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  • ddc:330  (27)
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  • 2015-2019  (27)
  • 1945-1949
  • 1
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 2
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-07
    Description: Bu çalışmanın amacı uluslararası emtia piyasalarından kaynaklanan asimetrik ve doğrusal olmayan fiyat hareketlerinin iç fiyatlara geçişkenliğini Türkiye için ölçmektir. Bu amaçla 2003M02-2015M02 dönemine ait aylık bazda(145 gözlem) çeşitli uluslararası emtia fiyatları(petrol ve gıda fiyatları) ve iç fiyatları temsilen tüketici fiyat endeksleri ele alınmıştır. Çalışmanın ekonometrik tahminlemesinde yakın zamanda geliştirilen Doğrusal Olmayan Gecikmesi Dağıtılmış Otoregresif (NARDL) Modeli kullanılmıştır. Böylece uluslararası emtia fiyatlarının pozitif ve negatif “Kısmi Ayrıştırma Toplamları” kullanılarak kısa ve uzun dönem doğrusalsızlık ve asimetrik etkiler eşanlı olarak test edilmektedir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre uluslararası petrol ve gıda fiyatlarından yurtiçi enflasyon oranlarına doğru asimetrik bir fiyat geçişkenliğinin olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. Öte yandan, pozitif ve negatif uluslararası emtia fiyat şoklarına karşı iç fiyatların verdiği kısmi tepkiler “Asimetrik Dinamik Hızlandıran” yaklaşımı kullanılarak ölçülmektedir. Buna göre yurtiçi enflasyon oranlarının petrol ve gıda fiyat şoklarına verdiği tepki asimetrik ve sırasıyla 20 ve 15 ay olduğu görülmüştür.
    Description: The aim of this paper is to measure asymetric and nonlinear pass-through of international commodity prices to internal prices in the Turkish case. For this purpose, monthly data set of various international commodity prices(oil and food prices) and internal prices (ie. consumer price indices) fort the period 2003M02-2015M02 (145 observations) are utilized. The econometric estimation of the study is based on the recently developed NARDL Model. This model offers a proper possibility to simultaneously test the short and long-run nonlinearity through positive and negative 'Partial Sum Decompositions' of the international commodity prices to internal prices (ie. consumer price indices). According to our findings, it is concluded that there is a pass-through from international oil and food prices to domestic prices or inflation rate in an asymmetrical sense. The NARDL Model, in hand, also allows us to quantify the respective responses of the internal prices to positive and negative commodity price shocks from the 'Asymetric Dynamic Multipliers'. Hence, domestic inflation rates' response to international oil and food prices is asymmetrical respectively in 20-month and 15-month periods.
    Keywords: C22 ; Q40 ; Q47 ; ddc:330 ; international commodity price shocks ; NARDL Model ; asymetric pass-through ; Uluslararası emtia fiyat şokları ; NARDL Modeli ; asimetrik geçişkenlik
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 4
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-08-07
    Description: Bu yazıda özellikle iktisat alanında değişmenin önemini vurgulayan açıklamalar sunacağım. Açıklamalarımda önce dünyada ve Türkiye’de özellikle son zamanlarda yaşanan değişimleri özetleyeceğim. Sonra sırasıyla kapitalizmde, teknolojide, küreselleşmede ve iktisat biliminde meydana gelen, önemli saydığım değişmeleri anlatacağım. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: D31 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 6
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-08-07
    Description: 1914 ve 1918 yılları arasında, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu iktisadi anlamda yıkım yaratan Birinci Dünya Savaşı’na dahil olmuştu. Savaşın sonunda ülke işgal edilmiş ve işgal kuvvetleri ile çatışmalar ortaya çıkmıştı. Tarihsel çalışmalarda, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun Bulgaristan’ın Eylül 1918 tarihinde yaptığı ateşkes teklifi ve iktisadi yaşamında yarattığı baskı ile savaştan çekilme noktasına geldiği iddia edilmekteydi. Yazı, çatışmaların sonlanmakta olduğu süreçteki barış çabalarının Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda ortaya çıkartmış olduğu iktisadi etkileri Tasvir-i Efkar ve Vakit gibi Osmanlı gazetelerindeki yazılar, İstanbul Borsası’na ait döviz kuru ve mal fiyatı verileri ile incelemiştir. Sonuçlar, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun Ekim 1918 tarihi itibariyle savaştan çıkışına kadar olan dönem içerisinde iktisadi olarak iyileşmeler ile karşı karşıya kaldığını ifade etmektedir.
    Description: Between 1914 and 1918, the Ottoman Empire was involved in the World War I, leading to disruptions in economic life. The end of the war created the occupation of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies and struggle against the Allies' occupation. The historical literature argued that when Bulgaria asked for an armistice in September 1918, it was realized that the end of the war was approaching, as the Ottoman economy went into recession. Based on articles in the Ottoman newspapers, i.e., Tasvir-i Efkar and Vakit, in addition to data of foreign exchange rates and prices in the çIstanbul Bourse, this paper examines how the Ottoman economy was affected by the end of the World War I. The findings imply the presence of the higher economic recovery by October 1918 when the Ottoman Empire asked for armistices.
