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  • Finnish  (88)
  • Chinese  (4)
  • 2015-2019  (34)
  • 2010-2014  (58)
  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Beijing : Seismological Press
    Call number: M 10.0305
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 87 S.
    ISBN: 9787502836726
    Uniform Title: European Macroseismic Scale 1998
    Classification: A.2.4.
    Language: Chinese
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Call number: IASS 16.89776
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 530 Seiten , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9787010149363
    Language: English , Chinese
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 3
    Call number: AWI Bio-17-90819
    Description / Table of Contents: The authors completed collecting and arranging plates of photomicrographs for common pollen and spores in Quaternary strata. Given China's vast territory, complex vegetation types, a variety of plants, and polen grains with similar morphology probably produced by different plant species in different regions. We have organized this book's photomicrographs of pollen grains and spores in the division of China into five regions, i.e. northwest,northern, southeast, south and southwest China. Photomicrographs of pollen grains and spores in each region are arranged by plant classification system i.e. in order of algae, bryophyte, pteridophyte, gymnosperm, and angiosperm. All 409 plates of color photomicrographs for pollen grains and spores are finally illustrated and described.
    Description / Table of Contents: 本书整理编排了我国第四纪地层常见的孢粉类型显微照相图版,按照西北、北方、东南、华南和西南五个大区编排,并对这些区域的现代植被、第四纪植被史做了简要概述,还重点叙述了各地区第四纪主要孢粉类型、特点以及常见孢粉种类的鉴定形态特征。共分三章,第一章为我国各地区现代植被和第四纪植被概述,重点叙述了古植被与古气候的演变历史;第二章介绍本图鉴中所列出的各地区主要第四纪孢粉类型及其特点,并对不同地区常见孢粉种类
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 620 Seiten , zahlreiche Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9787030505682
    Language: Chinese , Latin
    Note: Contents: Preface. - Chapter 1: Overview of modern and Quaternary vegetation in China. - 1.1 Northwest region / Tang Lingyu and Shen Caiming. - 1.1.1 Overview of modern vegetation. - 1.1.1.1 Gobi desert and desert vegetation in eastern Xinjiang. - 1.1.1.2 Extremely arid desert and shrubland vegetation in the Qaidam Basin. - 1.1.1.3 Arid desert shrub and semi-shrub vegetation in the Hexi Corridor. - 1.1.1.4 Sylvosteppe or pine-oak forest in the transitional region between semi-humid and semi-arid monsoonal climate of temperate zone in the Loess Plateau. - 1.1.2 Overview of Quaternary vegetation. - 1.1.2.1 Vegetation and environment since the early Pleistocene in Qinghai. - 1.1.2.2 Holocene vegetation succession of steppe/meadow in north Xizang (Tibet). - 1.1.2.3 Vegetation and environment since the late Pleistocene in the Loess Plateau. - 1.1.2.4 Vegetation and environment since the early Pleistocene in Xinjiang. - 1.2 Northern region / Tang Lingyu and Li Chunhai. - 1.2.1 Overview of modern vegetation. - 1.2.1.1 Coniferous and broadleaved forest and meadow of temperate zone in Northeast China. - 1.2.1.2 Oak forest of river valley, Chinese pine forest, and shrub steppe in the lower valley of Liaohe River, North China plain, southern Shanxi, and central Shaanxi plain. - 1.2.2 Overview of Quaternary vegetation. - 1.2.2.1 Vegetation and environment since the early Pleistocene in North China. - 1.2.2.2 Vegetation and environment since the early Pleistocene in Northeast China. - 1.3 Southeast region / Shu Junwu and Tang Lingyu. - 1.3.1 Overview of modern vegetation. - 1.3.2 Overview of Quaternary vegetation. - 1.3.2.1 Vegetation succession since the mid-Pleistocene in Hubei. - 1.3.2.2 Vegetation and environment since the late Pleistocene in the lower valley of the Yangtze River. - 1.3 .2.3 Forest succession since the last glaciation in southeast coast of Fujian. - 1.3.2.4 Vegetation and environment since the late Pleistocene in the central Taiwan. - 1.4 South region / Mao Limi, Tang Lingyu and Shen Cairning. - 1.4.1 Overview of modern vegetation. - 1.4.1.1 Vegetation in the southern zone of middle subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest. - 1.4.1.2 Vegetation in the zone of south subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest. - 1.4.1.3 Tropical semi-evergreen monsoonal forest and tropical monsoonal forest. - 1.4.2 Overview of Quaternary vegetation. - 1.4.2.1 Vegetation in the Zhujiang delta and Chaozhou plain since the Pleistocene recorded by pollen and spores. - 1.4.2.2 Vegetation and climate since the late Pleistocene in Leizhou Peninsula and Holocene vegetation and climate in Hainan Island. - 1.4.2.3 Late Quaternary pollen and spores, vegetation and climate records in the South. - 1.4.2.4 Vegetation and climate since the late Pleistocene in Hong Kong. - 1.5 Southwest region / Shu Junwu, Tang Lingyu and Shen Caiming. - 1.5.1 Overview of modern vegetation. - 1.5.1.1 Vegetation of evergreen broadleaved forest in the Yunnan , Guizhou and western Sichuan Plateau. - 1.5.1.2 Vegetation of coniferous forest in southeast Xizang. - 1.5.2 Overview of Quaternary vegetation. - 1.5.2.1 Holocene vegetation in northwest Yunnan. - 1.5.2.2 Vegetation and monsoonal climate history since the late Pleistocene in western and south-central Yunnan. - 1.5.2.3 Holocene vegetation in western Sichuan. - 1.5.2.4 Vegetation and environment since the late Pleistocene in Guizhou. - 1.5.2.5 Vegetation and monsoonal climate history since the late Pleistocene in southeastern Xizang. - Chapter 2 Main types of Quaternary pollen and spores and their characteristics in different regions of China. - 2.1 Northwest region / Tang Lingyu and Mao Limi. - 2.1.1 Types of Quaternary pollen and spores in Northwest China. - 2.1.2 Identifiable features of major Quaternary pollen and spores in Northwest China. - 2.1.2.1 Identifiable features of main Compositae pollen types. - 2.1.2.2 Identifiable features of Artemisia, Tamarix, and Zygophyllum pollen. - 2.1.2.3 Identifiable features of Rhamnus, Hippophae, and Elaeagnus pollen. - 2.1.3 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary spores and pollen in Northwest China. - 2.1.3.1 Photomicrographs for major Quaternary pollen types in Northwest China. - 2.1.3.2 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen types in Northwest China. - 2.2 Northern region / Tang Lingyu. - 2.2.1 Types of Quaternary pollen and spores in Northern China. - 2.2.2 Identifiable features of major Quaternary pollen and spores in Northern China. - 2.2.2.1 Identification keys of pollen morphology for several saccate genera of Pinaceae. - 2.2.2.2 Identifiable features of pollen morphology for genera of Betulaceae. - 2.2.2.3 Identifiable features of tricolpate pollen from Salix and Cruciferae. - 2.2.2.4 Identifiable features of tricolpate pollen from Ranunculaceae and Labiatae. - 2.2.3 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary spores and pollen in Northern China. - 2.2.3.1 Photomicrographs for major Quaternary pollen types in Northern China. - 2.2.3.2 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen types in Northern China. - 2.3 Southeast region / Tang Lingyu and Shu Junwu. - 2.3.1 Types of Quaternary pollen and spores in Southeast China. - 2.3.2 Identifiable features of major Quaternary pollen and spores in Southeast China. - 2.3.2.1 Identifiable features of pollen morphology for Fagaceae. - 2.3.2.2 Identification keys of pollen morphology for several genera