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  • Hungarian  (77)
  • Chinese  (3)
  • 2010-2014  (80)
  • 1
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    Beijing : Science Press
    Pages: In 3 Bd.
    Language: Chinese
    Note: Titel und Text in chines. Schr. , Nomenclature also in Latin.
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Bei-jing : Di-zhen chu-ban-she
    Call number: M 14.0002
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 359 S. : z.T. farb. Ill. und graph. Darst. + 1 DVD
    ISBN: 9787502843236
    Uniform Title: Stress field of the earth's crust
    Classification: A.3.10.
    Language: Chinese
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Beijing : Seismological Press
    Call number: M 10.0305
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 87 S.
    ISBN: 9787502836726
    Uniform Title: European Macroseismic Scale 1998
    Classification: A.2.4.
    Language: Chinese
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 4
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Keywords: E66 ; O47 ; O50 ; O52 ; ddc:330 ; catching up ; real convergence ; Red Queen Paradox ; Jánossy's growth theory ; long-term growth ; productivity ; Wirtschaftliche Konvergenz ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Wachstumstheorie ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The study provides a brief summary of the theoretical and empirical considerations related to the possible determinants of firm growth. With a special focus on small and medium-sized firms, we investigate the role of the availability of internal and external finance. After examining the key factors influencing the decision on a company's capital structure, we present some facts on the situation of SMEs in Europe and especially Hungary, in order to see what type of governmental programs seem to be reasonable on economic grounds in fostering the growth of small firms. We present recent empirical evidence on the relationship between firm growth and its determinants, and show how the evolution of the firm size distribution can be explained by taking into account the financial constraints faced by small firms.
    Keywords: L25 ; G32 ; H81 ; ddc:330 ; small and medium-sized enterprises ; firm growth ; capital structure ; Unternehmenswachstum ; Kapitalstruktur ; KMU ; Ungarn ; Europa
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 6
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The aim of this article is to analyse the technical efficiency of Hungarian crop farms between 2001 and 2009 using panel data. We employ both standard stochastic frontier analysis and latent class model (LCM) to estimate technical efficiency. Our results suggest that technological heterogeneity plays important role in crop sector which traditionally is assumed by homogeneous technology. The comparison of standard SFA models assuming that the technology is common to all farms and LCM estimates highlights that the efficiency of crop farms may be underestimated using traditional SFA models.
    Keywords: Q12 ; ddc:330 ; heterogeneity ; latent class models ; crop farms ; Technische Effizienz ; Multivariate Analyse ; Pflanzenbau ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 7
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The paper deals with the story of the cumulative risks of a successful research concluded in China in which I both participated and was its leader. The topic of the research was the impact of the global crisis on government, enterprises and migrant behavior. The fieldwork included in the two projects was carried out in the first case in 16 cities and in the second one in 2 cities during 2009 and 2012.
    Keywords: C42 ; C81 ; C93 ; ddc:330 ; research methodology ; fieldwork in foreign country ; China ; Feldforschung ; Wissenschaftliche Methode ; Regionalstudien ; China
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 8
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: It is a highly disputed question in the literature how state subsidy influences the behavior of the entrepreneurs and accordingly the growth prospects of the economy. Most authors agree that state intervention in financing deteriorates the incentives of the entrepreneur, but there is no consensus whether its overall effect is positive or negative if we take into consideration the positive externalities of the projects too. Several authors investigate different subsidy forms (refundable/nonrefundable, prior/posterior, conditional/unconditional) searching for the optimal one(s). In this article we show in the framework of a three-player model (entrepreneur, bank, state) that under moral hazard and positive externalities state subsidy creates value. Moreover, a well-designed subsidy scheme improves incentives and instead of crowding out it boosts private financing. However, in this model the concrete form of the state subsidy is totally irrelevant as all forms will lead exactly to the same welfare effect. The only exception is the prior subsidy to be refunded both in case of success and failure which has neither a positive nor a negative effect.
    Keywords: D28 ; D86 ; G38 ; H23 ; H81 ; ddc:330 ; state subsidy ; moral hazard ; externalities ; contract theory
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 9
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Several decades of market opening has become a characteristic of network industries. Its main hindrances and aids has come into sight during this period. There is a need now to evaluate the process of market opening and to assess the steps to be taken. Market opening is usually measured by changes in competition, market structure, entry conditions, separation of vertically integrated firms and in cost and prices. British, Australian, US and EU experiences are covered in this study followed by the measures of Hungarian market opening.
    Keywords: K23 ; L16 ; L43 ; L51 ; L97 ; ddc:330 ; market opening ; network industries ; regulation ; Markteintritt ; Netzinfrastruktur
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 10
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The traditional voting games are special transferable utility cooperative games, so-called simple games, where the players are the parties and the value of a coalition may be 1 or 0 depending on the ability of the coalition to pass a motion or not. In this paper we introduce general weighted voting games, where the value of a coalition is a random variable. We illustrate the use of this model on examples from Hungary.
    Keywords: C71 ; D72 ; ddc:330 ; weighted voting ; Hungarian National Assembly ; absent voters ; Shapley-Shubik index ; Spieltheorie ; Wahlverhalten ; Koalition ; Shapley-Wert ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 11
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: In this paper we investigate the relationship between productivity growth and firm dynamics using firm-level data between 1992 and 2006. Theories emphasising firm-level heterogeneity show that industry-level productivity may not only increase as a consequence of increasing within-firm efficiency, but also because of the quicker growth of more efficient firms, i.e. creative destruction. With analytical tools from recent literature we show that increasing firm-level efficiency was the main factor behind industry-level productivity growth in Hungary in this period, but creative destruction also played an important role.