    Keywords: G1 ; N25 ; N45 ; ddc:330 ; The World War I ; the armistice of Salonica ; İstanbul Stock Exchange ; foreign exchange rates ; prices ; economic recovery ; Birinci Dünya Savaşı ; Selanik Mütarekesi ; İstanbul Borsası ; döviz kurları ; mal fiyatları ; ekonomik iyileşme
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-09-21
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 9
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    Istanbul: Koç University-TÜSİAD Economic Research Forum (ERF)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: Bu calisma, Turkiye'nin 2001 krizi sonrasinda uyguladigi maliye politikasina butce harcamalari perspektifinden baktiktan sonra, 2016 ve sonrasinda beklenen dusuk buyume doneminde genisleyici bir maliye politikasinin ekonomik buyume uzerindeki etkilerini tartismaktadir. Calismanin son bolumunde ise kamu harcamalarinin buyumeye katki verecek sekilde dagitilmasi, dinamik bir model cercevesinde incelenmektedir. Sonuclar, 2001 sonrasinda izlenen maliye politikasinin butce disiplini uzerindeki olumlu etkilerini gostermekle beraber, son donemde butcenin harcama katiliginda ve yapisal butce dengesinde bazi olumsuzluklari da tartismaya acmaktadir. Bununla beraber, mevcut kamu borc stoku ve butce disiplini altinda, kamunun tuketim harcamalari yoluyla onumuzdeki dusuk buyume doneminde ekonomiye bir ivme kazandirabilecegi sonucu da elde edilmektedir. Yuksek buyume doneminde ise genisleyici bir maliye politikasinin olumsuz bir etki yapacagi da bulgular arasindadir. Kamu harcamalarinin dagiliminin incelendigi son bolumde, kamunun uretimi arttiracak altyapi yatirimlarina daha fazla agirlik vermesi gerektigi bulunmaktadir. Egitim ve sagliga ayrilan kamu sermaye stokunun buyume uzerindeki etkileri ise fiziksel altyapi yatirimlarina ayrilan kamu sermaye stoku kadar yuksek degildir. Harcama dagilimi ile ilgili bir baska bulgu ise kamunun sermaye yatirimlarina daha fazla agirlik verirken hane halki transferlerini azaltmasi gerektigidir. Son olarak, kamunun idari harcamalarinda verimlilik yoluyla saglanacak bir azalmanin toplumsal fayda uzerinde onemli ve pozitif etkileri gorulmektedir. Bu sonuc da, onumuzdeki donemde kamu verimliligini arttirip idari harcamalari kisacak onlemlerin bir politika onceligi olmasi gerektigini soylemektedir.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 10
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    Istanbul: Koç University-TÜSİAD Economic Research Forum (ERF)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-05
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-09-07
    Description: Günümüzde kültür, teknoloji, tasarım ya da insan sermayesi gibi elle tutulur faydaları muğlak olan kavramlar en çok; bir şirketin, sanat eserinin, yazılımın ya da herhangi bir ürünün finansal değerini belirlemede etkin rol oynar hale gelmiştir. Bu durum da, bu muğlaklığın hem sektörde hem de akademide analiz edilebilmesi ve ölçülebilmesi çalışmalarını tetiklemiştir. Kentteki fiziksel çevrenin değerine etki eden önemli bir girdi olan “iyi tasarım”ın ne olduğu konusu ve ölçülebilme sorunsalı da, mimarlık alanında araştırma gündemini meşgul etmeye başlamıştır. Ne kadar çok elle tutulamayan fayda tespit ve ifşa edilirse, kentlerde o kadar daha çok “iyi” tasarım olacağı hakim görüşü, bu alanda araştırma yapanları çok kapsamlı modeller geliştirmeye yöneltmiştir. Fakat, 90’lardan itibaren başlamış bu çalışmalar, ne yazık ki, daha yaşanılır kentlerin oluşup gelişmesine beklenildiği gibi etki edememiştir. Bu bağlamda, finans sektörünün bu faydaları nasıl okuduğuyla ilgili daha içsel bir anlayış elde etmek için, “değerin güç teorisi” çerçevesinde, bu teorinin merkezine aldığı köksüz transnasyonel kapitalist sınıf lehine olan diferansiyel kapitalizasyon ve stratejik sabotaj kavramlarının fiziksel mekandaki izleri aranarak konu tartışmaya açılmış ve şehirlerdeki en büyük bütçeli projeleri finanse eden %1lik mimari patronajın mülkü olan günümüz seküler mabetlerine ve uzamsal boyutlarına bu mercekten bakılmıştır. Çalışmanın çıktısı olarak; bu mabetlerin ve onları ilgilendiren uzamsal boyutun farklı aktörler için ifade ettiği farklı değerler ve bu farklı değerlerin ya da faydaların nasıl kapitalize edildiği ve neden olduğu sabotaj biçimleri detaylandırılarak açıklanmış, ayrıca literatüre provokatif bir katkı sağlamak hedeflenmiştir.
