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  • 1940-1944  (3)
  • 1935-1939
  • 1943  (3)
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  • 1940-1944  (3)
  • 1935-1939
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The data used in a recent paper on the same subject have been rediscussed by a more sensitive method for detecting variations of gravity capable of being represented by spherical harmonics of low degrees. In the first place all cross (non-diagonal) terms in the normal equations for the coefficients were neglected; in the second approximation the terms most strongly suggested by the first approximation were determined by the method of least squares. One second harmonic and three third harmonics, besides the terms included in the usual formulae, were found to be determinable. The variation shows no relation to the elevation of the surface and is inconsistent with accurate compensation. A new determination of the constant and the main ellipticity terms is made incidentally. No fourth harmonics are determinable on the data, but a suggestion is offered for the treatment of an independent term in Pp if occasion should arise.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The stress-differences needed to support given surface loads due to harmonics of degrees 2 and 3 have been estimated on four hypotheses: (1) elastic loading of a uniform sphere; (2) inelastic loading of a uniform sphere, with continuous stress at the centre; (3) and (4) inelastic loading of a sphere with no stress-differences within distances 0-545a and 0.9a of the centre, a being the radius. Mean stress-differences are also found on hypotheses (3) and (4) for loading due to harmonics of degrees 10 and 30. Combining the results with the observed distribution of gravity, it is found that the strengths needed on hypothesis (3) are about 150 × 106 dynes/cm.2 at depths down to about 0.1 of the radius and about 80 × 106 dynes/cm.2 down to the core. On hypothesis (2) strengths of about 330 × 106 dynes/cm.2 are needed throughout the outer tenth of the radius.The uncertainty of the coefficient of P2 in gravity found from the precessional constant by de Sitter's method is estimated from the variation of gravity in other harmonics not consistent with the hydrostatic state. It is found to be 5.9 mgal, virtually based on four degrees of freedom.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: 〈list xml:id="l1" style="custom"〉1The subject of study is the variation of salinity at seven particular stations within each month over a number of years. The observations were taken three times per week at fixed hours of the day.2Daily anomalies for the years 1935 and 1936 have standard deviations which range from 0.515‰, for Liverpool Bar L.V. to 0.089‰ for Chicken Rock Lighthouse. For Liverpool Bar and Morecambe Bay the variations in winter are greater than the variations in summer, and for Morecambe Bay this effect is very pronounced. But no such definite seasonal effect appears to exist half-way between Holyhead and Kish L.V.3Reasons are given for expecting, at particular places in the Irish Sea, tidal oscillations in the salinity of the surface waters whose semi-ranges are of the order of 0.4‰ in Liverpool Bay and 0.03‰ half-way between Holyhead and Dublin.4A process for the isolation of tidal effects only reveals definite tidal oscillations for Liverpool Bar and Morecambe Bay. The semi-ranges of these oscillations are of the orders of 0.3‰ and 0.1‰ respectively. Indefinite results are obtained for the seasonal effect in the tidal oscillations, but the total number of observations is not sufficient for such a determination.5When the tidal oscillations for Liverpool Bar and Morecambe Bay are subtracted from the daily anomalies, the residual variations have standard deviations of 0.470‰ and 0.381‰ respectively.
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