    Keywords: D24 ; L25 ; O47 ; ddc:330 ; creative destruction ; productivity ; heterogeneity ; Produktivität ; Schätzung ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: It is a general tendency among the Hungarian fruit and vegetable producers to claim of the supermarket retail chains. However, hardly any mention is made of the successful small-scale producers, which are able to become direct suppliers. What are their characteristics, what are their individual features, what is their business philosophy? What are the reasons of their success, how are they different from those producers which are not able to supply? How do they try to solve the problems? The first part of the publication deals with these questions. In the second part the Spanish production, sale system is presented, which is totally different from the Hungarian one and which is successful both on the domestic and foreign markets. In the Annex the comparison of the concentration of the Hungarian fruit and vegetable production and that of the retail food stores is given.
    Keywords: Q13 ; ddc:330 ; commerce ; concentration ; fruit and vegetable production ; successful small-scale producers ; successful production ; sale system. ; Obstbau ; Gemüsebau ; Lebensmitteleinzelhandel ; Unternehmenskonzentration ; Ungarn ; Spanien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 13
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The liberalisation of the Hungarian electricity and natural gas markets has been completed in 2009. The liberalisation of the electricity market resulted in different competitive positions in the production, the wholesale and the retail trade. The high level of market concentration survived in the power production, and a similarly high level concentration of the wholesale market would have subsisted without the efforts of the competition authority. The competition on the retail market was stimulated by the termination of public utility supply, and the share of unregulated market has expanded. This paper sums up the competitive positions at the beginning of the liberalisation process both in the electricity and the natural gas markets and presents the changes due to liberalisation.
    Keywords: L5 ; L94 ; L95 ; ddc:330 ; regulation and liberalisation in energy supply ; competition and high level market concentration ; Deregulierung ; Elektrizitätsversorgung ; Gasversorgung ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 14
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: In the employment increase of 12 million of the European Union the number of part time employees accounted for nearly 6 million between 2000 and 2006. A great number of countries try to support the distribution of part-time employment in order to raise or maintain the level of employment and to organise the work and working time more efficiently and intensively. Hungary with its low level of part-time employment is among the last Member States of the European Union, therefore, on the one hand this flexible type of employment can be considered as an unused reserve of workforce management and on the other hand, the low level of employment is due to the narrow size distribution of part-time employment. By examining the factors influencing the part-time employment this publication aims to facilitate the clarification of the role of part-time employment; and furthermore, to increase its weight in the Hungarian economy and employment.
    Keywords: J22 ; ddc:330 ; part-time ; employment ; fluctuation of economic activity ; modernization of the working organisation ; employment policy ; system of social partnership ; Teilzeitarbeit ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; EU-Staaten ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 15
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Keywords: F21 ; L25 ; O32 ; ddc:330 ; medical precision instruments sector ; small and medium sized companies ; internationalisation ; Medizinprodukteindustrie ; KMU ; Globalisierung ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: In Hungary, the health status of working age men is extremely bad in comparison with both the developed market economies and the neighboring transition countries. The study based on data between 1960 and 2004 investigates the health status of population in Hungary and Austria by health-production functions on macro level and makes comparisons. The rationale for comparison of these very countries is the territorial closeness and the mutual long past. The mortality rate of working age population (15-60 old) is considered the proxy variable for the health status. According to this indicator the health status in the two countries was at the same level in 1960's, but they started to diverge at the beginning in the 1970's. As explanatory variables for the mortality rate of the working age population the following variables are taken into account: the indicators of the life style (consumption of alcohol, smoking, the extra work in the "second" and "hidden economy"), the long- term economic development (the development of the GDP per capita), health-care resources (the relative share of physicians) and the situation in the labor market (unemployment rate). The estimations of the health production functions turn out approximating well real world developments in both countries.
    Keywords: I12 ; ddc:330 ; health status ; health production function ; mortality ; Hungary ; Austria ; Gesundheit ; Gesundheitsökonomik ; Produktionsfunktion ; Sterblichkeit ; Schätzung ; Vergleich ; Ungarn ; Österreich
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 17
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: If Janossy's theory should concisely be drafted, one might say that he had been researching the "real carrier of economic development" in a very original way and having formulated his theory in a specific language. He managed to identify the "carrier" of development focusing on the systematic examination of the post-war reconstruction periods, and setup a hypothesis being ascribed to his name, which allowed him to forecast - as the first and the only one in the world - the end of the post-war golden age, a decade in advance. The present study is aimed at comparing and contrasting Janossy's specifically formulated and highly genuine theories and ideas to the contemporary neo-classical economics and to the endogenous growth theory that have appeared in the nineties. The "real carrier of economic development" matches to the "human capital" of the contemporary neo-classical theory while in the endogenous growth theory it does match to the "technological progress", both appearing as separate factors of production. We present a new growth model that satisfies the best our considerations to which the a longitudinal model fitting is done for Maddison's [2003] historical data - from 1870 to present for the 19 most developed OECD countries - and for the post-war reconstruction period, as well. The same model is applied for a cross-regional analysis, after having calculated the rates of return on capital a ranking has been performed for nearly 300 (EU-27 NUTS 2) regions in the period of 2000-2005.
    Keywords: O11 ; O18 ; O33 ; O47 ; N10 ; ddc:330 ; endogenous growth theory ; leader-follower model ; human capital ; Endogenes Wachstumsmodell ; Humankapital ; Technischer Fortschritt ; Innovationsdiffusion ; Technologietransfer ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 18
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The introduction of the paper discusses the different opinions about income inequalities and income distribution. Further the author presents the most important alternative methods for measuring income inequalities. Contrary to the traditional income distribution analysis the underlying data base for the study is incomes of the population reported to tax authorities. This is a new approach of the author as she doesn't consider the Family Expenditure Survey data reliable because of the methods used to select the sample. According to the surveys of the Hungarian Statistical Office the income ratio between the bottom and top decile doubled between 1987 and 1997 from 4.6 to 9.2. Some works made by TARKI. Institute of Economics show that after 1996 the income inequality basically didn't grow, at most structural changes occurred. Results coming from the author's analysis contradict to previous statement, income inequality kept growing, in addition, the inequality measure itself is much higher than on the basis of family budget surveys data. On the basis of drawn consequences the author makes important suggestions for economic policy. By international measure the changes in the Hungarian income inequality are tremendously high. The causes are basically originating from faulty tax system, inflation, unfavorable demographic changes, and the most important factor is how privatization happened in Hungary.
