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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (35)
  • 1925-1929  (35)
  • 1928  (35)
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  • 1925-1929  (35)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 45 (1928), S. 1-45 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Five characters-flatness, elongation, posterior pointedness, delay in division of the body, delay in completion of mitosis-are so distributed among the subdivisions of the Opalinidae as to involve either repeated fortuitous appearances of these characters, a thing not to be believed, or trends resident in the germ plasm. The Ophryoscolecidae show similar distribution of two sets of characters. In the Salpidae there is evidence of trends toward: coiling of the gut; decrease in number, size, regularity, and symmetry of body muscles; simplification and degeneration of the eyes. These qualities appear first in the phylogeny in the chain Salpas, the final phase in the life-cycle. In the course of the evolution the solitary Salpas become more and more modified in the same directions, until, in the most highly modified species, the muscles and eyes are as much modified in the solitary Salpas as in the aggregated. These changes, not disadvantageous but rather adaptive in their beginning in the colonial individuals, are harmful to the solitary Salpas, yet the degeneration is, by precocious development, thrown back onto the earlier phase of the life-cycle, the solitary stage. Precocious development is not purely utilitarian, but may be more fundamental, biological.Evolution is discussed in terms of trends resident in the germ plasm, their origin in connection with mutations, their growth, decrease, disappearance, branching; auto-evolution. Discussion is from the standpoint of the germinal stream, internal factors of evolution being emphasized.
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  • 2
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 45 (1928), S. 187-207 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This paper deals with the description of an organism, externally resembling Müller's larva among the polyclads, collected in the plankton of Monterey Bay, California, during the spring and summer months. Internally, the organization of the various systems is unique. In some respects it bears a certain resemblance to a polyclad in early stages of development; in other regards it approaches the rhabdoceles, more particularly the Acoela. Its more exact relationships are obscured by the fact that, although the larger specimens are not more than 0.7 mm. in length, the sex organs, both male and female, are fully developed and functional. Furthermore, the plan of these systems is unlike that of any turbellarian hitherto described. Whether this organism represents a case of paedogenesis or is a fully developed adult is unknown at present, but in any event the various systems are described and an attempt is made to give it a fairly definite systematic position.
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  • 3
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 45 (1928), S. 121-185 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: An histological and cytological study of the postembryonic history of the fat-body in Pteronidea ribesi (Scopoli) and Diphadnus appendiculata (Hartig) (both Tenthredinidae) and in Macrocentrus ancylivora Rohwer (Ichneumonidae).The two principal components of the fat-body are the urate-storing excretory cells and the fat-cells.The development and behavior of the excretory cells, especially during the metamorphosis, are described, and in Pteronidea their origin is traced to leucocytes which have become associated with the fat-cells.In the albuminoid inclusions found in the fat-cells two types of substance are distinguished: (a) a basophile material, of nuclear origin, which appears only during the metamorphosis; (b) an acidophile material which appears already during the early larval stages in Macrocentrus, but in Pteronidea is formed only during the metamorphosis and in association with the basophile material. It is thus found that albuminoids formed slowly during larval life may exist from the beginning in the form of acidophile spheres, as occurs in Macrocentrus. But those formed rapidly during the metamorphosis, in all the forms studied, are formed in association with a basophile material derived from the nucleus.The significance of intracellular changes during the metamorphosis is discussed, and the final disposition of the cell inclusions as well as of the fat-cells themselves is described.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Amoeba proteus was raised in a modified and diluted Ringer solution. When the pH of this culture medium became less than 6.0, the normal activities of the amoebae were interfered with; and when a still lower pH was attained, the amoebae died off. The same was true when the pH became greater than 8.0. At neutrality the activities were subnormal, very dark, and rounded. The rate of locomotion of amoebae raised in solutions with a pH less than 7.0 showed a maximum rate of locomotion at pH 6.6, which decreased as the pH changed in either direction, dropping to a very low rate at pH 7.0 and above and also below 6.0. For amoebae raised at a pH above 7.0 the rate was maximum at pH 7.6 and decreased as the pH changed in either direction; it was low at pH 7.0 and below and also above 8.0.On increasing the external osmotic pressure of the medium it was found that the effects caused varied somewhat with the hydrogen-ion concentration. Small increases in osmotic pressure decreased the rate from the normal at pH 6.0 and 8.0, increased it at pH 6.6 and 7.6, and did not affect it at pH 7.0. Osmotic pressures above that produced by M/20 lactose caused locomotion to cease in a short time at all pH values.