of Fagaceae. - 2.3.2.3 Identifiable features of pollen morphology for several genera of Fagaceae. - 2.3.2.4 Identifiable features of pollen morphology for several genera of tropical and subtropical. - 2.3.3 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen and spores in Southeast China. - 2.3.3.1 Photomicrographs for major Quaternary pollen types in Southeast China. - 2.3.3.2 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen types in Southeast China. - 2.4 South region / Mao Limi and Tang Lingyu. - 2.4.1 Types of Quaternary pollen and spores in South China. - 2.4.2 Identifiable features of main Quaternary pollen and spores in South China. - 2.4.2.1 Modern distribution and paleophytogeography of Sonneratia and its identifiable features of pollen morphology. - 2.4.2.2 Modern distribution and paleoecology significance of Rhizophoraceae and its identifiable features of pollen morphology. - 2.4.3 Photomicrographs and descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen and spores in South China. - 2.4.3.1 Photomicrographs for major Quaternary pollen and spores in South China. - 2.4.3.2 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen and spores in South China. - 2.5 Southwest region / Tang Lingyu and Shu Junwu. - 2.5.1 Types of Quaternary pollen and spores in Southwest China. - 2.5.2 Identifiable feature of main Quaternary pollen and spores in Southwest China. - 2.5.2.1 Plant distribution and pollen features of Pinaceae in Southwest China. - 2.5.2.2 Identification keys of pollen morphology for Pinaceae. - 2.5.3 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen and spores in Southwest China. - 2.5.3.1 Photomicrographs for common pollen in Southwest China. - 2.5.3.2 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen and spores in Southwest China. - Chapter 3 Plates and descriptions of Quaternary pollen and spores in different region of China. - 3.1 Northwest region / Tang Lingyu and Mao Limi. - Spores of the pteridophyte Plates 1-3. - Gymnosperm pollen Plates 3-10. - Angiosperm pollen Plates 11-63. - 3.2 Northern region / Tang Lingyu and Li Chunhai. - Spores of the algae Plates 1-3. - Spores of the bryophyte Plate 4. - Spores of the pteridophyte Plates 5-9. - Gymnosperm pollen Plates 9-24. - Angiosperm pollen Plates 25-63. - 3.3 Southeast region / Tang Lingyu, Zhou Zhongze and
    Location: AWI Reading room
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 4
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Bei-jing : Di-zhen chu-ban-she
    Call number: M 14.0002
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 359 S. : z.T. farb. Ill. und graph. Darst. + 1 DVD
    ISBN: 9787502843236
    Uniform Title: Stress field of the earth's crust
    Classification: A.3.10.
    Language: Chinese
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 5
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: This study analyses the adjustment of the Finnish earnings-related pension system to very low economic growth. The results show that a permanently lower growth rate of the wage bill would raise only moderately the pension contribution rates in the long term. This is because also the benefits are partially linked to wages. But if the rate of return on the pension fund investments would also go down, the contribution rates would increase significantly. External competitiveness and employment would weaken as well as the position of future generations. The study presents a pension reform that stabilizes the contribution rate by raising the retirement age and cutting pensions. These kind of specific reforms are not, however, optimal due to demographic and economic uncertainty. A better solution would be automatic adjustment rules that are designed to provide accepted redistribution of income between various generations.
    Keywords: H55 ; D58 ; ddc:330 ; Economic growth ; Earnings-related pension system ; Intergenerational redistribution ; Rentenfinanzierung ; Rentenreform ; Gesetzliche Rentenversicherung ; Altersgrenze ; Generationengerechtigkeit ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: European Union and the United States have decided to start negotiations over a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. Among other things, the agreement would include a reduction in trade and investment barriers as well as barriers against participation in public procurement projects. If successful, the Partnership agreement would constitute a considerable liberalisation of business activity in an area with 825 million inhabitants and about 45 per cent of world GDP when measured in current exchange rates. We review the transatlantic economic relations especially from the Finnish point of view using statistics, and existing empirical economic research on the effects of a transatlantic free-trade area. We have also made an enquiry to Finnish firms concerning the expected effects on their business activities of a Transatlantic Partnership. The expected effects are clearly positive.
    Keywords: F14 ; F15 ; F2 ; ddc:330 ; Economic integration ; Transatlantic economic relations ; Free trade ; Foreign direct investment ; Public procurement ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Freihandelszone ; EU-Staaten ; Auslandsinvestition ; Finnland ; USA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 7
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: The euro area economic crisis is largely a result of the competitiveness disparity between Germany and the rest of the euro area. The wage moderation in Germany has considerably improved its competitiveness in relation to the rest of the euro area. Wage policy has been deflationary in Germany in the 2000s in the sense that real wage growth has fallen below labour productivity growth. In the rest of the euro area wage policy has been inflationary since real wage growth has exceeded labour productivity growth. The input-output price model implies that due to the lower wage inflation the unit cost of production in industry has grown much less in Germany than in the rest of the euro area. Restoring competitiveness necessitates a clear wage inflation halt in the rest of the euro area in the coming years.
    Keywords: C67 ; E64 ; F16 ; ddc:330 ; Euro crisis ; Competitiveness
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 8
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: There are over 3 billion searches globally on Google every day. This report examines whether Google search queries can be used to predict the present and the near future unemployment rate in Finland. Predicting the present and the near future is of interest, as the official records of the state of the economy are published with a delay. To assess the information contained in Google search queries, the report compares a simple predictive model of unemployment to a model that contains a variable, Google Index, formed from Google data. In addition, cross-correlation analysis and Granger-causality tests are performed. Compared to a simple benchmark, Google search queries improve the prediction of the present by 10 % measured by mean absolute error. Moreover, predictions using search terms perform 39 % better over the benchmark for near future unemployment 3 months ahead. Google search queries also tend to improve the prediction accuracy around turning points. The results suggest that Google searches contain useful information of the present and the near future unemployment rate in Finland.