    Description: The concepts such as culture, technology, design, or human capital, the tangible benefits of which are vague, are mostly effective in setting the financial value of a company, a work of art, a software, or any product. This situation triggered both sectoral and academic studies intended for analyzing and measuring this vagueness. The subject of what the “good design” is, which is an important input affecting the value of the physical environment in the cities, and the problematic of its measurability started to occupy the architectural research agenda. The prevalent view that the more intangible benefits are detected and disclosed the more “good” designs the cities will have has prompted the people who conduct research in this field to develop very comprehensive models. However, these studies that started in the ‘90s unfortunately failed to have the expected impact on creation and development of more livable cities. In this context, to get a better insight of how the financial sector reads these benefits, the subject has been opened up for discussion within the framework of the “power theory of value”, by searching for traces of the differential capitalization and strategic sabotage concepts in the physical space, which are in favor of the rootless transnational capitalist class that is at the center of this theory and the modern-day secular temples owned by the 1% of the architectural patronage who finance the highest budget projects in cities and its spatial dimension have been seen through this lens. As an outcome of the study, different values these temples and the spatial dimension concerning them carry for different actors, and how these different values or benefits are capitalized, and the types of sabotages they cause have been explained in detail, and it has been targeted to make a provocative contribution to the literature.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; architecture ; capital as power ; differential accumulation ; capitalization ; radical imaginary ; sabotage
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 12
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    Sejong: Korea Development Institute (KDI)
    Publication Date: 2019-11-06
    Description: Social security subsidies in Korea were introduced in 2012 to reduce the coverage gap in social security. Despite the large fiscal cost, however, the subsidies have only a small effect on the social security coverage: For every 1,000 workers and their employers who are subsidized under the program, the program added just 15 workers covered by social security. Rather than pursuing costly subsidization policies, the Korean government needs to make serious efforts for more efficient collection of social contributions to close the coverage gap in social security. - To reduce the coverage gap in social security, the Korean government began to provide subsidies for the social security contributions of low-wage workers and their employers in small establishments. - The subsidy program matches workers' and employers' contributions to the national pension and the unemployment insurance scheme. - About 0.9 million workers and their employers in 0.5 million establishments were subsidized by the subsidy program in 2015. - For every 1,000 subsidized employees and about 600 subsidized employers, the subsidy program creates only 15 additional covered employees. - Unlike similar active labor market policies adopted in several European countries, the subsidy program had no discernible effect on employment. - The subsidy program can act as a tax rather than a subsidy depending on whether the uncovered worker contributes to the medical insurance scheme. - The subsidy program is contradictory because it gives subsidies for participation in mandated schemes as if it was a choice initially. - A large informal sector with a modest social contribution burden in Korea indicates a sizeable room to enhance administrative efficiency for reducing coverage gap in social security
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Korean
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2020-02-05
    Description: This study asks how the Ottoman bondholders traded at the Paris stock exchange evaluated the outcomes of tax and constitutional reforms, based on the data for the most traded bond's price, i.e., the Turkish unified bond, at the Paris stock exchange from 1903 to 1909. The reforms aimed at higher tax income and decreasing arbitrary implications of the Ottoman state. The data are manually collected from The Times. The findings show that the constitutional reform was negatively related to perceived risk of the investors, since there was again a parliamentary system in the Ottoman Empire to blockage the arbitrary policies.
    Keywords: G1 ; N25 ; N45 ; ddc:330 ; Tax reform ; Constitutional monarchy ; the Ottoman debt management ; Price fluctuations ; the Turkish unified bond
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 14
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: Данный отчет представляет основные моменты земельной реформы и аграрной реструктуризации в Туркменистане. В первой части отчета основное внимание уделяется описанию хода аграрной реформы с представлением хронологии основных осуществленных мер аграрной политики, а также рассмотрена организация поставки материалов и ресурсов в сельскохозяйственное производство. Центральная часть отчета отведена на описание изменений в структуре посевов, а также динамики развития различных категорий сельскохозяйственных производителей и их вклад в развитие аграрного сектора и продовольственной безопасности страны. Как показывает исследование, земельная реформа и аграрная реструктуризация в стране в целом проводились со значительными функциями государства в регулировании этих процессов. На основе реформирования сельского хозяйства за период с 1992-2013 гг. общая посевная площадь в стране возросла на 25 %, в то время как, крестьянские объединения остаются основной категорией в сфере производства сельскохозяйственной продукции, базирующейся на арендной системе земледелие с целью выполнения государственного заказа стратегических культур.
    Description: This report presents the main issues of land reform and agricultural restructuring in Turkmenistan. The first part of the report focuses on the progress of agrarian reform by providing a chronicle of the main agricultural policies, before presenting an overview of the organizational structure of input and resource supply in agriculture. The main body describes the changes in cropping pattern, and the development of different types of agricultural producers by highlighting their contribution to sectoral development and food security. The study shows that land reforms and agricultural restructuring in Turkmenistan were carried out under the central role of the state. As a result of the progress of agricultural reforms, the total sown area in Turkmenistan expanded by 25 %. However, peasant associations based on the land lease system, remain the main farm category in agricultural production and are assigned the primary task of fulfilling the state order in strategic crops.
    Keywords: P41 ; P47 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; продовольственная политика ; реструктуризация хозяйств ; диверсификация сельского хозяйства ; food policy ; farm restructuring ; agricultural diversification
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Russian
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: Перед агропромышленным комплексом Казахстана стоят кардинальные задачи по устойчивому развитию и наращиванию сельскохозяйственного производства, увеличению выпуска экспортоориентированной, конкурентоспособной продукции и обеспечению продовольственной безопасности страны. Сегодня для решения поставленных задач перед АПК страны принята Государственная программа развития АПК на 2017–2021 годы и внедряются в производство новые Законы «О сельскохозяйственных кооперативах», «О пастбищах» и др. Особое внимание в этих документах уделяется созданию крупных товарных хозяйств на основе кооперации. Анализ современного состояния развития сельского хозяйства в республике показал, что мелкие крестьянские хозяйства, состоящие из одной семьи или из группы людей, слабо оснащенные материально-техническими средствами, в одиночестве без объединений общих сил не в состоянии вести расширенное производство и установить межотраслевые связи в процессе производства и переработки. Эти хозяйства не в состоянии самостоятельно решать проблемы повышения конкурентоспособности производимой ими продукции, внедрения инноваций, поставок безопасных для здоровья населения продуктов питания и лишены возможности получать услуги высококвалифицированных специалистов. Основными сдерживающими факторами развития кооперативного движения в республике являются недостаточные меры государственной поддержки сельского хозяйства, кадрового обеспечения, несовершенство правого законодательства, налогообложения и отсутствие механизмов организации взаимоотношений внутри кооператива. Для реализации поставленных выше задач перед АПК страны, необходимо объединить мелкие крестьянские хозяйства в крупные сельскохозяйственные кооперативы по производству, переработке, хранению, транспортировке и сбыту сельскохозяйственной продукции.
