively larger yolk platelets.
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  • 38
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    Journal of Morphology 164 (1980), S. 167-211 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The dermopteran basicranium combines a primitively constructed and oriented auditory bulla formed by ectotympanic, rostral entotympanic, and tubal cartilage with derived features of the middle ear transformer and internal carotid circulation. Living dermopterans possess a primitive eutherian auditory region that has been structurally modified to perceive a lower frequency sound spectrum than probably was utilized by ancestral Mesozoic therians. Perception of the low to midfrequency range is enhanced in Dermoptera by reducing stiffness in the mechanical transformer while maintaining low mass of the component parts. Stiffness has been reduced by (1) development of an epitympanic sinus about four times the volume of the middle ear cavity proper, (2) detachment of the anterior process of the malleus from the ectotympanic, and (3) by delicate suspension of the ear ossicles within the middle ear.We apply to dermopterans a measure of hearing efficiency derived from recent functional studies of the mammalian middle ear that regards the middle ear mechanism as an impedance matching transformer. Calculation of the impedance transformer ratio for Dermoptera suggests that these mammals are relatively efficient in comparison to other eutherians in their ability to match the impedance of cochlear fluids to that of air at the eardrum. Dermopterans theoretically are capable of using over 90% of incident sound energy striking the eardrum at the resonant or natural frequency. Mechanical impedance of the middle ear transformer exerts a minimal influence on hearing efficiency due to low mass, little stiffness, and little frictional resistance.Analysis of measurements of the middle ear transformer published by Gerald Fleischer and integration of these data with current theory on the peripheral hearing mechanism in mammals allow us to propose a model that describes the structural and functional evolution of the mammalian middle ear transformer. Structural changes appear to be correlated with alteration in function from primitive small mammals with stiff middle ear transformers and high frequency dominated hearing to mammals with a wider range in body size with more mobile middle ear transformers and a greater range of frequency perception, often including improved sensitivity to lower frequencies.Mammals employ different anatomical strategies in attainment of increased hearing efficiency and sensitivity. Efficiency is improved by adjustment of lever and areal ratios of the middle ear transformer to achieve an optimum impedance match of external air and cochlear fluids. Sensitivity over a broad frequency spectrum is attained by minimizing mass, stiffness, and frictional resistance of the transformer. The morphology of the auditory region of both living and fossil mammals seems explicable in terms of selection pressure directed toward these ends.
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  • 39
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    Journal of Morphology 164 (1980), S. 235-263 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The asymmetric “punch and suck” mouthparts of larval Haplothrips verbasci develop from paired appendages in the late, post-anatrepsis embryo similar to those of other insects. Later, the labrum flexes ventrally over the stomodaeum, the right mandibular appendage degenerates, the maxillary appendages divide into inner (lacinial) and outer (stipital) lobes, and the hypopharynx arises from the venters of the mandibular and maxillary segments. All cephalic segments consolidate anteriorly prior to katatrepsis, their appendages flex ventrally, and the labial appendages fuse medially to form the labium and the primordia of the salivary glands and valve.The left mandible and the lacinial lobes of the maxillae invaginate into the head during and after katatrepsis to form the mandibular and maxillary stylet-secreting organs and these later deposit the cuticle of their respective stylets. Cuticle of the mandibular lever is deposited by labral cells at the apex of the mandibular sheath during and after hatching. That of each maxillary lever is secreted simultaneously into the lumen of a ventrally-directed diverticulum developing from stipital cells at the apex of each maxillary sheath.Shortly after katatrepsis, the maxillary and labial palpi originate respectively from cells in the outer wall of each stipital lobe and at the apex of the labium.Muscles of the mouthparts arise after katatrepsis from cephalic mesoderm and are fully-differentiated before cuticle of the mandibular and maxillary levers has been deposited.Gnathal morphogenesis in embryos of H. verbasci resembles that occurring in bug embryos and provides additional evidence that Thysanoptera and Hemiptera evolved from a common psocopteroid stem species having small, paired, biting and chewing mandibles and well developed lacinial stylets.