    Keywords: C1 ; C22 ; C43 ; C53 ; C82 ; E27 ; ddc:330 ; Big Data ; Google ; Internet ; Nowcasting ; Forecasting ; Unemployment ; Time-series analysis ; Prognoseverfahren ; Suchmaschine ; Informationsverhalten ; Online-Recherche ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 9
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: We summarize and compare previous studies considering the impact of R&D subsidies on firm-level labor productivity. These studies conclude quite consistently that the subsidies provided by Tekes do not have statistically significant impact on its client firms’ labor productivity. These studies go astray from the outset, however, as they neither measure what Tekes is set out to do nor correspond to its stated missions. Furthermore, serious methodological issues remain unaddressed both by these studies and by the literature at large. Our findings call for extensive effort in developing a more appropriate tool box for evaluating the impacts of innovation policy.
    Keywords: L52 ; L53 ; O25 ; ddc:330 ; Tekes ; R&D subsidies ; Productivity ; Policy evaluation ; Forschungsfinanzierung ; Technologiepolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 10
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: This report analyzes the role of the largest companies in the Finnish economy. According to the results, the ten largest companies in terms of their value added together produce 7,6 % of the Finnish GDP. In addition, these companies generate notable multiplicative effects in the economy. According to the findings, the productivity and the growth rates of the ten largest companies clearly surpass the economy average. In this study, it was also analyzed what kinds of macroeconomic effects will generated by Metsä Fibre’s investment into their new bioproduct factory in Äänekoski, Finland. The calculations were conducted for the construction phase and the production phase individually. According to these analyses, the construction phase alone will generate a positive impact on employment reaching thousands of man-years. However, the true significance of the investment will only become evident in the production phase, since not all investments of equal scale produce similar macroeconomic effects. Besides the characteristics of the examined industries, the size of these effects also depends on which countries acquisitions are made from.
    Keywords: F23 ; L25 ; E22 ; M21 ; L11 ; ddc:330 ; Large ; Largest ; Companies ; Firms ; GDP ; Productivity ; Gross domestic product ; Concentration ; Multiplier effect ; Investment ; Pulp ; Äänekoski ; Group ; Granular ; Concentration ; Großunternehmen ; Wertschöpfung ; Bruttoinlandsprodukt ; Produktivitätsentwicklung ; Multiplikator ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 11
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: We consider the taxation of non-listed companies and their owners in Finland. We analyse how the current highly non-linear dividend taxation influences the allocation of labour and capital across different firms, average labour productivity and the equilibrium wage level. To this end, we use a general equilibrium model of firm investment where firms may have different production technologies. We find that the current tax system is likely to distort resource allocation compared to linear dividend taxation. This works to lower the average labour productivity as well as the general wage level.
    Keywords: D92 ; G35 ; H24 ; ddc:330 ; Dividend taxation ; Non-listed companies ; Productivity ; Kapitalertragsteuer ; Allokation ; Arbeitsproduktivität ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 12
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: Municipal employees and private-sector employees in Finland belong to separate earnings-related pension systems. Both systems are financed by contributions from the payroll, and are mostly pay-as-you-go. Thus if a municipality decides to buy services from the private sector, instead of producing them by own employees, the pension contributions will go to the private-sector pension system rather than the municipal pension system. This weakens the financial base of the municipal system and strengthens that of the private-sector system. Outsourcing, however, is not the only factor affecting the relative size of the two systems. Increasing demand for health and long-term care services, caused by population ageing and mostly financed by municipalities, may increase the number of municipal employees substantially during the next 20 years even if outsourcing becomes more widespread. We don’t foresee any pension financing problems caused by shifts between municipal and private-sector pension systems in the future. Still the systems should jointly decide how the risk related to future contribution bases is best divided. We also conclude that the current financing rules of the municipal pension system do not significantly affect outsourcing decisions.
    Keywords: H55 ; H22 ; H75 ; ddc:330 ; Municipal pension system ; Private-sector pension system ; Outsourcing ; Pension financing ; Altersversorgung im öffentlichen Dienst ; Rentenfinanzierung ; Privatwirtschaft ; Outsourcing ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 13
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In this report, we analyze the Finnish R&D tax incentive scheme of the years 2013 and 2014. Under the scheme, firms were eligible for double corporate tax deduction incentive on labor expenses incurred for undertaking R&D activities. Our report consists of a literature review, an empirical analysis of the Finnish register data, and an internet survey. We find that the scheme failed to reach its anticipated impact. The deduction was claimed far less than expected, the actual tax loss being only 8 % of the expected tax loss. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that the R&D tax incentive failed to reach clear, blind spots in the current Finnish, mainly direct-subsidy-based innovation system. Although the scheme’s design does not allow an unambiguous analysis of its impact on the R&D expenditure, our tentative results suggests that its impact remained rather small. The previous, international literature shows that the R&D tax incentives have an increasing effect on the R&D expenditures, but the impact tends not to exceed the amount of the tax subsidy. Based on our results it is unlikely that even a better-designed R&D tax deduction scheme would bring great value-added to the current, Finnish innovation system.
    Keywords: O38 ; H25 ; ddc:330 ; R&D ; Tax credits ; Forschungsfinanzierung ; Steuervergünstigung ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In this report, we re-assess the role of so-called job banks as mediators into the open labour market but also as employers of unemployed job-seekers. The focus is primarily on the unemployed who became job bank clients during 2013. We follow up the labour market situation of these individuals during one year’s timeahead, until the end of 2014. In the latter part of the report, we compare the main findings to those obtained for the unemployed having re-entered the labour market with the help of a job bank either in 2011 or 2012. We present two different sets of results concerning individuals’ near-future labour market experiences. The first set illustrates the development of their employment situation more generally both before and after employment via a job bank while the second set reports results obtained from using statistical evaluation methods. The results indicate that the labour market prospects of those having been employed via a job bank have, on average, been clearly better than for identical unemployed persons who did not use the services of a job bank. Moreover, those employed via a job bank often also seem to have faced better opportunities to stay employed. The results are the same irrespective of whether or not the job bank client‘s employment involves wage subsidies.
    Keywords: I38 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Job bank ; Employability ; Employment ; Active labour market policies ; Impact ; Evaluation ; Subsidies ; Youth ; Arbeitsvermittlung ; Arbeitsmarktintegration ; Aktivierende Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 15
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: The aim of this paper is to broaden the knowledge concerning the development of Finnish firms’ innovation activities. The results show that during 2008–2017 the share of overseas R&D has risen. Currently, 14–25% of Finnish firms’ total R&D are conducted overseas. If Nokia is taken into account, the share of overseas R&D rises to 53–65%. Furthermore, the results suggest that Finnish firms invest approximately Eur 1.8 billion in innovation activities outside the traditional R&D definition.