    Description: Kazakhstan's agriculture aims to achieve sustainable development and agricultural production growth, increased production of export and competitive products, and ensure national food security. To implement these tasks, the State Program for Agricultural Development for 2017-2021 has been adopted, and new laws "On agricultural cooperatives", "On pastures", etc. are being introduced. Particular attention is paid to the creation of large farms based on cooperation. The analysis of the current state of agricultural development showed that small peasant farms, consisting of one family or a group of people, poorly equipped with inputs and technical means, cannot expand production and establish inter-industrial links in production and processing. These farms lack capacity to independently address the issues of increasing competitiveness of their products, introduce innovations, supply healthy food, and access high quality services. The main constraining factors in the development of cooperatives in Kazakhstan are insufficient measures of state support of agriculture, personnel provision, imperfect legislation and taxation, and the absence of organizational mechanisms of intra-cooperative linkages. In order to fulfill these tasks, it is necessary to unite small peasant farms to form large agricultural cooperatives in production, processing, storage, transportation and marketing of agricultural products.
    Keywords: P41 ; P47 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; Кооперация ; крестьянские (фермерские) хозяйства ; коллективизация ; реформа ; cooperation ; peasant farms ; collectivization ; reforms ; Kooperation ; kleinbäuerliche Betriebe ; Kollektivierung ; Reformen
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Russian
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  • 16
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: With the transition to a market economy, there have been fundamental changes in the agriculture of Uzbekistan. At the onset of agricultural reforms, state farms were transformed into public, then into cooperative farms, i.e. shirkats. Finally, after the latter were disagregated, special attention was paid to the development of individual and dehkan farms via introduction of private property. At the same time, inter-farm economic relations formed over a decade had a negative impact on the development of agriculture. Economic relations with processing industries and enterprises became obstacles to the development of agriculture. Processing industries, as well as farms- monopolies did not timely pay for the delivered raw materials, prolonged the timing of product acceptance, set high prices for delivered services, and procured raw inputs at low prices. As a result, this led to the loss of production, increased costs, decreased quality of raw materials, and of course, to deterioration of farm incomes. To respond to this, a number of decrees were adopted. These documents repeatedly noted the need for cooperation between newly-established individual farms, and also discussed its role and importance in the societal development. To realize the above tasks set for the agrarian and industrial sectors of Uzbekistan, it was necessary to unite small farms into larger agricultural cooperatives in production, processing, storage, transportation and marketing activities. The creation of specialized cooperatives will solve a number of socio-economic problems, i.e. first of all, ensure integration of producers and consumers, reduce transaction costs, and reduce marketing channels which lower farm gate prices. The activities that combine efforts of a group of agricultural producers will increase the efficiency of resource use.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; land reform ; shirkat farms ; cooperatives ; individual farms ; dekhkans ; agricultural cooperative
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Russian
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  • 17
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: This publication highlights the development of livestock sector in Tajikistan. The paper begins with presentation of macroeconomic aspects of agricultural development pointing at the impact of transitional decline on the development of agricultural sector. At present, the share of agricultural sector in GDP is twice less than in 1990. Although, the growth rate of gross agricultural output after 2000 remains high the 1990 levels for a variety of products have not been reached yet. This applies to a variety of animal products. The development of this industry is characterized by imbalances and unbalanced development. The disproportion between livestock and feed resources is growing rapidly. The fodder capacity of summer and winter pastures decreases each year. Pasture land is degraded, and in many places this becomes irreversible. This requires the transfer of livestock to animal housing systems to give pastures the opportunity for natural restoration of green cover. To this end, the author recommends a reduction in unproductive livestock breeds, the conversion of cattle to stable housing by changing breeds, i.e. herd formations by replacing local unproductive breeds with highly productive meat and dairy breeds. In addition the author recommends to expand area under forage crops and to shift to intensive fodder production.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; livestock sector ; pastures ; Tajikistan
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: Основная цель данной статьи - представить изменения в хлопковом секторе Таджикистана и роль диверсификации в сельском хозяйстве с момента обретения независимости. В первой части данной статьи представлена информация об изменениях в госрегулировании производства хлопка с момента независимости, включая динамику закупочных цен на хлопок-сырец, а также описание особенностей процесса приватизации хлопкоочистительных заводов. Также представлена картина изменений в основных категориях сельскохозяйственных производителей и их вклад в производство сельскохозяйственной продукции, и дано описание организационных изменений, которые произошли в секторах поставки материалов и производственных ресурсов. В следующей части статьи представлены вопросы государственной политики и меры по продовольственной безопасности по основным сельхозкультурам и их влияние на структуру сельского хозяйства. В этом плане дана оценка недавних реформ в сельскохозяйственном секторе, направленных на диверсификацию производства сельскохозяйственных культур; а также отражены вопросы продовольственной безопасности и экспорта сельхозпродукции на новые рынки.
    Description: The main aim of this report is to present the recent changes in the Tajik cotton sector, and the impact of agricultural diversification on food security and export promotion. The first part provides information about the changes in the state regulation of cotton production, including the dynamics of raw cotton prices, and privatization of ginneries. The second part focuses on the transformation of major categories of agricultural producers, their contribution to agricultural output, as well as related organizational changes and challenges in the input and resource supply sectors. The last section discusses the policy issues and food security concerns that have been influencing the structure of agriculture. In this respect, the report assesses the recent reforms towards diversification of crop production, reflecting on the issues of food security and agricultural exports to new markets.
