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  • 1
    Call number: IASS 16.89776
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 530 Seiten , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9787010149363
    Language: English , Chinese
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Beijing : Seismological Press
    Call number: M 10.0305
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 87 S.
    ISBN: 9787502836726
    Uniform Title: European Macroseismic Scale 1998
    Classification: A.2.4.
    Language: Chinese
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Bei-jing : Di-zhen chu-ban-she
    Call number: M 14.0002
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 359 S. : z.T. farb. Ill. und graph. Darst. + 1 DVD
    ISBN: 9787502843236
    Uniform Title: Stress field of the earth's crust
    Classification: A.3.10.
    Language: Chinese
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 4
    Call number: AWI Bio-17-90819
    Description / Table of Contents: The authors completed collecting and arranging plates of photomicrographs for common pollen and spores in Quaternary strata. Given China's vast territory, complex vegetation types, a variety of plants, and polen grains with similar morphology probably produced by different plant species in different regions. We have organized this book's photomicrographs of pollen grains and spores in the division of China into five regions, i.e. northwest,northern, southeast, south and southwest China. Photomicrographs of pollen grains and spores in each region are arranged by plant classification system i.e. in order of algae, bryophyte, pteridophyte, gymnosperm, and angiosperm. All 409 plates of color photomicrographs for pollen grains and spores are finally illustrated and described.
    Description / Table of Contents: 本书整理编排了我国第四纪地层常见的孢粉类型显微照相图版,按照西北、北方、东南、华南和西南五个大区编排,并对这些区域的现代植被、第四纪植被史做了简要概述,还重点叙述了各地区第四纪主要孢粉类型、特点以及常见孢粉种类的鉴定形态特征。共分三章,第一章为我国各地区现代植被和第四纪植被概述,重点叙述了古植被与古气候的演变历史;第二章介绍本图鉴中所列出的各地区主要第四纪孢粉类型及其特点,并对不同地区常见孢粉种类
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 620 Seiten , zahlreiche Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9787030505682
    Language: Chinese , Latin
    Note: Contents: Preface. - Chapter 1: Overview of modern and Quaternary vegetation in China. - 1.1 Northwest region / Tang Lingyu and Shen Caiming. - 1.1.1 Overview of modern vegetation. - 1.1.1.1 Gobi desert and desert vegetation in eastern Xinjiang. - 1.1.1.2 Extremely arid desert and shrubland vegetation in the Qaidam Basin. - 1.1.1.3 Arid desert shrub and semi-shrub vegetation in the Hexi Corridor. - 1.1.1.4 Sylvosteppe or pine-oak forest in the transitional region between semi-humid and semi-arid monsoonal climate of temperate zone in the Loess Plateau. - 1.1.2 Overview of Quaternary vegetation. - 1.1.2.1 Vegetation and environment since the early Pleistocene in Qinghai. - 1.1.2.2 Holocene vegetation succession of steppe/meadow in north Xizang (Tibet). - 1.1.2.3 Vegetation and environment since the late Pleistocene in the Loess Plateau. - 1.1.2.4 Vegetation and environment since the early Pleistocene in Xinjiang. - 1.2 Northern region / Tang Lingyu and Li Chunhai. - 1.2.1 Overview of modern vegetation. - 1.2.1.1 Coniferous and broadleaved forest and meadow of temperate zone in Northeast China. - 1.2.1.2 Oak forest of river valley, Chinese pine forest, and shrub steppe in the lower valley of Liaohe River, North China plain, southern Shanxi, and central Shaanxi plain. - 1.2.2 Overview of Quaternary vegetation. - 1.2.2.1 Vegetation and environment since the early Pleistocene in North China. - 1.2.2.2 Vegetation and environment since the early Pleistocene in Northeast China. - 1.3 Southeast region / Shu Junwu and Tang Lingyu. - 1.3.1 Overview of modern vegetation. - 1.3.2 Overview of Quaternary vegetation. - 1.3.2.1 Vegetation succession since the mid-Pleistocene in Hubei. - 1.3.2.2 Vegetation and environment since the late Pleistocene in the lower valley of the Yangtze River. - 1.3 .2.3 Forest succession since the last glaciation in southeast coast of Fujian. - 1.3.2.4 Vegetation and environment since the late Pleistocene in the central Taiwan. - 1.4 South region / Mao Limi, Tang Lingyu and Shen Cairning. - 1.4.1 Overview of modern vegetation. - 1.4.1.1 Vegetation in the southern zone of middle subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest. - 1.4.1.2 Vegetation in the zone of south subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest. - 1.4.1.3 Tropical semi-evergreen monsoonal forest and tropical monsoonal forest. - 1.4.2 Overview of Quaternary vegetation. - 1.4.2.1 Vegetation in the Zhujiang delta and Chaozhou plain since the Pleistocene recorded by pollen and spores. - 1.4.2.2 Vegetation and climate since the late Pleistocene in Leizhou Peninsula and Holocene vegetation and climate in Hainan Island. - 1.4.2.3 Late Quaternary pollen and spores, vegetation and climate records in the South. - 1.4.2.4 Vegetation and climate since the late Pleistocene in Hong Kong. - 1.5 Southwest region / Shu Junwu, Tang Lingyu and Shen Caiming. - 1.5.1 Overview of modern vegetation. - 1.5.1.1 Vegetation of evergreen broadleaved forest in the Yunnan , Guizhou and western Sichuan Plateau. - 1.5.1.2 Vegetation of coniferous forest in southeast Xizang. - 1.5.2 Overview of Quaternary vegetation. - 1.5.2.1 Holocene vegetation in northwest Yunnan. - 1.5.2.2 Vegetation and monsoonal climate history since the late Pleistocene in western and south-central Yunnan. - 1.5.2.3 Holocene vegetation in western Sichuan. - 1.5.2.4 Vegetation and environment since the late Pleistocene in Guizhou. - 1.5.2.5 Vegetation and monsoonal climate history since the late Pleistocene in southeastern Xizang. - Chapter 2 Main types of Quaternary pollen and spores and their characteristics in different regions of China. - 2.1 Northwest region / Tang Lingyu and Mao Limi. - 2.1.1 Types of Quaternary pollen and spores in Northwest China. - 2.1.2 Identifiable features of major Quaternary pollen and spores in Northwest China. - 2.1.2.1 Identifiable features of main Compositae pollen types. - 2.1.2.2 Identifiable features of Artemisia, Tamarix, and Zygophyllum pollen. - 2.1.2.3 Identifiable features of Rhamnus, Hippophae, and Elaeagnus pollen. - 2.1.3 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary spores and pollen in Northwest China. - 2.1.3.1 Photomicrographs for major Quaternary pollen types in Northwest China. - 2.1.3.2 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen types in Northwest China. - 2.2 Northern region / Tang Lingyu. - 2.2.1 Types of Quaternary pollen and spores in Northern China. - 2.2.2 Identifiable features of major Quaternary pollen and spores in Northern China. - 2.2.2.1 Identification keys of pollen morphology for several saccate genera of Pinaceae. - 2.2.2.2 Identifiable features of pollen morphology for genera of Betulaceae. - 2.2.2.3 Identifiable features of tricolpate pollen from Salix and Cruciferae. - 2.2.2.4 Identifiable features of tricolpate pollen from Ranunculaceae and Labiatae. - 2.2.3 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary spores and pollen in Northern China. - 2.2.3.1 Photomicrographs for major Quaternary pollen types in Northern China. - 2.2.3.2 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen types in Northern China. - 2.3 Southeast region / Tang Lingyu and Shu Junwu. - 2.3.1 Types of Quaternary pollen and spores in Southeast China. - 2.3.2 Identifiable features of major Quaternary pollen and spores in Southeast China. - 2.3.2.1 Identifiable features of pollen morphology for Fagaceae. - 2.3.2.2 Identification keys of pollen morphology for several genera of Fagaceae. - 2.3.2.3 Identifiable features of pollen morphology for several genera of Fagaceae. - 2.3.2.4 Identifiable features of pollen morphology for several genera of tropical and subtropical. - 2.3.3 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen and spores in Southeast China. - 2.3.3.1 Photomicrographs for major Quaternary pollen types in Southeast China. - 2.3.3.2 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen types in Southeast China. - 2.4 South region / Mao Limi and Tang Lingyu. - 2.4.1 Types of Quaternary pollen and spores in South China. - 2.4.2 Identifiable features of main Quaternary pollen and spores in South China. - 2.4.2.1 Modern distribution and paleophytogeography of Sonneratia and its identifiable features of pollen morphology. - 2.4.2.2 Modern distribution and paleoecology significance of Rhizophoraceae and its identifiable features of pollen morphology. - 2.4.3 Photomicrographs and descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen and spores in South China. - 2.4.3.1 Photomicrographs for major Quaternary pollen and spores in South China. - 2.4.3.2 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen and spores in South China. - 2.5 Southwest region / Tang Lingyu and Shu Junwu. - 2.5.1 Types of Quaternary pollen and spores in Southwest China. - 2.5.2 Identifiable feature of main Quaternary pollen and spores in Southwest China. - 2.5.2.1 Plant distribution and pollen features of Pinaceae in Southwest China. - 2.5.2.2 Identification keys of pollen morphology for Pinaceae. - 2.5.3 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen and spores in Southwest China. - 2.5.3.1 Photomicrographs for common pollen in Southwest China. - 2.5.3.2 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen and spores in Southwest China. - Chapter 3 Plates and descriptions of Quaternary pollen and spores in different region of China. - 3.1 Northwest region / Tang Lingyu and Mao Limi. - Spores of the pteridophyte Plates 1-3. - Gymnosperm pollen Plates 3-10. - Angiosperm pollen Plates 11-63. - 3.2 Northern region / Tang Lingyu and Li Chunhai. - Spores of the algae Plates 1-3. - Spores of the bryophyte Plate 4. - Spores of the pteridophyte Plates 5-9. - Gymnosperm pollen Plates 9-24. - Angiosperm pollen Plates 25-63. - 3.3 Southeast region / Tang Lingyu, Zhou Zhongze and
    Location: AWI Reading room
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 5
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Brasilia : Synergia Editora | Rio de Janeiro : Empresa de Pesquisa Energética (EPE)
    Call number: IASS 17.90863
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XXXI, 310 S. , Ill., graph. Dast.
    Edition: 2ª Edição
    ISBN: 9788568483060
    Language: Portuguese
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 6
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    Publit Solu??es Editoriais
    In:  Experi?ncias Internacionais em Gera??o Distribu?da: Motiva??es, Impactos e Ajustes
    Publication Date: 2019-06-13
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-02-17
    Description: In recent years, Brazil has seen an increase in formal employment, the raising of the minimum wage, a recovery in the purchasing power of the average wage, a drop in open unemployment and curbs on unprotected subcontracting. Average household incomes have risen and poverty has declined. How was this achieved? This paper argues that a minimum wage revaluation policy, broader social security coverage, income transfers and improved wage bargaining have all contributed to a reduction in inequality. The shift in labour market indicators is, they believe, conditioned by Brazil’s economic dynamics, public policy on the raising of incomes, and a legal and institutional framework in which the public institutions and the trade unions play a prominent role. The authors advocate the creation of a development model that distributes income and dignifies citizens.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 8
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This paper aims to subsidize the current debate on tax reform, showing how the theoretical assumptions that supported the current model of income taxation in Brazil are undergoing a significant international revision, both as a consequence of the increasing inequality and the maturation of the theory of optimal taxation. This review indicates that both the progressivity and the taxation of capital income can be made compatible in a neoclassical framework that seeks to balance the search for equity and economic efficiency. In this sense, it is concluded that at least the exemption of excess return of capital (in the form of the total exemption of distributed dividends, as in Brazil) should be removed from the Brazilian tax system, suggesting the Nordic dual income tax as a reference for a proposed reform.
    Keywords: A14 ; B20 ; D63 ; H21 ; H24 ; ddc:330 ; theory of optimal taxation ; dual income tax ; dividends
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The agricultural frontier known as Matopiba, has shown considerable growth in recent years. This dynamism results from the agricultural production of grains such as soybean, corn and cotton in large properties and with use of machinery and equipment. Thus, the work measures aspects of the economic dynamics of the region, with the characterization of agricultural, industrial and service activities and mapping the infrastructure and logistics. It was observed that even with strong growth, the region still has bottlenecks to be overcome to facilitate the storage and flow of production, such as ports, highways and railroads. In addition, it suffers from social inequality, which demands public policies to balance the best use of resources and the fair distribution of income. Thus, it is possible to affirm that it is an enclave region of difficult coalition due to the different forces existing in the region, such as business agriculture, preservation areas, family agriculture, quilombolas and indigenous.
    Keywords: Q1 ; R1 ; R11 ; ddc:330 ; Matopiba ; economics development ; infrastructure ; logistics
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The design of the Bolsa Família Program (BFP) provides for the possibility of integrating state and municipal conditional cash transfers, based on the establishment of terms of cooperation with the Federal Government (or "pacts", as these instruments became known). The work systematizes the history of the PBF state pacts, implemented in the context of the Brasil sem Miséria Plan (BSM) - from 2011 - examining how much the changes in the program design, especially the creation of the Benefício para Superação da Extrema Pobreza (BSP), affected the use of this instrument of federative coordination, highlighting its limits and potentialities as a national strategy for coping with poverty. The advent of the BSP contributed to the decline of the pacts agenda, as it changed the federal government's strategy of financial support to overcome the extreme poverty gap on the part of the states for its resolution by the Union itself: that is, the The Union has, on its own, ensure that extreme poverty is overcome according to the national line defined for the BFP. This decision also equated the lack of effectiveness of the instrument of agreement in the induction of the state governments for that purpose. Regarding the limits of the agreements, it was identified difficulties of states with greater proportion of poverty to make financial contributions more robust; the volatility of political interests and the fluctuation of the theme in the state agenda; the low state capacity to act in a countercyclical manner and the fragility of the legal instrument mobilized to manage the pacts between federative entities. On the other hand, it was also possible to find in the pacts an experimental space for adjustments in the design of the programs, which in turn lead to the improvement of the PBF itself, since it has a unique design for the whole country and should be adapted to the different local realities so that it is better able to reach its objectives.
    Keywords: I38 ; ddc:330 ; Bolsa Família ; Brasil sem Miséria ; conditional cash transfers ; federative coordination
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 11
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This paper aims to analyze the history of Rural Social Security, as well as the structural imbalance of the social security system. The influence of social security spending was studied considering the national agricultural scenario and its complexity. In 2017, the rural pension balance closed in debit of R$ 110.7 billion, the highest value since 2003. With the aging of the Brazilian population, retirement rules may become progressively incompatible with the new demographic reality. In addition, in Brazil, most of the rural beneficiary population is defined as a special insured, which means receiving retirement without having contributed compulsorily. Unlike the urban population, most of the rural benefits were granted through legal proceedings, which expresses the fragility of the system. It is believed that there was an expansion of social security expenditures without the direct link with the performance of activities in the field. When regionalized the study, it is noticed that a great part of the rural benefits were concentrated in the Northeast, region that comprises 60% of the extreme poverty in the rural environment. Thus, the article reinforces the need to separate what is welfare policy from what is social security planning of a contributory nature.