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  • 5
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 45 (1928), S. 209-231 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The highly specialized cranial musculature of the toadfish is characterized by the following features: 1Absence of intermandibularis and branchiomandibularis muscles.2Presence of levator premaxillaris muscle.3Very large branchial chamber, the outer wall of which is formed by seven branchiostegal rays connected by a strong fascia provided with muscles (oblique levators and adductors).4Highly developed masticator muscles (adductor mandibularis and pterygoids).5The rectus abdominis, sternohyoid, and hyohyoid muscles are attached by a median aponeurosis to the hyoid and basibranchial elements and directly to the hypobranchial cartilages; this muscle complex depresses the buccal floor in opposition to the geniohyoid.6The pelvic fins are in the jugular position.7Two narrow muscles connect the cleithrum with the fourth ceratobranchial.8The cranial musculature is obviously adapted to a carnivorous habit and particularly for increasing respiratory capacity under asphyxial conditions.
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  • 6
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 45 (1928), S. 293-398 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Blindfolded persons walk, run, swim, row, and drive automobiles in clock-spring spiral paths of greater or less regularity when attempting a straightaway. The spirals turn either right or left in one and the same individual, and may do so even in one experiment. But either right or left turns predominate in the great majority of individuals, often to a high degree. The paths show marked individuality, and there is some ground for thinking there exists a correlation between temperamental differences and general character of path.The mechanism which produces the spiral path is not located in the locomotor organs, but in the central nervous system and is probably identical essentially with the spiral mechanism in other motile organisms, all of which move in spiral paths when there are no guiding senses to direct the path. The clock-spring spiral in man is interpreted as the expression in two dimensions of space of a helical spiral mechanism which seems to exist in all motile organisms moving in three dimensions of space and in amebas which move in two dimensions. In a large number of lower organisms the number of body lengths per spiral turn is almost constant, being about 4.5. The smallest regular swimming spirals in man are very close to this value, but the smallest regular walking spirals are somewhat larger. The fundamental spiral mechanism seems to be of molecular dimensions, and there seems to exist a demonstrable locomotor bilateral asymmetry in very nearly, if not quite, all organisms.
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  • 7
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 45 (1928), S. 259-292 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The digital disks of the tree frogs are covered ventrally with a superficial layer of vertically elongated, fibrous, and distally free cells between which there empty a series of convoluted mucous glands. The latter are surrounded and, in the larger-disked species, divided into blocks by sheets of collagenous fibers. The glands are emptied by the squeezing together of the collagenous fibers when the body weight exerts a pull on the terminal phalanges. The disks function by friction, cohesion, and adhesion.The digital-disk apparatus was fully established before certain groups of frogs became arboreal. It is retained in others which have reverted to the terrestrial habit. The intercalary cartilage increases the efficiency of the apparatus. It did not arise in phylogeny until after the apparatus was developed.As the digital disks vary in extent in both arboreal and terrestrial species, arborealism seems to have resulted from a chance occurrence of large disks in the smaller-bodied forms; at least, there is no progressive modification of the digits toward particular habitat requirements.The subarticular tubercles of many Salientia develop typical climbing apparatus. This may or may not be correlated with an arboreal habit. In the species with the largest subarticular tubercles no apparatus is present. Arboreal salamanders exhibit no special climbing mechanism, but adhere by pressing their moist integument against the substratum.