    Keywords: D310 ; ddc:330 ; income distribution ; income inequalities ; Einkommensverteilung ; Messung ; Umverteilung ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 19
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Keywords: M13 ; G24 ; ddc:330 ; Venture Capital ; Private Equity ; Buyout ; Merger & Acquisition ; Corporate Restructuring ; Risikokapital ; Private Equity ; Übernahme ; Organisatorischer Wandel ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The majority of the small-scale fruit and vegetable producers due to their small sizes are not able to meet the requirements of the large commercial chains by themselves. Only the cooperation could bring an effective solution. The POs are able to concentrate the scatteredsmall-scale commercial production and to supply as well as to homogenise all these. Furthermore, they are capable to provide activities, which a small-scale producer would not be able to undertake by itself. POs are the organisations which can become successful suppliers and due to their strong bargaining power also partners of the large commercial chains. The great number of small-scale producers can primarily become suppliers if they join these organisations. The POs are not yet frequent in the Hungarian fruit and vegetable sector; therefore, they do not play such a role in supplying to the large commercial chains as in the other Member States of the European Union. This is the fundamental reason of the difficulties encountered by the small-scale producers in supplying. The main reason of the difficulties between the successful Member States and Hungary is the significant share of the grey economy. On the one hand, it does not encourage the small-scale producers and on the other hand, it withdraws a large volume of goods from the legal sales channels through the POs.
    Keywords: Q13 ; ddc:330 ; commerce ; concentration ; large commercial chains ; fruit and vegetable Producer Organisations ; Gemüsebau ; Obstbau ; Landwirtschaftliche Betriebsform ; KMU ; Unternehmenskonzentration ; Handelskette ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 21
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Our paper examines the possible role of enterprise surveys in the forecasting of labour market processes. Based on two enterprise surveys with large samples we examine to what extent are enterprises, differing in their size, sales revenues, ownership structure and markets, capable to predict their future labour market demand or manpower requirements for different time horizons. We explore the enterprise characteristics and planning features determining the maximum time horizon and accuracy of the manpower forecasts of enterprises. Both objective and subjective indicators are used in the analysis of the accuracy of forecasts. An empirical study of enterprises' capability to forecast labour market needs and the accuracy of such predictions seems crucial in determining the possibilities and the limits of enterprise surveys in producing forecasts for aggregate manpower needs of the economy or predicting labour demand by vocations and qualifications. We also investigate the ways enterprises perceive the qualitative changes in job contents, and the ways they evaluate the changes in qualification and skill requirements by job categories. Managers' perception of new skill requirements in their own enterprises and in the economy as a whole are also dealt with in the paper.
    Keywords: J21 ; J23 ; J40 ; M54 ; ddc:330 ; labour demand ; business planning ; enterprise survey ; labour market requirements ; change in job content ; Arbeitsnachfrage ; Prognoseverfahren ; Unternehmensplanung
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 22
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The new Labor Code passed by the Parliament in 2012 has been the most important change of the regulation of labor relations in Hungary since 1992. This report summarizes the main results of a field work research which was managed by the Institute of Economics HAS and financed by the LIGA Trade Union a few months after the new code came into effect. Case studies based on interviews with union activists and with representatives of the management of 16 big or medium size companies were the basic source of information. Content analysis of articles, reports in newspaper and of texts on the internet, interpretation of legal sources were among the methods of research as well . The declared aim of the government (of the law maker) was to create a more flexible labor market which indirectly results in job creation. Unfortunately - mainly because of the time limits - we have not found any symptoms of such changes in the interviews and in the case studies. But we observed and registered the decline of the bargaining power of trade unions and deterioration of security of trade union activist. These development were direct and short term consequences of the new law which sharply restricted the room for maneuvering of the unions. Moreover, the new Labor Code modified negatively the labor conditions and the bargaining power of the individual employees as well. Not only the decreasing wages and salaries but the shortened allowances, the growing working time the worsening conditions of probation, severance pay and of firing (from the point of view of the employees) showed that the new Labor Code increased the power and the space of maneuver of the management and restricted these conditions of the employees. These changes were especially harsh at state owned companies, as for them the Code does not allow to deviate from certain mandatory regulations through collective agreements. On the other hand, we recognized that in a part of the companies the management implemented the new regulations very cautiously. It seemed that they prefer the balanced peaceful labor relations as a part of the company culture to the expected short-term profit increases.
    Keywords: J5 ; ddc:330 ; labor-market regulation ; trade unions ; field work ; Arbeitsbeziehungen ; Arbeitsrecht ; Gewerkschaft ; Verhandlungsmacht ; Feldforschung ; Bibliometrie ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 23
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: MOL Plc as a national champion does not simply take part in the implementation of the state's decisions but the company's cooperation is needed in realizing the economic, political and social considerations of the authorities. Therefore the company is provided with special preferential treatment. Besides, MOL can take advantage of its efficient bargaining power to secure the authorities' favorable decisions in important cases. The regulations and special decisions of the European Union limit MOL's position as a national champion. In cases belonging exclusively to national competence the main position of authorities was to prevent the emergence of foreign ownership control. In other cases, the authorities behaved differently: sometimes they contributed to the consolidation of the company's position as national champion, sometimes they weakened it with their decisions. The relationship of the company and the state is thus characterized not only by matching but conflicting interests too.
    Keywords: D21 ; D23 ; L1 ; L2 ; L5 ; ddc:330 ; national champion ; corporate management ; relationship and interactions of the company and the state ; changes of ownership structure ; Unternehmenserfolg ; Management ; Eigentümerstruktur ; Staatliche Einflussnahme ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 24
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: This paper describes the impact of the global crisis on China, the central and local level government responses and preferences it triggered as well as the consequences these reactions had on national and regional levels. It focuses on the immediate economic and general systemic reasons of the development of local indebtedness and that of the overheating generated by investment. It sheds light on the fact that despite the substantial evolution of the market economy in China, the state interventions to compensate the impact of the crisis activate the general and specific Chinese characteristics of party-states during the process. These specifics will determine the politically rational criteria in the distribution of resources, the accomodating investment behavior of actors and the characteristics of distribution according to the specifics of the Chinese power structure. It is the prevalence of these specific structural characteristics that will cause among others the penomena of local indebtedness, local economic overheating and the hardships in their central control.