    Keywords: Q1 ; E24 ; I38 ; ddc:330 ; agricultural economy ; rural worker ; social security ; social welfare
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 12
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This paper intents to empirically verify whether some of the confidence indexes more popular in Brazil have effectively been useful in recent years to build reliable forecasts on the evolution of key indicators of economic activity, as well as evaluate the impact of the rapid reversion of the indexes in May 2016 on the reliability of those forecasts. With this aim a series of simple econometric models was estimated, including and excluding the period after that reversion, relating the evolution of activity indicators to that of the confidence indexes alone and, afterwards, also to a set of traditional macroeconomic indicators, assessing the joint significance of the parameters and the adjusted adjusted ² coefficient. The results showed the analyzed indexes are indeed able to contribute to the building of forecasts on the evolution of industrial production and retail sales. However, this contribution is very heterogeneous variating depending on the index being considered and, generally, relatively low, what, associated to the reduced size of the samples, recommends caution in the interpretation of the forecasts built on them. Such a caution is even more needful in moments like 2016, when the change in the indexes with no similar movement in the activity indicators reduced its predictive power in most of cases.
    Keywords: D84 ; E27 ; ddc:330 ; confidence indexes ; macroeconomic forecasting
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The Social Security Reform Bill (PEC) no 287/2016, along with its subsequent modifications, attempts to promote important and necessary parametric adjustments in the Brazilian Social Security system, with clear focus on its social insurance pillar. Put it simply, regarding the General Social Insurance System (RGPS), the original proposal stablished the stiffening of the eligibility requirements for claming benefits, mainly (but not only) old-age pensions, for which the insured would be required to meet newly established or increased minimum access criteria (mostly in terms of age and waiting periods), common to all types of insured workers (65 years of age and 25 years of contributions). The sole modality for voluntary retirement remaining in the post-reform RGPS (when the unavoidable transitional rules are no longer applicable), would demand, for the urban clientele, a minimum age of 65 (men) or 62 years (women) and a minimum waiting period of 25 years of effective financial contributions; as for the rural clientele, the minimum age would be of 60 (men) or 57 years (women), with the minimum waiting period maintained at the current level of 15 years (although, unlike the ongoing prevailing rules, there would be a requirement for actual financial contributions, not only for proof of rural activity). The current version of the reform bill preserved the minimum waiting period of 15 years in force at RGPS (for both clienteles, urban and rural, with the latter maintaining the sufficiency of the proof of rural activity as condition for retirement) and the rural minimum retirement age for women (55 years), in addition to maintaining the substitutive proposal for the urban minimum retirement ages (65 (H), 62 (M)). The analyzed data, extracted from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) and administrative records of the RGPS, indicate substantive improvements on social security coverage in the last decades (considering employed workers and the elderly) and in the contribution density measured for retirees (estimated in terms of the evolution on the average number of years of contribution or activity registered up until the time of retirement). Still, there seem to be evidence of possible limits for the continuous enhancement of these indicators, at least to the extent necessary to face this aspect of the reform proposal, perhaps too strict when taken into consideration the Brazilian socioeconomic reality and perspectives and in the light of what is internationally considered to be the more appropriate approach in this matter. The PEC no 287/2016 has important merits and conceives a more sustainable social insurance system, but some of its aspects, such as the recently proposed adjustments to the minimum waiting period for retirement, were properly reformulated.
    Keywords: I38 ; H55 ; ddc:330 ; social insurance ; social insurance reform ; minimum waiting period to entitlement of benefits ; social insurance coverage
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: We investigate the effects of the Profrota Pesqueira Program, created in 2004, on the performance of labor market indicators of municipalities with port fishing terminals. Specifically, we measure the effects on the formal employment and earnings. To do so, we combine employment information from Rais between 2000 and 2015, with data from other sources for obtaining a panel of municipalities. We used Difference in Differences Estimator. The results show that the program did not have positive effects on the indicators evaluated in the fisheries sector. Some of the estimates are robust to analyzes of falsification. Econometric analysis of the effects of the program on the labor market as a whole, with data from the population census, editions 2000 and 2010, reveals that the program seems to have influenced the engagement of workers in paid labor market activities and to reduce labor in own consumption or in the non paid labor market activities.
    Keywords: C21 ; J21 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Profrota Pesqueira ; impact evaluation ; diference in differences ; labor market
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This paper analyzes the macroeconomic impacts derived from the recognition of previously unreported fiscal liabilities during 2015 in Brazil. This is done within a DSGE model with a detailed public sector developed and calibrated for the Brazilian economy. The gradual recognition of these fiscal liabilities is interpreted as a series of "news shocks" in response to which private agents may have updated their expectations regarding the sustainability of the public debt and the implementation of fiscal adjustment measures, thus generating potentially significant macroeconomic effects. The paper's main results are: i) the shocks related to the recognition of previously unreported fiscal liabilities may have caused significant output loss and inflationary pressure; ii) a fiscal reaction function based on the reduction of public employment and the increase in income tax rates would have generated smaller macroeconomic costs relative to the rule actually adopted (based on the reduction of public consumption and investment); iii) delaying or downsizing the required fiscal adjustment in the short run would have led to the worsening of fiscal indicators and generated much larger costs in terms of output loss and higher inflation.
    Keywords: E17 ; E37 ; E62 ; E65 ; ddc:330 ; DSGE models ; fiscal policy ; fiscal transparency
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 16
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: In this work, we will analyze the routines and protocols, as well as the agents and the organizations, that are decisive in the agenda-setting and in the formulation of government policies at the Executive Branch. The analysis is based on two cases: the Ministry of National Integration (MI) and the Ministry of Social Development (MDS). We use documents and data collected in 28 semi-directive interviews with members of top-level positions in each Ministry and in the Presidency of the Republic. We argue that the agenda-setting is divided into two parts: the President's priority agenda and ministers' agenda. However, the policy formulation - including the priority - almost always takes place at the ministerial level. The bureaucracy of experts is indispensable to formulate any policy but acts through political delegation, not by their own. Ministers play a pivotal role in setting the agenda, but the ideological intra-coalition conflict - manifested by parties with heterogeneous preferences - is no obstacle to the President, who can push ahead with the agenda of his interest.
    Keywords: H1 ; H19 ; ddc:330 ; federal Executive Branch ; Presidency of the Republic ; coalitional presidentialism ; public policy ; government process in Brazil
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This study had the objective of evaluating the impact of the Broadband Program in Schools (PBLE) on the educational quality of schools. For this, two indicators were used: Basic Education Development Index (Ideb) and the average of the National High School Exam (Enem). Adopting differences-in-differences method (DiD) and Panel Data, with and without pairing, it was possible to demonstrate that: i) with data from Ideb referring to the initial years of elementar education, the impact of the program in schools was negative; and ii) in relation to the final years of elementary education, there were improvements in schools in the Southeast and Central West. In addition, the Enem data confirmed which schools in the Southeast region showed improvement in math test (MT), with a significant increase varying between 3% and 4% in performance, but worsened test scores for languages and codes (LC). For the Northeast region, the program had positive effects on the natural science test (NC), but negative on the MT test.