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  • 8
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 45 (1928), S. 399-439 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In this study the problem of the tonsil is considered in anurans. The common toad (family Bufonidae) is used as the type, and representative species of the other families are compared.In each species representative stages beginning before transformation were selected, and the lingual region of each was sectioned. Some thyroid-fed toad tadpoles which had prematurely transformed were examined. The investigations led to the following conclusions: 1Accumulations of lymphocytes occur in all the families except Hylidae.2A pair of tonsils located on either side of the tongue appear before transformation in Bufo, and persist, increasing in size through old age.3This pair has its developmental origin at or near the cephalic end of pouch II. In no other species examined do the tonsils appear as early; in almost all forms the accumulations are inconstant in occurrence, as are also some in Bufo.4The cells of the ‘tonsils’ are lymphocytes of varying sizes. They arise from the mesenchyme; later their accumulations become sites of lymphopoiesis.5This type of lympho-epithelial mass is simple in structure and has a greatly thickened epithelium, due to extensive infiltration by lymphocytes. In the connective tissue the vascular supply is abundant.6The differentiation of lymphocytes may be due to a factor of strain, arising through adjustments made during metamorphosis.7Thyroid-fed toad tadpoles transform, apparently without developing tonsils.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Modifications of the gastro-intestinal tract of Nereis virens are two dorsolateral esophageal cecums, directed anteriorly and posteriorly from the point of attachment. The cecal and esophageal lumina are continuous. Each cecum is composed of acini, possessing a row of elongated cells, basement membrane, and intima. Fibro-elastic tissue is present. The elongated cells contain glycogen and fat.The hepatopancreas of Asterias vulgaris consists of two lobes in each ray, and the numerous acini empty into the bifurcated hepatopancreatic duct which leads into the pyloric stomach. The hepatic cells are columnar and contain glycogen and fat. Pancreatic cells lie in the midregion of the acini.The lobulate liver of Loligo pealii lies on the ventral surface of the duodenum. A capsular membrane envelops the organ. The acini possess basement membrane, columnar cells, and intima; their lumina anastomose, forming a common duct, which leads into the blind sac. The hepatic cells contain fat.The hepatopancreas of Melanoplus femur-rubrum consists of six cecums histologically continuous with the digestive epithelium of the pyloric stomach. Each cecum consists of simple and compound acini which empty into a duct leading to the pyloric stomach. Each acinus possesses basement membrane, columnar hepatic cells, pancreatic cells, and intima. The pancreatic cells occur in islets, usually adjacent to the basement membrane. The hepatic cells contain glycogen and fat.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The spermatogenesis of five guinea-pigs was studied. The spermatogonial chromosome number is approximately sixty-two plus or minus two. The primary spermatocyte number is approximately thirty-one. The spermatogonial number in the early prophase is lower than it is in later stages. This condition is due to late fragmentation of the large chromosomes found in the earlier stage. A possible sex chromosome of the X-Y type may be identified. Its components segregate during the first maturation division.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Virulent hay-infusion cultures of Bacillus pyocyaneus are toxic to pure-line races of three species of paramecia, but these races may acquire a tolerance for this toxic agent. Races with acquired tolerance have been grown for long periods of time in toxic, pure cultures of B. pyocyaneus by means of the daily-isolation culture method, and here the average division rate is as high as, or higher than, in the chance-mixed bacterial cultures in which these protozoa are usually maintained in the laboratory. The tolerance is lost, however, when the paramecia are removed from the toxic cultures and grown for a number of generations in cultures of non-toxic bacteria.The toxic agent that is lethal to paramecía is probably the soluble toxin of B. pyocyaneus. The investigation shows that the agent is soluble and either thermolabile or volatile. It also shows that all deleterious substances, other than the soluble toxin, known to be produced in cultures of this bacillus, are non-lethal to paramecia.Hay-infusion cultures of Bacillus enteritidis were lethal to paramecia. All attempts to develop tolerance in paramecia for the toxic agent in these cultures failed.Under the experimental conditions that prevailed, diphtheria toxin was found to have no appreciable effect upon the division rate or death rate in three species of paramecia.
