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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-11
    Description: Ce projet est né en octobre 2015 avec une idée de fou: préparer et soumettre une demande de financement pour un projet de vulgarisation scientifique international, multidisciplinaire et non traditionnel… le tout en 48 heures. On dirait bien que ça a fonctionné. Un groupe de jeunes chercheurs motivés du Canada et d’Europe ont joint leurs efforts afin de réunir arts et science dans un projet de bandes dessinées sur le pergélisol (sol gelé). L’objectif de ce projet est de présenter et d’expliquer la recherche scientifique réalisée à travers l’Arctique, en mettant l’emphase sur le travail de terrain et sur l’environnement nordique en mutation. Le public-cible inclut les enfants, jeunes et moins jeunes, les parents et les enseignants, avec comme but de rendre la science du pergélisol amusante et accessible au grand public. Ce qu’il faut savoir, c’est que le pergélisol occupe une superficie de plus de vingt millions de kilomètres carrés dans l’hémisphère nord. Avec le réchauffement climatique, le pergélisol dégèle et devient plus instable sous les bâtiments, les routes et les pistes d’aéroports. Le dégel rapide d’un sol autrefois gelé perturbe également les écosystèmes, notamment la qualité de l’eau dans les milieux aquatiques, et relâche du carbone vers l’atmosphère sous forme de gaz à effet de serre, amplifiant le réchauffement. Bref, la dynamique du pergélisol face aux changements climatiques nous concerne tous. Ce projet a reçu un premier soutien financier de l’International Permafrost Association (IPA) en 2015, et depuis, plusieurs autres partenaires se sont joints à nous. C’est grâce à eux que nous présentons aujourd’hui cette version française. Nous y voilà, donc, trois ans après cette première idée. Ce que vous vous apprê-tez à lire est le résultat de nombreux échanges entre artistes et scientifiques. Nous avons d’abord lancé un appel d’offres et reçu 49 dossiers d’artistes pro-venant de 16 pays. Au terme d’une évaluation rigoureuse, nous avons choisi deux artistes pour travailler sur ce projet : Noémie Ross du Canada et Heta Nääs de Finlande. Avec l’apport des scientifiques, Noémie et Heta ont créé de fabuleuses illustrations expliquant les changements en cours dans les régions affectées par le pergélisol, comment ces mutations affectent les populations et les espèces, et ce que font les scientifiques pour mieux comprendre ces changements et aider les populations à s’y adapter. Nous souhaitons à tous beaucoup de plaisir à lire ce livret et nous en profitons pour remercier chaleureusement tous nos partenaires.
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Book
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  • 2
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    IUGG Secretariat, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
    In:  IUGG Yearbook ; ISSN: 1038-3846 ; Year: 2018
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: The IUGG Yearbook is a reference document of IUGG members, administrative officers, and Association and Union Commission officers that is updated annually and distributed free of charge. Each issue endeavors to update the contact information for hundreds of persons who are actively participating in IUGG scientific activities. Information is complied throughout the year until end December. The Yearbooks are published and posted at the IUGG webpage at the beginning of the year. The Yearbooks are printed together with the Annual Reports for the preceding year in May and mailed to National Committee for Geodesy and Geophysics, Adhering Bodies, IUGG partners, and major libraries.
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-05
    Description: This thesis is devoted to an in-depth analysis of the ability of "Artificial Neural Networks" (ANN) to achieve reliable ground motion predictions. A first important aspect concerns the derivation of "GMPE" (Ground Motion Prediction Equations) with an ANN approach, and the comparison of their performance with those of "classical" GMGEs derived on the basis of empirical regressions with pre-established, more or less complex, functional forms. To perform such a comparison involving the two "betweeen-event" and "within-event" components of the random variability, we adapt the algorithm of the "random effects model" to the neural approach. This approach is tested on various, real and synthetic, datasets: the database compiled from European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern events (RESORCE: Reference database for Seismic grOund-motion pRediction in Europe), the database NGA West 2 (Next Generation Attenuation West 2 developed in the USA), and the Japanese database derived from the KiK-net accelerometer network. In addition, a comprehensive set of synthetic data is also derived with a stochastic simulation approach. The considered ground motion parameters are those which are most used in earthquake engineering (PGA, PGV, response spectra and also, in some cases, local amplification functions). Such completely "data-driven" neural models, inform us about the respective, and possibly coupled, influences of the amplitude decay with distance, the magnitude scaling effects, and the site conditions, with a particular focus on the detection of non-linearities in site response. Another important aspect is the use of ANNs to test the relevance of different site proxies, through their ability to reduce the random variability of ground motion predictions. The ANN approach allows to use such site proxies either individually or combined, and to investigate their respective impact on the various characteristics of ground motion. The same section also includes an investigation on the links between the non-linear aspects of the site response and the different site proxies. Finally, the third section focuses on a few source-related effects: analysis of the influence of the "style of faulting" on ground motion, and, indirectly, the dependence between magnitude and seismic stress drop
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Thesis
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  • 4
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    IUGG Secretariat, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
    In:  IUGG Yearbook ; ISSN: 1038-3846 ; Year: 2017
    Publication Date: 2017-02-07
    Description: The IUGG Yearbook is a reference document of IUGG members, administrative officers, and Association and Union Commission officers that is updated annually and distributed free of charge. Each issue endeavors to update the contact information for hundreds of persons who are actively participating in IUGG scientific activities. Information is complied throughout the year until end December. The Yearbooks are published and posted at the IUGG webpage at the beginning of the year. The Yearbooks are printed together with the Annual Reports for the preceding year in May and mailed to National Committee for Geodesy and Geophysics, Adhering Bodies, IUGG partners, and major libraries.