    Keywords: D04 ; I28 ; C21 ; ddc:330 ; educational quality ; Broadband Program in Schools (PBLE) ; differences in differences method (DiD) ; evaluation of public policies
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Keywords: C21 ; C53 ; E22 ; E65 ; ddc:330 ; Investitionspolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Investition ; Brasilien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Keywords: R590 ; ddc:330 ; Regionalpolitik ; Föderalismus ; Brasilien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This article uses recently released data from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Contínua (PNAD Contínua), Brazilian household survey to calculate changes in inequality as measured by the Gini coefficient from 2016 to 2017. A Shorrocks decomposition by factor components is also undertaken, as well as a limited analysis of the wage inequality and the labor market contribution to household inequality. The main results are: i) the Gini coefficient fell 0.18 point from 2016 to 2017, going from 54.1 to 53.8, which is a very small reduction in inequality; ii) this reduction is due to the interplay between labor and social protection incomes; and iii) the labor market by itself is playing against reductions in inequality, which shows the relevance of the (still limited and not very progressive) Brazilian social protection system.
    Keywords: D31 ; D33 ; ddc:330 ; inequality in Brazil ; Gini coefficient ; Shorrocks decomposition ; concentration coefficient
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 21
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: In this study we document trends in the allocation of time by gender in Brazil. In particular, we analyze trends in market work hours, home work hours (household chores), commute and leisure times in Brazil along 2001-2015. Analysis is made by gender and is based on the National Household Survey (PNAD). Results show that men enjoy more time of leisure than women, although this difference is reducing over time. For both men and women, there is an increase in leisure time. Specifically, we show that leisure for men increased by 4 hours per week (driven by a decline in market work hours) and for women by 7 hours per week (driven by a decline in home production work hours).
    Keywords: D12 ; D13 ; J22 ; ddc:330 ; time use ; leisure ; labor supply ; gender
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  • 22
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: We propose a management tool to identify groups of public schools that have similar standards of performance and therefore need similar support and guidance.The student's result is measured with the "Prova Brasil" (PB) for mathematics and for Portuguese language, and with an indicator of the condition of being performing (PB) with a higher than expected age. The degree of inclusion measured by the rates of disapproval and dropping out of school. We defined as the school product the portion of the students' results that is not explained with their family and school environment, and we identified a partition in groups of schools with dissimilar patterns, but composed of similar schools.We implemented this methodology with information from the "Prova Brasil" and the School Census of the year 2013. The main empirical results are: i) it is possible to define a partition of the set of public schools in 9 groups according to the learning and the degree of inclusion of the students; ii) these groups are linearly separable; and iii) this partition is partially explained with unobserved variables common to all schools in a municipality.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; C38 ; C45 ; ddc:330 ; performance of schools ; ranking ; cluster analysis
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Space activities have been fundamental for defense, communications and meteorology sectors - as well as for observation and positioning operations and for daily life activities. The initial purpose of this paper is to detail the main characteristics of the Brazilian Space Program (PEB, in Portuguese), presenting Brazilian previous experience in space activities and relevant government bodies in the space sector. This text also means to present Alcântara Launching Center (CLA, in Portuguese) marketing points of view and the possible business models for its commercial exploration, considering the opportunities for Brazil to take part in the satellite and microsatellite launching market. After a further investigation about the main challenges for PEB, it concludes that CLA commercialization, as well as the ongoing space governance redesign and the consolidation of Alcântara Space Center (CEA, in Portuguese), represents an important milestone in the strengthening of the space sector in Brazil.
    Keywords: F52 ; F53 ; H56 ; O3 ; ddc:330 ; Brazilian Space Program ; Alcântara Launching Center ; space industry ; space activities ; satellites ; aerospace
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: How the Executive builds its own legislative agenda and which role does the Presidency play? This article partially answers the two questions and specifies how the formulation and the division of labor among its members - parties, bureaucracies, the Presidency and the President - are structured. Even when the President is strong, a coalition government needs to consider other partner's policy and office demands. We identify and translate how and when this process occurs. We collected data from detailed interviews with those who held key positions inside the Presidency or ministries and made documental analyses. The Executive has a dual agenda. The Presidency proposes and conducts a relevant and clearly identifiable part of the policies formulated in the government and, in any case, it is a mediator of the dialogue among cabinet members, before giving the approval for sending the bills to the Congress. The presidential legislative agenda is continuously monitored by Casa Civil while inside the Executive, and has its own timing - faster - and protocols; the "ministerial" agenda follows another one. In both agendas the Presidency gives the last word, building or imposing consensus.
    Keywords: Z19 ; ddc:330 ; Executive Branch ; Presidency of the Republic ; Casa Civil ; government coordination ; coalition presidentialism
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    Language: Portuguese
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This paper aims to apprehend the economic impact of the 2016 Olympic Games, measuring their effects on the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of both Rio de Janeiro city and its metropolitan area, from 2012 to 2015. By using the synthetic control method, we found out that the games delayed and mitigated the effects of the national intense macroeconomic crisis on the Rio's GDP per capita. The results point out that there were substantial increasing positive effects during those years, for both municipal and metropolitan levels. In the first case, the GDP per capita would have been almost 7.5% smaller if the games hadn't happened-which means it was approximately R$ 3,694.76/year higher than it would have been in a no games scenario. Regarding the metropolitan area, the GDP per capita would have been nearly 5.1% lesser. It improved about R$ 1,912.38/year due to the intervention. Furthermore, we verified that, if the games had not taken place, Rio's real GDP per capita would have gone back to 2007 levels. Because of the games, its least level equaled that of 2012.
    Keywords: Z20 ; ddc:330 ; Olympics ; Olympic Games ; Rio 2016 ; sinthetic control method
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The paper's main goal is to advance in the knowledge of a key function of the government: the policy coordination. This is even more relevant within the core of the government, which is a set of institutions and actors that provide direct support to implementation of priority actions defined by the president. Thus, the research analyzes what mechanisms, instruments and levels of coordination are actually used in the policymaking of four strategic policies during the Lula's and Dilma's administration, namely: i) Programa Bolsa Família (PBF); ii) Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento (PAC); iii) Programa Brasil Sem Miséria (BSM); e iv) Programa de Investimento em Logística (PIL). The investigation employed bibliographic review, content analysis of official publications and, mainly, interviews with actors who occupied key positions in the Presidency and Ministries of Finance and Planning in both administrations. The main conclusion is that in spite of the existence of various formal and procedural coordination instruments, in practice, the instruments most used in priority policies coordination are the ones informal and designed ad hoc for such programs. In addition, the hierarchical mechanism shares space with intra-governmental networking strategies, especially to solve conflicts and disagreements among ministries.
    Keywords: H83 ; ddc:330 ; governmental coordination ; public policy ; core of government ; Executive branch ; Brazil
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 27
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The ICT Household Survey aims to collect data on information and communication technologies (ICT) access and use in Brazil. We use this research to elaborate two exercises. The first one applies logistic regression to determine the factors responsible for connecting a domicile to the Internet. The second one estimates a demand model for the Internet applying a multinomial model of discrete choice. The model contemplates four types of connection: DSL with fixed telephone line, TV cable or fiber optic and mobile via modem or 3G and 4G chip. In the case of logistic regression, we verified that socioeconomic variables such as schooling, income and social class are factors that influence whether the household is connected or not. We verified that the higher the level of schooling or income, the greater the effect on the probability of the household be connecting to the Internet. We observe that there is no defined pattern concern to the effect of a variable on the probability of choosing a type of connection. Thus, each variable responds differently depending on each type of connection. This study is the first attempt with disaggregated data of estimation of Internet demand for Brazil. Although it contains certain weaknesses due to the limitations of the database, it is still a valid exercise insofar as it suggests important indications for the construction of a more reliable database for the supporting studies of Internet demand in Brazil.