    Keywords: O31 ; O32 ; ddc:330 ; Research ; Development ; R&D ; Company ; BERD ; Internationalization ; Globalisation ; Innovation ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In Finland, universities have the explicit mandate to support the transformation of high-quality knowledge into profitable business, as well as to promote the creation of new businesses and workplaces within the boundaries of their so-called third mission. This report looks at how Finnish universities perform in the task. The results point at a clear lack of dedicated resources. The underlying reason is systemic: performance is not linked to incentives in the form of public university funding. Currently, resources for the implementation of the third mission are largely obtained via competition from external sources, endangering the continuity of the technology transfer function and creating disincentives to invest in its development. The lack of incentives is echoed among researchers: Nearly half of the scientists who, according to their own view, have made economically valuable findings state they do not find the time to promote their exploitation. The report proposes several remedies: (1) the performance of universities in their third mission needs to be metered. (2) These metrics need to be linked to earmarked public university funding; (3) Individual-level metrics concerning the exploitation of their findings should encourage researchers and promote their academic careers. In order to support more rapid cultural change, universities could (4) recruit professors directly from the business world; and (5) set up cooperative, joint laboratories with industry in their respective strategic research areas.
    Keywords: O31 ; O32 ; O33 ; O38 ; O43 ; O52 ; D02 ; I23 ; I25 ; I26 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Technology transfer ; Third mission ; Commercialization ; University ; Higher education ; Hochschule ; Technologietransfer ; Kommerzialisierung ; Bewertung ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 17
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: We study the use of pension funds in the Finnish earnings-related pension system with the aim of smoothing contributions over time under demographic and economic risks. Smoothing is affected by the revisions in long-term forecasts and is thus imperfect. As a partially funded defined-benefit system, demographic risks and asset yield risks directly affect the contributions. In a general equilibrium setup, these risks also affect wages and thus pension benefits and replacement rates. We also consider alternative benefit rules where risks are transferred more to the pensioners.
    Keywords: E17 ; H55 ; ddc:330 ; Pensions ; Funding ; Contribution smoothing ; Risks ; Generational fairness
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Finpro is an expert service organization, partly financed from public funds, providing services for internationalization - market information, consulting and advice, business development, and other related services. It is one of the largest organizations in the Finnish innovation and business support system. Finpro regards its mission to include increasingly a role of an information intermediary, providing information on global megatrends, new business models, and early signals of business opportunities. The company clientele is close to 5000 Finnish businesses. This report studies the Finpro's client firms, their characteristics and profile against the organization's mission and stated objectives. It turns out that firms using Finpro's services are typically highly internationalized, innovative and knowledge-based. They use, more likely than Finnish firms on average, other publicly supported business services and receive funding from public funding organizations.
    Keywords: H81 ; L53 ; O25 ; ddc:330 ; Business support system ; internationalization ; innovation, industrial and employment policies ; Finland ; Unternehmensdienstleistung ; Innovation ; Globalisierung ; Industriepolitik ; Beschäftigungspolitik ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 19
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The role and tasks of polytechnics in Finland have been debated in recent years. These discussions have brought forth questions regarding the division of labour between the polytechnics and universities, the position of polytechnics in the Finnish national innovation system, and the size and distribution of the polytechnic network. This report aims to bring forth new perspectives to this largely qualitative discussion through an extensive quantitative online survey. Based on the survey results the following conclusions can be drawn. A clear area of strength of polytechnics is education. In areas re-lated to research and development, and regional development polytechnics are perceived to be less strong. A clear division of labour between polytechnics and universities is regarded almost universally as an important goal, but the current system is seen to significantly hinder the division of labour and potential collaboration. In addition, a significant share of the respondents saw that polytechnics are too much in the domain of universities. A clear majority of the respondents indicated that municipalities should not be funding polytechnics, and that the funding responsibility should be transferred to the state. The majority of respondents, excluding the management of polytechnics, felt that the current steering and funding system does not encourage the effective use of allocated resources.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; polytechnics ; steering and funding systems ; Finland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 20
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This study analyzes trends in specialization of the Finnish industry since the 1980s. Low technology industries, such as pulp and paper, have had traditionally a large proportion of the Finnish industrial output. During the recent decades their share of output has decreased significantly and Finland has specialized more and more in high technology industries, especially in ICT. The pattern of the Finnish revealed technological advantage with focus on ICT, and pulp and paper technologies differs from the pattern of the revealed technological advantage of many other countries. Internationally compared Finland has some technological advantage also in special purpose machinery, such as papermaking machines, special purpose vessels, elevators and transfer equipments, and in basic metals.
    Keywords: L16 ; L60 ; N60 ; O30 ; ddc:330 ; Finland ; manufacturing ; production ; technology ; employment ; specialization ; Technischer Fortschritt ; Standortwettbewerb ; Beschäftigung ; Industrie ; Branche ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 21
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The study analyses the price formation and market functionality of the Finnish food chain. A significant portion of the report consists of international comparisons. The main comparison countries are the so-called old EU countries (EU15) of Western Europe, the new EU countries (EU12) and the United States. Comparisons are also made with individual countries. After the international comparisons, the price formation of the food chain, degree of concentration, competition, and the position of small producers is analysed for Finland in more detail. The main findings of the study are as follows: 1) a significant reason for the high price of foodstuffs in Finland is the high VAT, 2) the price level without VAT was in 2005 a couple of per cent higher and in December 2009 about 7 per cent higher than the average in the old EU countries, but it is considerably higher than in the new EU countries and the United States, 3) In Finland the price level of foodstuffs is elevated by the weak agricultural competitiveness (northern location and small farm size); on the other hand, the competitiveness of the foodstuffs industry and the wholesale and retail trade is rather good, 4) measured in terms of price-cost margins, competition works in Finland just as well in agriculture, the foodstuffs industry and the wholesale and retail trade as it does in the food chain of the comparison countries, 5) the large share of the wholesale and retail trade in the Finnish food chain is attributable to higher transport costs than in the comparison countries, 6) in Finland the prices of foodstuffs have moved in the same direction as in comparison countries, albeit with a lag of a few months; in 2009 the prices of dairy products, butter and margarine, meat, fish products and food products nevertheless fell by considerably less than in the comparison countries and less than the development of producer prices would have indicated, 7) the foodstuffs industry and the wholesale and retail trade are concentrated sectors; enterprises nevertheless compete with each other and with imports, 8) the degree of concentration, agreement practices and price development should be monitored especially in product groups where consumer prices have not fallen in line with a decline in producer prices, 9) access of small producers to markets is important from the standpoint of competition and consumer choice; the position of small producers can best be improved by fostering the exchange of information within the chain.
    Keywords: C50 ; L1 ; L4 ; L66 ; L81 ; Q11 ; Q13 ; ddc:330 ; foodstuff prices ; food chain ; agriculture ; foodstuff industry ; retail and wholesale trade ; competition ; competitiveness ; small foodstuff producers ; Finland ; Nahrungsmittelgewerbe ; Wettbewerb ; Nahrungsmittelpreis ; Vergleich ; Finnland ; EU-Staaten ; USA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 22
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: Elderly people could markedly increase they standard of living by releasing their housing equity. Purchase of a single-payment life annuity would increase the benefits of this release. The tax treatment of these annuities is, however, very strict in Finland, because both yield and capital are taxed without deductibility of premiums. This study describes the wealth structure of households, assesses the options of taxing single-payment life annuities and analyses how launching of these products would influence tax receipts. We recommend that a rate-of-return allowance should be applied, leaving risk-free interest rate and mortality bonus untaxed. We show that adoption of this tax rule is likely to increase tax revenue, since it would reduce tax-preferred housing.
