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  • Portuguese  (1,358)
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  • 1
    Call number: PIK N 630-15-89512
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XVI, 799 S , zahlr. farbige Ill
    ISBN: 8521100116
    Language: Portuguese
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 2
    Call number: M 17.90738
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 287 Seiten
    ISSN: 0870-0397
    Language: Portuguese
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Brasilia : Synergia Editora | Rio de Janeiro : Empresa de Pesquisa Energética (EPE)
    Call number: IASS 17.90863
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XXXI, 310 S. , Ill., graph. Dast.
    Edition: 2ª Edição
    ISBN: 9788568483060
    Language: Portuguese
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 4
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Porto : Universidade
    Call number: M 91.1290
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Series Statement: Publicações do Observatório Astronómico "Prof. Manuel de Barros" da Faculdade de Ciências do Porto 36
    Language: Portuguese
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 5
    Call number: A1 12 ; MOP A1 44957 ; MOP A1 44957 (2. Ex.)
    In: Atlas climático de América del Sur
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 28 Kt.
    Classification: E.6.
    Language: English , Spanish , French , Portuguese
    Note: In span., engl., franz. und port. Sprache
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 6
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    Call number: Z 93.0375
    ISSN: 0375-7535
    Language: Portuguese
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 7
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Berlin [u.a.] : Langenscheidt
    Call number: 1.1/M 93.0640
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Edition: 1. Aufl.
    ISBN: 3468122705
    Series Statement: Langenscheidts Eurowörterbücher
    Classification: E.5.
    Language: Portuguese
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 8
    Call number: AWI G2-17-91267
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 24 S , Ill., graph. Darst., Kt
    Language: German , Portuguese
    Location: AWI Reading room
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 9
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    Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung
    In:  Integração Energética Regional: desafios geopolíticos e climáticos
    Publication Date: 2018-01-24
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • 10
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Keywords: I21 ; ddc:330 ; Qualidade da Educação ; Funções de Produção de Educação ; Modelos Hierárquicos Lineares ; Bildungsökonomik ; Brasilien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 11
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: 1. AGENDA FISCAL E REFORMA TRIBUTÁRIA 2. A MOBILIZAÇÃO TRIBUTÁRIA DA ESTABILIZAÇÃO 3. RECONVERSÃO DO SISTEMA TRIBUTÁRIO: PROPORÇÕES DO DESAFIO 4. FEDERALISMO E ECONOMIA POLÍTICA 5. AVERSÃO AO RISCO, CONFORMISMO E OUSADIAr the real interest rates and achieve sustained growth.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Steuerreform ; Brasilien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 12
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: 1. Introduction 2. Contrasts in the hemisphere: size and trade 3. The political economy of protection in Latin America: the inertia of history 4. The political economy of protection in the US: ominous developments 5. The FTAA negotiation process 6. Conclusions
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Freihandelszone ; Amerika ; Lateinamerika
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 13
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: O ensaio discute a regulamentação da conta de capitais, e procura contribuir para os debates recentes no sentido do aprimoramento do funcionamento do mercado de câmbio. A partir de um exame da literatura acadêmica remota e recente, e de um retrospecto das normas cambiais, discute-se os passos concretos, méritos e as questões operacionais envolvidas em avanços maiores no sentido da conversibilidade da conta de capitais. Destaca-se o ceticismo da literatura acadêmica recente sobre os impactos macroeconômicos da conversibilidade da conta de capitais e analisa-se os aspectos especificamente regulatórios, tendo em vista não apenas a pesada herança regulatória brasileira no terreno cambial mas também novas fronteiras e prioridades na regulação do sistema financeiro. O ensaio examina a trajetória e as limitações inerentes às transferências internacionais de Reais e também analisa os possíveis efeitos da revogação da obrigatoriedade de cobertura cambial para as exportações.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Kapitalverkehrskontrolle
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 14
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: More than eleven years after the end of hyperinflation in Brazil, domestic bond markets have been unable to lengthen the average maturity of both public and private bonds. This paper shows that the lengthening is theoretically and practically (we analyzed the experiences of Israel, Mexico and Poland), a consequence of persistent stabilization programs that successfully reduced systemic risk. Therefore, it is pointless to try to achieve the lengthening as an objective in isolation. It is necessary to improve the economic fundamentals that maintain a high level of systemic risk. Only in this context, measures that aim at lengthening bonds’ maturity will indeed produce positive results.
    Keywords: E43 ; E44 ; F34 ; H63 ; G15 ; ddc:330 ; Rentenmarkt ; Öffentliche Anleihe ; Brasilien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 15
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 16
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: We thoroughly describe the workings of the Brazilian interbank exchange rate market: agents, products, regulation, operation and risks. We analyse the recent evolution of the exchange rate market and came to a negative evaluation of the current exchange rate trading system, thereby suggesting an alternative centralized system, more liquid and transparent. We show econometrically that the exchange rate is firstly formed in the exchange rate futures market at the Commodities and Futures Exchange (BM&F), being then transmitted through arbitrage to the spot market.