    Keywords: F5 ; D78 ; R58 ; J08 ; 015 ; E24 ; ddc:330 ; local indebtedness ; crisis ; party-state system ; resource distribution ; state inter-vention ; overheating ; Wirtschaftskrise ; International ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Sachenrecht ; China
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 25
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The pressures to accommodate to the global standards of corporate governance (CG) for Japanese public companies had grown strong since the mid-1990s. A series of legal reforms has led to the formal imitation of the market oriented Anglo-American model which, however, was not accompanied by the functional convergence of the CG practices of the Japanese companies. Deeply rooted social norms, insider business culture and industry specific conditions had a strong effect on the course of CG reforms in Japan. A hybrid model of corporate governance has been emerging in which companies selectively combine the features of the traditional stakeholder based approach with those of the shareholder oriented system.
    Keywords: G34 ; P50 ; ddc:330 ; Japan ; corporate governance ; shareholder value ; Corporate Governance ; Shareholder Value ; Japan
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 26
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Nicolas Baudeau (1730-1792) was a theologian, historian and "economist-philosopher" of the second half of the eighteenth century. His name appears in manuals as a popularizer of the ideas of Quesnay and as the founder of the first journal of economics of the Physiocrats, but we are not familiar with his writings, although he was an original thinker and a very active practical man. His oeuvre encompasses a wide area of historical, legal, economic, social, political and moral issues, publishing and consulting activities, down to new technologies, technical solutions, especially new techniques to produce bread. Significant part of his work was the dialogue of opinions against: Condillac, Galiani, Graslin, Forbonnais, Necker, etc., the "anti-physiocrats" being his discussion partners. Throughout Europe he diffused and taught the doctrines of the Physiocrats. He was the travelling ambassador of their ideas. He deeply believed in their program: competition, free commerce, free enterprise, public education, social care, etc. to promote the country's (countries') prosperity and well-being. The goal of this paper is to present some quite neglected writings of Baudeau, especially his debate over a laissez-faire economy against those who argued for the care and responsibility of State. In the appendix see the Hungarian translation of "Explication du Tableau économique á M*** par M.l'abbé Baudeau.
    Keywords: B11 ; B16 ; H63 ; H74 ; E31 ; E41 ; ddc:330 ; Nicolas Baudeau ; Physiocrats ; Antiphysiocrats ; laissez-faire economy ; free (corn) commerce ; Explication de Tableau économique
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: According to international comparisons the Hungarians are extremely dissatisfied with their lives. Meanwhile Austria, with many cultural and historical similarities to Hungary, is in the forefront of the satisfaction lists. We have identified some of the important causes of Hungarian dissatisfaction and the possible ways of its improvement, estimating the effect of the factors influencing subjective well-being on Hungarian and Austrian household level data. The most important factor in diminishing satisfaction is bad health status, and the best way to increase it is education. However in Hungary, unlike Austria, neither vocational training, nor upper secondary education increase satisfaction, only tertiary education has such effect. Increasing the share of tertiary education enrolment could increase life satisfaction in Hungary. In contrast to the stereotypes, the satisfaction increasing effect of social connections is much stronger in Austria than in Hungary. This holds for the relationships and for the contacts with relatives and friends alike. In Hungary the intensity of satisfaction-increasing social relations is relatively low. Contacts with relatives and friends increase satisfaction more as factors improving the security of sustenance than in their intrinsic merits. Unemployment decreases satisfaction above income effect and this decrease spreads also to the family members. This is caused mainly by the insecurity of housing. In Austria the well-developed residential tenancy system prevents this effect. To build up such a system in Hungary could improve life satisfaction. Specifying previous findings of other authors we came to the conclusion that the higher satisfaction level of entrepreneurs is the result of hidden income.
    Keywords: I31 ; I14 ; C25 ; D60 ; O57 ; ddc:330 ; subjective well-being ; self-rated health ; satisfaction
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 28
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The study analyses the development of Hungarian mortality rates of working age population and its explanatory factors. The analysis uses two approaches: first an international cross-sectional comparison for the year 2011, and then a time series examination with the help of a "health production function", based on Hungarian data for the period 1972-2009. In both approaches we investigate the mortality rates of males and females separately. In the international cross sectional comparison of 46 countries of Europe and CIS countries turns out that the huge differences in mortality rates are to a great extent determined by the long term past of the political and economic systems in the preceding decades. According to the "state socialist syndrome of mortality", in the post socialist economies mortality rates have been much higher than in long term capitalist countries, especially for men. Cross country differences in male mortality are influenced by a series of factors: latitude of the countries, GDP per capita in the countries, relative prices and consumption of unhealthy products (alcohol, especially spirit, and tobacco), the share of the informal or hidden economy in total production, level of education of the population, and the share of health expenditure in GDP. For females factors related to lifestyle explain differences in mortality rates in a less pronounced way than for males. [...]
    Keywords: I12 ; ddc:330 ; mortality rates ; cross country comparison ; health production function ; Hungary
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 29
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: In this paper we analyze whether people who spend money on experiences rather than material things are more satisfied. Previous psychological studies have several drawbacks, and therefore their results might be biased and unreliable. Trying to avoid these drawbacks in this research we use large-scale representative survey databases from Hungary. In the first study we analyze two pooled cross-sectional surveys (TÁRKI Household Monitor 2005 and 2007), in the second study we analyze a subsample of the Hungarian Household Budget Survey (HBS). We estimate the association of expenditures with life satisfaction using linear and non-linear models as well. We demonstrate that experiences associate stronger with life satisfaction than material things, thus our evidences based on survey data corroborate the previous results from the psychological experiments. In addition, we show that marginal effect of material expenditures is diminishing, whereas marginal effect of experiential expenditures is constant. It means that, ceteris paribus, a reallocation of the expenditures might increase individuals' well-being. The magnitude of this gain is similar to a 10 percent increase in income and expenditures. Although this analysis is not able to establish causality between expenditures and satisfaction, at the end of the paper we suggest a minor modification of the HBS which can make possible to analyze the causal relationship between expenditures and well-being.