    Keywords: L51 ; L96 ; ddc:330 ; broadband ; internet demand ; logistic regression ; type of connection ; multinomial model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This study analyzes the most relevant political and economic factors that conditioned the institutionalization trajectory of the brazilian Public Employment, Labor and Income System (SPETR). For this, the analytical focus was the financing mechanisms of the Fund of Support to the Worker. Based on a broad analysis of legal instruments and accounting for FAT's annual exercises since its implementation, it has been noted that, as current expenditures have increased in relation to revenues, especially in view of the mandatory constitutional programs (unemployment insurance and salary bonuses), such financing arrangement began to show signs of fragility, since the space to cover discretionary current expenses that make up the other operational dimensions of SPETR has been reduced. However, the main vector of depletion of FAT's financial capacity comes from economic policy decisions within the federal government that have transcended even the decision-making sphere created for this purpose, the Codefat. Decisions with the greatest impact on the system came unilaterally and without any compensation from the economic policy summit of the different governments since the mid-1990s, mainly affecting their revenue stream, particularly revenue earmarking and tax relief.
    Keywords: E22 ; E62 ; E65 ; H53 ; I38 ; J38 ; J68 ; ddc:330 ; public employment system ; Fund of Support to the Worker ; social policy ; institutional change ; job market
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This study assesses possible costs and benefits resulting from Brazil's accession into the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Government Procurement Agreement (GPA). Initially, this evaluation is based on a bibliographical survey that analyses the effects of the non-discriminatory public procurement policies. An econometric analysis will be carried out to indicate how entry into the GPA can influence the government's use of imported goods and services. Finally, simulations of possible scenarios of GPA impacts in Brazil will be performed in a computable general equilibrium model. The literature points out that the main advantages of entering the GPA are access to the market of government purchases from other countries, increased transparency in procurement processes and consequent gains in efficiency in the public sector. There would certainly be costs related to adapting local laws to give equal treatment to foreign and domestic firms. There is also the fear that entry into the GPA can generate job losses due to the substitution of local suppliers by foreigners, although the theory on the subject does not predict this result clearly. The empirical study indicates that entry into the GPA is at least correlated with an increase in the share of imported government purchases. The general equilibrium analysis indicates that possible costs, in terms of loss of employment and welfare in the Brazilian economy, resulting from the entry into the GPA, could be offset by the increase in exports and by the possible efficiency gains of the public sector.
    Keywords: F13 ; ddc:330 ; government procurement ; GPA ; costs ; benefits
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This work aimed to reproduce the methodology of Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael Osborne of 2017 for estimating the automation probabilities of occupations in Brazil. These estimates are potentially important for professionals and policymakers because they can guide the career of a worker, as well as define priority courses that educational institutions should offer in order to maximize employment opportunities in the country. We consulted the opinion of 69 scholars and professionals that are experts in machine learning to ground the estimation the automation probability of Brazilian occupations. The findings indicate that a large part of the occupations can be automated in the next years. In addition, it can be seen that these professions with a higher risk of automation show a trend of growth over time, which may result in a high level of unemployment in the coming years if professionals and the government do not prepare for this scenario.
    Keywords: J24 ; J64 ; Q55 ; N36 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; automation ; labor market ; artificial intelligence ; natural language processing ; technical expertise ; text mining
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The promotion of the transition of family farms to the next generations leads to consequences to the whole agricultural sector. Progress and economical and social stability are associated to the continuity of the rural entrepreneurships. Public policies to Brazilian agriculture must consider its diversity and heterogeneous structure. Based on international experience, this paper aims to study the succession process in agricultural businesses, focusing on public policies based on tax, credit and educational stimuli. Results point to the necessity of systematizing the information on the management of family farms in Brazilian agriculture and suggest promising paths to the contribution of public policies on solutions to the succession problem of those enterprises.
    Keywords: Q1 ; Q18 ; D1 ; ddc:330 ; family farms ; succession ; public policies ; agriculture
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  • 32
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Keywords: J10 ; J11 ; ddc:330 ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Bevölkerungsprognose ; Regionalentwicklung ; Brasilien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This paper presents a tax reform proposal on consumption in Brazil. The basic idea is to add several taxes in a single Value Added Tax (VAT). Unlike the other proposals, which suggest a strategy automatically encompassing all federated entities, our study suggests a dual and modular reform based on the Canadian model. The main advantage of this strategy lies on its implementation because the approval in the National Congress initially does not require greater institutional arrangements but only changes in infraconstitutional laws. Moreover, contrary to the mandatory nature of the others proposals, our model implies a voluntary adhesion of the federated entities. This factor, besides facilitating the approval of the proposal, respects the federative principle of our country.
    Keywords: K34 ; H20 ; H25 ; ddc:330 ; tax reform ; taxes on consumption ; VAT
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 34
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The discussion around the possible impacts of the recently proposed pension reform (Constitutional Amendment Bill No. 287/2016) on poverty and inequality has been largely impressionistic to date. The present study tries to bridge this gap by using counterfactual microsimulations based on the 2015 National Household Survey (PNAD). These simulations allow for the comparison of poverty and inequality indicators observed in 2015 with estimates for the full implementation of two different versions of the pension reform (the proposed by the Executive and the proposed by the Chamber of Deputies). The effects of implementing the reform are computed both for the overall proposals and for each of their components. Finally, these effects are also estimated on the age structure expected for 2040. The simulations suggest that the pension reform would produce only modest distributive effects. The Executive version would have a larger impact (reaching, directly or indirectly, almost 20 per cent of the Brazilian population). It would increase the poverty rate (based on the ¼-of-the-minimum-wage poverty line) from the current 9.4 per cent to 11.1 per cent. Inequality would increase marginally. The Legislative version would marginally increase the poverty rate (in 0.4 percentage point) and decrease inequality marginally. The results do not support excessively optimistic or pessimistic perceptions about the possible effects of the pension reform on poverty and inequality. ¼-of-the-minimum-wage
    Keywords: D31 ; H31 ; H55 ; ddc:330 ; pension reform ; poverty ; inequality
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  • 35
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The recent financial crisis shed a new light on issues that, previously, were not perceived as serious or important. It highlighted the close ties between fiat money and government bonds denominated in it that imply a strong relationship between Treasury and Central Bank. Two ill-conceived views of the "new consensus" on money that had turned into taboos were also put in evidence. The first, derived from the quantitative theory of money, concerns the rejection of unsterilized monetary expansion; the second, directly related to the neoliberal ideology, prohibits or imposes strict limits on the role of central banks in the financing of public debts.
    Keywords: E580 ; ddc:330 ; financial crisis ; monetary policy ; quantitative easing ; debt monetization ; financial markets
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 36
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This paper estimates the effect of non-Iberian immigration to Brazil based on historical and contemporary microdata. The historical base encompasses over 1.7 million immigrant records; the contemporary has more than 165 million records. The estimation of immigrant numeracy suggest that Stolz, Baten e Botelho (2013) underestimated their skills and, therefore, their impact on Brazil. An algorithm classified the surnames of contemporary Brazilians according to their ancestral origins. Two counterfactual estimates are constructed in order to estimate the income per capita if there had never been any non-Iberian immigration. The first counterfactual is built upon the regression of income on the percentages of each ancestral group in municipalities. The second, results from the regression of individual wages on the surname ancestry workers. The coefficients are used to estimate income in couterfactuals Brazils with no descendants of immigrants. It was estimated that in the absence of non-Iberian immigrants today's income would be from 12.6 % to 17 % lower.