    Keywords: F31 ; F33 ; G13 ; G15 ; G18 ; ddc:330 ; Câmbio ; Microestrutura do Mercado de Câmbio no Brasil ; Regulação ; Mercado de câmbio à vista e futuro ; Devisenmarkt ; Devisenmarkt ; Brasilien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 17
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: No Brasil, o efeito mais grave da recente crise econômica mundial adveio da onda de afrouxamento generalizado de restrições orçamentárias que teve origem nas economias avançadas. A crise deu ao governo pretexto para mudanças substanciais no regime fiscal e nas relações entre o Estado e a economia. A metade final do segundo mandato do Presidente Lula tem sido marcada por clara deterioração de contas públicas, com expansão mais acelerada de gastos primários e compromisso cada vez mais frouxo com o cumprimento estrito de metas fiscais. Revelando preferência inequívoca por soluções de project financing intensivas em recursos públicos, o governo tem recorrido à emissão de dívida pelo Tesouro para promover rápida expansão do crédito estatal subsidiado. As mudanças vêm implicando reversões de avanços institucionais importantes que chegaram a parecer definitivos, como a absoluta separação entre as contas do setor público não-financeiro e das instituições financeiras federais. O artigo analisa a extensão dessa multifacetada deterioração do regime fiscal e seus possíveis desdobramentos
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Finanzpolitik ; Brasilien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 18
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: Tendo em vista o padrão de comércio da economia brasileira, o aumento paulatino daparticipação de bens importados na oferta de produtos industriais no País é simples einexorável decorrência lógica do processo de abertura. Mas a resistência política a esseaumento de participação das importações vem sendo exacerbada pela perda decompetitividade da indústria de transformação que, só muito recentemente, deixou deser associada exclusivamente ao câmbio.Passou agora a ser percebido com mais clareza que o aumento persistente do CustoBrasil – decorrente, em boa parte, da elevação sem fim da carga tributária e dasdeficiências dos três níveis de governo no desempenho das funções que lhes cabem –vem tendo papel crucial na perda de competitividade. E certamente foi um grandeavanço que, afinal, o governo tenha entendido que algum esforço de desoneração fiscalse tornara imprescindível. O que é lamentável é que as medidas de desoneração parafazer face à perda de competitividade da indústria tenham sido tão mal concebidas.Sem condições de conciliar seu projeto político com um programa de reduçãohorizontal, efetiva e substancial da carga tributária, o governo vem manipulando umapolítica espalhafatosa e pouco transparente de desoneração da folha que, em meio amuita poeira, pouco desonera. Em vez de simples redução da alíquota de contribuiçãopatronal, o que vem sendo oferecido é uma injustificável mudança de base fiscal. Contribuição paga sobre faturamento e não mais sobre a folha de pagamento, comalguma desoneração embutida na troca, e alíquotas fixadas setor a setor, na medida daestridência do protesto de cada um. Arranjo peculiar e primitivo que pode transformaro sistema tributário nacional numa colcha de retalhos ainda mais caótica do que já é.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Handelsliberalisierung ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Brasilien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The versions of 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 of the Household Budget Survey (POF) from the IBGE bring two questions on the subjective evaluation of Brazilian families about the sufficiency of their income. While the first question draws direct information on the degree of family's satisfaction with its monthly income, allowing to build from it a qualitative indicator of income sufficiency, the second question extracts information on the income value evaluated by the family as minimally necessary for covering their monthly expenses, allowing to build from it a quantitative indicator of income sufficiency, defined as the proportion to which the actual income exceeds that value. In looking into the empirical relationship between these two subjective indicators, the work can contribute not only to support these indicators as reliable measures of quality of life of Brazilian families in its material dimension, but also to explain the mismatch between quality objective and subjective indicators of life.
    Keywords: I30 ; I31 ; I39 ; ddc:330 ; life quality indicators ; household income sufficiency
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 20
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper aims to reapproach the external vulnerability of the brazilian economy, based on the the theory and considering the new conditions of the world economy and the transformations that carachterized the Brazilian economy in this century, in the period or rapid growth (until 2010) as well as in the period of deceleration and crisis that followed. Departing from a digression about the historical behavior of the current account balance and from a brief revision of the theoretical and empirical literature concerning the theme, the paper evaluates de degree of external vulnerability of the country through the analysis of a group of variables usually referred in the literature as external vulnerability Two main conclusions are highlighted. First, the country faces, today, a reasonably comfortable situation in terms of external vulnerability, especially due to the accumulation of a huge volume of international reserves and to a more favorable profile of the external financing flows. This made the country less vulnerable to currency crises or to short term problems of external financing. The second conclusion is that there were no advances in overcoming the structural problems with the aim of mitigating the external vulnerability in a more perennial manner, which would mean developing conditions to control the cycles of expansion and contraction of the current account balance, providing a more balanced trajectory and one that were compatible with a reasonable and sustained rate of economic growth in the long term.
    Keywords: F32 ; F34 ; ddc:330 ; external vulnerability ; current account ; balance of payments ; exports ; external liabilities
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 21
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The current paper starts from the premise that the dynamic of the construction of informality and semiformality in the Brazilian economy cannot be understood simply from facts of economical nature. To these must be added, as codetermining, factors of historical and cultural order. The central hypothesis of this study is that formal and informal economies articulate and complement each other, through semiformality, in a single economic space in which the "Brazilian way of doing things" (jeitinho brasileiro) acts as the instrument responsible for the updating of the elements of said spaces in relation to one another. Thus, informality is not, in the Brazilian case, a necessarily pernicious phenomenon that must be "eradicated" so that the country can reproduce the development trajectories of central nations. It is, on the contrary, a fact of national history and culture, an integral and indissoluble part of its economic order and whose "overcoming" will only be possible from its perfect comprehension, acceptance and, only then, from the conformation of an institutionality, of a regulating apparatus, that comes close to this informality, so that it can be integrated in the rule of law, as it is of the real world.
    Keywords: E26 ; N80 ; L51 ; ddc:330 ; informality ; semiformality ; economy and culture
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: With a figure of over 4 million housing units contracted as of September 2015, of which 2.4 million were already delivered, the Minha Casa Minha Vida Program (PMCMV) has generated a considerable impact on the economic, social and urban infrastructure of Brazil. In this regard, we emphasize the importance of constant monitoring its results through post-occupancy evaluation (POE), in order to improve its implementation and, thus, to achieve the promotion of development with equality, recognizing the role of the State, of public policy and of planning as key ingredients in the process of changing and persuing of social equity. The main objective of this research was the development of an evaluation methodology of the PMCMV, funded by the Residential Lease Fund (FAR) and intended for families with income range of up to R$ 1,600 per month - the salary range in which the Brazilian housing deficit is more concentrated -, from obtaining primary data on a sample of program beneficiaries. Within this overall goal, this research intended to support the development and the implementation of post-occupational assessment of housing focusing on functional, behavioral and environmental aspects, as well as data analysis in order to support future improvements in the quality of such dwellings.
    Keywords: R31 ; ddc:330 ; post-occupancy evaluation ; spatial and environmental quality ; methodology ; Minha Casa Minha Vida Program
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 23
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The main objective in this study is to analyze the sources of growth of Brazilian exports of soybeans, maize, sugar, wheat, orange, cotton, coffee and meat (beef, pork and poultry) during 1992 to 2013. The methodological procedures involved the application of Constant Market Share model to decompose the exports growth as the effects of global growth, exports composition, market distribution and competitiveness. In the 1990s, global growth was relatively low; however, with the trade liberalization and monetary stabilization, Brazilian exports achieved positive rates driven by the exports composition and market destination. From 2000s onwards, the growth of world trade was very significant, driven by increased demand from emerging countries, which provided the commodity boom. The favorable performance of Brazilian agricultural exports was not only related to global growth, but also to the competitive gains that are associated with technological modernization which promoted the expansion of productivity. However, when comparing the first decade with the second, there was a reduction in competitiveness, which indicates the need to encourage productive investments.