    Keywords: I31 ; D12 ; ddc:330 ; subjective well-being ; satisfaction ; expenditures ; consumption
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 30
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Over the last few years Hungary has posted large and increasing surpluses in its trade balance. The country has also become a net lender to the rest of the world, revealed by the surplus in the current and capital account of the balance of payments. These developments are mirrored by significant deficits (capital outflows) recorded in the financial account, as well as by the fall in external indebtedness of both the private sector and the country as a whole. However, it is the poor performance of the economy regarding changes in income, consumption and investments - partly explained by deleveraging in the private sector - which underlies its external performance. Therefore, it makes little sense to rejoice over the surplus in the trade balance, while being unhappy about capital outflows and the low (decreasing) investment rate. These developments reveal different sides of the same story, where the various aspects are related to each other by macroeconomic accounting identities. While our paper aims to quantify these relationships in international comparison, it also makes the point that capital outflows should not be mixed up with "capital flight"; we found no evidence of the latter. We call attention to the fact that private investments, net of capital consumption, decreased to an extremely low level. Without a turn in investment activity, there is no hope for maintaining export growth and revitalizing domestic demand. However, the growth in investments is likely to decrease net exports, which may be a drag on economic growth.
    Keywords: E65 ; F32 ; F34 ; ddc:330 ; Hungary's macroeconomic developments ; external debt ; deleveraging ; surplus on trade and current transactions ; capital outflow
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 31
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Local food and short food supply chains are in the centre of attention among consumers, NGOs as well as policy makers. These systems have long tradition the US and Western Europe; they have been spreading in Hungary, too. The main purpose of this study is to review the international literature on short food supply chains and their impacts, and to generally display and discuss the lessons learnt about types that have already appeared in Hungary. The term short food supply chain (SFSC) covers a broad range of marketing channels. In general, small geographical, social, cultural distance between producers and consumers is typical, and also, demand for environmentally friendly production methods is often an important aspect. Consumers of SFSCs are usually more highly educated than the average. Traditional forms such as farmers' markets are typically visited by elder people; while novel, unusual types (like community supported agriculture or web-based value chains) attract the young. As for the producers' side, a characteristic group of farmers participate (especially in case of non-traditional SFSCs) who are innovative, open to the new marketing methods and also have good practical skills (and courage). SFSCs are expected to solve several sustainability-related problems; however, it is not always possible to provide clear scientific evidence about their positive environmental, social or economic impact. In some cases the traditional food supply chains may prove to be more rational (cheaper, environmentally more beneficial). To summarize, due to the heterogeneity and context-dependency of SFSCs, there is probably no generally preferable "good" or "worthy for supporting" solution, but the current situation and local environment should be carefully evaluated.
    Keywords: R11 ; Q13 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Local food system ; farmers' market ; community supported agriculture ; rural development ; sustainable development
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 32
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: This case study is a part of the research project "The Unexpected consequences and impacts of the regulation of markets" which is financed by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund. It deals with the conditions and impacts of the implementation of the Law CXXIV (2012) which radically changed the regulation of the market of tobacco products. The new regulation promised significant political benefits for the ruling coalition because the majority of the population supports the supression of smoking in the young generation. That is the reason why the government and the national assembly played a significant role in the remarkable modification of the regulation of this market. An other important factor of this development was that one of the decisive market players - mobilizing its political influence and connection - was involved into the enactment process from its very beginning. The efforts of candidates close to power (which wanted to enter this market) were not coordinated, but they expected the good support of the decision makers. But the new regulation had a number of failures and disturbances. As a result of the new legislation there remained 1500 settlements without a shop of tobacco sales. This unexpected development and the high and growing number of loss making tobacco shops forced the government (and the state company responsible for the tobacco market) to modify permanently the regulation in a short period of time. The main reason for the market distrubances was the artifical restructuring of the market of tobacco products.
    Keywords: K2 ; ddc:330 ; market regulation ; regulatory bargain ; unexpected regualtory effects
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 33
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Governments play several roles in the venture capital market. Based on empirical examples, the current paper focuses on the role of the government as a venture capital investor. Compared to the direct involvement of governments in investments entailing risks of market distortion, the paper demonstrates that governments increasingly contribute to the funds of the venture capital market in an indirect way: by encouraging private investors to participate. The involvement of private investors in government schemes could serve as a guarantee to select commercially viable projects without any political pressure, to schedule the financing of programs independently from election cycles, and to encourage experienced fund managers to participate in government programs. The main conclusion of the paper is that only those governmentfunded venture capital funds could ensure the proper utilization of public resources that are managed by the private sphere and are funded mostly by private investors. This would also contribute to economic policy objectives, such as improving the supply of capital for promising young companies.
    Keywords: G23 ; G24 ; G28 ; M13 ; O31 ; ddc:330 ; venture capital ; private equity ; government venture capital ; SME finance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 34
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: While in Western Europe the venture capital and private equity industry have mostly got over the shock of the crisis, the Central and East-European region in 2013 still showed a tendency of deterioration. Signs of recovery could not be perceived neither in fundraising, investment or divestment activities. Similarly to Europe in general, institutional investors wishing to invest in the CEE region are concerned by the increasing north-south divergence. In Hungary substantial government venture capital resources are available for early-stage venture capital investments. However, in addition to the general problems affecting the CEE region, the freezing of buy-outs can be attributed to special difficulties arising from special economic policy risks in Hungary.