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  • 40
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The interstitial nematode Theristus caudasaliens n. sp. normally locomotes by hopping on the left side of its tail tip, a mode of locomotion that is unique among nematodes. The animal uses its caudal glands and caudal musculature to perform the hops, attaching itself momentarily between hops with the glands and executing the hops by straightening and curling the posterior part of its body.The caudal gland apparatus can be seen by electron microscopy to consist of five gland cells of two different types. Three of these cells, termed viscid glands, are involved in adhesion of the animal to substrates and produce ovoid granules with a central dense band. The other two cells are characterized by smaller, lessdense granules and presumably function in releasing the animal from substrates. The ducts of both gland types extend to the tail tip where they terminate in a common crescent-shaped space. Their secretions are released to the outside through two pores on the left side of the tail tip. There is no spinneret valve in this nematode. The muscles of the tail and of the mid-body region are developed to the same extent.The caudal gland apparatus can be compared with the duo-gland adhesive organs of other interstitial animals, but its homology with either these organs or the caudal glands of other nematodes is uncertain. Theristus caudasaliens is described as a new species.
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    Journal of Morphology 165 (1980) 
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  • 42
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    Journal of Morphology 164 (1980), S. 311-311 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 43
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    Journal of Morphology 164 (1980), S. 301-309 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Spermatozoa from eight heteropterans, each representing a different family, have been examined by electron microscopy in order to determine whether there exist characters typical for this insect group. Two such characters were found, namely bridges from the mitochondrial derivatives to the axonemal microtubules nos. 1 and 5, and two or three, rather than one, crystalline bodies within the mitochondrial derivatives. It is suggested that these characters are synapomorphic traits. The heteropteran spermatozoa lack accessory bodies typical of spermatozoa from many related groups of insects. The acrosome of the aquatic or semi-aquatic heteropterans (the infraorders Nepomorpha and Gerromorpha) has a peculiar inner structure consisting of tightly packed tubules. On the common theme of the heteropteran sperm structure, there were many variations, and the spermatozoa of each species examined can be recognized.
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  • 44
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    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Notes: Analysis based on telemetered electromyography from the quadriceps femoris of Lemur fulvus, a Malagasy prosimian, during walking, galloping, leaping, and a variety of postural behaviors partially confirms and partially contradicts earlier hypothesized functions of this musculoskeletal complex. As predicted on the basis of morphological criteria (large physiological cross-section and long parallel fibers), the vastus lateralis is of special functional significance in leaping. This relatively large muscle consistently initiates the leap and frequently undergoes a very long period of force enhancement via active stretch. By contrast, the vastus intermedius fails to exhibit increased electrical activity and undergoes little or no active stretch during jumps. The myological details of vastus intermedius (short fibers, no fusion with other components), therefore, cannot be accounted for as adaptations to leaping. Rather, a primary postural role is indicated for the vastus intermedius, because in normal resting postures, with the knee quite flexed, it alone is continuously active. The existence of a fibrocartilaginous superior patella in the tendon of vastus intermedius, however, is most plausibly related to the complex tensile and compressive stresses generated in the tendon during the completely hyperflexed phase of leaping.The phasic patterning of the quadriceps femoris of Lemur fulvus does not point to any special role of the vastus lateralis or vastus intermedius during walking and galloping; it does indicate very different patterns of muscle recruitment in comparison to those in nonprimate mammals and some anthropoid primates. The forward cross walk (diagonal sequence, diagonal couplets) of primates versus the backward cross gait (lateral sequence) of most other mammals probably accounts for some of these differences. Lemur fulvus lacks the degree of elastic storage and release of kinetic energy in the quadriceps femoris that characterizes the gallop of dogs, cats, and Erythrocebus patas.
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  • 45
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    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The ventral surface of the most proximal tarsomere of each mesothoracic leg of the female black fly, Simulium venustum Say, bears approximately 60 bifurcate sensilla. Externally, a sensillum appears as a hair set into an asymmetric socket and with the distal tip flattened into two flared lobes. A single pore opens into a short groove at the base of the lobes. The hair shaft is divided into two lumina, one of which contains the dendrites. Each sensillum is innervated by four neurons, the dendrites of which extend unbranched to the pore. Sensillum liquor bathes the dendritic tips and extends through the pore into the adjacent groove and across part of the lobes. A sieve-like structure exists in the pore region of many if not all sensilla. At least two sheath cells are associated with each sensillum.It is suggested that, although the bifurcate sensilla have the internal structure associated with known contact chemosensilla, they have secondarily acquired an olfactory function which is facilitated by the flattened lobes which increase the adsorptive surface area.Along each side of the bifurcate sensilla is a row of sturdy spines, each innervated by a neuron with a tubular body, a characteristic of cuticular mechanoreceptors. These spines are likely tactile sensilla.