    Keywords: Q13 ; Q17 ; F10 ; ddc:330 ; foreign trade ; growth ; agriculture ; market share
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This study aims to analyze the technological differences in agricultural production between the municipalities in the semiarid and non-semiarid regions of Brazil's Northeast. It uses the technological meta-frontier model proposed by Battese, Rao e O'Donnell (2004), and O'Donnell, Rao e Battese (2008), for responding to what extent these regional differences influence the efficiency of production and what is its impact on municipalities. It was observed the hypothesis that municipalities belonging to the semiarid and non-semiarid have different production opportunities. The results indicated that when compared the two regions, the non-semiarid region has the highest average technical efficiency with reference to meta-frontier.
    Keywords: D24 ; Q10 ; ddc:330 ; agriculture ; technology ; semi-arid northeast ; production meta-frontier
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: H7 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper describes the implementation process of the Transnordestina Railway, which has been built under the scope of the Institutional Constraints on Implementation of Investment in Infrastructure project in Brazil. It looks for answering questions as such: Which institutional factors conditioned the implementation pace of the Transnordestina Railway project? What are the institutional innovations that were used to start up the project? These questions organize up the text around a list of institutional analysis variables, which were detected during the research process. The railway construction is lagging from its initial completion date of 2010 and its implementation value rised up. The text points out that many problems have arisen during the stages of planning and execution of the project. One of the research fidings is that the lack of knowledge about the implementation difficulties extended the project completion deadline, such as increased its financial, social and environmental cost.
    Keywords: H54 ; J68 ; O18 ; R42 ; ddc:330 ; infrastructure ; transports ; railways
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 27
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Capital stock in residential structures, as well as the distribution of its appropriation and ownership among families are fundamental determinants of the wealth, welfare and productivity of the economy. As part of a broad project on the stock of capital of the Brazilian economy in the 20th Century, this paper presents estimates of the value of the stock in residential structures in Brazil from 1970 to 1999. The macroeconomic focus neglects the distributive and allocative effects of residential property and use. The model of hedonic prices is applied to data on the values of rents and other characteristic of the residences - number of rooms and bathroom, construction material, accesss to public servies such as electricity, water, garbage collection, among other - to estimate the hedonic prices of these attributes. After the introduction, the models discusss the specification of the hedonic model as well as of other hypothesis used in the estimation. The third section describes the database. The fourth section discusses estimation methods and problems. The fifth section analyses the results showing, on the one hand, that they seem to be quite reasonable in international perspective, and on the other that attributes related to the public infrastructure have fundamental impactos on the value to residential stock. The paper concludes calling attention to the high social return of public investments in infrastructure, and in particular of the investments and financing of housing projects for low income families which can have substantial effectos on the wealth, productive capacity, and welfare of Brazilian society.
    Keywords: G32 ; G38 ; L22 ; G31 ; ddc:330 ; residential structure ; housing wealth ; hedonic prices ; Brazil
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 28
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Capital stock in residential structures, as well as the distribution of its appropriation and ownership among families are fundamental determinants of the wealth, welfare and productivity of the economy. As part of a broad project on the stock of capital of the Brazilian economy in the 20th Century, this paper presents estimates of the value of the stock in residential structures in Brazil from 1970 to 1999. The macroeconomic focus neglects the distributive and allocative effects of residential property and use. The model of hedonic prices is applied to data on the values of rents and other characteristic of the residences - number of rooms and bathroom, construction material, accesss to public servies such as electricity, water, garbage collection, among other - to estimate the hedonic prices of these attributes. After the introduction, the models discusss the specification of the hedonic model as well as of other hypothesis used in the estimation. The third section describes the database. The fourth section discusses estimation methods and problems. The fifth section analyses the results showing, on the one hand, that they seem to be quite reasonable in international perspective, and on the other that attributes related to the public infrastructure have fundamental impactos on the value to residential stock. The paper concludes calling attention to the high social return of public investments in infrastructure, and in particular of the investments and financing of housing projects for low income families which can have substantial effectos on the wealth, productive capacity, and welfare of Brazilian society.
    Keywords: E01 ; C21 ; G12 ; R31 ; ddc:330 ; residential structure ; housing wealth ; hedonic prices ; Brazil
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 29
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This study examines the relationship between institutional quality and capital flows to emerging economies. Such index correspond to a structural long-run determinant to capital flows and is actually little discussed in the literature. The 13 economies analyzed between 2000-2014 accounted for over 70% of the JPMorgan Emerging Markets Bond Index Global in September 2016. The model specification has the merit to measure the direct and indirect effects of the variables considered exogenous in domestic fundamentals which according to our knowledge is an innovative approach. The main results suggest that improved institutional quality of the emerging economy is closely linked to increased capital inflow, particularly to foreign direct investment. A typical increase in institutional quality could compensate emerging economies for an adverse international liquidity or global risk aversion shocks.
    Keywords: F21 ; F36 ; G38 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; capital flow ; emerging economies ; governance and institutional qualities
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 30
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: J15 ; K14 ; ddc:330 ; Sterblichkeit ; Gewalt ; Schwarze ; Ethnische Diskriminierung ; Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung ; Rio de Janeiro ; Brasilien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This article presents a simulation of Public-Private Partnership for the maintenance and operation of all paved federal highways. To do so, we evaluate the distribution of benefits and costs between taxpayers, government and road users as a way to set toll values bankable by users, easing the tax burden on all taxpayers with regard to spending on highways. Then, we propose the use of a concession model in which part of the concessionaire's revenue comes from toll collection and part from payment for availability by the government. In addition, the concessionaire must pay the government a grant value per vehicle, so that the total amount of the grant is variable with the demand. Such a mechanism, in addition to reducing the demand risk allocated to the concessionaire, allows cross-subsidization of highways with high traffic volume for the low volume ones. Considering the average costs of operation and maintenance of highways under concession, we evaluate if the collection with the proposed tolls would be sufficient to cover the costs. The results indicate that even considering only the roads not conceded yet, generally low traffic, the fiscal costs of such a model would be smaller than the average expenditures executed by DNIT with maintenance and operation of federal highways. And also ensure higher level of quality, with direct benefits to users and indirect ones to the whole society.