    Keywords: H24 ; G22 ; ddc:330 ; Single-payment life annuity ; Equity release ; Taxation ; Leibrente ; Einkommensteuer ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 23
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: This study aims at investigating the order of magnitude of financial burden of the universal service obligation for the universal service provider, Itella, in the Finnish postal sector. It evaluates the difference between universal service provider’s profitability with the universal service obligation and without it. The data suggest that the provision of universal letter services in compliance with the law causes a notable financial burden for Itella. The profitability of the universal service provider is clearly lower than that of other firms active in the Finnish postal and courier activities sector. During the years 2005–2012, the annual loss due to the universal letter service obligation was about 76 million euros, or 5–8 percent of the turnover of the universal service provider.
    Keywords: D22 ; L50 ; L87 ; ddc:330 ; Universal service obligation ; Profitability ; Net cost ; Postal services ; Postsektor ; Universaldienst ; Rentabilität ; Schätzung ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 24
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: The project to build up a banking union in Europe was launched in summer 2012. Thereafter the progress has been fast. Single Supervisory Mechanism will embark on November 1, 2014. A decision on the Single Resolution Mechanism was made in Spring 2014. It should be up and running as of the beginning of 2015. The main rationalisation for the banking union has been the aspiration to to break the vicious circle between banks and sovereigns. Equally important rationalization is to safeguard the smooth operation of the single market. If the cross-border banking is significant, home-country supervision is no more sufficient. If banks become, thanks to large-scale cross-border operations, very large in relation to the economic size of the home country, the interdependence of the banks and the sovereign increases. The greatest challenge of the banking union project in the coming years is to build up both the capacity and the credibility. The first test is the successful execution of the asset quality review of the bank balance sheets and the subsequent stress tests. The new supervisory mechanism needs to prove that neither national interests nor lobbying by major financial institutions have any influence on its decisions.
    Keywords: F15 ; G21 ; G28 ; ddc:330 ; Banking union ; Financial supervision ; Bank resolution ; Single market
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 25
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: Information and communications technology, global value chains, and population ageing are changing the structures of the labour market. These three factors affect the tasks carried out in Finland in the future and the division of labour between humans and computers. The changes are taking place at the individual level and affect the ways of working and income inequality. This report surveys the economic literature on these topics.
    Keywords: J21 ; J24 ; J62 ; F16 ; ddc:330 ; ICT ; Global value chains ; Population ageing ; Structural change ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Strukturwandel ; Bibliometrie ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In the report we analyse the reasons for the weakness of Finland’s economic performance over the past decade and assess the growth prospects in the coming 5 years. The weakness of Finland’s performance relative to comparative EU-countries since 2009 can largely be explained by the collapse of Nokia’s production and the deterioration of cost competitiveness. The recovery in turn stems from a stronger export market growth, the fading away of the negative Nokia shock, and the improvement of cost competitiveness. Of the rise of employment by some 100 000 jobs since 2015 about half can be explained by a number of policy measures to increase labour supply and the so-called competitiveness pact. Based on a realistic assumption on productivity growth, we estimate that Finland could achieve an annual growth rate of about 2 per cent in the coming 5 years. This requires, nevertheless, that the employment rate increases by 2023 to the level reached by comparative countries. Although such a change would not be greater than what is taking place during the current government period, ambitious reforms are needed to achieve this.
    Keywords: E37 ; E61 ; E62 ; F10 ; J11 ; J20 ; O11 ; ddc:330 ; Growth ; Employment ; Productivity ; Labour supply ; Competitiveness ; Finland’s economy ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Produktivitätsentwicklung ; Arbeitsangebot ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 27
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: This literature review starts with a general discussion of young people and their various activities with special emphasis on youth unemployment and the outcome of alternative ways of measuring the prevalence of unemployment among young people. Thereafter the focus turns to measures targeted at young people based on the knowledge provided in relevant national as well as international literature. A distinction is thereby made between the role and impact of the education system, on the one hand, and active labour market policies (ALMP), on the other. The main reason for making this distinction is that early-year education and ALMP measures are typically targeted at differently aged young people. Apart from young people in general, attention is also paid to two special groups of young people: disabled young people and young immigrants. The review concludes with a discussion of main findings and their policy implications.
    Keywords: I20 ; I38 ; J08 ; J70 ; ddc:330 ; Young people ; Education ; Dropouts ; ALMP ; Evaluation ; Impact ; Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Bildungswesen ; Bewertung ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 28
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: The share of private consumption in gross domestic product is significant; therefore, private consumption has a great influence on economic growth, which makes it a major concept in economics. The purpose of the paper is to estimate and evaluate different forecasting models for private consumption. The first part of the paper focuses on the aggregate consumption. The models are estimated using yearly and quarterly data. The goal of second part of the paper is to estimate and evaluate forecasting models for the components of private consumption. Private consumption can be divided by the duration principle or by product categories. There are three competing statistical models for components of private consumption. All models are presented in the second part of the report and the aim is to choose the best model using statistical methods of model evaluation (R-squared, AIC, BIC).
    Keywords: C43 ; C52 ; C53 ; E21 ; E27 ; C82 ; ddc:330 ; Aggregate consumption ; Private consumption ; Economic forecasts ; Logistic regression ; Privater Konsum ; Prognoseverfahren ; Regressionsanalyse ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 29
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: There are almost 200,000 enterprises operating in the Finnish service sector, combined. However, not all of the service industries are the same. Some services have become independent of geographical locations, meaning that they can be exported, much like physical products. Other services still require that they are produced and consumed in the same place. Significant differences also exist between the scalability of different services. Since 2007, employment growth has been the fastest in the location-dependent services. The real growth of value added and the increase of productivity, however, have been concentrated in the service industries which do not depend on geography, and where the economies of scale apply the most.
    Keywords: L52 ; L80 ; L88 ; O30 ; F23 ; ddc:330 ; Service ; Growth ; Policy ; Offshorability ; Tradability ; Scalability ; Dienstleistungssektor ; Branchenentwicklung ; Dienstleistungshandel ; Skalenertrag ; Auslandsverlagerung ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 30
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: This paper studies the taxation of non-listed companies and their owners in Finland. We first describe the main features of the Finnish tax system regarding the taxation of dividends from non-listed companies. We use firm-level data to illustrate how the tax incentives are reflected in firms’ profit distribution policies. We then build a dynamic investment model that features the main characteristics of the Finnish dividend taxation. In the model, entrepreneurs face a borrowing constraint and have a consumption smoothing motive. We use the model to investigate how the current dividend taxation affects the investment incentives. The results illustrate how the current dividend taxation in certain cases distorts firms’ investment decisions.