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  • 46
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The morphology and ultrastructure of the blood cells of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis, Biomphalaria glabrata, and Bulinus truncatus were studied. By performing in vitro experiments and enzyme histochemical studies, special attention was paid to the role of the blood cells in phagocytosis of foreign particles.No fundamental differences were found in the ultrastructure, lysosomal enzyme contents, and phagocytic capacities of the blood cells of these species. It is concluded that only one type of blood cell, the amoebocyte, exists in the freshwater snails. Amoebocytes constitute a morphologically and functionally heterogeneous population of cells, ranging from round (electron-dense) cells with the morphological characteristics of young cells to highly phagocytic spreading cells with a prominent lysosomal system. In addition to acid phosphatase, nonspecific esterase and peroxidase were found within the lysosomes.The presence of enzyme activity in the RER and the Golgi bodies indicates that amoebocytes are able to synthesize lysosomal enzymes continuously.
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  • 47
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The active motility of the cells of the yolk sac of the living Fundulus embryo was studied by time-lapse cinemicrography with phase contrast optics. In the teleost, the yolk sac lies peripheral to the body of the embryo proper and consists of a fluid-filled space bounded above by a superficial epithelium, the enveloping layer (EVL), and below by the yolk syncytial layer (YSL). The cell types treated in the present study are the enveloping layer epithelial cell, the stellate cell which lies in a layer flattened on the inner surface of the EVL, the epithelioid deep cell, the yolk sac amoebocyte, the yolk sac endothelial cell and the yolk sac melanoblast. The most actively motile cells examined in the present study are the yolk sac amebocyte and the melanoblast, which emigrates from the embryo proper at stages 19-21. The amoebocytes are compact rounded cells that move very rapidly by the extension of lamellipods with scalloped margins. The amoebocytes wander over the yolk sac in an apparently undirected fashion and invade the embryo proper when they happen to encounter it, moving between cells of the lateral mesoderm. The melanoblasts migrate by the gradual extension of elongated branching processes. Cells are sometimes monopodial, with movement being parallel to the long axis of the cell. Alternatively, movement may be perpendicular to the predominant long axis, with processes being extended alternatively from opposite ends of the cell obliquely forward, so the path described is a zig-zag to either side of the overall direction of movement. Although the melanoblasts show irregularity in their movement, the predominant direction of initial movement is away from the embryo proper. The major yolk sac blood vessels form in situ by the collective activities of presumptive endothelial cells that enclose volumes of the yolk sac space with sheet-like processes from the cell body and from the extensions that connect cells into networks.
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  • 48
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    Journal of Morphology 165 (1980), S. 41-54 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Histology and cytology of dermal scales of the gymnophionans Ichthyophis kohtaoensis and Hypogeophis rostratus reveal their structure and the nature of their mineralization.Dermal scales are small flat disks set in pockets in the transverse ridges of the skin. Each pocket contains several scales of various sizes. A ring of “hypomineralization” of varying diameter may occur on scales of a particular dermal pocket but bears no relation to the diameter of these scales.Three different layers form the scales and are seen on sections perpendicular to the surface. The cells of the basal layer lie deepest. Each of the two or three more superficial fibrous layers is composed of bundles of fibres that are oriented in parallel. The orientation varies among layers. The striation of the fiber scales has a periodicity comparable to that of the surrounding dermal fibers. Squamulae form a discontinuous layer on the scale surface and are the only mineralized part of the scale. The minerals are deposited both on the collagen fibers passing from the fibrous layers into the squamulae, and in the interfibrillar spaces. Spherical concretions, either isolated or coalescent, reaching up to 1 μm, are found on the surface of the squamulae.The dermal scales of Gymnophiona present some analogies with those of evolved bony fishes. Their characteristics could make them an original model for the study of mineralization.