    Keywords: P41 ; P47 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; продовольственная политика ; диверсификация сельского хозяйства ; экспортный потенциал ; Таджикистан ; food policy ; agricultural diversification ; export potential ; Tajikistan
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: В условиях развития глобального экономического кризиса проблемы занятости населения, безработицы и мобильности трудовых ресурсов в Казахстане приобретают все большую актуальность и всегда находятся в центре внимания научной, общественной, политической и хозяйственной деятельности соответствующих ведомств, организаций и предприятий. В кризисный период в целях защиты граждан от безработицы государством была разработана стратегия, которую можно условно охарактеризовать, как «стратегия выживания». Данная стратегия направлена на реализацию государственных программ: создания социальных рабочих мест, переобучения и переподготовки специалистов, и организации молодежной практики. В исследовании проводилось интервью с работниками акиматов, сельскохозяйственных ведомств, сельскими предпринимателями и представителями несельскохозяйственного бизнеса в Южно-Казахстанской области (ЮКО). Основными направлениями развития несельскохозяйственного бизнеса в сельской местности ЮКО являются переработка сельскохозяйственного сырья и продукции, торгово-закупочная деятельность, общественное питание в сельских населенных пунктах (придорожные магазины и кафе) и их бытовое обслуживание, строительство жилых и производственных построек, производство товаров народных промыслов, транспортные услуги. Развитие несельскохозяйственного бизнеса на селе будет содействовать диверсификации хозяйственной деятельности в сельской экономике, расширению источников формирования доходной базы местных бюджетов, повышению устойчивости развития сельских территорий в части расширения масштабов занятости и развития самозанятости сельского населения, а также повышению уровня его жизни.
    Description: As a result of the on-going global economic crisis, issues of employment, unemployment and labor mobility in Kazakhstan are becoming increasingly important and remain central to the scientific, public, political and economic activities of relevant departments, organizations and enterprises. In order to protect citizens from unemployment during the crisis, the state developed what can be described as a "survival strategy". This strategy aims at implementing state programs for the creation of social work places, the training of specialists, and the organization of youth internships. The study is based on interviews with workers from akimats and agricultural departments, rural entrepreneurs, and representatives of non-agricultural business in the South Kazakhstan province (SKP). The main areas of non-agricultural business in rural areas of SKP are processing of agricultural raw materials and products, trading and procurement activities, public catering in rural settlements (roadside shops and cafes) and related services, construction of residential and industrial facilities, handcrafts, and transport services. Non-agricultural business development in rural areas will contribute to the diversification of rural economic activities, expansion of sources of local budget revenues, increased sustainability of rural development via greater employment and self-employment opportunities, as well as raising the living standards of the rural population.
    Keywords: P41 ; J60 ; J68 ; ddc:330 ; Занятость ; несельскохозяйственный бизнес ; сельская местность ; стратегия ; господдержка ; employment ; non-agricultural business ; rural area ; strategy ; state support ; Beschäftigung ; außerlandwirtschafliche Beschäftigung ; ländlicher Raum ; Strategie ; staatliche Unterstützung
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: В Казахстане ежегодно государство выделяет образовательные гранты на сельскохозяйственные специальности, однако агропромышленный комплекс (АПК) до сих пор не достаточно обеспечен квалифицированными аграрными кадрами, а сельские районы остаются малопривлекательными для молодых специалистов. Реализуемая государством с 2009 года программа «С дипломом в село» по привлечению молодых кадров в сельскую местность имеет низкую эффективность и охват аграрных специальностей. Развитие современной системы аграрного образования невозможно без анализа изменений внешней среды и влияния различных факторов на конкурентоспособность выпускников. Цель аналитического исследования - анализ мотивации, стремлений и карьерных ожиданий обучающихся аграрного университета и разработка рекомендаций по мотивации, планированию карьеры, повышению трудоустройства выпускников. В процессе исследования применялись общенаучные и статистические методы анализа, приемы сравнений и обобщений, особое место занимает метод анкетного опроса. По результатам исследования определяющими факторами выбора университета и специальности выступают домашние факторы. Среди бакалавров и магистрантов еще присутствуют не определившиеся с выбором профессии, более половины бакалавров не имеют четких карьерных планов, а их карьерные ожидания зачастую завышены. Большинство обучающихся хотят работать в городе, а его основными причинами выступают неудовлетворенность размером будущей зарплаты, экономическими и социально-бытовыми условиями села. Для достижения высокой конкурентоспособности и трудоустройства выпускников аграрных университетов рекомендуется усилить работу по формированию мотивированного контингента обучающихся, оказание помощи в построении карьерных планов бакалавров введением курсов по карьерному планированию, совершенствовать государственные программы занятости молодежи, включить в них больше нужных селу аграрных специальностей, развивать студенческое предпринимательство, практикоориентированное обучение, улучшить социально-бытовые условия села, повышение оплаты аграрного труда, расширение возможностей для карьерного роста молодых специалистов в АПК.