    Keywords: D92 ; G35 ; H24 ; ddc:330 ; Dividend taxation ; Non-listed companies ; Firm investment ; Kapitalertragsteuer ; Dividende ; Investitionsentscheidung ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In this report we present the definition for a digital platform. We also define what kinds for characteristics and features are associated with platforms and the platform economy. This report provides background information for policy-makers on digital platforms. It also serves as an introduction to a policy implications report for the Prime Minister’s Office due later in 2016. The platform economy, digital platforms and their ecosystems are rapidly changing the business models and information technology architectures across traditional industry boundaries. Internet as an operating environment has a central key role to play in this transformation. Thanks to new digital architectures, pioneering actors can now take the leap from intranet towards supply-chain and Internet centric platform train of thought. We define a platform as follows: Digital platforms refer to information technology systems upon which different actors — that is, users, service providers and other stakeholders across organizational boundaries — can carry out valued-adding activities in a multi-sided market environment governed by agreed boundary resources. Typically these actors create, offer and maintain products and services that are complementary to one another. Platforms quintessentially lure and lock in various types of actors with their network effects and economic benefits thereof. In this report we present the developmental history of platforms and the relevant terminology to their definition. We also examine the definitions of the characteristics of platforms from the standpoint of Apple’s platform. Our analysis shows that there are two angles of approach to platforms: the point of view relating to the internal business operations of a company, and the wider aspect arising from managing social and technical boundary resources of Internet-based platforms ecosystems. Actors now require a new kind of grasp and strategic foresight to become significant players in the platform economy.
    Keywords: L6 ; L8 ; L86 ; L89 ; ddc:330 ; Platform ; Platform economy ; Disruption ; Digitalization ; Internetportal ; Integriertes Informationssystem ; Marktstruktur ; Computerunterstützung ; Informationstechnik
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 32
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: The amount of work done in the economy has been subject to a lot of debate in Finland recently. Unemployment is considered a major problem. On the other hand, extending annual working time receives little support. In fact, a widely held view is that one should reduce the working time of the currently employed so that more people could be employed. The efforts of the Government to increase labour input, i.a. by reducing length of annual leave or the number of banking holidays are widely criticised. In the report we first describe how much work is done in Finland. Secondly, we recall the key messages of economics about the determination of labour input in a market economy. Thirdly, we endeavour to argue why, in the current Finnish circumstances, increasing the amount of work is useful and important, why the idea of work sharing is flawed, and why reducing labour costs makes sense.
    Keywords: J2 ; J3 ; H5 ; E24 ; ddc:330 ; Work ; Labour input ; Employment ; Sustainability of public finances ; Erwerbstätigkeit ; Arbeitskosten ; Öffentliche Finanzen ; Nachhaltigkeit ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 33
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: A withdrawal of a member state from the EMU due to market pressure has been a rather popular topic in the public debate in recent years. However, the effects of a withdrawal have been analysed quantitatively surprisingly little. Discussions have been concentrated on the crisis countries, but as the Finnish economic difficulties have deepened also on Finland. In the report, the effects of the potential withdrawal of Greece, one of the weakest economies in the EMU, is studied first. In addition we try to sketch the economic effects of a withdrawal of the relatively more balanced Finland. The analysis is made using an international econometric model (NiGEM), where the global economy and the individual economies are described in a rather detailed way based on economic theory and past economic behaviour. Benefits and costs, measured with effects on the GDP, of a withdrawal are related in the short and particularly in the longer run to the ability of labour markets to achieve sustainable wage agreements and to the ability to keep the financial markets calm.
    Keywords: F45 ; F47 ; ddc:330 ; NiGEM ; Simulation ; EMU ; Grexit ; Fixit ; EU-Mitgliedschaft ; Exit-Strategie ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Simulation ; Griechenland ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 34
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: We analyse how alternative reforms of the student financial aid would influence average study duration, government expenditures, and tax revenues. We also consider the reform that has been proposed by the current government (in 2016) which consists of lowering the monthly student grant and decreasing the maximum eligibility period while increasing the maximum study grant. Our results are based on a structural model that describes the financial constraints and incentives faced by the students. The model is calibrated with register based panel data on students’ study progress, withdrawal of study grants and student loans, and wage income. According to the results, the reform proposed by the current government will reduce government expenditures on student aid by about 20 percent, which is close to the government’s target. However, the reform is also likely to increase the average study duration. The size of this effect depends on how willing the students are to take student loans.
    Keywords: D14 ; H24 ; J22 ; ddc:330 ; Student financial aid ; Study duration ; Studienfinanzierung ; Studium ; Dauer ; Bildungspolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 35
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: This report examines whether Google search queries can be used to predict the present and the near future house prices in Finland. Compared to a simple benchmark model, Google searches improve the prediction of the present house price index by 7.5 % measured by mean absolute error. In addition, search queries improve the forecast of near future house prices. Predicting the present and near future house prices is relevant information to many agents, such as realtors and political decision makers.
    Keywords: C1 ; C22 ; C43 ; C53 ; C82 ; E27 ; ddc:330 ; Google Trends ; Internet ; Nowcasting ; Forecasting ; Housing market ; Time series ; Prognoseverfahren ; Online-Recherche ; Immobilienpreis ; Zeitreihenanalyse ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 36
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In this report, we follow up the situation of individuals having re-entered the labour market with the help of a so-called job bank. The follow-up period extends over the next two years after their job-bank-mediated transition into the open labour market. We present two different sets of results concerning individuals’ near-future labour market experiences. The first set illustrates the development of their employment situation more generally while the second set reports results obtained from using statistical evaluation methods. The results show, inter alia, that the labour market prospects of those having been employed via a job bank have, on average, been clearly better than for identical individuals not having used the services of a job bank.
    Keywords: I38 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Job bank ; Employability ; Employment ; Active labour market policies ; Impact ; Evaluation ; Arbeitsmarktintegration ; Arbeitsvermittlung ; Erwerbstätigkeit ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 37
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: About half of all new business activity in Finland can be categorized as being entrepreneurial. The number of this kind of new businesses has not increased dramatically during the last ten years. However, the characteristics of these businesses have changed. Nowadays, new entrepreneurs have higher education background, they have more likely work experience from a relevant field, they are more innovation-oriented, and they have higher initial growth aspirations. Their businesses are more likely to seek sales growth by utilizing international markets and by focusing more on consumer markets and less on business-to-business markets. On the other hand, maybe due to prolonged recession in the Finnish economy, the higher share of new entrepreneurial businesses is being started because there are no better opportunities to get a job. Heavy regulation and tight legislation are being seen as the most significant disincentives at the start-up phase. Growth-oriented new entrepreneurial firms see financial issues and labor market rigidities as significant restrictions for growth.