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  • 49
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    Journal of Morphology 165 (1980), S. 67-83 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Using light and electron microscopy, three hemocyte types are described in the hemolymph of the crayfish. The coagulocyte comprises 65% of the total hemocyte number and contains medium-sized cytoplasmic granules, abundant dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a highly developed Golgi complex. It rapidly undergoes cytolysis in vitro and participates in coagulation by releasing the contents of its granules to the hemolymph. The granulocyte comprises 31% of the total hemocyte number and is capable of phagocytosis. It contains large, irregularly shaped cytoplasmic granules, a moderately developed Golgi complex, and moderate amounts of non-dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum. During coagulation in vitro, the cell attaches and spreads onto the substratum; this is followed by a slow intracellular granule breakdown and cytolysis. The amebocyte comprises 4% of the total hemocyte number and it is also capable of phagocytosis. It possesses small cytoplasmic granules, many vacuoles, a moderately developed Golgi complex, and large amounts of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. It is distinguished from the other two cell types by being stable and motile in vitro.
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  • 51
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    Journal of Morphology 165 (1980), S. 55-66 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: To examine the functional roles played by the lumbar spine during overground stepping, seven adult cats were run in electromyographic (EMG) experiments. Recordings were made bilaterally from mm. iliocostalis, longissimus dorsi and multifidus at a single vertebral level (L3) and from m. rectus abdominis. Stepping movements were monitored synchronously either by videotape or by high speed cinematography. During alternate use of the hindlimbs (walking and trotting), both epaxial and abdominal muscles were active bilaterally and biphasically. During in-phase use of the hindlimbs (galloping and half-bounding), single bursts of activity were observed. Phasic bursts of activity in rectus abdominus were reciprocal to those of epaxial muscles. Second bursts of activity in either group were noted infrequently. Recordings from the same back muscle at several vertebral levels indicated little difference from these patterns. Movements of the lumbar spine during galloping and half-bounding steps, both angular and linear, are easily correlated with muscle activity patterns. Movements of the lumbar spine during walking and trotting show no particular pattern. Only small angular and linear movements are found. It is concluded that the lumbar spine contributes substantially to step length and limb speed during galloping and half-bounding steps and the epaxial and abdominal musculature may also act as elastic bodies. During walking and trotting steps, the epaxial muscles are proposed to act to stabilize the pelvic girdle to provide a firm base for limb muscles which arise on the pelvis and are synchronously active.
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  • 52
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    Journal of Morphology 165 (1980), S. 85-116 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Lateral cortex is the most laterally placed of the four cortical areas in snakes. Earlier studies suggest that it is composed of several subdivisions but provide no information on their organization. This paper first investigates the structure of lateral cortex in boa constrictors (Constrictor constrictor), garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), and banded water snakes (Natrix sipedon) using Nissl and Golgi preparations; and secondly examines the relation of main olfactory bulb projections to the subdivisions of lateral cortex using Fink-Heimer and electron microscopic preparations.Lateral cortex is divided on cytoarchitectonic grounds into two major parts called rostral and caudal lateral cortex. Each part is further divided into dorsal and ventral subdivisions so that lateral cortex has a total of four subdivisions: dorsal rostral lateral cortex (drL), ventral rostral lateral cortex (vrL), dorsal caudal lateral cortex (dcL) and ventral caudal lateral cortex (vcL). Systematic analyses of Golgi preparations indicate that the rostral and caudal parts each contain distinct populations of neurons. Rostral lateral cortex contains bowl cells whose dendrites arborize widely in the outer cortical layer (layer 1). The axons of some bowl cells can be traced medially into dorsal cortex, dorsomedial cortex and medial cortex. Caudal lateral cortex contains pyramidal cells whose somata occur in layers 2 and 3 and whose dendrites extend radially up to the pial surface. In addition, three populations of neurons occur in both rostral and caudal lateral cortex. Stellate cells occur in all three layers and have dendrites which arborize in all directions. Double pyramidal cells occur primarily in layer 2 and have dendrites which form two conical fields whose long axes are oriented radially. Horizontal cells occur in layer 3 and have dendrites oriented concentric with the ependyma. Fink-Heimer preparations of snakes which underwent lesions of the main olfactory bulb show that the primary olfactory projections to cortex are bilateral and restricted precisely to rostral lateral cortex. Electron microscopic degeneration experiments indicate that the olfactory bulb fibers end as terminals which have clear, spherical vesicles and asymmetric active zones. The majority are presynaptic to dendritic spines in outer layer 1.These studies establish that lateral cortex in snakes is heterogeneous and contains two major parts, each containing two subdivisions. The rostral and caudal parts have characteristic neuronal populations. Primary olfactory input is restricted to rostral lateral cortex and seems to terminate heavily on the distal dendrites of bowl cells. Axons of some of these cells leave lateral cortex, so that the rostral lateral cortex forms a direct route by which olfactory information reaches other cortical areas. The functional role of caudal lateral cortex is not clear.