    Keywords: H54 ; H43 ; O22 ; ddc:330 ; concessions ; roadways ; costs and benefits distribution
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  • 32
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The demand for sustainable mobility in Brazil is driven by the Brazilian cities growing urban density, the increased travel time in different transportation modes, the increasing number of motorcyclists deaths who migrated from active modes driven by household income growth as well as drivers, pedestrians and cyclists deaths, and the worsening air pollution level linked to combustion engines which has serious consequences for health. Brazil has more bikes than cars, respectively 50 million to 41 million. Around 7% of all trips are made by bicycle with a potential to reach 40%. This qualitative research tried to understand what are the cycling networks future scenarios and sustainability factors that can guide the empowering of cycling policies and the sustainable mobility in Brazil. It used the pressure-state-response methodology associated with life cycle thinking methodology (PCV) to understand the cycling networks stakeholder perceptions from academia, government, cycling associations and business associations. Short-term scenarios indicated a database construction to support the development of social, economic and environmental indicators, and the empowering of the social actors' participation in the cycling policy institutionalization. Medium-term scenarios indicated the construction of strategic alliances among stakeholders and the strengthening of bicycle culture or "bike wave" through events and production of information to social actors in different territory scales (local, national and international). The sustainability factors to empower cycling policies were: the policy implementation timing; the mobility approach strand used to guide the cycling policy; the levels of economic and tax incentives; the participatory methodologies use; the database on number and location conflicts among drivers, pedestrians and cyclists; the level of cycling policy integration with other public policies; and the urban space available area for the expansion of cycling networks. Moreover, the Life Cycle Thinking methodology indicated the development of a life cycle assessment (LCA) that models the impacts on each transportation mode and its available urban space (pedestrian, bicycle, subway, train, and bus). This LCA can produce indicators that support an integrated sustainable mobility where the bicycle may have multiple roles: transportation mode, integration vehicle among modes and sustainability symbol.
    Keywords: R40 ; ddc:330 ; mobility ; sustainable ; urban ; bike ; bicycle path
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This study, which belongs to the series new generation of infrastructure, reflects the major advances of information technology, biotechnology and nanotechnology in the development of sanitation and water resources sectors. International and notorious cases have been catalogued in compared studies with the case of southeastern Brazil, the State and the city of Rio de Janeiro. The research made it possible to identify conceptual models of ecological sanitation that approximate human actions to natural systems. The evaluation was extended to management mechanisms for water production, sewerage, drainage and solid waste systems, in anticipation of the need for addressing future challenges, such as extreme events and climate change. Finally, propositions are designed along the study, urging reflection on the range of possible choices.
    Keywords: L95 ; ddc:330 ; sustainable infrastructure ; sanitation models ; water resources ; Rio
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  • 34
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This study explains the intensity of redistributive policies of Latin American leftist governments during the so-called "left turn" in the region. Based on theoretical models that analyze the implications of inequality in democracies with different economic and institutional structures, it argues that the left's redistributive policies were more intense in countries where capital has low mobility and the legislature was not a veto player. This explanation is supported by evidence from econometric models of a proxy measure of the intensity of redistributive policy, based on data from twenty leftist governments from eleven Latin American countries, during the 2000-2014 period.
    Keywords: E6 ; Y8 ; ddc:330 ; redistribution ; capital mobility ; veto player ; Latin America
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  • 35
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This article estimates the market value of public education by comparing standardized test scores of students in public and private schools. The idea is to assign to the education of each public school student a market value equivalent to the tuition paid by private school students with similar test score results. The implementation requires an expenditure survey, or other database to provide information on tuitions, and standardized test scores available for both private and public schools. This article uses Brazilian test score data, which are particularly good. The main results are not surprising. Pre-school, primary, and secondary education are all highly progressive government transfers. Furthermore, since their market value is superior to public expenditures in each of these educational levels, they are also welfare enhancing. The flip side is that public higher education is both highly regressive and welfare reducing.
    Keywords: I24 ; ddc:330 ; public education ; value of education ; educational proficiency
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  • 36
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: E44 ; O40 ; ddc:330
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  • 37
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: In Brazil, it has been difficult to elaborate governmental planning surpassing the four-year spectrum from the Pluriannual Plans. Despite the fact of long-term planning attracting a wide range of sectors, it still occupies a small space in both political and bureaucratic agendas. Hence, the present study proposes to initiate a new cycle of debates regarding the issue as it presents questions and factors to subsidy long-term strategies. Using methodological tools from Strategic Prospective, we present trends and uncertainties regarding Brazil's international insertion, contemplating topics such as the organization of the international system, foreign policy, international security and national defense. This study is part of Brasil 2035, a project whose objective is to provide subsidies to formulate long-term strategies for Brazil through Prospective Scenarios. Thus, this text presents a preliminary stage of a prospective process regarding the identification and analysis of the main variables. We do not intend to be conclusive, but rather to present some key factors and questions, which will affect Brazilian development until 2035.
    Keywords: C53 ; F59 ; F02 ; K33 ; ddc:330 ; strategic prospective ; prospective scenarios ; long-term planning ; international relations ; international insertion ; regional integration ; international security ; national defense
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  • 38
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of broadband on the GDP taking into account regional differences. This is done by using the econometric model of panel data based on database of 5564 municipalities from 2007 to 2014. In order to incorporate the regional differences we use information derived from cluster analysis that isolates homogeneous groups of municipalities. Simultaneous causality between broadband and GDP is identified through instrumental variable method. Regional differentiated effects of broadband among municipalities were observed. The greatest impact of broadband occurs on those municipalities with the highest income per capita and high urban concentration followed by ones with a strong concentration in the service, commerce and construction sectors. The impact of broadband is also significant in the municipalities linked to the dynamic agricultural sector. In poorer municipalities the effect of broadband also occurs although with less intensity. Finally, we test the hypothesis that the effect of broadband on the output has an "inverted U" form that indicates that the effect rises to a certain level of access, but decreases after it is exceeded. The econometric results do not indicate that this hypothesis can be denied so that the impact is more intense in the intermediate levels of access of broadband.
    Keywords: C21 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; broadband ; cluster analysis ; K-means ; panel data ; instrumental variable
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  • 39
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The urban population growth in developing countries, the middle class expansion and the increase in per capita income have increased the demand for food. This work aims to identify, from the Constant Market Share (CMS) method, the sources of growth of agricultural exports among the main countries that operate in international trade. This paper analyses two periods: i) from 1992 to 2001; and ii) from 2002 to 2013. At the same time, it was studied the following countries: Brazil, Argentina, Germany, France, United States, India and Argentina. It was verified that Brazil and Argentina stood out in the comparison, although the competitiveness has reduced in the time. On the other hand, India has maintained a strong rise, which has been first associated to world growth than to gains in competitiveness. The United States had a growth rate exports lower than the world average, a factor that can be explained by the loss of competitiveness. In European Union, France has lost ground to Germany, which unlike the French economy presented notorious performance in exports. China experienced a decline in its exports in the whole period analyzed, a movement associated to the expansion of domestic market. Finally, the results point to a growing representation of emerging countries with natural resource potential (Brazil, Argentina and India), while developed economies (the United States and European countries) plus China (this country due to its own internal dynamics) lose space in international market.