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  • 12
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 46 (1928), S. 217-239 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Notwithstanding the fact that several species of Bruchidae have been used by geneticists for several years, no cytological studies have as yet been made on any member of this family of the Coleoptera. The present paper gives a general account of the spermatogenesis of Bruchus quadrimaculatus Fabr.The spermatogonia undergo two mitotic divisions. After the second division, the nuclei remain small and very dense for some time before the beginning of the growth phase. During this interval the nuclei do not assume again the characteristics of the interkinesis stages. In the primary spermatocytes typical tetrads are formed. The chromosomes are asymmetrically V-shaped. The end of one arm of the ‘V’ fuses with the end of the corresponding arm of its synaptic mate. Disjunction takes place in the primary spermatocyte division. After the division of the secondary spermatocytes, the chromosomes become vesicular and form a reticular nucleus in the spermatid, after which the chromatin becomes deposited as a chromatin rim around the nuclear periphery. The diploid number of chromosomes is nineteen in spermatogonia and in male somatic cells, and twenty in female somatic cells. An unpaired X chromosome is present in the spermatogonia, which fails to divide in the primary spermatocyte division, but passes as a whole to one pole in advance of the autosomes. The X chromosome divides normally in the secondary spermatocyte division with the autosomes.In the method of sex determination, Bruchus does not follow the method of the majority of beetles, since most of those studied adhere to the X-Y type.
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  • 13
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 45 (1928) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 14
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 45 (1928) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A detailed study has been made of the anatomy of one of the fingernail shells, and preliminary observations on the life-history have been carried out. In its general organization Sphaerium notatum is very similar to the larger fresh-water lamellibranchs. A gastric shield, crystalline style, and style sac, very similar to those found in the stomach and intestine of Lampsilis, are present. A pair of slender muscles extending from the dorsal side of the body into the gills, and evidently not previously described, have been found. The nervous system consists of the typical three pairs of lamellibranchiate ganglia, with their connectives, accessory ganglia, and nerve fibers. Particular study was given to the statocysts and osphradia, and attention is called to the fact that the function commonly ascribed to the osphradia is incompatible with their position in the roof of the cloacal chamber.S. notatum, like all the Sphaeriidae, is hermaphroditic and viviparous. The gonads are paired racemose glands lying behind and below the stomach. The sperm-producing follicles form the anterior portion of each gonad and are somewhat smaller and more numerous than the ova-producing follicles which form the posterior portion. The young pass through the early stages of development in brood pouches in the gills and are expelled as relatively enormous individuals.Preliminary observations on the life-history indicate that reproduction reaches its height in the summer and that fertilization probably takes place during the late summer and fall.
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  • 16
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 45 (1928), S. 599-613 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A study of spermatogenesis was made on four groups of a pedigreed strain of the moth Philosamia cynthia, and the results were compared with spermatogenesis in the wild material.Deviations from the normal number of chromosomes were observed in two groups. In some individuals the haploid number was 12 instead of 13. Giant spermatocytes were also observed with twenty-four chromosomes. In other individuals, two haploid numbers, 13 and 14, occurred in the same testis.The twelve-chromosome condition is due to linkage of two chromosomes during the late prophase of the primary spermatocyte. The double chromosomes thus formed appeared to divide equally in both divisions. The origin of the fourteenth chromosome was not determined.Correlation of the genetic and cytological data indicates the restriction of aberrant chromosome complexes to two of the four groups and the regularity of the twelve-chromosome complex in certain families, suggesting the conclusion that a new strain arose in the pedigreed material with regard to chromosome variability and that the twelve-chromosome condition is a well-defined characteristic, partly established in some families and probably fully established in others.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: When Menidia eggs are fertilized with Prionotus sperm, the Prionotus chromosomes react in the Menidia cytoplasmic medium just as they do in the cytoplasm of Fundulus eggs. There is lagging, non-disjunction, and elimination of chromosomes during the early cell divisions. The mitotic behavior of the Prionotus sperm in the Menidia egg also resembles the behavior of the sperm of Ctenolabrus in the same medium. This behavior which was expected from what was known concerning the mitotic behavior of the reciprocal crosses between Menidia and Fundulus and between Ctenolabrus and Prionotus and other intercrosses between the members of these two groups is regarded as a function of the physical state of the egg cytoplasm during the division phase of mitosis. This physical character forms the earliest differential factor in the development of these hybrids and shows no correlation with the width of the cross.A comparison of nine teleost crosses, in which both the development and the early mitotic behavior are known, with a rough numerical estimate of the width of the cross brought out the fact that development is most successful in crosses between nearly related species if mitosis is normal and in distantly related crosses if mitosis is abnormal. This indicates that nuclear relationship is also a factor in the development of hybrids.