    Description: In Kazakhstan, the state allocates educational grants for agricultural specialties annually, but agriculture lacks qualified experts, and rural areas remain unattractive for young specialists. The 2009 program "With a diploma to the village" seeking to attract young professionals to the countryside has had low success. The modernization of the agricultural education system would be impossible without an analysis of the external environment and various factors influencing the competitiveness of graduates. This study aims to analyze the motivation, aspirations and career expectations of students at agrarian universities and to develop recommendations for career planning and increasing the employment rates of graduates. General scientific and statistical methods were used, based on a student survey. According to the study results, domestic factors determine the choices students make in terms of university and specialty. Among Bachelor and Master students, there are still those who have not yet decided on an eventual profession. Over half of the undergraduate respondents have no clear career plans, and often unrealistic career expectations. The majority of the respondents are interested in urban jobs due to dissatisfaction with rural wage levels and living conditions. To achieve high levels of competitiveness and employment among agricultural university graduates, the following is recommended: improve students' motivation, facilitate the career plans of Bachelor students by introducing career planning courses, strengthen youth employment programs, include more agricultural specialties that are needed in rural areas, develop student entrepreneurship and practice-oriented training, improve rural living conditions, increase rural wages, and expand opportunities for career growth for young specialists in agriculture.
    Keywords: I20 ; I21 ; I23 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Cельскохозяйственное образование ; мотивация ; карьерные ожидания ; agricultural education ; motivation ; career expectations ; Agrarausbildung ; Motivation ; Karriereerwartungen
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: В период независимого развития в Узбекистане производство пшеницы достигло восьмикратного роста, в то время как ее посевные площади увеличились почти в три раза. Рост валовых показателей не привел к улучшению качества пшеницы и повышению рентабельности ее производства для фермерских хозяйств. Существующая арендная система землепользователя перегружена дополнительными обязательствами для арендаторов, что снижает их мотивацию. При этом надо иметь в виду, что официальная статистика по производству пшеницы не достоверна. Главный вопрос для сельского хозяйства Узбекистана не в том, какая форма организации сельскохозяйственного производства лучше и не в размерах земельных участков, а в механизме закупок сельскохозяйственной продукции для государственных нужд и гарантиях прав собственности для субъектов сельскохозяйственного производства. Реформы в системе обязательного государственного заказа по хлопку и пшенице могли бы повысить стимулы к эффективному землепользованию у фермеров и расширить их возможности по диверсификации производства за счет увеличения посевов альтернативных культур (плодоовощные, кормовые и пр.), и тем самым увеличить экспортный потенциал сельскохозяйственного сектора.
    Description: During the period of independence following the collapse of the Soviet Union, official statistics show that wheat production in Uzbekistan increased eightfold, while the sown area almost tripled. This, however, had no positive impact on either the quality of the wheat or its profitability for the newly established farms. Currently the land tenure system overloads farmers with additional obligations and, thus, further reduces their economic incentives. The main question that needs to be asked, therefore, is how this increase in wheat production came about. Factors that could have led to this are the new organizational form of agricultural production, the change in farm size, the mechanism of state procurement of agricultural output as well as land tenure insecurity for farmers. In addition, one also needs to question the reliability of official statistics on wheat production and the accuracy of this expansion. Reforms in the system of obligatory state production targets in cotton and wheat could increase farmers' incentives for more efficient land use and expand their capacities for crop diversification towards high value crops such as fruits, vegetables and fodder. This would also have a direct effect on the export potential of the agricultural sector.
    Keywords: P41 ; P47 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; продовольственная политика ; система госзаказа ; диверсификация сельского хозяйства ; экспортный потенциал ; Узбекистан ; food policy ; state procurement system ; agricultural diversification ; export potential ; Uzbekistan
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  • 22
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: This publication, carried out within the framework of the project "Revitalising animal husbandry in Central Asia: A five-country analysis (ANICANET)", presents the main stages of reforms, the progress of restructuring in the animal husbandry of Turkmenistan, considers the main strategic documents on national policy in this sector and statistical indicators at national and province levels. Categories of agricultural producers, their contribution to livestock sector, the results of SWOT analysis of the situation in the sector, as well as current policy on farm production are presented. Among the conclusions of the research it is possible to point out the following: despite the high level of state regulation and the slow nature of practical reforms in the agricultural sector of Turkmenistan, over the last the share of private sector in the livestock sector increased as well as the the number of livestock and livestock output. The government promoted large projects inviting private entrepreneurs in the livestock sector. The analysis of the ongoing sectoral reforms allows to conclude that the programs and projects based on gradual decentralization and public-private partnership have a chance of success.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; livestock sector ; agricultural reforms ; Turkmenistan
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 23
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: Livestock production accounts for 31 % of the total gross output of agriculture in Uzbekistan. This sector plays an important role in the generation of income of rural residents of the country, so the problems and prospects of its development are in the priority of agrarian policy in Uzbekistan. During the years of independence, the agrarian sector of the country has undergone significant changes. Dekhqan and individual farms have become the main agricultural producers instead of state farms and shirkats. At present more than 90 % of all livestock production is produced by small dekhkan farms. The main problem of the sector is the imbalance between the number of livestock and the amount of resources available for its maintenance. From 1992 to 2017, the number of cattle in Uzbekistan increased by 2.3 times, meat production by 2.9 times and milk yield by 2.7 times. At the same time, the sowing area for fodder crops decreased by 73 %. The area of pastures managed by agricultural producers sharply decreased. Individual farmers and dekhqans feel the lack of fodder for complete nutrition and production of dairy products. One of the factors hindering the development of dairy farming is the small size of the main part of producers in this sector. Milk is mainly produced on private household plots and for personal consumption. Small producers do not have the opportunity to introduce advanced standards of zootechnics, effectively sell their products, as well as to purchase good fodder crops. State support in the field of animal husbandry is mainly provided through preferential loans to producers of livestock products and tax benefits to processors of these products. All over the country there are veterinary stations which provide vaccination, treatment and artificial insemination of cattle to farms and dekhkan farms. At the same time, these procedures are often related to the need to incur additional costs for these activities. Artificial insemination uses a small number of agricultural producers. This report reveals the current state, problems and prospects of dairy farming development in Uzbekistan. Recommendations on improvement of the state policy in this sphere are given.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; animal husbandry ; dairy farming ; agriculture ; agri sector ; Uzbekistan
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 24
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-04
    Description: C 1-го февраля 2015 г. экспорт пшеницы из России облагается дополнительным налогом с целью сократить объемы вывозимой за рубеж продукции. Это предпринято в рамках противодействия высоким ценам на пшеницу на внутреннем рынке, а также для стабилизации цен на хлеб. Однако, недавний опыт в разных странах, включая Украину, Казахстан, Сербию, да и саму Россию, показывает, что ограничения на экспорт зерна оказывают лишь незначительное влияние или вовсе не влияют на цены на хлеб. Даже для бедных слоев населения такие меры государственного вмешательства не приносят ничего хорошего. Напротив, это отрезает российское зерновое хозяйство от международных рынков, снижается объем необходимых инвестиций в зерновой сектор, что противоречит положениям доктрины продовольственной безопасности. Такая форма государственного протекционизма не может не вызывать обеспокоенности. Ведь именно в условиях сегодняшнего падения российской экономики дестабилизация стратегически важного зернового сектора, безусловно, не способствует улучшению инвестиционного климата в России.