    Keywords: Q17 ; Q10 ; F10 ; ddc:330 ; foreign trade ; growth ; agriculture ; market share ; agribusiness
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The functioning of the labor market can be represented by worker flows, and the fluctuation of these flows determines the fluctuation of unemployment. The literature measures the importance of a flow such as the proportion of the variance of long-term or stationary unemployment that is explained by the fluctuation of this component. This result is useful for analyzing short-term unemployment when long-term unemployment is a good proxy for short-term unemployment. Our contribution was to propose a decomposition of these kind of proxies using any period (h), which allows to explain the effect of the estimated transition in the period (t) on the unemployment rate in the periods (t + h). This construction puts in the same environment the effect of the short and long term transition on unemployment. It is worth mentioning that the trajectory of the decomposition factors does not always follow a monotonous trend, which makes more important the consideration of the intermediate periods.
    Keywords: E24 ; E32 ; J63 ; ddc:330 ; unemployment ; flows ; decomposition
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  • 41
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Since the 1930s, the Brazilian State has built a national system of labour relations. In the following decades, this system underwent many changes, as well the country itself (which became urbanized, industrialized etc.). At the present time, there is a new wave of changes in the labour relations system - which will be analyzed, in this article, only in its aspects more directly related to the work realm. This new wave, initiated with a set of legislative proposals, will alter the balance between workers' protections and freedoms of employers. Assuming the perspective of the former, this article analyzes the possibilities opened by Law no 13.467/2017 (recently approved), as well as its problems and contradictions.
    Keywords: J00 ; J50 ; J80 ; ddc:330 ; labor relations ; workers ; employers
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  • 42
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: Y80 ; ddc:330
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  • 43
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The main purpose of this paper is to calculate the effective total factor productivity (ETFP) of the Brazilian agricultural and industrial sectors during 1990-2009. The results are the following: all sectors have reached high ETFPs, with a few exceptions; however, the ETFPs have not mobilized many or all sectors of their supply chains. So the main policy recommendation is the development in Brazil of regulatory and contract legal rules that constitute actual and appropriate benchmarks.
    Keywords: D2 ; D4 ; ddc:330 ; effective total factor productivity ; brazilian agriculture ; brazilian manufacturing
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  • 44
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: A subject that has gained prominence in the fields of political science and public administration is the Core of Government (CoG), that is, units and/or individuals responsible for the alignment and coordination of the main objectives of the president or first-minister. Although the topic has several names, a question still deserves to be better addressed: how do the planning, coordination and management of the Executive branch's priorities operate? However, the literature of CoG is still in early stage, especially in Brazil. In order to contribute to this debate, this paper develops a broad literature review with three primary goals: to present the concepts and findings of the international literature of core of government; to map the advances of the field of study of the Executive branch in Brazil and to indicate the future research agenda in the country. As a conclusion, the diversity of analytical strategies must be seen as constructive to the extent which there is a consensus that the frameworks' variations of the core of government are the rule, not the exception. In addition, the Brazilian case constitutes an excellent research laboratory on the Executive dynamics, due to its political-institutional particularities. Therefore, this research agenda tends to contribute to the description and explanation of how the political system operates and, above all, its effects on the decision-making processes and their outputs and outcomes in terms of public policies.
    Keywords: H83 ; ddc:330 ; core of government ; coordination ; Executive branch ; Brazil
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  • 45
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: We use data from the period 2009-15 to estimate the impact of the public policy aiming to decrease the taxes paid by companies over their payroll. The objective of this program, so called Less Taxes on the Payroll ("Desoneração da Folha de Pagamento"), was to burst the employment in the firms benefited by the tax cut. Overall our econometric results show no employment effect of this program.
    Keywords: C32 ; D04 ; ddc:330 ; tax cut ; employment ; payroll taxes ; public program evaluation ; difference in difference
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The Índice de Vulnerabilidade Social (IVS) and the Atlas da Vulnerabilidade Social (AVS) of the municipalities and metropolitan regions arise by an effort of selection, development and georeferencing of indicators that could express conditions of social vulnerability in the different scales of brazilian territory. Such conditions may emerge from plural factors that are part of the social issue, like the contexts of income and labour, education and health, mobility, habitation and sanitation. The IVS is a sinthetic index constructed with indicators that express fragilities of this social factors. The text below presentes the process of criation of the IVS from your conceptual, methodological and statiscal aspects and limitations. After this presentation, the work will show na analysis of some IVS results, as well as your dimensions and indicatores for the years of 2000 e 2010, in order to delineate the conditions of social vulnerability in the brazilian territory and exemplify ways of data analysis available in the AVS.
    Keywords: O15 ; O18 ; R23 ; J15 ; ddc:330 ; social vulnerability ; sinthetic index ; Brazil ; public policy ; regional development
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  • 47
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper aims to identify the profile of innovation in Brazil in 2014, positioning the country in relation to the countries of the European Union. The paper analysed the indicators resulting from the innovation surveys carried out in Brazil and in these countries in 2014. Based on the results found in a study performed with the 2000 indicators, considering Evolutionary approach as the theoretical reference and the Oslo manual in its third version, the study points out to a dynamic of innovation based on typical processes of imitative economies. The results of the innovation, which presented innovation rates similar to the average of the countries analysed, as well as the low degree of novelty and the innovation based mostly in process innovative enterprises only, show that Brazil still has a profile similar to that found in 2000. The innovative process is also similar, despite the significant increase in the percentage of innovative enterprises that received public funding for innovation, with little cooperation and innovative efforts based on the acquisition of machines, equipment and software in detriment of research and development. The results of the study, which must to be in-depth, indicate the need to review and improve the innovation policy developed in the period 2000-2014.
    Keywords: O31 ; O32 ; O33 ; O38 ; ddc:330 ; innovation indicators ; innovation surveys ; innovation dynamic
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  • 48
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The IMF has always supported the free financial flows of capital, based on the concept that they improve economic growth in itself. This perception has debilitated since the global economic crisis beginning in 2007. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolution of the IMF's way of understanding this issue; weather it were or not an important improvement to guide the future exchange policies of their shareholders. Still, it's relevant to highlight the impacts of these flows on the volatility of the exchange markets, and consequently on the macroeconomic consistence of developing countries.