    Keywords: G23 ; G24 ; G28 ; M13 ; ddc:330 ; venture capital ; private equity ; SME finance ; Central and Eastern Europe
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: In this paper we use the Hungarian Central Statistical Office's Labour Force Survey to examine the rate of Hungarian inhabitants working abroad between 1999 and 2011. We also examine the characteristics of this group. A break in trend can be observed in the fourth quarter of 2009 in the rate of Hungarians with a foreign workplace. The growth of the rate has accelerated since then. Working abroad - including commuting between countries - is more frequent in the group of men and in the age group between 20 and 30 years. Considering education, vocational school and university degree make working abroad the most likely but this effect does not apply the same way in different geographical regions. In more developed regions the effect of education is stronger and the odds of working abroad are the highest for people with university degree. In less developed regions vocational training increases the most the odds of working in another country. The effect of age also differs: while in less developed regions being above the age of 40 decreases significantly the odds of working abroad, in developed regions this effect does not apply.
    Keywords: C23 ; J61 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; migration ; labour market ; regional differences
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 36
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: In April 2013, the Assembly of the Budapest Municipality radically transformed the taxi market in Budapest. This case study analyses the events that led to this decision and also the measure's immediate impact. The study is part of the research project, titled "The Unexpected Consequences and Impacts of the Market Regulation", financed by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund. The new rules were aimed to establish "law and order" in the taxi market, and basically correspond to the main trends applied worldwide - although the municipality failed to do any studies concerning the international developments in this area. It soon became obvious that the trade unions and the employees' organizations, in their negotiation with the Budapest local Government, (ongoing from 2011) got into a subordinate position, due to their weak legitimacy. The mayor could successfully divide the participating interest groups. The unrealistic new rules had to be modified as soon as two months after their introduction. Even after this modification, the new rules impose uniform tariffs in a market, which previously had been extremely segmented: different tariffs applied to cruising on the street, preordering by phone, or hiring a taxi based on long term agreement. The result of the new rules could surprise the Municipality, if players outside the regulated market increase their share significantly.
    Keywords: K23 ; L51 ; L92 ; L98 ; ddc:330 ; taxi market regulation ; reregulation ; unexpected consequences
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 37
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: This survey reviews the economic thoughts about what and why do institutional market players lose because of the existing market frictions and particular financial market microstructures compared to walrasian markets. Within a unified microeconomic framework, we introduce the most common approaches of the decentralized market trading theories such as search and bargaining, middlemen and trading in networks. Then, we investigate the principal theories of the centralized trading, such as the behavior of the market makers and trading explanations related to the order driven markets. We constrain our analysis into the secondary markets. With considering the financial markets by asset classes (interbank loans and deposits, bond markets, equity markets, FX-markets and derivatives trading) the survey also identifies the currently available microstructures on the financial markets.
    Keywords: G10 ; G14 ; D44 ; D47 ; ddc:330 ; Financial Markets ; Market Microstructure ; Bid-Ask Spread ; Liquidity
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 38
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: This paper aims at estimating the effect of the kindergarten allowance program (a conditional cash transfer program organized by the government) introduced in Hungary in January 2009. We use institutional kindergarten data and municipality-level demographic data spanning ten years (2001 through 2010), as well as administrative data from the program in 2009 and 2010. We estimate the effect of the program on the kindergarten attendance of children of age 3 and 4 in years 2009 and 2010. Our results indicate that the program had some modest positive effects. We point out several problems of program implementation that may be responsible for the modest effects. In particular, the estimated effects are largest in areas where kindergarten capacities are abundant relative to potential demand, and smaller where capacity constraints may be binding.
    Keywords: I20 ; I38 ; ddc:330 ; kindergarten ; conditional cash transfer ; program evaluation ; Hungary ; Bildungspolitik ; Kinderbetreuungseinrichtung ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: We provide a detailed descriptive analysis of the long-term effects of the 50 percent public sector wage increase initiated by the government in 2002 in order to improve the relative situation of public sector workers. The aim of this policy was to attract high quality workers to the public sector, and to counteract the problem of "brain drain", the loss of high-skilled workers to abroad. To study the effects on the public-private income gap - and on high-skilled workers in particular - we employ empirical methods that allow us to take differences in the entire wage distribution (quantile regressions), workforce and firm composition (decomposition), as well as various potential biases into account. Our results indicate that there is a large income premium in favor of the private sector at the higher end of the income distribution, especially once we account for worker and firm characteristics, which suggests that the same person earns substantially less in the public sector. This is especially pronounced for high-skilled workers. The 50 percent increase initially improved the relative income of public sector workers, but in the longer run, income gaps returned to close to the pre-reform level and the distributional differences remained.
    Keywords: C21 ; J31 ; J45 ; ddc:330 ; quantile decomposition ; wage level and structure ; public-private pay gap ; Vergütungssystem im öffentlichen Dienst ; Lohnstruktur ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 40
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The share of female workers is significantly higher i the public than the private sector. This could be due to several reasons: different preferences towards job characteristics, or perhaps to lower discrimination against women in the public sector due to strict wage grids and hiring and promotional practices. Lower discrimination may manifest itself in the gender wage gap or in the higher ratio of women in management positions, however, there are no precise estimates available regarding the size of the differences in these measures between the two sectors. This study examines whether discrimination is smaller, and thus women's opportunities are better, in the public sector, or whether - despite the standardization of rules - discrimination appears through alternative channels. The results suggest that the public sector gender wage gap is significant, but 7-8% lower. Occupational segregation explains only a small part of the gap in both sectors. Women with equivalent observable characteristics suffer a small (2%) disadvantage in terms of the probability of reaching a management position in the private sector, while their chances appear to be more equal in the public sector.