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 5
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    IUGG Secretariat, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
    In:  IUGG Yearbook ; ISSN: 1038-3846 ; Year: 2016
    Publication Date: 2017-02-07
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 6
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    IUGG Secretariat, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
    In:  IUGG Yearbook ; ISSN: 1038-3846 ; Year: 2015
    Publication Date: 2015-09-11
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-11-06
    Description: Comme premier résultat de son travail, le groupe ad hoc Open-Access-Gold présente cette prise de position. Il s’adresse à des institutions scientifiques qui sont impliquées dans divers aspects de la publication Open Access. Il structure et évalue les exigences dans les contrats basés sur le modèle auteur-payeur. De plus, il évoque les liens entre abonnement et Libre accès et émet des suggestions aux institutions concernées pour la mise en oeuvre de leurs stratégies en matière de Libre accès. L’objectif est d’établir, dans le domaine de la publication scientifique, de la transparence et de la pérennité selon les principes de la Science, et d’éviter la répétition de certaines dérives observées dans le passé.
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Book
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  • 8
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    IUGG Secretariat, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
    In:  IUGG Yearbook ; ISSN: 1038-3846 ; Year: 2014
    Publication Date: 2014-05-22
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 9
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    Université Paris 7 - Denis Diderot Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-21
    Description: The chilean part of the subduction zone between the Nazca and South American plates is an ideal laboratory to understand the seismic and aseismic processes that take place on such a plate boundary. For instance, measuring the elastic deformation of the upper plate during the interseismic loading phase using GPS can help assessing the degree of locking between both plates. We calculate the kinematic coupling coefficient using a simple elastic modeling in which a backslip motion is applied on a buried dislocation in a semi-infinite elastic half-space. During this PhD, my aim was to obtain the coupling distribution along the entire chilean trench (18 ◦ S-38 ◦ S) and to compare it to seismotectonic segmentation of the megathrust. Therefore I collected all the previously published interseismic velocities and combined them into a single coherent data set. New data were also collected and processed since 2009 on new or renovated campaign networks. We obtain a new data set that covers almost all the subduction zone on more than ahundred benchmarks. Those data were used to map precisely the coupling distribution on the interface. Coupling strongly varies both along strike and along dip and draws a segmentation of the megathrust. The highly coupled segments correlate well with the rupture zones of historical megathrustearthquakes and intersegments, that are low coupled areas, correlate with zones that behave as barriers to the seismic propagation. Furthermore, intersegments often correlate with anomalies in the coastline (bays, peninsulas), subducting bathymetric features (ridges, fracture zones) and with a high-rate of moderate-magnitude subduction earthquakes. The Maule earthquake that occurred on February 27, 2010 ruptured a highly locked segment and stopped in low coupled intersegment areas. This earthquake gave us new insights on the relationship between apparent coupling coefficient and mechanical behavior of the subduction interface. Therefore, coupling maps should help estimating the seismic hazard along the Chilean subduction zone. In particular, we show here that the North Chile seismic gap is not formed of one single highly coupled segment and that it is cut in two by a large intersegment zone where coupling is low around Iquique. Finally, Loa, Paranal and Atacama highly coupled segments are identified as zones that may rupture alone with a Mw〉8 subduction earthquake, or with a megathrust earthquake in case of collective rupture, and where the seismic hazard is high. La zone de subduction entre les plaques Nazca et Amérique du Sud constitue, aux latitudesdu Chili, un laboratoire naturel d’exception pour étudier les processus qui permettent d’accommoder la convergence sur l’interface de subduction. En particulier, la mesure par GPS de la déformation de la plaque supérieure pendant la phase intersismique sur la subduction permet de quantifier l’intensité du blocage sur l’interface via le coefficient de couplage cinématique. Ce dernier peut être déterminé en utilisant un modèle de dislocation simple dans un milieu homogène élastique sur laquelle on applique la théorie du backslip. Cette thèse a pour objectif de déterminer la valeur de ce couplage intersismique au long de la subduction chilienne (18 ◦ S-38 ◦ S) et d’analyser ces variations en relation avec la segmentation sismotectonique et la sismicité historique. Pour cela, les vitesses intersismiques collectées au cours de ces 20 dernières années ont été combinées dans un même référentiel et de nouvelles données GPS ont été acquises sur des réseaux installés ou rénovés par les équipes franco-chiliennes depuis 2009. Cet effort instrumental associé au travail de traitement des données que j’ai réalisé conduit à un jeu de vitesses intersismiques sur plusieurs centaines de points et quasi continu sur la marge chilienne. Ces données ont été