    Description: Since 1 February 2015, an additional tax has been levied on Russian wheat exports to reduce the recently strongly rising wheat exports. The aim is to dampen further increases in the already high domestic wheat prices and to stabilise bread prices. However, recent experiences in various countries as Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Serbia, and Russia show that grain export restrictions do little if anything to moderate bread prices. Poor people will also fail to profit from this governmental market intervention. Instead, grain export barriers will disconnect the Russian grain producers from the international markets while necessary investments in the grain sector decline which decreases food security. This form of protectionism by the government is ample cause for serious concern. Considering the current downswing in the Russian economy, the destabilisation of the strategically important grain sector will most certainly not improve the investment climate in Russia.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Russian
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2020-04-04
    Description: Пункт 68 преамбули Регламенту (ЄС) № 1306/2013 містить вимогу: «Кожен захід Спільної аграрної політики (САП) має контролюватися й оцінюватися з метою покращення його якості та демонстрації його дієвості» (Verordnung (EU) Nr. 1306/2013). У даній аналітичній записці досліджується, чи може Інформаційна мережа сільськогосподарського бухгалтерського обліку (ІМСБ) (англ. Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) / нім. Informationsnetz Landwirtschaftlicher Buchführungen (INLB), яка згідно офіційного повідомлення має використовуватись в якості основи для оцінки політики, також застосовуватись для кількісної оцінки впливу прямих платежів на офіційні аграрнополітичні цілі. Дані ІМСБ внаслідок особливостей вибірки є непридатними для оцінки прямих платежів. По-перше, вибірка для відбору підприємств для ІМСБ здійснюється не з усієї сукупності підприємств, що отримують прямі платежі. Отже, за допомогою цих даних не може бути визначений вплив для однієї групи сільськогосподарських підприємств. По-друге, і, можливо, важливіше, за допомогою цих даних охоплюється так званий «сільськогосподарський дохід» (дохід від сільськогосподарської діяльності), а не дохід фермерів. По-третє, збір даних змінився з плином часу і наразі у визначенні існують значні розбіжності між державами-членами ЄС. Дана аналітична записка демонструє принципові проблеми і звертає увагу на показові проблеми з даними окремих країн. Даний аналіз веде до висновку, що сучасний масив даних ІМСБ є непридатним для оцінки впливу прямих платежів на доходи. Результат дослідження співпадає з аналізом, проведеним Європейською рахунковою палатою (European Court of Auditors, 2016).
    Description: According to recital (68) of the preamble to regulation (EU) No. 1306 /2013, ‘Each measure under the CAP should be subject to monitoring and evaluation in order to improve its quality and to demonstrate its achievements.’ This policy brief investigates whether the officially-declared data set for policy evaluation, the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN), can be used to assess the impact that direct payments of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) actually have on official policy objectives. It is our opinion that FADN data are inadequate to be used in policy evaluation due to the specifics of selection of the sample. First, there is a mismatch between farms that are included in the sample and farms that are entitled to receive direct payments. Second, and possibly even more importantly, the information collected, so-called farm income, does not represent farmers’ actual income. Third, the data are neither consistent in time nor between Member States. This policy brief reports on selected data problems for selected EU countries. The analysis leads to the final conclusion that the present setup of FADN data is inadequate for the data to be used to evaluate EU farm income policy. This conclusion is completely in line with the European Court of Auditors’ Report (European Court of Auditors, 2016).
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Russian
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  • 26
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-04
    Description: Диверсификация сельского хозяйства и сокращение посевных площадей под хлопок стали отличительными чертами нынешней стратегии модернизации в Узбекистане спустя два с половиной десятилетия производства хлопка под государственным контролем. В контексте реформ сельскохозяйственной политики цель данной аналитической записки состоит в оценке успехов реструктуризации фермерских хозяйств. Кроме того, в ней ставится вопрос о том, что должны сделать лица, разрабатывающие политику, для повышения конкурентоспособности сельского хозяйства, вместе с тем не упуская из виду социальные последствия реформ. После первоначального сокращения размеров бывших колхозов и достижения номинальной самообеспеченности зерном в 1990-е годы, правительством прилагаются усилия в поиске новой модели для сектора фермерских хозяйств. В январе 2019 года правительство инициировало очередной этап консолидации фермерских хозяйств. Лицам, разрабатывающим политику, рекомендуется сосредоточиться не на отпределенных типах или размерах фермерских хозяйств, а на обеспечении фермеров доступом к неискаженным рыночным сигналам и к оптимальному набору содействующих государственных услуг. Поэтапная либерализация рынков продукции и факторов производства будет способствовать достижению этой цели. Для достижения успешных преобразований в сельском хозяйстве этот процесс должен быть дополнен государственными услугами, отвечающими потребностям различных сельскохозяйственных производителей. Эти преобразования будут важны для производителей сектора домашних хозяйств, которые, вероятно, оценят более широкие возможности получения несельскохозяйственных доходов в результате реформ, выходящих за рамки сельскохозяйственного сектора.