    Keywords: F22 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; immigration ; human capital ; numeracy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 37
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The purpose of this work is to identify the institutional network of the National Road System (SNV) to illustrate and discuss its complexity. A qualitative-quantitative analysis of legislation permitted to circumscribe objectives and limits and to identify key members and interactions. This showed that there is a limitation and mismatch of information that may hinder its understanding and compromise the synergy of a complex institutional network, allowing recent legal changes purged important players to the SNV interact in a macro context, for example. Furthermore, it was possible to identify the high involvement of actors that are not very evident in the processes of public policy making but important for the results in a macro context. In a timely manner, the work presents a map with the institutional network of the SNV, which contributes to a greater understanding of a broader and more complete scenario of the Brazilian transport system.
    Keywords: H41 ; L78 ; O17 ; O18 ; ddc:330 ; National Road System ; system approach ; infrastructure ; transport
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  • 38
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The growing demand for urban infrastructure and public services provided in decentralized way in Brazil, combined with the recent fiscal crisis caused by the economic recession and governmental transfers reduction, has increased the debate about the own municipal taxes strengthening, where the urban property tax would be the first point in the agenda, which causes low economic distortions and can be progressive. Therefore, this study aims to identify the causes of the recent low and heterogeneous level of property tax revenues amongst Brazilian municipalities based on a sample of 53 municipalities (clustered in six groups) to estimate a feasible revenue potential to be achieved, identifying the main barriers of this aim, and proposing legal and administrative reforms. Based on a property tax performance model, the study verified that the sampled property revenues could increase from 0.5% to 0.9% of municipal GDP, which would represent an average increase in total municipal revenues of 12%. This could be reached if the fiscal cadaster coverage increased from 80% to 90%, the taxation on property market values from 0.34% to 0.48%, and the collection rate from 67% to 80%. The study highlights that the main legal and administrative policies to be adopted to reach this potential would include: a) Modernizing and updating the physical and personal database of the fiscal cadasters; b) Implementing technical valuations that reach market values; c) minimizing exemptions and reviewing tax rates level, rather applying selective and progressive tax rates when the intention is to protect the poorer; d) restructuring tax rates in according to budgetary needs and the results of administrative reforms; and e) facilitating voluntary taxpayers' compliance by financial facilities while enforcing delinquency using the "notice of dishonor" of tax arrears under the public notaries. At national level, the proposals of legal reforms would include: a) changing the Fiscal Responsibility Law to include a mandatory 4-years revaluations cycle, and the preparation of administrative municipal tax reports to improve transparency; b) under a comprehensive national tax reform, merging the municipal urban property tax and the federal rural property tax, into a single, locally legislate and administrate broad property tax with fiscal and environmental purposes; and c) expanding and relaxing rules of the national "Program of Modernization of Tax Administrations" (PMAT) to better qualify human resources, incentivizing the creation of intermunicipal corporations that include tax administration purposes, and limiting the program collaterals to the own municipal revenues generated, in order to minimize the budgetary risks and attract more small municipalities.
    Keywords: H2 ; H24 ; H7 ; H71 ; ddc:330 ; Brazil's property tax ; real estate taxation ; fiscal federalism ; local public finances ; tax administration
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: In order to prepare and employ naval power and contribute to national defense, the Brazilian Navy, through its programs and projects, seeks to develop means of implementation of naval war operations and actions suitable for its main tasks - sea denial and control, and power projection. A significant portion of these efforts is the Submarine Development Program (PROSUB), which the ultimate purpose is to develop the first Brazilian nuclear-powered submarine. This paper aims to emphasize the importance of PROSUB (especially regarding the nuclear submarine) to the accomplishment of the Brazilian Navy constitutional mission and to the country's development and security, notably stressing its positive externalities (in technological, human resources and social terms) and the importance of its continuity and enhancement.
    Keywords: F5 ; H56 ; L64 ; ddc:330 ; Submarine Development Program (PROSUB) ; Brazilian nuclear submarine ; national defense ; geopolitics ; defense industry ; Defense Industrial Base (DIB) ; Blue Amazon ; maritime power ; public policies ; Brazilian Navy
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  • 40
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The aim of this article is to describe the new stage of development of the banking system whose dynamics led to the global financial crisis of 2008. The main feature of this stage, which emerged on the threshold of the 21st century, is the inextricable interpenetration between the balance sheets of the banking system and the so-called Shadow Banking System (SBS), which was made possible by a set of financial innovations traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Such configuration, by multiplying and globally redistributing the risks present in the system to a variety of financial institutions, was responsible for the transformation of a classic credit crunch - wherein the sum of potential losses corresponding to loans with low collateral is known -, into a systemic financial crisis in the international arena.
    Keywords: F30 ; G20 ; ddc:330 ; banking system ; Shadow Banking System ; financial innovations ; global financial crisis
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  • 41
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This paper calculates effective tariffs by industrial sector for Brazil from 2000 to 2015. Effective tariff differs from nominal tariff in that it takes into consideration the protection given to industrial inputs so that a sector whose products are protected by high tariffs may also be burdened by high tariffs on its inputs, leading to a lower effective tariff. Two series are calculated: 2000 to 2009 and 2010 to 2015. The reason for this is that the National Accounts changed their classification of economic sectors in 2010. Results indicate that: i) effective rates of protection are highly varied in Brazil, according to sector; ii) effective rates of protection have fallen slightly in the 15 years from 2000 to 2015; and iii) some sectors have seen their rates of protection vary considerably over this fifteen-year period, but in most sectors the ERP did not vary much.
    Keywords: F13 ; ddc:330 ; trade policy ; effective rates of protection ; nominal rates of protection
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  • 42
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Rural workers in Brazil can access old-age pensions five years earlier than urban workers. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether unifying the ages of eligibility among these groups (a measure proposed in the last failed pension reform) makes sense from a comparative perspective, and considering the social risks faced by these two groups. This study is based on administrative records from the National Institute of Social Security (Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social - INSS), and data from the 2015 wave of the National Household Sample Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD) and from the 2013 wave of the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS), both conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE). International experience suggests that having different ages of eligibility for old-age pensions for rural and urban workers is, at best, an unusual practice. Survival analysis (using both the Kaplan-Meier procedure and the Cox model) performed on INSS administrative records reveals that rural pensioners do not live less than urban ones. Whereas rural workers are disproportionately affected by social and health risks, they comprise a minority of the people living under vulnerable social and health conditions in absolute terms. The conclusion is that there seems to be no solid rationale for having a lower (and arbitrary) retirement age for rural workers.
    Keywords: D78 ; H55 ; J26 ; ddc:330 ; rural pensions ; pension reform ; survival analysis
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: As emerging economies experience a boom in capital inflows after the global financial crisis, governments were increasingly concerned about the downsides of these inflows. Even the IMF (International Monetary Fund), long a stalwart proponent of financial liberalization, has engaged in a new debate on capital flow management. Drawing lessons from empirical case studies on Brazil and South Korea, this paper finds that the new IMF framework remains insufficient in two main aspects. First, by defining "capital flow management measures" (CFMs) as a temporary instrument embedded in an overall strategy of financial opening, the organization insists in the general advantages of financial liberalization, which poses serious limits to emerging economies' policy space. Second, the Fund insists in in a separation of prudential financial regulation, which should be permanent, and only temporary CFMs. Yet, the case studies of Brazil and Korea presented in this paper show that especially for emerging markets with rather diversified domestic financial markets, both types of measures are interdependent and overlapping. Additionally, we demonstrate in our case studies the relevance of a third type of regulation, lying on foreign exchange (FX) derivatives instruments, which may also be required to effectively manage foreign investors' portfolio reallocations and their impact.