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  • 53
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Morphometric analysis of vertebral structure in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) is presented. Ontogenetic variation in Dermophis mexicanus is analyzed through the 100+ vertebrae composing the column. Vertebral structure in adult D. mexicanus is compared with that in Ichthyophis glutinosus and Typhlonectes compressicauda. Centra of the atlas, second, tenth, 20th, and 50th vertebrae grow at allometrically different rates in D. mexicanus, though the 20th and 50th are not significantly different, Growth appears significantly slower in several dimensions of anterior and posterior vertebrae relative to midtrunk vertebrae in all three species. Mensural patterns throughout the entire column are similar in the terrestrial burrowers D. mexicanus and I. glutinosus; patterns in the aquatic T. compressicauda differ substantially from those of the burrowing species and are strongly influenced by allometry. Of the 112 D. mexicanus examined, 13.4% had vertebral anomalies, usually fusions.
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  • 54
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    Journal of Morphology 165 (1980), S. 157-165 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The caudal neurosecretory system of the molly, Poecilia sphenops (Poeciliidae) was studied by light and electron microscopy. In this species the cell bodies form a focal nuclear group in the caudal spinal cord. The neurosecretory cells are in contact with glial elements, axon terminals, and the lumen of the central canal. The axons of the neurosecretory cells form a definitive tract, which leaves the spinal cord proper to penetrate a well defined neurohemal organ, the urophysis. The urophysis contains an abundance of neurosecretory granules within the neurosecretory axonal processes. This study is the first ultrastructural study of the caudal neurosecretory system in this family of fishes, which has been used as a neuroendocrine model. This species acclimates easily to the laboratory aquarium and may be most suitable for further studies on the effects of changes in external salinity on the caudal neurosecretory system.
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  • 55
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    Journal of Morphology 165 (1980), S. 131-155 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Statoblasts of five higher phylactolaemates were compared morphologically. As a result, they were divided into two groups: Group I comprising Lophopus crystallinus, Lophopodella carteri, and Pectinatella gelatinosa, and Group II comprising Pectinatella magnifica and Cristatella mucedo. These two groups are thought to represent independent evolutionary series. In Group I and in P. magnifica, the statoblasts are curved to varying degrees after the manner of a saddle. When the dorsal and ventral valves are flattened, therefore, the contour is different between the two. In Group I, the outermost layer of a mature statoblast is hard-gelatinous and basophilic; it remains intact after the statoblast is set free. The statoblast does not float until it is dry, and the float is similar in size on both valves. In Group II, a mature statoblast is covered by a softgelatinous basophilic layer, which decays after the statoblast is released. The statoblast floats without drying, and the float is better developed on the dorsal valve than on the ventral. Moreover, in the members of Group II, large yolk granules are first formed, followed by much smaller yolk granules. When their statoblasts are treated with KOH, the shell is separated completely into two valves. These characters are common to many lower phylactolaemates. By contrast, in L. carteri and P. gelatinosa, the yolk granules are uniformly small and the capsule proper resists KOH treatment. On these points, L. crystallinus is somewhat different from these two species, suggesting its primitive nature.