    Keywords: F32 ; F38 ; ddc:330 ; international capital flows ; emergent countries ; exchange markets volatility
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  • 49
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Regarding one of the most renowned mechanisms of social participation in the recent Brazilian democracy, this paper aims to offer a typological proposal for national conferences, considering the broadened definition established by the Decree no 8243/2014 and ex post aspects of conferential processes. Thus, databases hosted by Ipea were updated and expanded, reaching the conferences held until 2016 and its approved resolutions from 2011 to 2016. This data collecting process put together a documental collection of 154 national conferences realized from 1941 to 2016, besides a database of 5,369 resolutions approved in 28 of the 42 conferences finished in the past five years. This table was submitted to a lexical analysis through the IRAMuTeQ software, according to the ALCESTE method. Briefly, five lexical worlds were observed, each holding its own characteristics. Also, the position of a specific conference in the class map can change between its editions, and this lexical displacement can occur under different ways. Some hypotheses - about lexical displacement and implicit territoriality - could be raised for further research, after this analysis. Thus, the availability of data, in a public and accessible way, may be a stimulus to the development of studies about this phenomenon or, at least, a factor for reduction of costs and efforts involved in this data collection.
    Keywords: C88 ; D73 ; Z18 ; ddc:330 ; national conferences ; databases ; lexical analysis ; social participation
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The adequate availability of infrastructure and its related services, is mandatory condition for further development of the country's competitive advantages, intensifying the productive specialization. Due to limited financial capacity, in the course of the last three decades, there have been an increasing private participation in these sectors under privatizations, concessions and Private-Public Partnerships (PPPs). This work has the following goals: i) to summarize the evolution of the concession's system in Brazil, Mexico, Chile, Colombia and USA, aiming to identify the characteristics and alternatives developed by each country; and ii) to conduct an economic analyze of the concession contracts between the public and private entities, focusing on the economic regulation aspects. We found a learning historic evolution, based in continuous enhancement of the public policy and in different degrees of success. The economic regulation aims to evolve in several issues as the risk-sharing, application of incentives and penalization and selection criteria, in despite of the difficulties created by economic crises. It's worth highlighting some innovations as: (Brazil) use of an "Investment trigger" to require capacity expansion; Use of real demand to reset the Financial-Economic Equilibrium (EEF); Distribution of productivity gains (Factor X); Use of the concession length as a tool to reset the EEF; (Chile) MVPR as selection criteria and risk-sharing tool; MCC as exchange rate risk-sharing tool; (Mexico) use of an account to accommodate the facility return at the concession end; Penalties grading system; (Colombia) use of a Trust Fund; Minimum revenue guarantee mechanism (MGR); (USA) Legislation and financial innovations; DBFOM mechanism. Part of the foreigner experience may contribute for the improvement of the Brazilian concession model. Notoriously, learning from the Mexican and Colombian experience, there are some policies shouldn't be carried out in Brazil. From the Chilean, the MVPR stands out as a solid success, commonly replicated by other countries. It's worth noting that Brazil has the largest share of highways under concession. Furthermore, it's possible that the share is near to its own limit (around 25%), as the highways that can attract the private sector, based on the vehicle flow, are mostly already contracted. To the left part of the share there are two alternatives: sponsored PPP and/or public resources. The PPPs mechanism, which includes fee payment from the private investor and requires the highway availability, would involve a cross-subsidy between the financially viable and non-viable projects using a trust fund. This mechanism failed in Chile. Beyond that, it's worth noting that the use of cross-subsidy creates unwelcome economic signs and, since Adam Smith, it's well known that it doesn't stimulates good results. The majority of the highway network is not attractive for private investor, thanks to low intensity traffic, requiring the use of public resources.
    Keywords: L51 ; L92 ; R48 ; ddc:330 ; highway concessions ; economic regulation ; concession's agreement ; public-private partnership
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2017-01-25
    Description: A concentração industrial no Brasil condicionou uma série de investigações acerca de suas causas e consequências em âmbito regional e local. Diante disso, este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a concentração industrial no Nordeste brasileiro, a partir da distribuição espacial da mão de obra formal, adotado como indicador de desempenho das atividades industriais na região. Para tanto, recorre-se a revisão de literatura e, em seguida, utilizam-se métodos de análise regional. Os dados são da Relação Anual de Informações Sociais ? RAIS do Ministério do Trabalho e do Emprego ? MT, para os anos de 1990, 2000 e 2010. A partir do Quociente Locacional (QL) e do Coeficiente de Localização (CL), os resultados mostram que a mão de obra ocupada na indústria nordestina concentra-se em três estados: Bahia, Pernambuco e Ceará. Por sua vez, o Coeficiente de Especialização (Cesp) e o Coeficiente de Reestruturação (Cr), mostraram relativa estabilidade na estrutura produtiva em todos os estados da região Nordeste, sem grandes variações ao longo dos anos em estudo. Esses resultados apontam para a ineficiência da tentativa de desconcentração da atividade industrial, permanecendo a fragmentação econômica de uma região periférica.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Economia regional ; Nordeste ; métodos de análise regional
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-01-25
    Description: This work aims at analyzing, for an unprecedented perspective, possible evidences of deindustrialization in the Brazilian economy. For that, it analyzes both regional and state data for the period 1985-2010, using indicators of deindustrialization already established. In addition, regional differences in the relation VTI / VBPI are analyzed and discussed considering winners and losers in terms of sectors and regions. Finally, it estimates a parametric model regressing the participation of regional manufacturing industry in the region's GDP and regional per capita income. The results suggest that, at regional level, the Southeast, South and Northeast regions accumulate evidence of deindustrialization, while the other two regions follow an inverse pattern. Besides that, it seems that the Brazilian deindustrialization is in progress together with a process of (regional) spatial decentralization of industrial production and this deindustrialization process affects differently the regions. Resumo Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar, por uma perspectiva inédita, possíveis indícios de desindustrialização na economia brasileira. Para tanto analisamos dados regionais e estaduais referentes ao período de 1985 a 2010 utilizando indicadores de desindustrialização já consagrados. Adicionalmente, são analisadas diferenças regionais da relação VTI/VBPI e discute-se sobre ganhadores e perdedores do ponto de vista setorial e regional. Por fim, estima-se um modelo paramétrico regredindo participação da indústria de transformação regional no PIB da região e renda per capita regional. Conclui-se que, em nível regional, as regiões Sudeste, Sul e Nordeste acumulam indícios de desindustrialização, enquanto as demais regiões seguem padrão inverso, levando a crer que a desindustrialização brasileira é, em parte, também uma descentralização espacial (regional) da produção industrial e que o processo de desindustrialização brasileiro difere entre as regiões acometidas pelo processo.