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  • 18
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 46 (1928) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A chronological investigation of the histological condition of the right ovary of the domestic hen from embryos of nine days' incubation to adults of eighteen months was made. A rudiment of the right ovary is found at all times. Its composition is variable. Sixty-one per cent of the rudimentary ovaries contained medullary tissue only. Thirty-nine per cent had rudiments of cortex, in addition. The occurrence of cortical rudiments in embryonic stages is the probable basis of ovarian follicles found in the rudimentary right ovaries of adults. Primordial germ cells persist in the medullary tissue until three weeks after hatching. They subsequently appear to atrophy. The medullary cords persist through the entire period either as distended tubules or as solid cords of modified epithelial cells. Remnants of the right mesonephros persist as tubules and connect with the gonad by rete tubules. The mesonephric duct maintains a patent lumen.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fetuses from forty-three gravid uteruses from sows of known breeding dates, as well as from 448 uteruses with unknown breeding dates, were studied. Growth curves are given for weight and length of fetus and for weight of fetal membranes. The weight of the fetus first reaches that of the fetal membranes between the sixtieth and seventieth days of pregnancy. Degenerate fetuses were found in 3.68 per cent of the cases. They were found at all stages of gestation. Size of litter was found to decrease from 11.4 at the twentieth day to 6.8 at the 110th day. Also, the calculated per cent of ova lost up to each ten-day stage tends to increase as gestation advances. Crowding was found to be an important factor, but probably not the only factor, in causing degeneration. Genetic factors were probably responsible for part of the resorbing fetuses.In the study of the normal fetuses, significant correlations were found between fetus length and weight of fetal membranes, as well as between fetus weight and weight of fetal membranes. Lower correlations, but probably significant, were found between total distance (spacing) between fetuses in the uterus and weight of fetal membranes. Correlations between size of fetus and total distance between fetuses were very low. As in the case of the degenerates, crowding has an important relationship to size of fetus, but is probably not the only factor involved.
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  • 21
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    Journal of Morphology 46 (1928), S. 563-583 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The urinogenital organs of Myrmecobius fasciatus conform to the marsupial type in both their anatomical characters and histological details. The external genitalia indicate a close relationship with the Dasyuridae.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This peritrichous ciliate lives as an ectocommensal on the skin and gills of anuran tadpoles. Its relation to described species of Trichodina is doubtful. This study was made almost exclusively on fixed and stained material. Binary fission is similar to that in other ciliates. The horseshoe-shaped macronucleus condenses, then divides amitotically. The single small micronucleus forms a spindle containing between four and six chromosomes.Endomixis is of high incidence in the free-living Trichodinae. Encystment was not observed. At the onset of endomixis, the macronucleus disintegrates into fragments which persist throughout the process. The micronucleus undergoes three rapidly succeeding mitotic divisions to form eight nuclei. There is no evidence of chromosome reduction during these divisions. Seven of the nuclei differentiate into macronuclear anlagen; the eighth becomes the functional micronucleus. Successive cell divisions - before each of which the micronucleus divides - distribute macronuclei to daughter cells. Variations from the regular process of endomixis may arise, 1) by precocious division of endomictic parents; 2) by extra divisions of the micronucleus; 3) by less than the usual number (three) of divisions of the micronucleus; 4) by hypertrophy and early differentiation of the micronucleus into macronuclei; 5) by unusual segregation of nuclei to daughters, and, 6) from miscellaneous causes.The significance of these variations is discussed in connection with the possible origin of bimicronucleate and amicronucleate races.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A technique is developed whereby the large heavily yolk-laden grasshopper egg may be sectioned for cytological study. Eggs of Chortophaga viridifasciata and Circotettix verruculatus were examined.In C. viridifasciata the structure of the late ovarian nucleus and the chromosomes in meiosis, fertilization, and early cleavage are described. In the first maturation twelve rod-shaped tetrads are found. Near the caudal end of the egg a polar body is given off, and in the second maturation division there are twelve dyads. At fertilization, twelve separated vesicles of the female pronucleus are seen scattered about a male pronucleus in which the chromosomes are in prophase.In early cleavage the chromosome numbers in the metaphase are found to differentiate the male- and female-producing eggs. In the former there are twenty-three and in the latter twenty-four chromosomes. A vesicular condition in which the chromosomes retain their boundaries in interkinesis is indicative of chromosome individuality.A comparison of the first and second maturation metaphase chromosomes of the oocyte with those of the spermatocyte shows a similar compact group on the spindle, a likeness in size seriation, and a similarity of form. They differ in that in the spermatocyte complex there are eleven tetrads and one dyad. This latter, the unpaired sex chromosome, falls among the large chromosomes.A comparison of the chromosome complex of Chortophaga viridifasciata with that of Circotettix verruculatus indicates constancy of generic differences in form, size, number, and behavior of the chromosomes.