    Keywords: F3 ; F4 ; ddc:330 ; capital flows ; currency derivatives ; global financial crisis ; regulation ; emerging economies
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This text aims to analyze the dynamics of the budget cycle (planning and execution process) of the solidarity economy policy in the federal government. For this purpose, a more general analysis was carried out on the strategic design of implementation and the operational evolution of the programs inserted in this theme, with the main focus being the budget execution potential of the respective administrative unit. The temporality of the analyzes covers all the recent experience of solidarity economy in the agenda of the federal government from the different Pluriannual Plans (PPAs) carried out during this period: 2004-2007, 2008-2011, 2012-2015 and 2016-2019. The results show that the programs developed for the implementation of the policy have undergone several problems that influenced the capacity to execute the actions and activities planned. Despite the maintenance of the thematic in the government agenda during all these years, everything indicates that the National Secretariat of Solidarity Economy (SENAES), an institutional locus of solidarity economy policy in the federal government, faces a moment of crisis as a paradigm of public policy in the field of work, which creates serious uncertainties about its continuity.
    Keywords: H83 ; J23 ; ddc:330 ; solidarity economy ; social policies ; budget cycle ; state capabilities ; government agenda
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 45
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The objective of the present study is to estimate the factors that influencing global agricultural production, as well as to assess the technical efficiency of countries, taking account the context of climate change. The problem is: are countries that seek productive solutions to increase productivity and competitiveness the most efficient in a sustainable production logic? It is believed that the countries that increased the most production were those that intensified the emission of GHG (Greenhouse Gases), which leads to associate the false interpretation that growing countries pollute more. The hypothesis to be tested, therefore, is: the countries that grew the most (or increased production) were those that used the most technology that sequesters carbon, increasing its technical efficiency. To do this, a Stochastic Frontier model was used, based on the 1992-2014 data from 118 countries, available from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), the World Bank and the Food Agriculture Organization (FAO). The study show that sustainable solutions in agricultural production, which increase the capacity of CO2 capture by soil, imply an increase in productive efficiency and that these measures are not fully disseminated worldwide, only in countries listed as more technically efficient.
    Keywords: Q1 ; D24 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; agriculture ; production ; climate change
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This paper discusses the differences between the Annual Continuous PNAD and the recently discontinued Annual PNAD, both surveys developed by IBGE; the relevant distinctions on the social security dimension between the two surveys; the guidelines and the official methodology adopted for measuring the level of the social security coverage (focusing the social insurance coverage) based upon the microdata of the Annual PNAD; the possibilities and limitations on applying this methodology on the Continuous PNAD and new a methodological approach for measurement the coverage, duly adapted to the scope of the new survey and to the changes introduced by Law no 11.718/2008, which redefined some of the requirements for the legal characterization of the Rural Special Insured of the RGPS. According to the microdata of the Continuous PNAD of 2016 (5th Interview), adjusted by the concept of an expanded occupied population (which extrapolates the official concept of occupied population used in the survey), the coverage rate for the occupied population, between ages 16 and 59, is 73.5% (72.8% among men, 74.5% among women); among the elderly, people aged 60 years or over, the coverage rate would be of 85.4% (89.6% among men, 82.2% among women). When using the official concept of occupied population used in the survey, the coverage rates would be 80% (occupied workers: 74.4% among men, 74.0% among women) and 84.6% (elderly: 89.1% among men, 81.9% among women).
    Keywords: H51 ; H77 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; social insurance coverage ; social protection ; Annual Continuous PNAD
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 47
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This text aims to analyse the New Development Bank (NDB) established by BRICS as part of the group's financial architecture, focusing on the main motivations for its creation, ways of acting and governance structure. Although focused on providing credit for infrastructure and sustainable development projects and acting through different practices of financial institutions established after the Second World War, NDB still faces important challenges to meet those goals.
    Keywords: H51 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; financial institutions ; international capital markets ; multilateral development banks ; international lending ; emerging markets ; international institutional arrangements
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The main question behind this article is: does the University for All Program (Prouni) promote better professional trajectories, which result in higher salaries for its beneficiaries? The salaries of the graduates who were employed show that those who went to college through Prouni had a more precarious insertion. Nonetheless, contrary to what may seem at first glance, this does not necessarily demonstrate a failure of this program to promote better occupational trajectories. After all, the variation of salaries before and after college graduation shows that there were salary advances for both groups, beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of Prouni. However, in the case of the beneficiaries, this advance seems to have been significantly larger.
    Keywords: I20 ; I23 ; I26 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Prouni ; colleges ; salaries
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 49
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This work aimed to synthetize information regarding beef, pork and broiler production in Brazil, as well as the role of Brazil in the international market. This study was developed within a partnership between The Brazilian Trade and Investment Promotion Agency (Apex-Brasil) and The Institute for Applied Economic Research (Ipea). We find that both production and productivity have increased from 2009 to 2018. These increments allowed Brazil to be a major player in meat production and exports during the period, which is strongly related to cost advantages over other countries. China has increased its meat imports from Brazil, whilst Russia systematically reduced its beef and pork. Overall, we suggest to policymakers to set up strategies to promote Brazilian meat and open new markets in order to diversify the consumers and reduce the exports dependence, and its inherent risks, to few countries.
    Keywords: Q13 ; Q17 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; livestock ; international trade ; exports ; meat
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 50
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This paper discusses about the impact of the highway concession policy on regional income and dynamics. It gathers information from the 2010 Population census and a federal highway concession, the Autopista Fluminense, to examine the attenuation of per capita income in the potential commuting tolled. The discussion deducing that there is a high volume of regional commuting that potentially use the highway and not charged. Otherwise, there was a small portion of the population tariffed, how had lower incomes and charge with "gratuity" commuting. In addition, this study illustrate the impact and reflexes of the uni and bidirectional charges for this low-income population.
    Keywords: H23 ; H41 ; J31 ; J61 ; L98 ; O18 ; ddc:330 ; highway concessions ; tolls ; regional commuting ; per capita income ; transportation infrastructure
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The paper assess the effect of the Brazilian Conditional Cash Transfer Program, Bolsa Familia (BF), on school attendance among adolescent mothers relative to adolescent non-mothers, combining quantitative and qualitative technics. The quantitative analysis was based on the 2010 Census, and was conducted in two steps. First we estimated through logit models the impact of maternity on schooling attendance for each one of the 138 Brazilian meso-regions. Then we used a linear model at the meso-region level to estimate the relationship between the incidence of BF on one hand, and the previously estimated sensibility of the schooling attendance to maternity on the other hand. The results indicate that BF increases relative less the schooling attendance among adolescent mothers. Semi structured interviews with adolescent mothers living in Distrito Federal corroborate this result and add more insights to policy discussion.
    Keywords: O15 ; J13 ; I38 ; ddc:330 ; adolescent mothers ; conditional cash transfers ; schooling attendance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The literature has been showing that current import tariffs on industrialized products in Brazil are excessively high when compared to countries with similar income per capita. But there's a controversy over the best path to reduce the level of protection, whether through an unilateral tariff reduction or through the negotiation of trade agreements with relevant countries. The aim of this paper is to subsidize this debate, what is made in three ways. First, by analyzing the theoretical matters related to the question; second, by evalutating the internacional experience, what is made through organizing information from different databases concerning trade agreements signed by a huge number of countries in the last decades; and third, through brief case studies of eight middle income countries, whose experience can be used as reference to the Brazilian case: China, Thailand, Russia, Hungary, Poland, Romenia, Mexico and Chile. The paper concludes that high import tariffs doesn't seem to be a precondition for the negotiation and signing of trade agreements and that unilateral tariff reductions and reductions via trade agreements are complementary strategies aimed to satisfy distinct objectives. Therefore, if the country in fact wants to reduce the levels of tariff protection having in sight the economic efficiency and productivity gains that the theoretical literature predicts - and the empirical literature confirms -, the natural way is to make an unilateral liberalization, with the trade agreements playing a complementary role to reach more diversified objectives, not only the economic ones but also geopolitical ones.