    Keywords: D92 ; L26 ; L53 ; M13 ; ddc:330 ; Entrepreneurship ; Growth firm ; Start-ups ; Growth-orientation ; Enterprise policy ; Unternehmensgründung ; Entrepreneurship ; Mittelstandspolitik ; Unternehmenswachstum ; Unternehmenserfolg ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 38
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: International literature suggests that productivity growth of the global frontier firms – those in the best five percent – has diverged from the others during the 2000s. We study this issue using Finnish firm-level data. We find that the productivity of the Finnish frontier firms does not diverge from the others to such a degree as in the international comparisons. The findings do not provide clear evidence of a slowdown in the diffusion process. We also analyze whether frontier firms are associated with characteristics related to digitalization – and do not find clear evidence of that either. This might be related to the fact that the employed measures are related to technology adoption – not to the creativity or efficiency of its use.
    Keywords: D22 ; O30 ; O40 ; ddc:330 ; Productivity ; Divergence ; Diffusion ; Ddigitalization ; Finland ; Produktivität ; Betriebsgröße ; Unternehmen ; Computerunterstützung ; Automatisierung ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: This report is an overview to the presentations and discussions in the seminar Survival or performance? Healthcare viewed through organization, information management, and personnel held on 3.9.2012. The seminar provided an interdisciplinary forum for the question how the health care system may overcome its present challenges.
    Keywords: I11 ; I12 ; M15 ; ddc:330 ; Health care ; Work organization ; Processes ; Information technology ; Gesundheitswesen ; Arbeitsorganisation ; Informationsmanagement ; IT-Infrastruktur
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 40
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: Postal service volumes have diminished and the profitability of postal and courier activities has weakened in Finland in recent years. The study evaluates the development of the service volumes, profitability and employment of postal and courier activities until 2020. The distribution volumes of letters and newspapers will continue to decline in the future because of the increasing internet use in communication. This will increase the unit cost of production in postal service activities because the universal service obligation tends to increase the transportation costs of letters in relation to the distribution volumes. The profitability of postal services is not expected to improve until 2020 because the increasing unit costs can hardly be passed on to the producer price of postal services in the future to a greater extent than today. Moreover, the diminishing postal service volumes will lead to decreasing employment in postal and courier activities.
    Keywords: C53 ; L87 ; ddc:330 ; Postal services ; Universal service obligation ; Profitability ; Postsektor ; Universaldienst ; Rentabilität ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 41
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In this study we analyse the development of business investments in Finland and in other countries of comparison on the basis of national accounts, survey data and a sector-level general equilibrium model. According to the results, the decline in investments in Finland is mainly explained by two factors: the decrease in the investments in construction and the collapse of the research and development costs of the Nokia cluster. The aggregate production has, however, dropped almost at a corresponding rate with the investments. For this reason, the investment rate of companies is currently almost at the same level as in the years 2000–2008. However, after the financial crisis the development of investment volume has been weaker in Finland than in many other countries. The differences cannot be explained by the availability of debt financing, as access to capital in clearly better in Finland than in most other European countries. The investment rate in Finland is reduced especially by weak future prospects for the growth of productivity. The anticipated decline in the labour force also somewhat hinders the rate of investment. The analyses also show that Finland competes against Estonia for manufacturing investments as well as for headquarter locations. In the long term, the greatest concern is that in industries other than electronics, the Finnish private R&D investments are no higher than the European average. In other words, Finland does not seem to have an especially strong ambition to seek for a competitive advantage in innovations.
    Keywords: E22 ; O34 ; ddc:330 ; Investment ; Business ; Structural change ; Comparison ; Financial constraint ; Investition ; Strukturwandel ; Fremdkapital ; Produktivitätsentwicklung ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 42
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: We examine the growth of real value added, labour input and labour productivity of immigrant-owned firms in Finland in 2007–2016. In our analysis we use the so-called FLOWN (Finnish Longitudinal OWNer-Employer-Employee) data by Statistics Finland that allows linking register information on firms, their owners and employees. As immigrant-owned firms account for a few percent of all firms and about one percent of all labour in the business sector, their contribution to the growth of output and employment must be limited. However, the growth rate of their real value added is markedly stronger than in other firm groups. Their job creation rates are exceptionally high but their job destruction rates are, however, about the same magnitude as in the indigenous-owned firms. The immigrant-owned firms have created a relatively large amount of low productivity and low wage jobs. On an average, their wage growth has been somewhat higher than in other firms, but pro-cyclical variation of wages has been stronger.
    Keywords: J15 ; J21 ; J24 ; E24 ; ddc:330 ; Immigrants ; Output growth ; Employment growth ; Productivity growth ; Creative destruction
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In the beginning of the 1990’s, various fragmented information networks of the Internet were combined into one integrated network of systems. As a result, the commercial utilization of the Internet boomed, creating completely new business models and economic structures in the process. A similar reaction is now anticipated from the digitalization of industry and society at large. However, the big question is, how can all the separately structured, isolated systems be fused into one seamless network of systems? So far the problem has mainly been addressed from the stand-point of centralized and decentralized system architectures. Our analysis shows, however, that completely new and innovative technological approaches, such as block chain technology, are emerging to address this problem. These new distributed architecture solutions may completely revolutionize the anticipated structures and business models of the digitalization currently in progress, as they allow machines to autonomously share much more than just data, e.g. computational capacity, storage space or even electric power. As a result, understanding digitalization in its full capacity requires a systems approach and new kind of higher-level thinking on the scale of a network of systems.
    Keywords: L14 ; L15 ; L86 ; L96 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Digitalization ; Industrial Internet ; Platforms ; Block chain ; Internetportal ; Computernetz ; Netzwerkökonomik
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 44
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: This study simulates with two dynamic models the macroeconomic and public finance outcomes of a reduction in the corporate income tax rate in Finland. FOG-model is a dynamic CGE model, which is calibrated to the Finnish economy. NiGEM is a multi-country macroeconometric model. The results show that a surprising cut in the corporate income tax rate falls after all adjustments both on new investments and the yield of existing capital. The losses in the tax revenues are capitalized in the market value of the firms, of which many are partly foreign-owned. Investments increase, but the influence in production is mitigated by low reaction of labour supply. Wages increase as well as the public expenditure relates to wages. Gross profits do dot change much. The dynamic effects on tax bases compensate for 30–50 per cent of the losses in the corporate income tax revenues, depending on the model used. If also the increased public expenditure is considered, the compensation rate falls to 25–30 percent. If the tax rate cut is announced well in advance, both the macroeconomic and the public finance results are more favourable. The simulations do not consider the positive effects of profit shifting on corporate income tax revenues.