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  • 24
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 45 (1928), S. 233-257 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The cytological and histochemical evidence presented in this paper shows the following facts: (1) The mitochondria are not directly transformed into yolk. They may be concerned in its synthesis in so far as they are a factor in the interacting cytoplasmic system, but there are no visible morphological expressions of this functioning. (2) The accumulations of aequeous substances in the cytoplasm in the form of droplets stainable vitally by neutral red, ‘vacuoles,’ are the forerunners of the first yolk. During the building up of the yolk the aequeous droplets become more and more dehydrated and lose their capacity for being vitally stained. (3) These aequeous vacuoles give the impregnation results commonly ascribed to the Golgi apparatus and are interpreted as such. Special emphasis is laid on the question of the identification of the Golgi apparatus. (4) The fat arises de novo in the cell independently of the mitochondria or the vacuoles. It becomes dispersed throughout the cell among the yolk plates, and the lipoidal content of the latter increases at the end of vitellogenesis, when the fatty globules are intimately pressed in among the yolk plates. (5) At a late stage in the growth of the yolk plates there is the sudden appearance of large quantities of glycogen in the perinuclear zone and throughout the cytoplasm.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The septomaxillary bone is described in the various families of the urodeles in which it occurs. Its identity as a hitherto unrecognized cartilage bone of the skull is established and its close relationship with the nasal muscles followed through the group. Its presence or absence, which is found to be another criterion for the recent classification of the urodeles as proposed by Dunn and Higgins, is correlated with the development of the accessory dilatator muscle, since it occurs only in groups where this muscle attains an appreciable size.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The relation of the hepatopancreas to the pyloric stomach and its physiologic histology were studied. The organ consists of two lobes, united ventrally, which lie along the cardiac and pyloric stomachs and the intestine. Primary and secondary lobulations (acini) are present, and the entire organ is a system of anastomosing tubules (lumina). The tubules progressively converge and form a duct in each lobe which leads ventrolaterally into the pyloric stomach.Each acinus consists of a single layer of hepatic and pancreatic cells supported by a basement membrane, and the interacinar spaces are the seat of fibro-elastic tissue and phagocytic cells. The supporting tissue is laminar with that of the stomach. The arterial capillaries, composed of endothelial cells, lie in the interacinar spaces. The blood supply is by way of the basement membrane to the cells.The hepatic cells of specimens collected in September bear little fat; cells of June specimens are laden with fat. Glycogen is deposited in the hepatic cells; there is no difference between the quantity found in September and in June. The hepatic cells probably contain biliverdin. Chemical analysis indicates the presence of trypsin, amylase, and lipase.A review of the literature and a discussion of homologies with reference to the vertebrate liver are given.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The object of the present study is to determine by quantitative means the rate at which a given number of paramecia can utilize the various amino-acids and to study factors influencing this rate.The method consisted in testing the rate of utilization of isolated and mixtures of amino-acids by a known number of Paramecium caudatum. The amino-acids were used in 0.1 per cent solution and were tested, by the Henriques-Sörensen formol titration method for amino-acids, at the beginning and after the paramecia had lived in these amino-acids for twelve hours. The difference between these two tests, figured in percentage, is considered as the amount utilized by the paramecia. The part played by bacteria was found to be negligible when isolated amino-acids were studied. The influence of temperature on the rate of utilization of the amino-acids has been studied, and the results show a direct relationship between the two.The rate of utilization was decreased by anaesthetics and nitroglycerin. A careful study has been made of a number of isolated amino-acids and the rate of utilization of each discussed in relationship to the others studied. An explanation of why one amino-acid was used more than another amino-acid was sought for, but not found. A detailed discussion of the above points has been presented in the body of the paper.