    Keywords: L16 ; R12 ; L60 ; ddc:330 ; Desindustrialização ; Economia regional ; Indústria de Transformação
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-01-25
    Description: This paper aims to analyze, from a legal perspective, the public policies of Science, Technology and Innovation offered by the Brazilian government, more specifically, the Innovation Act (Lei de Inovação), in order to verify the effectiveness and impact of this measure for development, in the Brazilian entrepreneurial scene. Through empirical research and comparative method, this research seeks to answer, preliminarily, the following questions: a) What is innovation? b) The State should act in the innovation process?; c) What is the relationship beetween innovation and development?; d) What are the aspects of public policies of Science, Technology and Innovation offered by the Brazilian government made available to entrepreneurs in the Innovation Law? What is the effectiveness and impact of this measure in the Brazilian entrepreneurial scenario? The questioning of the article was analyzed based on the premise that innovation is essential to the development of a society and its economy. Innovation is not only limited to radical ruptures, such as the introduction of smart watches or autonomous cars, but it also covers moderate advances, such as new product specific production methods, new ways of customer service or (re)configuration of bureaucratic procedures in order to speed them up. Thus, innovation is presented from the need to solve problems that citizens, whether entrepreneurs or not, appears in any given moment. An innovative society tends to have a higher quality of life, higher productivity and, consequently, the factors for the nation?s economic growth in which it resides. It turns out that in developing countries, the private sector, that is, entrepreneurs, don't always have the resources, opportunity, know-how and structure to take the risk of investments in Research, Development and Innovation (RD&I) as assumed initially by Schumpeter. These entrepreneurs prefer to license technology from foreign nations or larger companies, which have been tested and proven, rather than take the risk of spending millions of dollars on products, services, innovative processes that do not have the expected profit, or even, doesn't go beyond a mere prototype. Thus, as highlighted by neo-schumpeterians economists, the State presents itself as a key player in these countries, since it has conditions, financial and technical, to stimulate, either through direct measurements, either through indirect measures, innovation. We concluded that Brazil presents advances in this sector and most of public policies managed to have efficacy for entrepreneurs, but it is also necessary institutional changes in the process of receiving these incentives and in its supervision, improving them, so that companies incubated may have the same competitivety of foreign companies.
    Keywords: L5 ; N46 ; O1 ; ddc:330 ; institutionalism ; law and development ; innovation
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    Publication Date: 2017-01-25
    Description: A produção de leite exerce papel de destaque no agronegócio brasileiro. No ano de 2012, a produção brasileira representou 5,16% do total mundial, colocando o país como o quarto maior produtor de leite. Em termos de valor bruto da produção, somente o segmento produtivo gerou US$ 14,4 bilhões. Entre os estados, Minas Gerais se destaca como o maior produtor, responsável por 28% da produção brasileira. Na economia mineira, o setor lácteo corresponde a cerca de 11% do PIB agropecuário estadual. Diante da importância do setor para a economia nacional e estadual, este estudo busca analisar os impactos decorrentes do aumento na eficiência da produção de leite sobre a geração de emprego e renda em Minas Gerais. Inicialmente, foram calculadas as medidas de eficiência na produção de leite, utilizando-se a Análise Envoltória de Dados (DEA). Como resultado, foi possível obter o aumento na renda bruta que uma fazenda pode ter caso corrija seus problemas de ineficiência. Esta parte do estudo foi desenvolvida utilizando-se dados primários de uma amostra de 1000 produtores de leite. Em seguida, foram simulados os impactos resultantes desses ganhos de renda. Para isso, aplicou-se o modelo de Leontief-Miyazawa na matriz insumo-produto de Minas Gerais, obtendo-se os ganhos no valor bruto da produção e a geração de novos postos de trabalho. Verificou-se que apenas 6% dos produtores de leite apresentam máxima eficiência. Os demais possuem problemas de uso excessivo de insumos e/ou de escala incorreta de produção. Em seguida, foi calculado o ganho potencial na renda bruta dos produtores ineficientes, tendo-se como base seus benchmarks, isto é, os produtores eficientes da amostra. O ganho possível na renda foi da ordem de US$ 8.244 por produtor, sendo US$ 5.553 devido a correções em problemas de falta eficiência e US$ 2.691 devido a correções em problemas de escala incorreta. Com base nesses dados, foram mensurados os impactos no emprego e na renda, utilizando-se a matriz insumo-produto de Minas Gerais. Segundo dados oficiais, existem cerca de 163 mil produtores comerciais de leite em Minas Gerais. Supondo que 1630 produtores (1% do total) se tornem eficiente, o ganho direto na renda bruta será de US$ 13,4 milhões. Inserindo esse valor na matriz e calculando os multiplicadores, conclui-se que o ganho final no Valor Bruto da Produção desse choque seria da ordem de US$ 31,3 milhões. Em termos de empregos, seriam gerados 4,6 mil novos postos de trabalho, sendo 2,8 mil empregos diretos e 1,8 indiretos. Os resultados são expressivos e demonstram a importância de programas que possibilitem o aumento de eficiência na produção de leite. Certamente os ganhos em emprego e renda suplantam o gasto necessário para implantação de programas desta natureza.
    Keywords: Q12 ; C14 ; C67 ; ddc:330 ; Produção de leite ; Eficiência ; Matriz insumo-produto
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    Publication Date: 2017-01-25
    Description: O crescimento econômico tem sido uma das grandes questões da sociedade atual. Desde 2008 as grandes potências vêm enfrentando dificuldades para retornar ao ciclo de desenvolvimento pelo qual passavam antes da crise mundial afetando os países emergentes que, por sua vez, devem buscar uma maior eficiência para enfrentar o cenário de maior competição econômica global. Nesse contexto, esse trabalho preocupa-se com a seguinte questão: do ponto de vista social, quais setores da economia apresentam uma melhor combinação no uso dos insumos disponíveis na sociedade para a obtenção de sua produção, de forma que a acumulação de capital seja obtida do modo mais eficiente possível? Para estudar essa questão, foi analisado o Estado de Minas Gerais, terceira maior economia dentre os Estados brasileiros. O objetivo é avaliar quais são os setores econômicos mais eficientes na geração de capital e qual o impacto no Valor Bruto da Produção estadual, caso todos os setores produzissem de forma eficiente. Para a medida de eficiência setorial foi utilizada a Análise Envoltória de Dados (DEA), uma abordagem não-paramétrica que analisa a conversão de insumos em produtos, que permite quantificar a quantidade de produtos que pode ser expandida sem a necessidade de mais insumos, considerando que existem unidades eficientes que conseguem fazê-lo. Os dados utilizados foram retirados da matriz insumo-produto do estado de Minas Gerais, representando as relações de compra e venda de 35 setores. Os setores foram agrupados em 4 grupos: agricultura, agroindústria, indústria e serviços. Inicialmente, foram calculadas as medidas de eficiência para todos os setores. Considerando um modelo com retornos variáveis, isto é, sem a influência da escala de produção, 13 setores foram considerados eficientes. Tomando-se como referência os setores mais eficientes, a metodologia DEA permite projetar o valor da produção que poderia ser obtido nos setores que apresentaram ineficiência técnica. Caso todos os setores operassem de forma equivalente, isto é, com a mesma eficiência em transformar capital em mais capital, o valor bruto da produção em Minas Gerais poderia crescer em até 40%. Após agregar os setores econômicos, verificou-se que, em média, os setores ligados à agropecuária são os mais eficientes, seguidos dos setores de serviço, da agroindústria e, por fim, da indústria. Considerando os resultados da simulação com orientação produto, ou seja, eliminar as ineficiências com aumento da produção, mantendo constante o uso dos insumos, percebe-se que para a convergência de eficiência entre os setores, a indústria deveria aumentar sua produção em 77,8%, a agroindústria em 54,3%, o setor de serviços em 12,6% e a agropecuária em 9,1%. As simulações mostram o potencial de economia de recursos com a eliminação das ineficiências técnicas de produção, ou ainda uma reorganização produtiva, com a alocação de novos investimentos nos setores mais eficientes.