utilisées pour élaborer une cartographie précise du couplage au long de la subduction chilienne. La distribution de couplage qui est présentée dans ce manuscrit montre d’importantes variations latérales et en profondeur de la valeur du couplage et dessine ainsi une segmentation de la marge. Les segments fortement couplés semblent corrélés aux grandes ruptures historiques, tandis que les intersegments découplés semblent se comporter comme des barrières à leur propagation. Les zones d’intersegments correspondent à des zones atypiques de la subduction, souvent associées à des anomalies du trait de côte (baies, péninsules), à l’entrée en subduction de structures bathymétriques (rides, fractures) et à une sismicité de fond importante. Le séisme de Maule du 27 février 2010 (Mw 8.8) qui a rompu un segment fortement couplé et qui s’est arrêté dans des zones de faible couplage a permis de proposer un lien entre le couplage apparent et le comportement mécanique de l’interface.Sur la base de cette analyse, il semble possible d’utiliser les cartes de couplage intersismique pour mieux estimer l’aléa sismique au Chili. Dans ce travail, nous apportons notamment un éclairage nouveau sur la lacune du Grand Nord Chili en montrant que le segment couplé du Loaest nettement plus restreint que la lacune en elle-même et qu’un large intersegment découplé s’y développe autour d’Iquique. Une attention particulière est donc portée aux régions de l’Atacama, du Paranal et du Loa qui correspondent à des zones très fortement couplées, chacune susceptibles de produire un grand séisme de subduction potentiellement associé à un tsunami, et un séisme géant en cas de rupture collective.
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Thesis
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  • 10
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    IUGG Secretariat, KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
    In:  IUGG Yearbook ; ISSN: 1038-3846 ; Year: 2012
    Publication Date: 2014-06-03
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 11
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    IUGG Secretariat, KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
    In:  IUGG Yearbook ; ISSN: 1038-3846 ; Year: 2011
    Publication Date: 2014-05-27
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 12
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    IUGG Secretariat, KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
    In:  IUGG Yearbook ; ISSN: 1038-3846 ; Year: 2010
    Publication Date: 2014-05-27
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 13
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    IUGG Secretariat, Geophysical Institute of Karlsruhe University
    In:  IUGG Yearbook ; ISSN: 1038-3846 ; Year: 2009
    Publication Date: 2014-05-27
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 14
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    IUGG Secretariat, Geophysical Institute of Karlsruhe University
    In:  IUGG Yearbook ; ISSN: 1038-3846 ; Year: 2008
    Publication Date: 2014-05-27
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 15
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    In:  IAG National Reports ; Year: 2007
    Publication Date: 2014-09-01
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 16
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    IUGG Secretariat, CIRES Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado
    In:  IUGG Yearbook ; ISSN: 1038-3846 ; Year: 2007
    Publication Date: 2014-05-27
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 17
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    IUGG Secretariat, CIRES Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado
    In:  IUGG Yearbook ; ISSN: 1038-3846 ; Year: 2006
    Publication Date: 2014-05-27
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 18
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    IUGG Secretariat, CIRES Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado
    In:  IUGG Yearbook ; ISSN: 1038-3846 ; Year: 2005
    Publication Date: 2014-05-27
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 19
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    IUGG Secretariat, CIRES Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado
    In:  IUGG Yearbook ; ISSN: 1038-3846 ; Year: 2004
    Publication Date: 2014-05-27
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 20
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    IUGG Secretariat, CIRES Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado
    In:  IUGG Yearbook ; ISSN: 1038-3846 ; Year: 2003
    Publication Date: 2014-05-27
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 21
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    IUGG Secretariat, CIRES Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado
    In:  IUGG Yearbook ; ISSN: 1038-3846 ; Year: 2002
    Publication Date: 2014-05-27
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 22
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    Centre Européen de Géodynamique et de Séismologie
    In:  Cahiers du Centre Européen de Géodynamique et de Séismologie ; Year: 1998 ; Volume: 15
    Publication Date: 2013-01-29
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Book
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  • 23
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    Centre Européen de Géodynamique et de Séismologie
    In:  Cahiers du Centre Européen de Géodynamique et de Séismologie ; Year: 1998 ; Volume: 15
    Publication Date: 2013-01-29
    Language: French
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Book
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