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  • 28
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 46 (1928), S. 275-315 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Material of the domestic fowl of appropriate ages, ranging from twelve hours' incubation to the adult bird, was prepared for the purpose of studying the production and development of the germ cells.The primordial germ cells arise in the extra-embryonic region anterior to the head fold in the region of the zone of junction during the primitive-streak stage. These germ cells migrate, through the blood stream, to the region of the future gonad, where they develop into the definitive germ plasm.There is no widespread degeneration of the primordial germ cells after their arrival in the gonadal region, nor is there any widespread transformation of somatic cells into definitive germ cells.
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  • 29
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 46 (1928) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 30
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 46 (1928), S. 479-519 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Series of injections of ovarian hormone have been made into normal and ovariectomized immature animals. Injections were made twice daily for twenty-two days. The total dose exceeded 1000 rat units per animal.Effects noted in the living animals were the appearance of reddening and swelling of the ‘sexual skin’ and change of the cell content of the vaginal smear to the interval type of the mature animal. Measurements made at operation, before and after injections, indicated considerable enlargement of both the cervix and body of the uterus. The thymus glands of the injected animals weighed significantly less than those of the controls. Histologic study of the genital tract showed extreme thickening of the vaginal walls, considerable growth of the uterine epithelium and glands, hypertrophy of the muscle layers of the uterus, and advanced differentiation of the epithelium of the uterine tubes.The ovaries of the injected normal animal were smaller and contained fewer primordial and medium-sized follicles than those of the controls. The presence of large numbers of atretic follicles, especially large flattened scars from former relatively well-developed follicles also suggests a harmful effect of this amount of ovarian hormone upon follicular development. Several stages of elimination of ova from polyovular follicles were also observed. There was marked growth in the ducts and an increase in the number of alveoli of the mammary glands.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The following species of earwigs are used in this study: Labidura bidens, Labia minor, Anisolabis annulipes, Anisolabis maritima, and Forficula auricularia.1In all species the chromosomes are divisible into, a) autosomes and, b) XY-complex.2The chromosome distribution in regular in Labidura bidens and Labia minor. The male diploid number is 12 and 14, respectively. Each has an XY-complex in which the X is a single chromosome.3In both Anisolabis annulipes and Anisolabis maritima the male diploid number is 25, or 22 autosomes and an XXY-complex. The two X components remain fused during the first spermatocyte division.4The diploid number in the male of Forficula auricularia is 25 and 24. The chromosome number is constant in the individual. The irregularity is interpreted as due to the fusion of the two X components in the individuals with 24 counts and to these X components remaining separate in the earwigs with the 25 counts.5An explanation is given for some of the variable results obtained in former studies of the chromosomes of Forficula auricularia.6The discussion considers the possible origin of the variations in chromosome numbers in the earwigs.