    Description: After two and a half decades of state-mandated cotton production, the diversification of agriculture and the downsizing of the cotton area have become prominent features of Uzbekistan's current modernization strategy. Given the momentum of agricultural policy reform, this policy brief aims to evaluate the success of farm restructuring so far. Moreover, it asks what policymakers should do next to promote agricultural competitiveness without losing sight of the social consequences of reform. After initial downsizing of the former collective farms and achieving nominal self-sufficiency in grain during the 1990s, the government has struggled to find a new model for its farming sector. In January 2019, the government initiated a new wave of farm consolidation. Rather than targeting at a particular type or size of farm organization, policymakers are recommended to focus instead on ensuring that all farmers receive undistorted market signals and have access to an optimal set of supporting public services. Stepwise liberalization of output and factor markets will contribute to this goal, and it needs to be complemented by better tailored public services to Uzbekistan's heterogeneous farming sector to lead to a successful agricultural transformation. The latter is especially important for household producers who will likely appreciate better non-farm income opportunities generated by reforms that go beyond the agricultural sector.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Russian
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2020-04-24
    Description: Повышение урожайности сельскохозяйственных культур играет решающую роль в удовлетворении растущего спроса на продовольствие в мире. Россия облада-ет значительным потенциалом увеличения сельскохозяйственного производства, не использованным в полной мере, поскольку текущая урожайность зерновых культур значительно ниже потенциально достижимой урожайности. Регион Западной Си-бири – одна из важнейших житниц России, где урожайность пшеницы особенно отстает от своего биофизического и технологического потенциала. Цель исследова-ния заключалась в оценке детерминант пространственной вариабильности урожай-ности пшеницы, основываясь на данных реальной практики земледелия сельскохо-зяйственных производителей Алтайского края в Западной Сибири. Было проведено 67 структурированных интервью о потенциальных детерминантах урожайности пшеницы с управленческим звеном сельскохозяйственных предприятий различ-ных форм собственности, включая крестьянско-фермерские хозяйства. Интервью были дополнены 149 наблюдениями, полученными на основе данных системати-ческого мониторинга сельскохозяйственного производства в Алтайском крае. В ра-боте использованы байесовские сети (БС) для представления взаимосвязей между объясняющими переменными и урожайностью пшеницы и изучения ожидаемых реакций продуктивности культуры в различных сценарных условиях. Результаты показали, что более высокая урожайность чаще достигается более крупными про-изводителями, чем средними и малыми. Результаты подтвердили наблюдения, сви-детельствующие о том, что применение удобрений и средств защиты растений, как и внедрение нового оборудования (технологий), оказывает положительное влияние на среднюю урожайность пшеницы, которая является базовой в регионе. Сценарий возрастания производственных издержек и снижения сумм осадков ожидаемо при-ведет к снижению урожайности в среднем с 7,6 до 5,3 ц/га. В целом исследование показало, что политика, направленная на увеличение урожайности сельскохозяй-ственных культур, должна учитывать развитие образовательной среды менеджеров и специалистов сельскохозяйственных предприятий и стимулировать меры по вне-сению удобрений и соблюдение рекомендаций агрономической науки. Особенный фокус государственной аграрной политики должен быть ориентирован на развитие малых форм хозяйствования. Кроме того, аграрная политика должна быть направ-лена на перспективное решение смежных проблем, одной из которых является ни-велирование происходящего усиления засушливости климата посредством внедре-ния адаптированных к засушливым условиям технологий возделывания культур.
    Description: Higher crop yields are critical to satisfy the rising global food demand. Russia holds untapped potential for increasing agricultural production because current grain yields are often far below the potentially attainable yields. Western Siberia is an important breadbasket in Russia, where wheat yields fall particularly short of their potential. Our goal was to assess the determinants of yield variations among farmers in the province of Altai Krai in Western Siberia. We conducted 67 structured in-person interviews with corporate farm managers and individual farmers about the potential determinants of wheat yields and complemented these data with 149 additional observations obtained from the provincial agricultural extension service. We used Bayesian networks (BNs) to represent the relationships between the explanatory parameters and contemporary wheat yields and to examine qualitative future scenarios of future yields. The results revealed higher yields on larger farms than on medium and small farms. Our results corroborated that the application of fertilizers and herbicides and the implementation of new equipment had large positive impacts on the yields. The scenario of higher future production costs and lower precipitation resulted in a yield reduction from 7.6 dt/ha to 5.3. Overall, our results suggest that policies aimed at increasing wheat yields should concentrate on the education of farmers and encourage higher input applications, particularly for small-scale farms. Additionally, policies should address concurrent challenges, such as a higher drought frequency, through the application of new equipment, seed material and tillage practices
    Keywords: C12 ; Q12 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; Bayesian belief network ; food security ; land-use intensity ; scenario analysis ; wheat production ; yield gap ; Russia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Russian
    Type: doc-type:article
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