    Keywords: C21 ; J31 ; J45 ; ddc:330 ; public and private sector ; gender wage gap ; vertical occupational segregation ; Lohnstruktur ; Geschlechterdiskriminierung ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Öffentlicher Sektor ; Privatwirtschaft ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 41
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Based on the microbased panel datasets of the Labour Force Survey between 1998 and 2010 and the administrative Pension Fund data between 2000 and 2006 we analyse the number, composition and subsequent labour market behaviour of former public sector employees in Hungary. We show that the greater stability of the public sector stems from the fact that the transition probabilities from it to unemployment and to other economic branches / occupations are both about half of the corresponding probabilities from the public sector. Meanwhile, the exit probabilities to inactivity do not differ substantially between the two sectors. By analysing the reemployment probabilities of the laid-off workers with Jenkins' discrete time hazard model we find that those who lost their jobs in the public sector find a new job with a 5-25 percent smaller intensity - i.e. by 5-25 percent more slowly - than their private sector counterparts. However, this difference disappears among the higher educated. Finally, after controlling for education, those who leave the public sector for the private sector do not become overeducated in their new job with a significantly higher probability than similar workers switching jobs within the private sector.
    Keywords: C41 ; J45 ; J62 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; labour market of the public sector ; labour market transition probabilities ; unemployment duration ; Jenkins discrete time hazard model ; Öffentlicher Dienst ; Arbeitsmobilität ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Qualitative Methode ; Statistische Bestandsanalyse ; Panel ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 42
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: This study investigates the crowding out effect among old and young workers in the Hungarian public sector, using job-level data. The analysis improves upon analyses based on aggregate data by considering the levels of employment for various labour types and the employment opportunities and wages of the young on the job-level. Results indicate that the crowding out effect is realized through employment and wages as well, but is limited: it appears only in the case of only the youngest and least experienced.
    Keywords: J14 ; J23 ; J26 ; J45 ; J63 ; ddc:330 ; youth ; ageing ; employment ; crowding out ; Verdrängungseffekt ; Ältere Arbeitskräfte ; Junge Arbeitskräfte ; Öffentlicher Dienst ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 43
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: This paper estimates the effect of school starting age on academic performance using the 2006 "National Assessment of Basic Competencies" (NABC), focusing on disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged children. The instrumental variable estimates of the school starting age imply that those who start school at the age of seven do better on competency tests than those children who start school at the age of six. This benefit is substantially larger for disadvantaged children than their non-disadvantaged counterparts. However, the benefit of later enrolment diminishes as children - both disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged - progress through school.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; education ; student test scores ; enrolment age ; identification ; Schüler ; Altersgruppe ; Bildungschancen ; Bildungsertrag ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 44
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Since 2006, the law has changed in a way that the expected wage of the employers has to be at least the double of the minimum wage. The employers who pay less than this amount to their employees are more likely to be audited by the tax authority. According to my hypothesis this change has decreased significantly the amount of envelop wages. My aim is to examine empirically the difference between conformation of the legal and informal wages and the behaviour of tax evading companies after the introduction of this new tax law.
    Keywords: C51 ; H26 ; H32 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; tax evasion ; wage distribution ; Steuervermeidung ; Lohnstruktur ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 45
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The Hungarian Personal Income Tax system is being transformed between 209 and 2013. Tax brackets and the previously existing tax credit is being abolished and this changes the net/gross income ratios in all income categories. This does not only lead to a significant loss in government's income, but also changes redistribution within the society. However, reallocation of net income is not the only change. At present, pension contributions are proportional to gross earnings, while pension benefits are proportional to net earnings. If this situation does not change, a substantial deficit in the pension fund occurs. This paper describes the size of this deficit and its distribution within the society.
    Keywords: H23 ; H55 ; ddc:330 ; pension ; tax system ; taxation ; Steuersystem ; Einkommensteuer ; Altersvorsorge ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 46
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: This study analyses properties of fast growing small and medium sized firms, known as gazelles. Using balance sheet information for the 2000-2008 period, we show that a small fraction of companies is responsible for a large share of new jobs created in the business sector. For instance, the top 5% of fastest growing firms created 45.8% of new jobs, and 20% of new employment was generated by a mere 1% of firms. Importantly for policy, we show that the likelihood of becoming a gazelle is virtually the same in all industries and geographic regions. Using both probit regression and propensity score matching models, we show that younger firms with better financing background, more skilled labor force and better past growth performance are more likely to be gazelles. However, our model also shows that fast firm growth is highly idiosyncratic, and government or banks can not precisely predict which firm will actually turn into a gazelle.
    Keywords: L25 ; D22 ; J23 ; ddc:330 ; SME ; firm growth ; job creates ; Unternehmenswachstum ; KMU ; Zweiter Arbeitsmarkt ; Probit-Modell ; Matching ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 47
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Using the panel data of the Hungarian Life Course Survey from 2006 through 2012 we analyze the educational attainment of a cohort of Hungarian Roma and non-Roma students. This cohort started high school in 2006. High school dropout rate is 10 percent among non-Roma, whereas nearly 50 percent among Roma students. 75 percent of the non-Roma students take a final maturity exam, and the college attendance rate is 35 percent among them. The corresponding figures for Roma are 24 percent and 5 percent, respectively. The ethnic difference in high school attainment and college attendance are strongly related to the skills gap emerged before high school. However, almost half of the ethnic difference in high school dropout rate remains unexplained. Future studies need to answer the causes of this residual gap.
    Keywords: J15 ; I20 ; ddc:330 ; Roma minority ; secondary school drop-outs ; college attendance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 48
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The goal of this study is to find the model that best describes the trends in labor demand using international industry level longitudinal data. Our starting point is Kézdi et al. (2006), who uses a fixed-effect model to project labor demand. We take their model and compare it with several other specifications to test forecasting fit. The main conclusions of this study are that different functional forms are better for different industries, but the linear specification fares just fine in all industries. Moreover, fixed-effect models are not better than the simple models with level effects, but results of this latter are easier to interpret. Quasi-autoregressive models do not improve forecasting fit as much as expected.