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  • 56
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    Journal of Morphology 163 (1980) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 57
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    Journal of Morphology 163 (1980), S. 1-8 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The annular bands were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy in normal and hormonally bursectomized ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The four annular bands are normal lymphoid structures of 5-10 mm wide and encircle the intestine at regularly spaced position, two on each side of Meckel's diverticulum. The anterior three are well defined, complete rings whereas the posterior-most encompasses about one half of the gut circumference. The bands are characterized by prominent follicles in the tunica muscularis, submucosa, and lamina propria. In addition, large numbers of diffusely organized lymphocytes fill the lamina propria and villus cores. Each nodule possesses germinal centre activity, as revealed by the characteristic macrophage content seen in 1.0 μm sections.The bands were present in rudimentary form at hatching. Lymphoid nodules began to develop at day 3 and were morphologically mature at day 98 posthatching. When viewed in the scanning electron microscope, the mucosa of the lymphoid areas was seen to be arranged in tortuous folds, often with irregular fusions. Following hormonal bursectomy, the bands were present, although difficult to detect, and lacked distinct nodules and germinal centres. The mucosal surface still appeared irregularly folded in the SEM, but the folds were more slender with convoluted surfaces.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Previously unreported structures found on the head and thorax of several species of microcaddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) are described. Depending on the species, these presumptive pheromone-producing glands are found either (1) on the basal segment of the antenna, (2) on movable and immovable occipital sclerites, (3) as eversible organs from the occipital area of the head, or (4) on structures which are attached near the bases of the front wings.
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  • 59
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The presence of scolopophorous organs in aquatic Heteroptera has been reported in a number of species. This study presents a morphological investigation of these sensory structures of Lethocerus (Belostomatidae) as observed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Paired mesothoracic and metathoracic organs are present. Externally, each sensory structure consists of a raised sensory membrane. The distal-most portion consists of thickenings of this sensory membrane (sclerite). The receptor neurons of the mesothoracic organ are of two types - one discolopidial sensillum and 12 monoscolopidial sensilla. The former is attached to the internal wall and distal thickening of the sensory membrane, while the latter are dispersed throughout the interior and attached to the internal wall of the sensory membrane. The structure of the organs suggest that an effective stimulus could be a compression of the membrane. A discussion of possible functions (pressure reception and hearing) is included.
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    Journal of Morphology 166 (1980), S. 27-36 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The nerve elements described by light microscopy for the hydrozoan planula have not previously been identified ultrastructurally. This electron microscopic study confirms the presence of two distinct nerve cell types in the planula of the hydroid Pennaria tiarella. Type I nerve cells occur at the base of the ectodermal epithelium just apical to the forming foot processes of the epitheliomuscle cells. The perikaryon contains mitochondria, microtubules, neurosecretory granules, and a prominent Golgi body. Neurites rich in microtubules project from these cells and form a nerve plexus of transversely and longitudinally oriented processes throughout the length of the planula. The Type II nerve cell extends from the free surface of the planula to the mesoglea and bears a single cilium surrounded by long microvilli. The Type I and II nerve cells closely resemble the sensory-motor-interneurons and neurosensory cells of Hydra.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The marine sponge Neofibularia irata contains four different categories of siliceous spicules. These spicules are evident in the tissues as distinct bundles that act to increase the structural rigidity of the sponge. All spicules have a normal structural morphology with silica deposition around a hexagonal axial canal containing a crystalline axial filament. The megasclere strongyles are secreted in typical megasclerocytes. The sigma and raphid microscleres are secreted in individual microsclerocytes that are grouped together in parallel to form loose bundles. However, the microxea microscleres are apparently secreted in distinct tight bundles (trichodragmas) within a single cell. These cells, containing between 13 and 39 spicules, are grouped to form large packets of bundles of spicules.
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  • 62
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    Journal of Morphology 166 (1980), S. 65-80 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Anatomical studies were conducted to characterize the source, type, and distribution of parathyroid gland innervation in European starlings. Denervation experiments demonstrated that the parathyroid glands and adjacent carotid bodies are innervated by nerve fibers originating in the nodose ganglion of the vagus nerve. In the parathyroid parenchyma, these fibers terminate adjacent to chief cells or near vascular smooth muscle. Vagal fibers also form synapses with catecholamine-containing glomus cells of the carotid body. Blood that first perfuses the carotid body subsequently perfuses the parathyroid parenchyma. These observations suggest that vagal innervation may influence parathyroid function in starlings either through direct chief cell innervation or through alteration of vascular perfusion. A neurohemal relationship also may exist between the carotid body and parathyroids.