    Keywords: F10 ; F15 ; ddc:330 ; trade ; import tariffs ; trade agreements
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This study aims to present a systematic identification of themes and questions related to economic, social and demographic transformations in operation on national territory in the 2003-2015 period. A balance of efforts, advances and difficulties to implement the national regional policy (PNDR) is developed in order to subsidize the assessment process of regional policies in Brazil.
    Keywords: O2 ; R5 ; R58 ; ddc:330 ; regional development ; regional policies ; public policies
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 54
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: In the last few years, many Brazilian firms have been strongly interested in programs of compliance as well as in programs of integrity. These matters are also relevant to government offices of inspection and control of public sector activities as well as to offices of regulation of economic affairs in the private sector. The present text is introductory and deals with the importance of programs of integrity. The major reason for them is that they concern in a conscious and more direct way the aim of attaining integrity in a organization. While supporting this assertion, the text distinguishes between programs of risk management, programs of compliance and programs of integrity. Moreover, it explains what is integrity and what role it has.
    Keywords: D73 ; A13 ; ddc:330 ; program of integrity ; compliance ; bureaucratic degeneration ; risk management
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: With one of the largest territories in the world and a very extensive land border, surveillance and monitoring of this region are especially challenging for the Brazilian state. To overcome this challenge, the Integrated Border Monitoring System (SISFRON), the world's largest system of the kind, has been conceived and is in the process of implementation (although still in pilot project). Thus, the objective of this study is to analyze SISFRON in terms of its viability, effectiveness and conjunctural importance, considering the benefits it proposes to generate, mainly in the areas of politics, economics, technology, environment, civil society, National Defense and public security.
    Keywords: F52 ; J18 ; H50 ; ddc:330 ; Brazilian Army ; SISFRON ; borders ; National Defense ; public policy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Public transport policies play a key role in shaping the ease with each people from different social groups and income levels can access job opportunities, health services and education. Thus, these policies have important implications for the promotion of more just and inclusive cities. This research contributes in three different ways to the literatures on transport accessibility, equity and impact assessment of transport policies. First, the research proposes a theoretical framework for assessing accessibility impacts of transport policies from a distributive justice perspective. Second, it demonstrates the means by which the proposed theoretical framework can be applied to a city in a developing country. This framework is applied to evaluate the transportation policies developed in Rio de Janeiro in preparation for hosting the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games. This research examines how the transport legacy of those megaevents impacted accessibility to job opportunities, health and education services for the population of different income levels. The study presents -post and counterfactual analyses of the policies implemented between 2014 and 2017 and ex-ante analysis of an as yet unfinished BRT project. The results show that the expansion in transport infrastructure between 2014 and 2017 could have generated accessibility gains, but these gains were generally offset by the reduction in bus service levels that followed an economic crisis that hit the city after the Olympics Even if the city had not been hit by the economic crisis, transport policies in that period would have had regressive impacts. Those policies have generated higher accessibility gains for wealthier groups, increasing inequalities in access to opportunities. The evaluation of the future accessibility impacts of the unfinished BRT corridor, nonetheless, indicates that such project could significantly improve access to job opportunities for a large share of Rio's population, particularly lower-income groups. Finally, this research shows how the equity and impact assessment of transport projects based on cumulative opportunity accessibility - the most common practice adopted by academic studies and transportation agencies - are sensitive to spatial scale and zoning scheme of analysis as well as on the time threshold considered in the accessibility indicator.
    Keywords: H51 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; accessibility ; equity ; distributive justice ; equality of opportunity ; Rio de Janeiro ; legacy ; megaevents ; Olympic Games ; transport policies ; BRT ; public transport ; urban mobility
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 57
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: It should be emphasized the role assumed by government procurement policy in the list of public policies since this mechanism can be used to achieve a wide range of objectives. Moreover, this importance becomes even more evident when the high proportion of government purchasing power vis-à-vis the GDP of countries is verified. In Brazil, based on the study that will be presented in this text for discussion, the magnitude of the government procurement market represents 12.5% of the country's GDP (average calculated for the period 2006 and 2016). Given the importance of the market and government procurement policy, and intending to the scarcity of studies on these topics, the relevance of studies that throw light on them is in the eye. This is precisely the objective of this study, namely, to bring to the fore data and information about the Brazilian government procurement market between 2006 and 2016, considering the following dimensions: i) purchases of costing versus capital purchases; ii) direct administration and indirect administration (for the federal government); and iii) Participation of the three Federation ones. Besides the measurement of the Brazilian government procurement market for the period explained, this study also proposes to present explanations for the drop of about 4.5 p.p. between 2012 and 2016. Concerning methodological strategies, this study is mainly based on two mechanisms: i) bibliographic review of the literature concerning the central theme of the research; and ii) collection and analysis of secondary data from the Brazilian official bases, to measuring and analyzing the Brazilian government procurement market.
    Keywords: H5 ; H57 ; ddc:330 ; Brazil ; public procurement policy ; public procurement market assessment ; development
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 58
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This text aims to describe practices, enjoyment and production of online content, that is, the culture in TIC Domicílio 2017 preparing ground for possible dialogues with TIC Cultura, both performed by the Regional Center for Studies on the Development of the Information Society (Cetic.br), in order to contribute to the reflection on the internet's use and access to cultural goods and services. In order to do so, a survey of the historical context of the Internet's emergence and development was carried out, as well as the political-economic structuring that governs its organization and, consequently, the processes in the digital world. From data's analysis, the access of selected practices was socioeconomically characterized, as well as the accumulation of uses - the action of performing various practices on the internet and its different types of use. The analyzes were based on the understanding of the value inherent to the process of statistical construction based on Bruno Latour and Steve Woolgar's notion of literary inscription; as well as Pierre Bourdieu's conception of structured field and instances of consecration and legitimation. As a result, it was verified a need to relativize the majority discourses that emphasize the supposedly democratizing character of the medium, once the Internet produces and reproduces hierarchies, exclusions and social inequalities. Regarding to the population's access to cultural equipment, it is necessary to understand the determinations of the practices, as well as the cultural dispositions' characteristics that organize the individual investments in the uses of the ICTs.
    Keywords: L80 ; ddc:330 ; internet ; ICTs ; cumulativity ; literary inscriptions ; instances of consecration ; social exclusion ; inequality
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 59
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The objective of this paper is to analyze the trade flow between Brazil and the United States between 2000 and 2014, considering its evolution and analyzing indicators such as export and import tariffs, relative importance of bilateral trade, trade intensity index, concentration index, index of comparative advantage revealed and the intersectoral pattern of bilateral trade. To contextualize the analysis of trade flows between the two countries, a brief retrospective of the conduct of Brazilian foreign policy between 2000 and 2014 is presented, particularly considering the strategies of Brazil's diplomatic relations with the United States, whose objective is to provide subsidies for construction hypotheses and speculations about the relationship between foreign policy and trade flows. In this sense, it is important to point out that no assertion is made in the sense that foreign policy has determined the behavior of trade flows between the two countries, since during the period there were several other factors operating and there is no analysis to capture the relevance of foreign policy.
    Keywords: F1 ; F15 ; F5 ; ddc:330 ; foreign policy ; foreign trade