    Keywords: H22 ; H25 ; C54 ; C68 ; ddc:330 ; Corporate and capital income taxation ; Dynamic effects ; CGE model ; Macroeconometric model ; Körperschaftsteuer ; CGE-Modell ; Makroökonomisches Modell ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: Finnish
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  • 46
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    Helsinki: Bank of Finland
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Tässä artikkelissa tarkastellaan yritysdynamiikan vaikutuksia talouteen makrotasolla käyttämällä hyväksi tietoja aloittaneiden ja lopettaneiden yritysten lukumääristä ja joukosta keskeisiä makrotalouden muuttujia. Tulosten mukaan erityisesti uusien yritysten syntymisellä on tärkeä rooli työllisyyden, tuottavuuden ja talouskasvun näkökulmasta Suomessa. Koko kansantalouden tasolla työllisyyden, tuottavuuden ja tuotannon vaihteluista selittyy jopa 40 % yritysten syntymiseen ja tuhoutumiseen vaikuttavilla sokeilla. Uusien yritysten syntyminen nopeuttaa talouskasvua sekä työllisyyden että tuottavuuskasvun kiihtymisen kautta. Tuottavuuskasvun kiihtyminen ei siis johda työllisyyden heikkenemiseen koko kansantalouden tasolla vaan päinvastoin. Tämä voi heijastaa tuottavuuskasvun kiihtymisen yleisen tasapainon vaikutuksia.
    Keywords: E32 ; E24 ; ddc:330 ; luova tuho ; yritysdynamiikka
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Keskuspankit ovat perinteisesti laskeneet liikkeeseen seteleitä yleisön käytettäviksi. Digitalisaation myötä setelit alkavat olla teknisesti vanhentunut maksuväline, ja jotkut keskuspankit ovat harkinneet vähittäismaksamiseen soveltuvaa elektronista keskuspankkirahaa. Elektroninen keskuspankkiraha tarjoaisi yleisölle mahdollisuuden pitää hallussaan keskuspankkirahaa mahdollisessa setelittömässä tulevaisuudessa. Lohkoketjuteknologia nykyisellään todennäköisesti sopisi tarkoitukseen huonosti, sillä se ei pysty käsittelemään riittävän suurta määrää transaktioita. Elektronisella keskuspankkirahalla olisi todennäköisesti muille keskuspankkipolitiikan lohkoille merkittäviä vaikutuksia, joita olisi selvitettävä huolellisesti.
    Description: An English translation of this article was published under the title ”Central bank digital currency”, BoF Economics Review 5/2017: http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:bof-201711211668
    Description: Central banks have traditionally issued cash to the general public. With digitalisation, banknotes are becoming a technically outdated payment instrument, and some central banks have explored the possibility of central bank-issued electronic money applicable to retail payments. Electronic central bank money would offer the public the possibility to hold central bank money in a potentially cashless future. In its present form, blockchain technology would probably not be a suitable solution, since it is unable to process a sufficiently large number of transactions. Electronic central bank money would potentially have significant implications for other areas of central bank policy, which should be meticulously analysed.
    Keywords: G21 ; E58 ; E42 ; ddc:330 ; keskuspankkiraha ; digitaalinen keskuspankkiraha ; money ; central banks ; central bank electronic money
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 48
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This report studies differences in the wage structure between part-time and full-time employees in the service sector in 1990-2006. Using wage data from the registers of the Confederation of Finnish Industries, the report describes and compares wage distributions and their changes in the service sector. The analyses are carried out using both monthly and hourly incomes as well as regular earnings and total earnings. Moreover, many of the analyses are done separately for different industries. Thus, the report describes the key differences in the wage structure and wage differentials between part-time and full-time employees.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Lohnstruktur ; Teilzeitarbeit ; Dienstleistungssektor ; Industrie ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 49
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 50
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: In Finland access to public sector information (PSI) is guaranteed in the Constitution as part of the freedom of information. This provision focuses upon the citizen's right to access PSI; it does not cover the re-utilization of PSI for non-commercial or commercial purposes. The re-use of PSI is constricted by copyright law which only permits accessing copyrighted documents and using them for limited judicial and administrative purposes. The copyright protection in Finland is exceptionally extensive covering in practice all public sector information, since in addition to the EU sui generis database protection the law also provides for a catalogue protection which covers all databases and other collections of data in which great amounts of information is stored. Moreover, the pricing of public sector information has been prohibitively high and non-transparent. The extensive copyright protection and high pricing causes legal uncertainty with respect to further utilization of PSI. These issues are also interconnected because it is uncertain whether the high prices relate to licensing of copyrights in the information or recovering costs from the services. The study recommends adopting general open licenses for licensing re-use of public sector information. These licenses should be both legally and technically interoperable with licenses used in Europe and elsewhere in the world so that the Finnish PSI can be securely licensed for world-wide uses. Empirical evidence shows that the public sector wishes to guarantee the copyright attribution in their information which would make the future Creative Commons 4.0 attribution license a good option for a general license used in licensing PSI in Finland. It is also possible to draft a national license along the lines of the Norwegian or Spanish licenses if deemed necessary by the public sector. Smooth functioning of the PSI -re-use sector, both commercial and non-commercial would also require some legislative back-up.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Informationsverbreitung ; Öffentlicher Sektor ; Urheberrecht ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 51
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The report analyses the impacts of globalization on competitiveness of national economies, industries and firms. The focus is in mechanical and electrical engineering and machinery. Global division of labor has significantly changed over the past few decades when the large emerging economies - notably China - have increased their role in world's industrial production. Prices of industrial goods relative to GDP prices of developed countries have been falling thereby pressing the price competitiveness of industrial-country-firms who have been looking for new competitive edge on the global market. This includes offshoring and outsourcing and moving to service provision. The Finnish mechanical and engineering industry has adapted to changing global competitive environment through major structural changes - the firm and plant structures have changed as consequence of exits and major reallocation of resources from less productive to higher productive units.
    Keywords: F13 ; L60 ; L64 ; O12 ; ddc:330 ; competitive edge ; globalization ; emerging economies ; mechanical and electrical engineering ; productivity ; Globalisierung ; Wettbewerb ; Produktivität ; Verarbeitendes Gewerbe ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 52
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: In this paper, we study the value chain of a Finnish designed bicycle and how the value added of the product is spread through the value chain in three distinct cases. In the first case the bicycle is manufactured in Finland by the researched company. In the two other cases the manufacturing of the bicycle is outsourced to the Baltic countries or to Indonesia. In addition, we analyze the geography of value added in each case. We also study how the exchange rate fluctuations affect the distribution of the value added. Our results show that the researched company creates 36% of the total value added, when the bicycle is made in its plant. The manufacturing creates 16% of the total value added. The researched company creates 27-28% of the total value added, when the production is outsourced. The value added share of Finland is 67%, when the bicycle is produced in Finland, and 58-59%, if the production is outsourced. In conclusion, the results show that outsourcing offshore is financially beneficial for the researched company and that the Finnish economy suffers from the production transfer. Furthermore, the results suggest that transferring the production away from Asia is financially and otherwise justifiable - however, the production is transferred to the Baltic countries instead of Finland. Our findings support the view that, while the low value added activities and processes are outsourced, the high value added activities are still positioned to Finland, since the outsourcing partners create only 2% of the total value added.
    Keywords: F14 ; F23 ; L22 ; L23 ; L24 ; ddc:330 ; global value chains ; value added ; outsourcing ; exchange rates
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 53