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  • 63
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    Journal of Morphology 166 (1980), S. 37-50 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Intercellular bridge development was compared in Ceropia by transmission electron microscopy in the germ cells of males and females. Bridge formation begins in the fourth instar, and the spindle remnants in newly formed bridges are replaced at this time by an amorphous material known as the fusome. In the four- and eight-celled cystocyte clusters of the female, the newly formed intercellular bridges migrate centripetally, forming a central complex of bridges surrounded by a rosette of germ cells. The fusomes become continuous and occupy all of the bridges in the complex. At each division each mitotic spindle orients itself with one pole toward the continuous fusome. In the female, mitosis stops at the eight-cell stage, and the cystocytes all enter first meiotic prophase. At the end of the fifth instar, when nurse cell differentiation commences in seven of the cells, the continuous fusome is replaced by a continuous mass of mitochondria and microtubules. In the male, bridge migration and rosette formation are abandoned during the later mitotic and meiotic divisions; during these stages the fusome is no longer continuous. The fusome of males disappears during spermatid differentiation and is not replaced by mitochondria and microtubules. The ability of the centrally located continuous fusome to orient the mototic spindles of succeeding mitoses could account for the earlier observations that all pre-existing bridges remain in only one of the daughter cells at each successive cystocyte division in the female.
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  • 64
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    Journal of Morphology 163 (1980), S. 219-230 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Rat submandibular gland was dissociated by enzymatic digestion with collagenase and hyaluronidase, followed by mild mechanical shearing and filtration through a nylon mesh. The dissociated cell populations contained predominantly groups of acinar cells which maintained their acinar arrangement. The morphological and functional viability of the cells was confirmed by electron microscopic examination and a normal secretory response to β-adrenergic or cholinergic stimulation was observed. Both isoproterenol (IPR) and carbachol caused the fusion of secretory granules into large vacuoles which were also continuous with the lumen, and into which the secretory product was released. Secretion was assessed quantitatively from the incorporation of 14C-glucosamine into the acinar cells and its subsequent release into the culture medium as labelled glycoprotein. IPR stimulated secretion to 125% of untreated controls in the concentration range 5 × 10-5 to 5 × 10-7 M, and to 110% of controls at 5 × 10-8 M, after 40 min incubation. Carbachol stimulated secretion to 131% of controls at 5 × 10-5 M and to 115% at 5 × 10-6 M but had no effect at 5 × 10-7 or 5 × 10-8 M. The secretory response was blocked by the respective β-adrenergic and cholinergic antagonists, propranolol and atropine. These findings show that dissociated rat submandibular acinar cells provide a useful in vitro model for the study of mucus synthesis and secretion.
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    Journal of Morphology 163 (1980), S. 331-348 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The relationship of the hemipenis to the cloaca in copula and sperm storage and transport in the female oviduct were studied in Anolis carolinensis using light and scanning electron microscopy. During copulation, the hemipenis does not penetrate beyond the cloaca, but the two apical openings of the bifurcate sulcus spermaticus appose the openings of the oviducts from the cloaca. Sperm enter the sperm storage tubules between 2 and 6 hr after insemination and small amounts of sperm reach the infundibulum 6 to 24 hr following mating. Sperm storage tubules are embedded in the wall of the utero-vaginal transition, and are formed by the folding and fusion of the oviducal epithelium. The importance of the hemipenile-cloacal relationship and the role of sperm storage in the life history of A. carolinensis are discussed.
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  • 66
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    Journal of Morphology 163 (1980), S. 349-365 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Biochemical and morphological properties of the Harderian gland of the mouse were examined by combining autoradiographic, biochemical, and electron microscopic techniques. Autoradiographs show that the radioactive carbon from [U-14C]glucose injected into the abdominal cavity is completely incorporated into the acid-insoluble substances within 30 minutes. The results of chemical analysis show that the main components of this gland are glyceryl ether diesters and phospholipids. Scanning electron microscopy shows numerous lipid droplets in the secretory cells and alveolar lumina. Myoepithelial cells lie between the secretory cell base and the basement membrane and have a basket-like distribution of processes as confirmed by hydrochloric acid and collagenase digestions. Myofilaments are demonstrated in the cytoplasm. Two types of secretory cells (A and B) comprise the alveolar epithelium and can be differentiated under the electron microscope. The cytoplasm of both contains numerous vacuoles. The vacuoles are almost empty in A cells, which are a more numerous constituent of the alveolar epithelium than B cells. However, the vacuoles of the B cells contain densely osmiophilic material. In both, cell types show a merocrine mode of secretion. Unmyelinated nerve cell endings occur in the interstices of the connective tissue, and contain clear or cored vesicles.
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  • 67
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    Journal of Morphology 164 (1980) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000