    Keywords: J23 ; E27 ; ddc:330 ; labor-demand ; forecasting ; industry level panel ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Arbeitsnachfrage ; Prognose
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 49
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Atypical employment is a term to describe the type of employment that is different in one or more or even in all aspects from regular employment. These types of employment promise the renewal of the labour markets. The paper discusses the penetration and structure of atypical employment during the two decades of the transition. We look at the segments in which these forms are relevant and concentrated. The time series follow the structure of atypical employment until 2010. The paper presents descriptive analysis on changes in demographic structure of atypical employment, the differences across branches and regions. Logitmodels estimate the chance of atypical employment using demographic variables, region, branches and some other indicators on the social and welfare situation.
    Keywords: J21 ; J40 ; J80 ; ddc:330 ; labour market ; atypical employment ; employment growth ; Atypische Beschäftigung ; Logit-Modell ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 50
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The paper investigates the effect of teacher characteristics (experience, level of education attainment and credentials, gender) on the achievement of eighth grade students using matched student-teacher data from the 1999, 2003 and 2007 TIMSS surveys. The analysis covers European countries, thus contributing to the existing exclusively US-based literature. Non-random student-teacher matching is present in these countries, as well, similar to the US, and this can lead to biased estimates of teacher effects. We deal with this problem using a rich set of student level controls on the one hand, and applying a student fixed effect specification on the other. The results overall suggest that the lack of experience and a proper teacher education degree might drive down student achievement. However, there is a substantial heterogeneity among countries; teacher characteristics seem to matter only in less than half of the countries analysed. Even within this group the results are not robust in some cases, as the fixed-effect estimates are often non-significant. Nevertheless, where these are present, the teacher experience and credential effects are similar in magnitude to those in the US studies reporting strong effects. For Hungary the impact of teacher characteristics is ambiguous; significant only in some specifications.
    Keywords: I21 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; teacher experience ; teacher credentials ; student achievement ; TIMSS ; Lehrkräfte ; Qualifikation ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Studierende ; Bildungsniveau ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Due to the 2008 global financial crisis the position of the private equity sector has weakened. The number and the value of new transactions have dropped together with the volume of the raised funds. Credit shares have also decreased in the financing of the transactions. Exiting from the portfolio companies became more difficult, which slowed down the capital reimbursement to the private equity investors. However in spite of the crisis, the attractiveness of the private equity investments remain positive among investors, since they produced better returns than public markets. While Hungary became less attractive from the standpoint of the regional private equity funds specialized in high-value buyouts, the country remained the leader in setting up Jeremie funds, and in the liberal regulation of the private pension funds until the autumn of 2010, which can boost the private equity investments. This could support the development of small- and medium-cap enterprises, suffering from shrinking resources due to the crisis. The prospected "nationalization" of private pension funds may put this process on hold.
    Keywords: G23 ; G24 ; ddc:330 ; venture capital ; private equity ; institutional investors ; pension funds ; Risikokapital ; Private Equity ; Institutioneller Investor ; Pensionskasse ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 52
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Educational accountability is a timely topic in Hungary, because the law of LXXI/2006 has practically introduced educational accountability. School report cards have been published for the third time in 2011 for each school with a 6th, 8th or 10th grade. These report cards publicize information about the students' mathematical and reading literacy skills, as well as statistics about the school and about the parents. This paper summarizes the most important theoretical and empirical literature about school accountability, using American and English studies. Although this paper is a pure summary with no intention to analyze the Hungarian system, it contains several conclusions that could be of the the Hungarian policy makers' interest.
    Keywords: H41 ; I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; education ; accountability ; incentives ; Bildungsniveau ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 53
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The starting point of this paper is a widely shared fundamental preference according to which Hungary should follow a fast, sustainable development path and catch up with the developed world in the foreseeable future. Questions raised in this paper are related to the instrumental preferences. How is catching up most likely to succeed? What is the role of improved education in accelerating economic growth? Once we found the right education policy to align with that goal how can we make the best use of our resources? In what fields economic research can contribute to the betterment of education policy?
    Keywords: A12 ; I21 ; I28 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; economics of education ; education policy ; Bildungsökonomik ; Bildungspolitik ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 54
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Keywords: I22 ; I23 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; higher education ; cost-sharing ; tuition ; financial aid to students ; human capital ; access ; price-sensitivity ; Studienfinanzierung ; Selbstbeteiligung
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 55
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The theory of geographical markets is based on the notion that economic activity is not evenly spread and regional inequalities have an impact on the decisions of economic agents. Retail gasoline markets are almost perfect examples of geographical markets. The gasoline sold by the stations is a fairly homogeneous good and hence, stations compete for customers locally only. In this study we analyze how market structure, geographical attributes and in particular, demand will influence prices. Our work is a natural follow-up to the study of Csorba et al. (2009) who showed that Hungarian retail gasoline prices are affected by conditions of market competition. Compared to the related literature there are two novelties in this study. First, the dataset allows us combining station specific and local attributes to explain prices. With some chains applying different strategies compared to smaller firms, this is an important complementary feature compared to the studies relying on purely region/local market specific attributes. Second, we extend the estimation of the demand side and partly use it as instruments. Local GDP and population density are two common proxies for demand. We extend the analysis from households to contain firms' and transit traffic demand. To estimate the elasticity of demand we use quantitative (population, number of firms and tourists) and income-effect (per capita income, ratio of big firms and foreign tourists) variables. This methodology enables us to instrument station density, used in classical price estimation models, (partly) with demand factors. We find that demand influences prices mainly through the number of stations. There is some local price variation across chains, and the composition of station has a small impact as well. It is an interesting result, which, along with highways and country borders, has an effect on price determination.
    Keywords: D43 ; L13 ; R32 ; ddc:330 ; geographical markets ; retail gasoline ; 2SLS estimation ; Benzinpreis ; Tankstelle ; Nachfrage ; Marktstruktur ; Schätzung
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 56
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Economists and lawyers are badly divided on issues concerning tying and bundling. Permissivie and prohibitive attitudes are changing radically in the literature and in the legal practice. After a short discurse on the notions, we introduce the basic ideas, theories and debates according to schools in economics and market structures. Based on relevant cases of the US and EU we finally summarize the changes in economic theory and their impact on the rule of reason in these cases.