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  • 32
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    The breeding season of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and the rate of intrauterine and postnatal developmentThe work on the opossum was begun at the suggestion of Dr. J. T. Patterson, Professor of Zoölogy, the University of Texas, about 1913. It was prosecuted intensively through the generous financial aid and moral support of The Wistar Institute, Dr. M. J. Greenman, Director, and with the assistance of Dr. C. H. Heuser, then fellow of The Wistar Institute. It is to the skill of Doctor Heuser that most of the photographs presented in the four plates accompanying this article and former papers of this series are due. Some of the photographs were taken from fresh living material in January and February of 1917 at Austin, Texas. The embryological investigations soon gave way in large measure to physiological studies in which the following generously aided: Mr. H. A. Wrocbanker, and Mr. Herman Becker, merchant, Austin, Texas; the University of Texas, Department of Zoölogy; The Bache Fund of the National Academy of Science. I take this opportunity of reiterating my indebtedness to these sources of the necessary nervus rerun to carry on the work and for the spirit of helpfulness in which the grants were made. The Wistar Institute is the repository of most of the material collected and will supervise its study in the future. The present writer can primsie only two more installmetns of these ‘studies’: one on the origin of the mesoderm and the chorda dorsalis, the other on pathological ova of the primitive-streak stage and earlier. (1928)
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 46 (1928), S. 143-215 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The breeding season of the opossum at Austin, Texas, begins in January, following a three months' anoestrous period. The modal point for ovulation days is reached in the third week. The rate of intra-uterine development was investigated chiefly by surgical removal of one uterus, noting the stage attained by the ova therein and allowing the surviving uterus to incubate its ova a precalculated period of time. Unique charts epitomize the results. The primitive-streak stage is completed, the medullary groove and chorda begin at seven and one-half days post coitum, seven days post ovulationem, leaving only five and one-half days' actual development of the embryo to birth. The rate of development is compared with Eutherian mammals.The curve of postnatal growth has the shape of embryonic growth curve of higher mammals. The eyes and lips open, at about fifty days (young the size of mice). At this time the young leave the teat for the first time, but are not weaned for about thirty days more. Soon after weaning, the mother may become pregnant again. At ninety to one hundred days (young size of large rats), the young may begin to shift for themselves.
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  • 33
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 46 (1928), S. 399-430 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The septomaxillary is described in certain anurans and in some of the reptiles in which it occurs. In urodeles and some anurans this bone arises by ossification of the nasal cartilages. Lack of embryological material has prevented the verification of this in the young stages of the reptiles. Adult reptiles have been examined, and in these the bone appears to be and has often been described as a ‘membrane bone.’ It is suggested, however, that the septomaxillary is originally a ‘cartilage bone,’ and that in the reptiles additional membrane bone layers form its main part and obscure its cartilaginous origin. The infolding of the bone in the anurans and reptiles until it lies in close contact with the nasal septum, and thereby loses contact with the external nasal structures, appears to be correlated with the loss of the external nasal muscles. This loss in its turn results from the adoption of terrestrial life and consequent changes in the respiratory mechanism.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In this study observations are reported upon the morphological differences between the three-toed and two-toed forms of sloths, as well as a comparison made of some aspects between the sloths and the other groups of the Xenarthra. Much attention has been paid to the gross, as well as the histological examination of the viscera, musculature, and the vascular and lymphatic systems.The importance of the correlation of the morphological findings with physiological studies has been emphasized. For example, the probable correlation of the vascular plexuses of the extremities with the postures and muscular activity of the different members of the Xenarthra is discussed. Much new information has been gained concerning the placentation and development of the sloths, as well as concerning the structure of the male and female reproductive tracts.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This study deals with the seasonal distribution of protozoa (February, 1927, to February, 1928) in correlation with seasonal fluctuations of temperature, hydrogen-ion concentration, and the relative amounts of dissolved oxygen and other gases in a small fresh-water pond. Twenty-seven species of Sarcodina, thirty-one species of Mastigophora, and 109 species of Infusoria were recorded in the surface water of the pond.As found especially for Mastigophora and Infusoria, the number of species is inversely correlated with the abundance of individuals in the seasonal distribution.Higher temperatures probably accelerated the rate of reproduction, since the seasonal maxima for most of the species were recorded in warmer weather.Colonial flagellates and Zoochlorellae-bearing ciliates seemed to be favored by higher oxygen content, with a simultaneous abundance of volatile acids, especially CO2. Although hydrogen-ion concentration was limited between 6.2 and 7.05, it was probably one of the factors influencing protozoan distribution, since several species disappeared when the lowest pH was recorded. Sunlight is one of the important factors in bringing certain heliotropic protozoa to the surface.The seasonal maxima of many of the protozoa occurred during September and October, 1927, when most of the observed physical environments seemed much more favorable than in other months.
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