    Keywords: E17 ; C67 ; ddc:330 ; Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications ; Input-Output Models
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    Publication Date: 2017-01-25
    Description: This article proposes an analysis of central places, both the size of the urban center as the size of the regional centrality, as a product of international interests (exogenous), using the historical case study methodology, adopting as its object a theme widely considered to be exhausted that is the Salvador city's founding and of course, the first steps of the Brazilian nation, with an analysis will from their first economic cycle: pau-brasil cycle. In the construction of ideas and historical recovery favors the tertiary sector, seeking concrete historical evidence of its slow socioeconomic acceptance until the advent of capitalism. Makes a rereading the concept of formation of cities and your metabolism and some of its intrinsic elements. Concluded that there was no intention by the Portuguese founder in creating a centrality in the size of the urban center, which for lack of an internal market took more than fifty years based on trade in basic subsistence products, however Salvador was born as the main regional centrality of the southern hemisphere of the sixteenth century remained in this condition until the seventeenth century.
    Keywords: ddc:330
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: Na literatura sobre mercado de trabalho brasileiro, existem poucos estudos econométricos sobre o tempo de trabalho. A maior parte das pesquisas sobre jornada de trabalho está focada principalmente em aspectos legais e negociais. O objetivo deste artigo é estudar o perfil dos ocupados em termos de jornada de trabalho no Brasil através dos dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD/IBGE) nos anos de 1992 e 1999. Procuramos estabelecer a relação entre a jornada de trabalho e as características individuais do trabalhador e da sua ocupação, tais como: experiência profissional, sexo, posição na família, raça, posição na ocupação, setor de atividade, nível educacional e região de moradia (área metropolitana ou não metropolitana e regiões naturais). Estimamos a probabilidade do trabalhador pertencer a três diferentes regimes de horário de trabalho - jornada curta (39 horas ou menos), padrão (40 a 44 horas) ou longa (45 ou mais) - condicionada às suas características e ao seu tipo de ocupação, através do uso do modelo multinomial logístico. Os resultados mostram que os três principais fatores que influenciam a determinação do número de horas de trabalho são as características dos indivíduos no tocante ao nível de escolaridade, à composição familiar e ao grau de formalização do emprego. Em particular, verifica-se que os trabalhadores menos educados e com pouca experiência profissional são os mais propensos a exercer jornadas de trabalho longa e padrão. Isto aumenta o potencial de geração de empregos de medidas de redução de jornada de trabalho no Brasil, ao tornar mais provável a substituição de horas por trabalhadores.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitsangebot ; Brasilien
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: In the present work, a tree-based model that combines aspects of CART (Classification and Regression Trees) and STR (Smooth Transition Regression) is proposed. The main idea relies on specifying a parametric nonlinear model through a tree-growing procedure. The resulting model can be analysed either as a fuzzy regression or as a smooth transition regression with multiple regimes. Decisions about splits are entirely based on statistical tests of hypotheses and confidence intervals are constructed for the parameters within the terminal nodes as well as the final predictions. A Monte Carlo Experiment shows the estimators’ properties and the ability of the proposed algorithm to identify correctly several tree architectures. An application to the famous Boston Housing dataset shows that the proposed model provides better explanation with the same number of leaves as the one obtained with the CART algorithm.
    Keywords: ddc:330
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Fehlzeit ; Brasilien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Inflation ; Brasilien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: This paper explores the ECINF database, a survey conducted by the Brazilian Census Bureau that investigates micro-enterprises in Brazil. The linked employeremployee nature of the data was used to study the issue of matching between employers and employees. The results indicate the presence of matching in the labor contracts. There is evidence that employers tend to contract workers with the same gender, age and educational level. Moreover, it is shown that this matching affects the contract form. People with the similar characteristics prefer share contracts.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; assortative matching ; contracts ; micro enterprise
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: With the external accounts problems reasonably solved, Brazil’s economic policy agenda is bound to be increasingly focused on fiscal issues. What makes the design of economic policy especially complex in this area is the fact that there are several superimposed and potentially conflicting fiscal agendas. The main challenge of the country’s economic policy over the coming years will be to successfully conciliate the multiple fiscal agendas that will have to be faced, in order to remodel and to resize the extraction and allocation of fiscal resources that already amount to 40 percent of GDP. The scope for economic growth and construction of a more equitable society will largely depend upon the degree of success the country’s political system will be able to show in its response to this challenge.
    Keywords: H20 ; H50 ; H60 ; N16 ; ddc:330 ; Finanzpolitik ; Brasilien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: We study the impacts of family income and parental education on the probability of children’s schooling delay using the 1996 PNAD. With the adoption of some hypotheses about the links between generations of children, parents and grandparents, we control for the existence of non observable factors that simultaneously affect the income formation of parents and decisions concerning children schooling (simultaneity bias) or that are transmitted from one generation to another (hereditary bias). We work with three instruments: number of schools by the time parents were children; family factor changes across generations (parents/grandparents); and the 1971 change of the educational system.
    Keywords: I21 ; J13 ; J18 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; escolaridade ; atraso educacional ; defasagem idade-série. ; Haushaltseinkommen ; Bildungsniveau ; Eltern ; Bildungsverhalten ; Kinder ; Brasilien
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